Chemicals in excess that are not flushed out of the system through urine get collected in the kidney. They form crystals and harden into stones. Based on the chemical composition there are four main types of kidney stones.
Calcium can build up to an excess in the human body due to an excessive intake of calcium in food and vitamins. After being absorbed by bones and other parts, this excess calcium is excreted through the urine. Sometimes excess calcium combines with other chemicals like oxalate and phosphate to form calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate stones. Calcium stones are the most common among kidney stones. Calcium phosphate stones can be easily dissolved in acidic urine. Whereas calcium oxalate stones do not dissolve in acidic urine.
Uric Acid Stones
High concentration of uric acid in urine forms uric acid stones. When there is problem in purine metabolism, excess of uric acid is formed. This excess uric acid gets deposited on the inner walls of kidney to form uric acid stones. Uric acid stones are more frequently associated with conditions such as gout,
Struvite stones are formed due to infection in the kidney. Certain bacteria have the ability to convert urea in urine into ammonium. Ammonium then combines with phosphate and magnesium to form stones. Bacteria that cause this infection get trapped in the stone. This allows for more ammonium to be produced and the infectious stones grow.
Formation of cystine stones is a rare hereditary disease. Cystine stones are formed due to a genetic abnormality. Amino acids are needed in the human body to make proteins. Due to a defective gene, amino acids are sometimes not absorbed properly by kidneys. The unabsorbed amino acid or cystine builds up to form cystine stones.
All four types of kidney stones formation can be prevented by drinking adequate quantities of water.