Usually, the term hernia is used when we talk about hernias of the lower torso, but it can be used for bulges in other areas too. It is known that a hernia appears when the contents of a body cavity bulge out of the area where they are normally contained.
Although in most of the cases hernias are harmless, they still have a potential risk, because it appears the possibility to become strangulated and the blood supply to be cut off. This thing may need surgical attention.
There are different types of abdominal wall hernias. Inguinal hernia represents 75% of all abdominal wall hernias, it appears up to 25 times more often in men than in women, and is categorized in 2 types: direct inguinal hernia and indirect inguinal hernia. Both of the types can look like a bulge in the inguinal crease, and can be treated in the same way.
Indirect inguinal hernia descends from the abdomen into the scrotum, following the pathway that the testicles made during prebirth development.
There can appear the possibility that the hernial sac to protrude into the scrotum. Usually, this hernia may occur at any age, but it becomes more common as people are getting older.
The direct inguinal hernia appears in a place where the abdominal wall is naturally slightly thinner, slightly to the inside of the site of the indirect hernia, and it is known that this hernia will rarely protrude into the scrotum. The direct inguinal hernia usually appears in the middle-aged and elderly persons.
Another type of abdominal wall hernia is the femoral hernia. The femoral canal, which is a tight space and the way that the femoral artery, vein, and nerve leave the abdominal cavity to enter the thigh can sometimes become larger and allow abdominal contents into the canal. The femoral hernia produces a bulge below the inguinal crease in roughly the middle of the thigh. These hernias can develop the risk of becoming irreducible and strangulated
Caused when an opening in the abdominal wall doesn’t close completely, these hernias are usually noted at birth as a protrusion at the bellybutton. If it is small, this type of hernia closes gradually by the age of 2, but if it is bigger and does not close, surgery is needed. Umbilical hernias can appear later during life, even if the area is closed at birth. This type of hernia can appear later in middle-aged women who have had children and in elderly people.
Incisional hernia appears after abdominal surgeries,but in rare cases. The flaw in the abdominal wall, created by the abdominal surgery can determine the apparition of an area of weakness where a hernia may develop.
Occuring mostly in women, the obturator hernia protrudes from the pelvic cavity through an opening in the pelvic bone. It can often cause nausea and vomiting.
Other types of abdominal wall hernias are the sigelian hernia- this hernia occurs along the edge of the rectus abdominus muscle- and epigastric hernia, which occurs between the navel and the lower part of the rib cage in the midline of the abdomen, and are composed usually of fatty tissue and rarely contain intestine.