Type 2 Diabetes and The Healing of Your Wounds!

Wounds and skin infections are slow to heal in the person with Type 2 diabetes. Wound healing is the body's natural way of repairing the damage involving the dermal and the epidermal tissues, the skin layers mostly involved in the occurrence of wounds. It is a complex cascade of events that:

  • stimulates the activity of white blood cells, the defenders of the body against infections
  • the aggregation of platelets, the blood cells involved in blood clotting, and
  • the involvement of endothelial cells, the layer of cells that lines the interior of the blood vessel walls

Failure in the normal processes involved in wound healing is the most important cause of amputation in the United States. In fact, according to the John Hopkins POC-IT Center, 81 percent of people who underwent amputation have this problem. Hyperglycemia, or high blood sugar, the most important finding in poorly controlled Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes, is one of the most significant factors involved in poor wound healing that leads to amputation and other surgical interventions.

High blood sugar levels lead to reduced activity of the immune system, according to the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. With this particular decreased activity, the body becomes vulnerable to the attacks of infectious microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses and fungal infections.

How can you improve wound healing if you have Type 2 diabetes?

1. Proper wound cleaning : If you have a wound, check with your doctor. He will advise you about the proper care and cleaning techniques to encourage better wound healing.

2. Infection contr ol : Infected non-healing wounds need antibiotic coverage to eliminate the possible infection-causing microbes proliferating within the actual wound itself.

3. Relieve possible mechanical stresses that add insult to the already-existing damage : Pressure and repetitive injury causes must be eliminated to prevent further insult to your already infected non-healing wound.

4. Apply the correct wound dressing : There is no such thing as a dressing that suits all wounds. However, a moist wound environment that is physiologically adequate promotes better tissue and skin repair. The correct dressing prerequisites further insult to the wound from the external environment … it brings further trauma, infection and contamination.

5. Control your blood sugar level : A normal blood sugar level can encourage the activity of white blood cells, the defenders of the human body against the possible attack of infection-causing microbes. The healthy activity of these defenders may improve and even speed up the tissue repair within the wound area.

Skin infections and wounds that can not be healed could lead to gangrene and extremely amputation of a foot or limb. You can prevent an amputation and other surgically related wound management even if you have Type 2 diabetes. Proper wound care coupled with good blood sugar control is the ultimate key for the prevention of poor and delayed wound healing.

What is Swine Flu?

Swine flu or swine influenza is a disease common in swine, with normal flu-like symptoms, but caused by any strain of the swine influenza virus (SIV – virus endemic in pigs). Although rare in humans, individuals with greater exposure to swine could contract swine influenza if the swine are carrying the particular rare strain of the SIV that is capable of affecting humans. Even then, it is a rare occurrence for the strain to be able to pass from human to human. This could occur if the SIV is able to mutate into a form that can easily be transmitted among humans.

The swine flu outbreak of 2009 is believed to be caused by such a mutated strain of the SIV. The current outbreak is called swine flu only because one of the surface proteins of the tested virus is similar to the one which infects pigs. It is still unknown if this is currently infecting pigs though it's clearly spreading among people, leading the World Health Organization to raise the Phase 4 pandemic alert. This new strain responsible for the outbreak has been found to be a re-assortment of strains of the influenza A virus subtype H1N1. These strains are separately endemic in humans and in swine.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Tamiflu (oseltamivir) and Relenza (zanamivir) would help in treatment and prevention. Antiviral drugs, if started within two days of the manifestation of symptoms, succeed in reducing the severity of the symptoms, preventing further complications, and hastening cure. The most effective method of prevention is to wash hands frequently with soap or with a foam or alcohol-based gel hand wash that helps wipe away bacteria and viruses. Vaccines against the 2009 H1N1 strain outbreak are in the development stage and are expected to be ready by June 2009.

How to Fight Swine Flu Without Any Doctor

This deadly H1N1 virus has created panic all over. Whole world is confused about Swine Flu. They do not know what to do at the time of Swine Flu. Lot's of people come to know very late about The Deadly Flu and they die. But it's very easy to fight this while staying at home. You do not need to go to doctor and there is no need to take any medicine. Here are very easy steps to fight this deadly Flu while staying at home.

