Diabetic Coma is a medical emergency state. The person who suffers from diabetes mellitus is comatose. It means the person is in unconscious state. It is describing one of the acute complications of diabetes.
- severe diabetic hypoglycemia,
- diabetic ketoacidosis advanced enough to result in unconsciousness from a combinations of severe hyperglycemia, dehydration, shock and exhaustion,
- Hyperosmolar nonketotic coma relating to hyperglycemia and dehydration and causing unconsciousness.
Based on medical context, the term diabetic coma relates to the diagnostical dilemma posed while a physician is confronting with an unconscious patient. Noting can add about the unconsciousness except the patient has diabetes. Therefore, a state of unconsciousness leads a person to a risk prone condition of brain damage or death; it happens due to severe constant fluctuations in the sugar levels. This unconscious state is known as diabetic coma. There are many causes behind diabetic coma. It has symptoms and treatments also.
The early symptoms can lead to diabetic coma if these are not treated. These can be
- increased thirst,
- increased urination,
- Inability to speak and
The symptoms of hypoglycemia are sweating, hunger anxiety, abnormal behavior, double or blurred vision, tremor, heart palpitations, loss of consciousness or seizure. When blood sugar reaches 600mg/dl (milligram per deciliter) or more, Diabetic coma typically happens.
The causes of Diabetic coma can be extreme low blood glucose levels (hypoglycemia), or extreme high blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia). Hypoglycemia is the condition that arises due to insufficient supply of glucose, a fuel to the brain. It is ranging from nausea to seizure. Both type 1 and type 2 diabetes are hypoglycemia prone. Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) is found in type 1 diabetes patients. It is a life threatening complication. It is the state of absolute of insulin shortage, leading to alarming high blood sugar levels, saturating organic acid and ketones in the blood. Muscles, fat and liver cells become inefficient to use sugar as a fuel. Nonketotic Hyperosmolar Syndrome (NKHS) relates to the high concentration of sugar or glucose in the blood stream, and it is mostly found in adults suffering from type 2 diabetes. The causes behind this syndrome are hyperglycemia and dehydration. In this state, blood sugar level reaches at 600 mg/dl or 33 mmol/L; as a result, the blood turns thick and syrupy.
The treatment of diabetic coma depends on the blood sugar levels. When it is too low, the hormone glucagon injection is provided, and it can help raise the glucose level. Similarly, when blood sugar level is too high, intravenous fluids is applied and it restores water in the tissues. Replaced sufficient fluids, insulin can be administered to absorb sugar. To function the cells properly, potassium, sodium or chlorine can be prescribed. As glucose level reaches at normal blood sugar level, the patient regains consciousness. Moreover, proper diabetic diet, diabetes exercise and adequate pre-cautionary measures can avoid facing diabetic coma.