Causes of Blindness

Blindness is the inability to see. The leading causes of chronic blindness include cataract, glaucoma, age-related degeneration, corneal opacities, diabetic retinopathy, trachoma, and eye conditions in children (eg caused by vitamin A deficiency). Age-related blindness is increasing through the world, as is blindness due to uncontrolled diabetes.
What Causes Blindness?

Vision problems can develop before a baby is born. Sometimes, parts of the eyes do not form the way they should. A kid's eyes may look fine, but the brain has trouble processing the information they send. The optic nerve sends pictures to the brain, so if the nerve does not form correctly, the baby's brain will not receive the messages needed for sight. Blindness can be genetic or inherited, which means that this problem gets passed down to a kid from parents through genes.
Blindness has many causes. In the United States, the leading causes are diabetes, glaucoma, maculardegeneration, and accidents (such as chemical burns or injuries from cords, fishing hooks, fireworks, racket balls, and similar objects). Worldwide, the leading causes of blindness are cataracts, river blindness, leprosy, and vitamin A deficiency.
Can it be invented?

Having an eye test at least every two years can help to detect problems that may need treatment before any permanent damage has been done.Some conditions, such as glaucoma and cataracts, can be rated to help preserve vision.It's important to wear protective eyeware in situations where accidental eye damage may occur, for example, at work, when playing sport or doing diy
Symptoms:

Symptoms vary from person to person, but may include: Trouble seeing colors and the brightness of colors in the usual way.Inability to tell the difference between shades of the same or similar colors. Often, the symptoms may be so mild that some people do not know they are color blind. A parent may notice signs of color blindness when a child is learning his or her colors.
Conditions degenerate further, as an armed clique gains control over food deliveries, subjugating their fellow internees and exposing them to rape and deprivation. Faced with starvation, internees do battle and burn down the asylum, only to find that the army has abandoned the asylum, after which the protagonists join the throngs of near helpless blind people outside who wander the devastated city and fight one another to survive.

Currently, there is no cure for glaucoma, but treatment can control the progress of the disease. The primary goal of treatment is to prevent further damage to the eye by lowering intraocular pressure (IOP) and to extremely prevent blindness. Treatment of glaucoma may include medications, surgery, or a combination of medication and surgery.

Is Chocolate Pudding Healthy?

Chocolate is made from the fruit of the cacao tree. The beans of the tree undergo a considerable amount of processing before chocolate is produced but end up with lots of antioxidants. Chocolate is believed to boost serotonin and endorphin levels in the brain, which have an uplifting effect. It also contains stimulants which increases alertness. The feel-good factor, provided by chocolate and recipes with chocolate, gives an instant lift when the energy levels are low. In addition, there are some people who find eating chocolate cake or pudding soothing because they associate it with comfort or reward from their childhood.

Chocolate pudding contains some of the same disease-fighting antioxidants as fruits and vegetables. Antioxidants have been proven to decrease free radicals in the blood that can cause cancers. Healthy eating is more fun when you add small indulgences such as chocolate pudding desserts and pudding pies. A recent study shows the people who regularly eat pudding or recipes containing chocolate as their main ingredient, live up to a year longer than those who avoid it altogether.

Ready to use puddings are high in quality and are ideal as a wholesome snack by themselves. Not only do they have antioxidants, but calcium as well for strong bones. They are used as recipe enhancers in cakes, cookies, pies, ice creams, and other desserts in restaurants, bakeries and foodservice establishments. The jello chocolate pudding is as good as, if not even better, than regular home-made pudding. For people who don’t have the time to prepare tasty pudding desserts from scratch, the handy and ready to eat puddings are the best option.

Instant puddings are well packed and sealed for better taste and longer shelf life these days and are perfect for daycares and preschool snacks. The portions of each cup of chocolate pudding are sufficient to be used as perfect healthy snacks for children and adults. Foodservice companies can also buy big bulk cans for serving many people at banquets and receptions. Apart from being delicious, chocolate puddings are nutritionally balanced. For people who are particular about their diet, there are puddings made of non-fat milk, which contain way less calories than the regular puddings, yet you still get the great antioxidants and calcium.

Infections of a Surgical Wound

Wounds typically break the continuity of the skin and permit organizations to have access to tissues and cause infection.

The first thing that you might want answered is what are wound infections? By definition a wound infection is a surgical site infection or SSI. There are the following varieties of a surgical site infection or SSI.

