Insulin is coined from the latin word insula which means island. Insulin is a peptide hormone that is found in animals. It is composed of 51 amino acid residues.
Insuline is a naturally produced hormone that converts sugar and starch into energy. As a hormone insulin present in the body is a proof that the cells are well fed and it helps the liver and muscles to store already processed glucose in the form of glycogen. Insulin carries out some energy building (anabolic) processes in the human body such as causing fat cells to take into blood lipids and turn them into triglycerides
Insulin plays a very important and active role and is highly required for both human and animal life. Its disturbance or deficiency is pathological while its displacement due to removal could lead to death
In humans insulin is formulated in the pancreas within the beta cells of the islets of langerhans. Millions of (pancreatic islets) islets of langerhans forms the endocrine part of the pancreas which is a exocrine gland.
There is a common similarity in the role played by insulin in all mammals. For instance bovine insulin in vertebrates differs from the insulin in humans with about three amino acid residue, of which porcine is one of them.
Insulin as a hormone could be put to several use in the humans body. In the human cell insulin increases potassium uptake glucose and fatty acid sythesis. It decrays the degradation of protein (proteinolysis) and lipolysis (conversion of fat cell lipids into blood fatty acid) It also decrees the production of glucose from non-sugar substrate (gluconeogenesis) and increases the ability of the adipose tissue to make fat (esterification) ). Insulin modifies the activities of enzymes and controls the cellular intake of glucose and other minerals into the muscle and adipose tissues. Insulin also controls glycogen synthesis by influencing the storage of glucose in the liver and muscle cells in the form of glycogen. A fall in the level of insulin causes the liver cells to convert glycogen to glucose and passes it into the blood as an excreted material. This single action accounts for insulin was used medically to treat some forms of diabetes mellitus.
The amount of insulin required medically for clinical administration to humans could be derived from animals such as cows pig horse or fish they can also be produce genetically. It is usually administrated clinically by the use of syringe with needles or through the use of insulin pumps or by inhalation.
Apart from its medical uses and the key role insulin plays in the human body, it can also be abused and used as a performance enhancing drug by athletes as it is medically challenged to have almost similar effect as steroids.