What Causes Inflammatory Heart Disease?

Inflammatory heart disease manifests when the surrounding heart tissue or muscle is inflamed from exposure to an infection like a bacteria or virus or from an internal oddity. This sort of inflammation may come about in cases of rheumatic fever and kawasaki disease. The disorder may be categorized as either endocarditis, myocarditis or pericarditis.

Types of Inflammatory Heart Disease

Pericarditis

The heart is engulfed by a sac called the pericardium. The sac is composed of two layers the fibrous pericardium and the serous pericardium. The serous pericardium consists of two layers which both provide lubrication to the active heart to decrease friction. The fibrous pericardium is the outer layer of dense connective tissue that secures the heart to the bordering walls, prevents the complete flooding of the heart with blood and protects the heart.

There are many instances where pericarditis manifests without a known cause however, there are some factors that will stimulate the disease including:

1.Viral and bacterial infections

2.Connective tissue disease such as sarcoidosis and rheumatoid arthritis

3.Previous injury to the heart like heart attack, trauma and heart surgery

4.Metabolic disorders mainly hypothyroidism and uremia (kidney failure)

5.An adverse reaction to a specific type of medication

6.Tumours and cancers

Endocarditis

Endocarditis is triggered by an infection of the endocardium or inner lining of the heart resulting in consequential inflammation. It usually manifests when pathogens from other areas of the body enter the bloodstream and attaches to weakened areas of the heart. If is not treated it may partially or completely ruin the heart valves and may also progress into a life- threatening condition. The disease rarely affects individuals with healthy hearts. The greatest risk factors are deterioration in the condition of the heart, artificial heart valve and having any other heart defect.

Myocarditis

Myocarditis refers to inflammation of the heart muscle. It is induced by several infections including viruses like sarcoidosis, pregnancy, and immune diseases. The most common form of infection is by a virus which will attack the heart muscle inspiring local inflammation. Once the infection has ceased the immune response will be perpetuated, lengthening the duration of the myocarditis.

Symptoms

It may sometimes occur with no symptoms. The most often seen symptom is pain in the chest. In severe cases the disease may cause deterioration of the heart muscle. It is consequently possible for it to cause heart failure with evident shortness of breath or difficulty breathing, oedema, extreme tiredness and so on.

Prognosis

It is not known from the outset of the disease how well an individual will recover. Some persons recover completely while others may develop chronic heart failure due to considerable damage to the heart muscles. Rarely a person may be afflicted with fulminant heart failure which is lethal if a heart transplant is not performed. If the damage to the muscle is extreme a defibrillator may be implanted to increase the heart’s overall capacity.