– A superficial incisional SSI. This is an infection that involves only skin and subcutaneous tissue.

– A deep incisional SSI. This is an infection that involves deep tissues, such as facial and muscle layers.

– An organ / space SSI. This is an infection that involves a part of the body in organs and spaces other than the incision that was opened or manipulated during an operation.

This, as you can see, is a definition of wound infection which is restricted to infections as a result of a surgical incision. If you take a broader view a more general definition would be infection of a wound which was caused by physical injury of the skin as a result of penetrating trauma from plants, animals, guns, knives or other objects.

In a hospital one of the most commonly acquired infections are infections forming in surgical wounds. These are also known to be a cause of morbidity and mortality.

The next question that might come to your mind is what causes wound infections?

In simple terms an infection in a wound is the result of deposition and multiplication of microorganisms in the surgical site of a suspect host. There are various ways in which microorganisms can find their way into wounds. These include:

– Through direct contact. Here germs are transferred from surgical equipments or the hands of the surgeons or nurses to the wound.

– Via airborne dispersal. Micro organisms are deposited by the surrounding contaminated air.

– Self-pollution. This is a result of migration of the patient's own endogenous flora. These are present on the skin, mucous membranes or gastrointestinal tract to the surgical site.

The organisms that are mostly most commonly associated with wound infections include Staphylococcus aureus / MRSA, Streptococcus pyogenes, Enterococci and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

To be categorized as a surgical wound infection some symptoms are as follows:

– Infection should occur within thirty days of the operation.

– There is purulent discharge from the site of the surgery.

– There is a purulent discharge from the wound or from the drain placed in wound.

– There are organizations found in the aseptically acquired wound culture.

Dementia and Stroke

Dementia can be caused by stroke, too. Despite common-knowledge, dementia is not only borne from Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and is actually caused by many diseases, one of which is stroke.

Stroke remains the leading cause of long-term disability worldwide. Known as brain attack, stroke mostly affects the brain, which when damaged may lead to physical, functional, and mental disorders, one of which is dementia. Stroke triggers dementia when there is a high concentration of the blood protein ApoE4 who transports cholesterol in the blood. ApoE4 is also linked to cause Alzheimer's disease.

There are many kinds of dementia and the most common one is caused by Alzheimer's Disease. Stroke is also the second cause of dementia after Alzheimer. Aside from stroke, dementia can also be caused by frontotemporal disorders, parkinsonian, and lewy bodies. Each type of dementia has its own effects on the victim resulting to unique patters of behavioral changes.

The type of dementia is determined on which part of the brain is actually affected. But generally, dementia is a brain disorder in which multiple aspects of brain function are persistently compromised in way that interferes with the person's daily normal functions.

Dementia due to stroke or also called vascular / multi-infarct dementia, affects the patient through short-term memory loss, poor concentration, inattention, difficulty to follow instruction, confusion, poor judgment, psychosis, depression, mood and behavioral changes, easily lost in unfamiliar surroundings, and laughing or crying inappropriately.

Treatment of dementia involves enhancement of vascular health, slowing the progress of cognitive decline, and treating symptoms directly related to it such as medication, behavioral intervention, and surgery. Caregiving for stroke victims with dementia requires close attention and extended patience toped with empathy for the patient who is already undergoing a lot with out much of patient wanting it.

Stroke patients with dementia should be cared for by the caregiver by using distractions to control irritable behavior, using visuals to reorient the patient and avoid confusion, establishing a daily routine of activity, simplifying self-care tasks, and communicating with short simple sentences. In short, the caregiver's attitude and tactics are very important to ensure the stroke patient's recovery.

Since dementia appears over later time, it's a must that one is alert of any adverse behavioral changes in the stroke patient to ensure the patient getting immediate medical attention and treatment. A series of tests will be given to the stroke patient before they will be diagnosed of having dementia. A medical interview followed by a neuropsychological testing are tools that will be used to identify if a stroke patient really has vascular dementia.

Dementia can be caused by stroke over time, which heightens the need for caregivers to be aware of its symptoms to ensure appropriate attention is given in a timely manner. To avoid dementia, including NeuroAid at the early stages of a stroke patient's rehabilitation program will help protect neuronal and brain injuries on top of neurological functions recovery.

Do You Know How to Use Reflexology For Better Eyesight?

Our eyes are truly a precious gift from God. Only those who have been denied the gift of sight or those who have lost it truly understand its importance.

