There are three basic types of bariatric weight loss surgeries: restriction procedures, predominantly malabsorptive procedures, and malabsorption procedures. Restrictive bariatric surgeries only reduce the size of the stomach and do not interfere with the digestive process. Predominantly malabsorptive procedures reduce the stomach size, however are primarily based on creating malabsorption. Malabsorption procedures reduce the size of the stomach and bypass the duodenum and sometimes the jejunum.
Restrictive Bariatric Surgeries
Different forms of restrictive bariatric surgeries are the Adjustable Gastric Banding (AGB) and the Vertical Banded Gastroplasty (VBG). These surgeries do not interfere with the digestive system however do reduce food intake. A postoperative patient is only able to intake ¾ to 1 cup of food per meal, If the patient eats more then the recommended amounts they risks vomiting as well as stretching the stomach available out reducing the effectiveness of he surgery. Vertical Banded Gastroplasty is also referred to as stomach stapling.
Its success rate is lower then malabsorptive procedures. Adjustable Gastric Banding is also known as a lap band and has been around since 1979. Variations of the lap band have been developed since then. The advantages of the lap band is that it has lower complications then other more involved procedures however it has a lower and slower weight loss ratio and cannot be used with people who have pre-existing medical conditions such as Crohn’s disease, large hiatal hernias, or gastric ulcers.
Predominantly Malabsorptive Bariatric Surgeries
Predominantly malabsorptive procedures reduce the size of the stomach but focus primarily on creating malabsorption. One such surgery is called theBiliopancreatic diversion also known as the Scopinaro procedure. This type of surgery is rarely used now days due to the high risks of malnutrition and has been replaced by the Duodenal Switch. In this procedure, the surgeon sections off part of the stomach creating a smaller stomach. The digestive system is altered. This reduces food intake and absorption for a while but within a few months, a patient can resume eating as they once did before. This procedure does still pose a small risk of malnutrition.
Malabsorptive Bariatric Surgeries
Malabsorptive bariatric procedures reduce stomach size and bypass the duodenum and sometimes the jejunum. They combine both aspects of he previously mentioned types of bariatric surgeries. Malabsorptive Bariatric Surgeries include Roux-en-Y commonly known as gastric bypass surgery, Fobi Pouch, and Biliopancreatic Diversion and Duodenal Switch. These are the most successful in achieving high weight loss but also pose a risk for malnutrition.
Other surgeries that are common as postoperative surgeries are cosmetic surgeries as well as gall stone removal. The gallstone may have to be removed if there are risks of developing gallstones. Many patients opt to have it removed at the time of their bariatric surgery where as others choose to use preventive medicines. Cosmetic surgeries are a common follow up months down the road for removal of excessive skin. Com cosmetic surgeries a bariatric patient may have are tummy tucks, body lift, thigh lift, and liposuction to name a few.