First of all make your immune system strong because your strong immune system plays the major role to fight the Flu. Here are some easy methods to make your immune system strong:

1) Meditation: Regular prayer to God will make you strong inside just pray for your better health and mind.
2) Proteins: Take regular proteins in your diet. Pulses, Nuts, Fruits, Green Vegetables, Eggs are the good source of taking proteins.
3) Vitamin C: Orange, Mango, Guava, Green Salad, Fresh Juice are good in Vitamin C.
4) Cooking Oil: Use cooking oil which are made by mustard and groundnut.
5) Avoid: More use of salt in the food and also avoid: Papad, Pickle and outside food as it's unhygienic.

You must be psychologically fit because strong psychology can make us fight any disease. Keep tensions away because tensions make you psychologically and physically sick and take regular exercise because exercise makes you psychologically and physically fit. Just adopt these methods and keep away the deadly Swine Flu.

Recurring Headache Causes

When it comes to repeating headache causes, the most common is migraine. See if you have two of the following symptoms for migraine headaches:

  • Throbbing headache lasting 4-72 hours
  • Light others you
  • Loud sounds or strong smells like perfume, bother you.

Additionally you probably have one of the following:

  • Nausea and / or vomiting
  • Loss of appetite during the headache
  • Vertigo (or dizziness)

If so the diagnosis is migraine. The MOST common cause is something you and I can control. Hey who knew? It's STRESS. Yup, good old, plain old stress! We all have stress..everyone has it but the key is how do you manage it? Do you exercise regularly to relieve stress or is your idea of ​​stress relief sitting on the couch watching TV?

Cluster Headache Cluster headaches, are a second recurring headache cause and often mostly in men. They tend to last less than two hours. Spring and Fall seem to be the most popular times for this and every year the clinics will be crowded with cluster headaches patients coming in.

Cervicogenic Headache Another cause of headache that many are unfamiliar with, is cervicogenic headache. Now wait a minute! What are these big medical terms! Simply put: it's a pain in the neck. Literally. Many times simple lifestyle changes and a short course of medicine relieves the problem. This headache is closely related to tension headache.

Analgesic Rebound Headache Additionally, there is over use of over the counter medications like Tylenol Sinus or Excedrine Migraine. These medications used more than three times a week are a definite cause of repeating headache. One in particular that I refer to is the Claritin D Sinus Headache. When in pain you will reach for anything to take the headache away.

With over use, now the condition is analgesic rebound headache syndrome. This can be one of the most difficult to treat recurrence headache causes.

Trigeminal Neuralgia Although somewhat rare, trigeminal neuralgia can reoccur years after the first bout of neuralgia. What is neuralgia? Just means pain in a nerve. Specifically the nerve which runs along the side of the face and the jaw.

Most of the time this is provoked by a virus or dental work but sometimes the cause is unknown.

Additional Causes of Recurring Headache You can not forget about the food items in our environment now that cause headaches. Many foods contain chemicals to enhance flavor, MSG being the most famous, which provoke heads. Caffeine overuse is another migraine trigger.

  • Headache and food triggers
  • Caffeine and headaches.
  • Overuse of opiods with addiction.

Jaw and tooth problems can also cause repeating headaches. These are best managed by a dentist. If you feel you are suffering from TMJ symdrome, a dentist who specializes in this problem is the best person to help you. These conditions can include:

  • Temporomandibular joint syndrome (TMJ)
  • Dental abcesses
  • Post extraction infections
  • Dental caries
  • Poor fitting denture

Ear, nose and throat disorders can refer to the head and provoke migraines and headaches. A thorough evaluation for heads should rule out:

  • Sinus problems
  • Trauma such as perforated eardrum
  • Chronic ear infections
  • Rare tumor of the inner ear: schwannoma

Obviously the key here is to find a good physician or practitioner who can help you sort out your headache profile.