Reflexology has helped many in different stages of blindness. It can do no harm and it is always of some benefit even if it fails to give a person perfect eyesight. Reflex massage always relaxes, no matter what one is using it for, and that in its self is good.

You can also bring more beauty to the eyes by using reflex massage as directed.

Stimulating the Kidneys to Strengthen Your Eyes

Two of the most important organs effecting normal functioning of the eyes are the kidneys.

To stimulate the kidneys, massage the reflexes in the center of the feet and also the hands.

Now turn to the reflexes for the eyes themselves. Massage the reflexes just under the two toes next to the big toes where they fasten to the foot, doing this massage on both feet. Use the same massage on the two fingers next to the thumb. If these are tender, the reflexes are in need of massage to break loose certain blockages affecting the normal function of the eyes.

Massaging Eye Reflexes for Better Eyesight

Now we turn to massage of the reflexes near the eyes for correction of many eye problems. If there is tightness of muscles around the eyes, they may pull on the eyeball, distort this shape, and cut off circulation, causing near and far-sightedness. Tight eyelid muscles sometime cause friction on the eyeball that can lead to the formation of Cataracts. If the eye muscles in the back of the eye are tight, the drainage ducts will be squeezed shut and won’t empty properly. This can cause a buildup of fluid resulting in Glaucoma.

To loosen the eye muscles, take you middle fingers and massage along the reflexes underneath both eyes. Press in as you go across and feel for tight muscles. When you find that a muscle is tight, you will also probably find a hard spot or feel the muscles snap under your fingers. When you stimulate the reflexes to the eyes you immediately give renewed energy and life to your eyes.

Don’t do this very often at first. When you over stimulate the eyes, it can give you a terrible headache. Do this only once the first day: then increase as you feel that you can, without any over stimulation. This holds true for the other eye reflex massages and also for the eye exercises I will give you later.

Move to the bones on top of the eyes and repeat the procedure. It may be easier to use the thumbs for this position. Work across the muscles and not with them when you do this massage.

Take your middle finger or thumb and work across the muscles on top of the nose starting deep in the eye socket. You will probable find this very tender, but remember our moto,

“If it hurts, rub it out”

Do this to both eyes: then go across the muscles on the forehead just above the eyebrows. If you feel a hard core or a tight band, you will know that you have found a tight muscle that may restrict the natural flow of electric energy by way of the reflexes. It will probable be quite tender because the circulation of the vital lifeline is being blocked by these hard or tender areas.

Massaging these reflexes around the eyes can also help correct protruding eyes, eyes that hurt or are sensitive to light, and slanted eyes caused by muscle tension.

Please give this a try and you will be amazed about how much better you feel.

Headache Home Remedies – Get Relief From Pain Naturally

Headache or cephalgia is a common ailment, and most of us suffer from headache at one time or another. Pain or ache in any part of the head, forehead or neck may collectively be referred to as headache. Headache may occur due to multiple causes, and depending upon the cause, headache may be classified in to primary headaches, secondary headaches and cranial neuralgia, facial ache and other types. Primary headaches are not associated with any disease. They spring on their own. Examples of primary headaches are migraine, tension headaches and cluster headache. Secondary headache is caused due to some major disease or ailment such as brain tumors, meningitis, encephalitis, and hemorrhage in brain, strokes, caffeine deficiency and discontinuation of analgesics. The third type, cranial neuralgia or facial pain, is caused due to the inflammation of nerves in the head and upper neck.

Causes

1. Emotional stress
2. Fatigue
3. Excessive smoking and alcohol intake
4. Hang-over
5. High blood pressure
6. Allergy
7. Constipation
8. Nutritional deficiency
9. Lack of sleep
10. Prolonged manual labor or physical stress
11. Cold and flu
12. Chronic cough
13. Ear infection
14. Tooth infection
15. Sinus infection and blockage
16. Pneumonia and fever
17. Mumps
18. Measles
19. Tonsillitis
20. Eye infection
21. Eye strain
22. Glaucoma
23. Bright light and loud sound
24. Traumatic injury
25. Strokes
26. Muscle contracting around the skull
27. Spinal tap or injection.

Home Remedies

1. Drinking of herbal teas such as chamomile or peppermint tea can treat headache.

2. Steam inhalation is an effective remedy for headache. It can do away with sinus blockage.

3. Drinking two tablespoon apple cider vinegar mixed with raw honey in a cup of water can cause headache to vanish quickly

4. Drinking a glass of warm water mixed with two tablespoon pure maple syrup and few drops of lemon juice and then immediately taking a nap can cure headache.

5. Placing henbane leaves on the head, and then covering it with a moist warm cloth can cause headache to disappear.

6. Usage of a warm poultice made of ginger powder can reduce headache. The poultice is to be placed on forehead.

7. Applying a paste of sandalwood on forehead can cure headache.

8. Consumption of grown coconut mixed with sugar can reduce headache.

9. A solution made out of half teaspoon mustard seed powder and three teaspoon water may be applied in the nostrils. This is an effective way of treating headache.

10. Intake of a teaspoon of Brewer's yeast daily can reduce headache due to iron deficiency.

11. Intake of freshly sliced ​​apples every morning is an effective cure for chronic headache.

12. Nasal irrigation is a way to clear nasal congestion and reduce headache.

13. Massaging head with the pressure of thumb and forefinger can tie headache.

14. Soaking feet in lukewarm water and placing a cold towel on forehead can less headache.

The Symptoms of Avian Human Influenza

Avian is another word for bird. When flu bugs first infect one species and then later infect humans, they are often called by a name that reflects the original animal that carried the virus. Swine and now avian human influence are examples. Whether it is called bird flu or avian influenza, efforts to fight it are the same. In order to fight avian influenza in humans, the public must be aware of the threat and practice good health habits to avoid contamination.

Although wild birds carry the viruses, they do not usually have symptoms. It is domestic birds (chickens, ducks and turkeys) in which avian influenza symptoms cause sickness and sometimes death. The symptoms in domesticated poultry may be mild causing ruffled feathers and low egg production or severe disease that affects multiple organisms and death in 90-100% of flocks in as little as 48 hours. It is believed that the degree of difference in the symptoms is related to the strain of the virus infecting the birds.

Avian human influenza cases are rare. However, 253 confirmed cases have been reported since 2003, according to statistics compiled by the World Health Organization (WHO). 148 deaths worldwide have been attributed to the H5N1 virus, which is why there is a major effort to control and fight avian influenza outbreaks and inform the public about safe handling practices.

Avian human influenza symptoms have been reported in many countries in Asia and the Middle East, but most have occurred in small villages and emerging areas of Indonesia and Vietnam. Most confirmed cases have been resolved from contact with infected domestic birds or contact with surfaces contaminated by the feces and fluids from infected birds. The symptoms of avian human influenza are typical flu-like symptoms such as fever, sore throat, cough and muscle aches. But, in some confirmed cases the symptoms have included eye infections, pneumonia, severe respiratory diseases, acute respiratory distress and other severe and life-threatening complications. As with poultry, The Center for Disease Control (CDC) believes that the wide range of avian flu symptoms in humans may depend on which strain of avian human influenza virus the person was infected with.

In order to confirm a case of avian human influenza, the patient must have a positive swab from the throat or nose. Or, two separate blood tests most be performed. While highly contagious among birds, avian flu symptoms are not easily transmitted by human to human contact. The only confirmed cases of avian flu caused by contact with an infected person have been among family members who remained in close contact with the person suffering from the symptoms of the bird flu. This is unlike seasonal flu and SARS which are highly contagious viruses among humans. Government officials hope that efforts to control and fight avian influenza will prevent the likelihood that it will mutate into a form that spreads as easily among humans as other forms of the virus, but experts are not sure why viruses like this mutate and are unable to predict what the outcome of avian human influence will be. For more information, please visit our website at http://www.immune-system-booster-guide.com .

Sudden Deafness – Ayurvedic Herbal Treatment

Sudden deafness, also known as Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss (SSHL), is a rapid loss of hearing which may occur all at once or over a period of up to three days. SSHL is defined as a loss of at least 30 decibels in three connected frequencies, and usually occurs in only one ear. It may be accompanied by dizziness and ringing in the ears. Only about 10% of affected individuals have known causes which include infections, trauma, immune disorders, circulatory or neurological disorders or drugs toxic to the ears. While most people recover spontaneously within a few weeks, about 15% experience progressively worsening symptoms. Standard management includes removal of the known cause, antibiotics, steroids and inhalation of a mixture of carbon-dioxide and oxygen.