Alopecia Mucinosa

There are many conditions in the world that can affect a person and one of the most rare is alopecia mucinosa. This disease, related to others like alopecia areata, is directly related to hair loss and the methods by which the hair is killed off from normally healthy areas of the body. With that in mind it is easy to see why this particular disease is so disturbing to so many people. The loss of hair, even in small amounts can result in severe depression and so on, leading a person to a dark place. There is hope for those who suffer from this affliction but they need to be sure they are following the steps as laid down by their raising doctor.

As it was said, alopecia mucinosa is very rare and because of that there is very little in the way of information bouncing around the world. Several doctors have written medical articles on the subject but they are of very little help to the layman who is looking for some simple answers to the many questions. Alopecia mucinosa was first discovered in nineteen fifty-seven by a doctor by the name of Pinkus. He first diagnosed this disorder where scaly patches of skin appeared around a bald area on the patient. It was first known as follicullar mucinosis as it is actually the appearance of the mucinosis around the area that gives this disease its name and title.

This disease usually presents itself in the face, neck and scalp areas of the body. However, there have been reports of other areas where hair grows to be affected. There is no way to accurately predict where the disease will present and how long it will be around. A flare up with this kind of disease can last a couple days to several months depending on the severity of which the patient has been affected in the past. Certainly people are not looking to have this disease for long periods of time, but there is very little that can be done about it. The fact is that a person may have this disease for years, even from birth and may never know it until the point when a flare up occurs. It has been reported that some people lived their own lives without knowing that they were affected by alopecia mucinosa.

Like its many cousins, alopecia mucinosa is related to the immune system or more to the point, the failure of the immune system in a certain manner. This disease is commonly referred to as an auto-immune disease. That has a special meaning and puts the disease in a class that includes other more serious diseases, like Crohn's or IBD.

Auto-immune diseases are so named because the body's immune system is attacking normally healthy cells in the body. This is counteractive to the normal procedure where the immune system is actually designed to prevent infection among the cells of the body. There is no known cure for the auto-immune part of this disease.

Blindness in Cats – Five Common Causes of Feline Blindness

Cats naturally have superior vision. However, there are various conditions that can cause blindness in cats. Some of these conditions include hypertension, glaucoma, and cancer. Let’s take a look at some of these causes of feline blindness.

Hypertension

Hypertension, or high blood pressure, is one of the leading causes of blindness in cats. If left untreated, the pressure can cause the retina to rupture. This can occur in just a matter of days. Cats that have kidney disease, diabetes, or hyperthyroidism have the highest risk of developing hypertension.

An early sign that your cat is suffering from high blood pressure is the presence of dilated pupils. The pupils won’t respond to a change in light, and there also may be blood in your cat’s eye. Hypertension is dealt with by treating the underlying cause. Your cat may also need to start eating foods low in sodium.

Glaucoma

One of the next common causes of feline blindness is glaucoma. Glaucoma is a condition in which there is too much pressure within the eye. It is also a common problem for humans. If your cat is diagnosed in the early stages, the pressure may be reduced via medications. If it has already progressed, your cat may need surgery to correct the problem.

Cancer

Another cause of blindness in cats is cancer. Tumors can grow in or around the eye. In most cases, the eye will need to be surgically removed. However, it is usually replaced with a prosthetic eye to give a more natural look.

Atrophy

Progressive retinal atrophy is an untreatable condition that leads to feline blindness. Most cats suffer from this condition because they inherited it. The disease progresses slowly over time, but will lead to total blindness.

Kidney Disease

One of the final common causes is kidney disease. It is common for older cats to suffer problems like chronic renal failure as they age. Unfortunately, chronic renal failure leads to hypertension. As stated earlier, hypertension can easily cause sudden blindness in cats if the retina ruptures.

Dementia and Stroke

Dementia can be caused by stroke, too. Despite common-knowledge, dementia is not only borne from Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and is actually caused by many diseases, one of which is stroke.