The Ayurvedic treatment of SSHL constituents of treating the known cause of the condition and giving symptomatic treatment for the hearing loss. Infections related to the ears and upper respiratory tract can be treated using medicines like Sukshma-Triphala, Sitopaladi-Powder, Tribhuvan-Kirti-Ras, Kamdudha-Ras, Sutshekhar-Ras, Shwas-Kas-Mishran-Ras, Ras-Sindur, Yashtimadhuk (Glycyrrhiza glabra), Kantakari (Solanum xanthocarpum) and Pippali (Piper longum). Immune disorders can be treated using medicines like Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum), Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera), Pippali, Manjishtha (Rubia cordifolia), Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia), Yashtimadhuk, Bhumiamalaki (Phyllanthus niruri), Suvarna-Malini-Vasant, Laghu- Malini-Vasant and Madhu-Malini-Vasant.

The treatment of circulatory disorders is important while managing SSHL since it is believed that a reduction in blood circulation to the internal organs in the ears could contribute primarily to the sudden loss of hearing. Medicines are used to remove blood clots, reduce blood toxins and obstruction, and inflammation of the arterial walls. These medicines include Tapyadi-Loh, Ekangveer-Ras, Maha-Yograj-Guggulu, Saarivadi-Vati, Punarnava-Mandur, Manjishthadi-Qadha, Saarivasav, Arogya-Vardhini, Lashunadi-Vati, Suvarna Bhasma, Panchamrut-Parpati, Amalaki (Emblica officinalis ), Haridra (Curcuma longa), Nimba (Azadirachta indica), Saariva (Hemidesmus indicus), Guggulu (Commiphora mukul), Patol (Trichosanthe dioica), Patha (Cissampelos pareira), Musta (Cyperus rotundus), Kutki (Picrorrhiza kurroa) Daruharidra (Berberis aristata). Neurological causes can be treated using medicines like Bruhat-Vat-Chintamani, Maha-Vat-Vidhvans-Ras, Vat-Gajankush-Ras, Vish-Tinduk-Vati and Agni-Tundi-Vati.

In addition, symptomatic treatment for SSHL includes the use of medicines like Kaishor-Guggulu, Panch-Tikta-Ghrut-Guggulu, Punarnavadi-Guggulu, Maha-Rasnadi-Guggulu, Saarivadi-Vati, Punarnava-Mandur, Abhrak-Bhasma, Suvarna-Bhasma , Raupya -Bhasma, Mukta-Bhasma and Pathyadi-Qadha. These medicines improve the perfusion of the inner ear and also increase the functioning of the auditory nerve.

A judicious use of Ayurvedic medicines can thus be used to treat refractory patients of SSHL who do not improve spontaneously or with conventional treatment.

Stammering Help

Children are especially vulnerable when it comes to having problems with stammering. I'd like to go into a little detail about how we can help our children who are suffering from this problem. If we can give them stammering help, it will boost their confidence that they will be able to overcome this condition.

Start by slowing down. This begins with your actions. As children are generally hyperactive by nature, this is easier said than done, but by showing the children that they can gain better control of their stammering by slowing down, they will come around soon enough and slow down.

Along with slowing down activity and not rushing into things quite so fast physically, the child needs to slow their talking down. Along with hyperactive bodies, they have hyperactive tongues, which could wreck havoc on their talking.

Teach the child you are giving stammering help to all about patience, and how having that in abundance will help him or her is able to say what they want to say. There is no hurry when it comes to eliminating their stammering tongue. Patience really is a value. Nothing is ever gained by rushing headlong into it and running the risk of messing it all up. True for kids as well as for adults.

Teach the child to take a moment before they speak to gather their thoughts. Doing so, they can see in their mind what they want to say, and visualize themselves saying it. Kind of like rehearsal for their speech. Take the time here to teach them basic visualization skills. Treat it similar to daydreaming, so that they understand the concept better.

Remember never to force the words out. This will only make things worse. What will provide stammering help is to remember that there is no hurry. No one is timing you when you speak. Relax, get rid of the stress and anxiety surrounding your child, and let them have a go at it. You've been surprised at the results.

Reward the child for their effort. For a child, there is no greater stammering help than a treat. They will even find themselves trying harder, if they know they have a treat waiting for them after a hard session.

What child is not motivated by a candy bar, or even a trip to the movies, for their efforts at improving themselves?

As you give stammering help to these struggling children, be sure to let them know that changes will not happen overnight, but with patience and a little fun, they will be speaking fluently in no time. Let them know that they can accomplish anything they set their mind to, anything at all, and that overcoming their stammering issue is no different than anything else.

One Man Was Not Only Healed But Made Whole – It Was As If He Had Never Contracted This Disease

Walking into a village one day, Jesus Christ is met by ten lepers.

These men would be sorry sights. Their bodies were riddled with this horrible disease. They came as near as they might dare. Men with leprosy had to keep away from others, one hundred paces at least.

Crying out, they ask Jesus for mercy. This was no beautiful quiet whispered prayer. That does not happen when you are desperate.

Leprosy, like sin, is contagious.

It is loathsome, spreads easily, and separates people from people. Jesus saw these deformed limbs and diseased bodies, and had compassion on them. How could Jesus do anything else? Was this not why he had come into the world? This was certainly one of the main reasons.

Jesus cave these lepers very specific instructions. He commanded them with that authority which only the Son of God could exercise. They were cleared of their leprosy, immediately. Read the account of what actually happened as it was written by a medical doctor. Turn to the detail of this scenario in Luke Chapter 17.

One of the ten, a Samaritan, saw that he was healed. The pain disappeared. The sores vanished.

He came back to the place where Jesus was, and worshiped God with a loud voice, falling down at Jesus feet, giving Him thanks.

When you have been so touched by the living God, being 'dignified' becomes comparatively unimportant.

Jesus asked, "Were there not ten of you? Where are the other nine?

Looking at this one man who returned to express gratitude, Jesus Christ says, "Rise and go. Your faith has made you whole."

He was not just healed. He was made whole. It was as if he had never had leprosy. On his body there would be no remaining marks, scars, or any other painful reminders.

Jesus does not just want to deal with a specific problem or trouble. His desire is to make men whole. What more does a man require?

Sandy Shaw

The Importance With Early Detection of Hearing Loss in Children

Every parent wishes their child to be healthy and most of all happy. Children with disabilities such as hearing loss can live full and completely happy lives. However, if gone undiagnosed or ignored, a disability such as hearing loss can cause irreplaceable damage. The early years of a child's development are of the utmost importance. It is a time when they learn language, understanding, cognitive skills, and motor skills. If your child shows signs of hearing loss, make sure to have him or her see a specialist, so the issue does not worsen.

Hearing loss is not defined as complete deafness. There are multiple levels of hearing loss, from slight toounding, depending on the frequencies as which they can hear sounds. Issues with hearing can either be environmental, come from infection or disease, or most commonly genetic. No matter what the cause of the problem is, it needs to get tested so the specialist can help you take the right steps to improve your child's development.

Many states require that newborns be tested for hearing issues within the first hours of their birth. This does not mean that problems can not develop later, so it is important that parents will constantly be on the lookout for signs and symptoms related to hearing loss. Early signs can be detected by parents that can alert to some sort of hearing issues. If parents notice any of these symptoms, they should immediately make an appointment to see a specialist.

Signs for children's hearing problems include not being able to recognize a parent's voice, consistent sounds, or even to his or her name. Children begin recognizing a parent's voice from after the first few months of birth and his or her name soon after that. If still a child does not acknowledge frequently heard voices or sounds, it may be a sign of hearing problems.

During development, a child's attentiveness can also become a sign of hearing problems. Children with hearing problems often become easily frustrated, as it is difficult for them to communicate. If they are having trouble understanding you, asking for things repeatedly, or constantly questioning what you are trying to communicate, there might be an under issue.

Speech development is an important step within all children's developmental process. There is of course no strict schedule that all children should adhere to. Even brothers and sisters take different amounts of time to develop cognitive skills. However, if a child's speech development is long delayed, there might be cause for concern. Unclear speech can also be a sign of hearing problems. If you suspect any of these signs occurring in your child, it is better to be safe than sorry. Have your child tested by a hearing aid specialist just to be sure. It can make all the difference in the world with your child's development.

If a child does have hearing impairment, a hearing aid can be of great assistance during development. Many public school systems offer special education to assist with the development and education of hearing impaired children. Hearing aids can afford your child the best opportunity for a normal development for those with hearing problems.

The Effects of Lupus at Ocular Level

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus is a very complex disease that can affect multiple regions of the body, causing a wide range of symptoms. Although the systemic form of lupus can affect virtually any organ system of the human body, the disease commonly involves impairments of the eye. In patients with lupus, the ocular globe itself (eyeball) is affected more often than the ocular orbit (eye socket). When the ocular orbit is also affected, lupus leads to serious inflammation of the conjunctive membrane, soft tissue that covers the eyeball and interior lid. The lids may also become swollen and this type of ocular disease often involves the occurrence of local edema.