Stroke remains the leading cause of long-term disability worldwide. Known as brain attack, stroke mostly affects the brain, which when damaged may lead to physical, functional, and mental disorders, one of which is dementia. Stroke triggers dementia when there is a high concentration of the blood protein ApoE4 who transports cholesterol in the blood. ApoE4 is also linked to cause Alzheimer's disease.

There are many kinds of dementia and the most common one is caused by Alzheimer's Disease. Stroke is also the second cause of dementia after Alzheimer. Aside from stroke, dementia can also be caused by frontotemporal disorders, parkinsonian, and lewy bodies. Each type of dementia has its own effects on the victim resulting to unique patters of behavioral changes.

The type of dementia is determined on which part of the brain is actually affected. But generally, dementia is a brain disorder in which multiple aspects of brain function are persistently compromised in way that interferes with the person's daily normal functions.

Dementia due to stroke or also called vascular / multi-infarct dementia, affects the patient through short-term memory loss, poor concentration, inattention, difficulty to follow instruction, confusion, poor judgment, psychosis, depression, mood and behavioral changes, easily lost in unfamiliar surroundings, and laughing or crying inappropriately.

Treatment of dementia involves enhancement of vascular health, slowing the progress of cognitive decline, and treating symptoms directly related to it such as medication, behavioral intervention, and surgery. Caregiving for stroke victims with dementia requires close attention and extended patience toped with empathy for the patient who is already undergoing a lot with out much of patient wanting it.

Stroke patients with dementia should be cared for by the caregiver by using distractions to control irritable behavior, using visuals to reorient the patient and avoid confusion, establishing a daily routine of activity, simplifying self-care tasks, and communicating with short simple sentences. In short, the caregiver's attitude and tactics are very important to ensure the stroke patient's recovery.

Since dementia appears over later time, it's a must that one is alert of any adverse behavioral changes in the stroke patient to ensure the patient getting immediate medical attention and treatment. A series of tests will be given to the stroke patient before they will be diagnosed of having dementia. A medical interview followed by a neuropsychological testing are tools that will be used to identify if a stroke patient really has vascular dementia.

Dementia can be caused by stroke over time, which heightens the need for caregivers to be aware of its symptoms to ensure appropriate attention is given in a timely manner. To avoid dementia, including NeuroAid at the early stages of a stroke patient's rehabilitation program will help protect neuronal and brain injuries on top of neurological functions recovery.

Treat Your Glaucoma With Marijuana? Ask Your Optometrist For Prescription Drops and Pass On the Pot

Should you ask your eye doctor about marijuana for your glaucoma treatment? Medical Marijuana has been legalized in 14 states but is still not legal under federal law. Many states have been struggling with the massive expansion of medical marijuana dispensaries. Government bodies including cities, state and counties are trying to assure that only adults with legitimate medical issues that can benefit from medical marijuana are able to obtain access.

So is marijuana a valid treatment for glaucoma? Research to date is limited and all glaucoma institutions including the National Eye Institute have recommended not using marijuana in the treatment of glaucoma. There is a lowering of eye pressure but a number of issues create problems with using medical marijuana in treating glaucoma. Marijuana is typically smoked. The effective dosing schedule is about every 3 hours due to a short lived effect. Eye pressures tend to rise at night so repeated dosing every 3 hours night and day would be required. This would disrupt the sleep cycle and result in poor motor skills, inability to drive legally, and low functioning interfering with the ability to work all of the time.

These side effects are unacceptable to most of the population. At this point there is no regulation or oversight of the quality and amount of active compounds in medical marijuana. Unlike prescription pharmaceuticals, the amount required for a proper dose is impossible to accurately state. There are also problems with decreased blood pressure, increased heart rate, and dizziness when standing up after sitting. The decreased blood pressure theoretically could reduce blood flow to the optic nerve and increase the risk of glaucoma damage. There are other possible health risks and benefits that may occur. Oddly, lung cancer does not to be a risk at this time, and marijuana may even offer a protective effect. However, there is some damage to the lung tissues that is thought to occur with long term usage.

Capsules of the single most active substance in marijuana are available by prescription through regular drugstores. These also lower eye pressure but significantly less than inhaled marijuana. The capsules also have a slower onset and need to be consumed every 4-6 hours. The side effects are often described as much more unpleasant than inhalation. The prescription capsules lack the 60+ other similar compounds found in the plants plus several hundred other types of biological compounds. It is unknown if this makes the prescription capsules a better or worse choice. Again, the required frequency of dosing and side effects make this a poor option for the treatment of glaucoma.

Current glaucoma prescription eye drops usually require dosing 1 to 2 times per day, and have a low risk of side effects that rarely interfere with daily functioning. They have a very precise, consistent level of active components. While some problems can occur, these are rare and fairly well known from clinical trials. Marijuana has some active compounds that do lower eye pressure and deserve further support for future investigation. We may even find it is a useful adjunct for treatment in conjunction with standard therapies in the future. However, at this time there is no indication that medical marijuana has any place as a primary treatment for glaucoma, when we have such a large choice of prescription drugs that have undergone vigorous studies. These studies have found them to be safe and effective, with significant research behind them. As a bonus, you do not have to be constantly looking over your shoulder due to the uncertain legal status when you stick to clinically approved glaucoma medications.

Myopia – How Far Can You Really See?

How far can you really see? Simple question, is not it? But I am not talking about seeing with your eyes. I think even blind people can see things in their mind, but I am not going to dwell too much on that, but instead I hope to take you beyond your natural inclinations to think deeply on a much more interesting topic.

In his highly acclaimed book, The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People, Stephen Covey presents strong lessons in personal change.

In the 2nd habit, the author suggests to begin with the end in mind. What it all means is to begin with the image of the end of your life as the frame of reference by which everything else is measured.

Covey illustrates the concept with a visualization exercise asking you to imagine that at the end of your life, you are able to listen to what was being said at your funeral. He further invites you to determine what you would like to hear people say about you as a father, a life partner, a college … kind of life that will make it happen.

The book further went on to suggest developing a personal mission statement, philosophy or credo based on your values ​​and principles that will help you focus on what you want to be (character), and do (contributions and achievements).

All this is based on the theory that all things are created twice and that there is a mental first creation and there is a physical second creation and that management is being efficient by doing things right, while leadership is being effective by doing the right things.

Some people have adopted the principles of this book and have gone on to become highly successful and effective people. There are also countless other people who could not fully implement the principles because they could not bear to change their characters first. Perhaps, their over-inflated egos or impatience has preempted them from achieving what they want. After trying out some of the ideas, they come to realize that the book is not a quick-fix book. They need to change their own way of looking at things, and start to mature from a dependent stage, to an independent stage and then to an interdependent stage before they can really see some substantive results.

For those who had some success, should they be overjoyed with their achievements?

Now, come back to the question, "How far can you really see?" Does your journey end at your funeral?

In the book, The Purpose Driven Life, by Rick Warren, the author explores the question of what on earth I am here for. When you read about the 5 purposes for living this life, you will soon discover that God is part of the equation. When we come to think of it, our life on earth is really very short – 60, 80 or even 100 years.

As Jesus Christ said in Matt 7: 24 ~ 27, "So, then, anyone who hears these words of mine and acts accordingly is like a wise man, who built his house on rock. wind blew and stuck that house, but it did not collapse because it was built on rock But anyone who hears these words of mine and does not act accordingly, is like a fool who built his house on sand. flooded, and the wind blew and stuck that house; it collapsed and the ruin was complete. "

So how far can you see beyond this life? We should be aiming for eternal life!

Learn to Quit Stuttering – Essential Tips to Lose a Stutter and Talk Better Without Stammering!

Stuttering is definitely not sexy, and can ruin your life if you do not get the help you need. There is a whole world full of opportunities out there, and a stuttering problem can truly keep you from exploring them. His article will focus on helping you understand there is help and the chances of losing your stutter are actually very good. I personally know people who have quit stuttering by taking my advice.