Lupus commonly determinates the occurrence of "cotton wool spots" at the level of the retina. The spots are actually edematous regions of the retina, occurring as a result of inappropriate blood flow and thus, poor oxygenation of the eye. Despite the fact that the occurrence of "cotton wool spots" on the retina is not a direct indicator of lupus in middle-aged and older patients, it clearly reveals the presence of the disease in young patients. Other eye affections characteristic to lupus involve accumulation and deposition of fat cells at the level of the retina, decrease in the arteriolar blood flow and even pronounced obstruction of the eye blood vessels, which often determines loss of visual acuity or temporary blindness.

Patients diagnosed with systemic lupus are often confronted with keratoconjunctivitis sicca as well (also known as the dry eye syndrome), eye disorder that predominately inflates individuals with autoimmune diseases. This type of eye disorder generates symptoms such as pronounced discomfort, inflammation, itching and burning at ocular level, and often leads to impairments of the lacrimal glands, resulting in reduced tears. On the promises of eye dryness and inappropriate blood circulation, the eye rapidly becomes inflamed and irritated, also increasing the risks of infections.

When keratoconjunctivitis sicca is accompanied by arthritis and symptoms such as dryness of the mucosal linings in the mouth and nose, the disease is referred to as Siogren's Syndrome. When systemic lupus determinates impairments at brain level, the disease causes deterioration of the optic nerve, nystagus (uncontrolled movements of the eye) and even complete blindness. In order to prevent the development of such complications and to reverse the effects of lupus at ocular level, it is imperative to administer the appropriate treatment as soon as possible.

Commonly used medications in treating the ocular complications produced by systemic lupus are salicylates (aspirin-based medications), antimalarials (commonly used medicines include chloroquine-aralen, plaquenil and resochin), antibiotics and steroids. Steroid medications are extensively used in treating eye disorders characteristic to lupus, cortisone drugs being considered an efficient form of treatment at present. However, steroids can produce serious side-effects in patients with lupus, and so such forms of treatment are not recommended for long-term use.

A Cure for Near Sightedness – Radial Keratotomy

Radial keratotomy (RK) is a refractive surgical procedure employed to correct myopia or nearsightedness. Radial Keratotomy came into existence by accident rather than through meticulous research. The procedure was discovered by Dr. Svyatoslav Fyodorov when he operated one of his patients who had met with a bicycle accident. The boy worn eyeglasses, which broke on impact, and the glass splinters lodged into his eyes. The doctor had to make several radial incisions in the corneal tissue in order to extract the glass. When the cornea healed, the doctor found that the boy's eyesight was significantly improved.

In radial keratotomy (RK), a series of micro-fine incisions are made in the outer portion of the cornea with the aid of a high-precision calibrated diamond knife. The surgeon administers a local anesthetic, since the incisions are wonderful and the procedure is fairly painless. The corneal thickness of the patient's eye is measured prior to the surgery. Before the incisions are made, the diamond-edged cutting instrument is strictly set under the operating microscope. Thus by flattening the curvature of the cornea in such a manner, RK can easily correct myopia or nearsightedness.

Radial keratotomy was first introduced in the United States in the 1980s. Initially it was much of an investigational procedure, with doctors operating only one eye at a time and waiting for at least 3 months to observe the results, before operating on the other eye. But the surgeons gained experience over time and now they could well operate both eyes simultaniously. Now, radial keratotomy is a minor surgery that takes about 15 to 20 minutes for each eye.

Radial keratotomy is constantly improving, owing much to the rapid advances in technology, and the fact that a number of such procedures have already been performed successfully. However, RK is not as precise as LASIK and PRK. Since, RK is less predictable, only a few surgeons now perform this procedure.

Got Marketing Paralysis? Try This

Many of us put off creating or overhauling our marketing materials until we have "time." But with all the responsibilities we have, who on earth has time? In my experience, the time excuse is very often a smokescreen, covering the fears hidden underneath.

And what of these fears? Well let's face it. When you're selling yourself, there's something scary about putting yourself "out there" and putting yourself "out there" in a tangible real piece of marketing, does seem to make it something final. We worry about being misunderstood.

We worry about not living up to other people's expectations. We worry about "getting it wrong". We worry about offending people. We worry about appearing over confident. We worry about making claims that we can not live up to. It's no wonder we can not find the time. Who would want to find the time to when there are so many ways of getting it wrong?

In spite of the fact that those fears exist and they're getting in the way, we really just have to thumb our noses at them. You simply have to say to yourself, "Yes, those fears may be there, but I'm going to create my marketing materials in spite of them."

My favorite method for blasting through these fears is a technique I call the "anti-brochure". Before we go any further I want you to grab a pen, and a sheet of paper and at the top write, "The reasons you SHOULD NOT become my client". Now as quickly as possible, write down all the reasons why someone should not hire you.

Do not worry, we will not be publicizing these, what we are aiming to do is to get these sentences out of your head where they can cripple your creative process and onto the page where they lose a great deal of their power.

Here are some examples that have come out of this exercise:

"I'm not good enough."

"I tell a good story, but I do not walk my talk."

"If I'm so great why is my own life in such a mess?"

"If people knew what I was really like they would not want to hire me."

"I'm afraid I will not live up to their expectations."

"The only reason I have any clients is because I fooled them all."

I love this technique for blasting away the doubts and fears that will otherwise really interfer with your creative process. Once you've got the words out and onto the page, they become a lot less effective at holding you back. Last year I ran a course with a partner, and we sat down and did this exercise together before writing the brochure.

We titled it, "The reasons you should not book onto this course". We each spent 5-10 minutes filling a sheet with our insecurities and errors and when we were done, we compared notes, then threw the lists away. That's it. That's all you need to do. Do not agonize over what you've written. Just write it, read it through and throw it away.

Some people like a ritual burning, but to be perfectly honest I think that's affording too much significance to what just amounts to a bunch of false fears. Just screw up the paper and toss it in the wastepaper basket. Try this. It really works.

(c) Bernadette Doyle, 2008. Reprints welcome so long as by-line and article are published intact and all links made live.

The Three General Methods of Blood Collection

Blood collection is a vital procedure in blood testing. Proper blood collection is required to ensure the reliability of results. The general methods for blood collection are (note that this is only a reference guide – you should only attempt this if you are a professional):

1. Venipuncture – It is the collection of blood from the veins through the use of a needle and a syringe. In this procedure, the most common site of venipuncture is the antecubital fossa where the cephalic, basilic and mid-cubital veins are found. This procedure is required when large amounts of blood is needed for testing like in glucose, cholesterol, uric acid, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase test, and many blood chemistry determinations.

Materials needed

Gauge 20-22 needle, syringe, tourniquet, wet and dry cotton, 70 % isopropyl alcohol, vacutainer tubes or test tubes.

Precautions:

1.1. Remove the tourniquet first before the needle. Patients who have blood dyscrasia may bleed to death.

1.2. Avoid prolonged application of the tourniquet because it will cause venous stasis which will adversely affect the results.

1.3. Do not jerk the needle out of the vein because this may injure the vein and will cause discomfort in the patient.

1.4. Do not puncture the vein through and through because this will cause hematoma which is a bluish discoloration of the skin.

1.5. Allow the patient to rest for at least 10 minutes to ensure that he does not feel faint or that bleeding has stopped.

1.6. Sterilize before puncturing to ensure that the procedure is aspetic.

2. Capillary puncture – also known as fingerstick or finger puncture, is used when smaller volumes of blood is needed, like when performing Complete Blood Counts (CBC), peripheral blood smears and malarial smears. This method is useful for pediatric, obese and elderly patients where veins are small and cannot be palpated. It may also make use of the earlobe and big toe as puncture sites.

Materials needed

Lancet, capillettes, wet and dry cotton, 70 % isopropyl alcohol

Precautions

2.1. Puncture only the specified area as it may traumatize unintended sites like the bones.

2.2. Discard the first drop as this is made up of tissue fluid.

2.3. Sterilize first before puncturing.

3. Arterial Puncture – is the collection of blood from the arteries. This is oxygenated blood, while venous blood is non-oxygenated blood. This is usually used in Blood Gas Analysis (BGA) where the pH of blood, bicarbonate (HCO3), carbonic acid (H2CO3) and total carbon dioxide (TCO2) are determined

Materials needed

Luer lock syringe, vacutainer tubes, wet and dry cottons, 70% isopropyl alcohol

Precautions

3.1. Press the site of puncture for more than 15-30 minutes because the pressure of blood in the arteries is stronger than that in the veins.

3.2. Sterilize properly before puncturing.

3.3. Observe anaerobic collection as most samples are for blood gas testing.

These are the most common methods of blood collection. Each is utilized according to the needs of the patient.