Stop Stuttering – Tip 1: Thinking Before You Speak

One of the biggest causes of stuttering is when ones mouth moves before the brain thinks. In order to help yourself overcome a stuttering problem, you must allow yourself to think before you speak. This sounds simple and obvious, but many people actually found this to help them improve their speech. If you give your brain a second to process, not only will you have a more well thought out answer, you will not have to stammer and stumble over your words to get your point across.

Stop Stuttering – Tip 2: Talk Better By Practicing

If you stutter, reading is a very beneficial and not to mention therapeutic way to cope with stuttering. I know people with stutters that have started reading out loud every day and have completely lost their stutter. I am not saying everyone is going to be this way, but practice does make perfect and it applies to stuttering! Annunciation is the key with stuttering problems, you need to successfully complete the word before your stutter gets the best of you. Reading out loud daily can really help with this.

Stop Stuttering – Tip 3: Step By Step Stuttering Guides – Why They Are So Great!

If you leave here with anything today, understand why having a step by step stop stuttering guide is so beneficial. They are all over the Internet, but only a couple will actually help you quit stuttering and I know which one works! These guides give you the best tips, tricks, exercises and logical explanations for why you stutter and how to overcome the condition. These guides are extremely cheap, but the rewards are priceless.

What is a Hypertensive Crisis?

A dangerous spike in blood pressure is known as a hypertensive crisis that can lead to a stroke. Extreme high pressure of (top number) 180 systolic and (bottom number)120 diastolic or higher will damage arteries and capillaries. They will become inflamed and leak fluid and/or blood, rendering the heart unable to effectively pump blood under this condition.

There are two types of hypertensive crisis. One is urgent and the other is an emergency. An urgent hypertensive crisis is when your blood pressure becomes dangerously high and your doctor doesn’t suspect any damage to your organs. Symptoms and signs of an urgent hypertensive crisis may include, but not be limited to, shortness of breath, severe anxiety, severe headache, nose bleed and elevated blood pressure.

An emergency hypertensive crisis occurs when pressure becomes dangerously elevated and causes damage to your organs. Life threatening complications as a result of an emergency hypertensive crisis such as pulmonary edema (fluid in the lungs), heart attack, brain bleeding or swelling, stroke, aortic dissection (a tear in the heart’s main artery) and eclampsia (high blood pressure with seizures if you are pregnant can occur. If you experience a severe increase in blood pressure, seek immediate medical treatment immediately. Treatment may include hospitalization with oral or intravenous (IV) medications.

To diagnose a hypertensive emergency the health care provider might ask you several questions to understand your medical history. They will also ask you what medications you are taking including prescription, nonprescription medications, recreational drugs and herbal or dietary supplements; a history of other co-morbid conditions and prior cardiovascular or renal disease. Tests will also be conducted to monitor blood pressure and assess organ damage including blood pressure monitoring, blood and urine test and pressure monitoring. Early emergency room triage is top priority to identify those patients who may require more aggressive care in the emergency room. Once a hypertensive emergency has been established the first order of business is to bring the pressure down with intravenous blood pressure medication to prevent further organ damage. Any organ damage that has already occurred will be treated with the appropriate medication and therapies.

Most hypertensive urgencies and emergencies are preventable. They are often the result of inadequately treated or untreated stage I or II hypertension or non adherence to hypertensive therapy. Hypertension affects roughly 50 million people in the United States each year. Hypertensive crisis affects close to 500,000 Americans each year. Approximately 30% of adults are unaware of their hypertension and 40% of the people with hypertension are not receiving treatment. Of those treated up to 67% do not have their blood pressure controlled to less than 140/90.

Hypertension develops at an early age and is more common and severs in African Americans compared to age matched non Hispanic whites. Hypertensive crisis is more common in African Americans compared with other races. The lifetime hypertension risk is 86 to 90% in females and 81 to 83% in men.

The best way to avoid hypertension and hypertensive crisis is to manage your blood pressure through exercise, healthy eating and proper medications when prescribed.

Epilepsy Facts

More than 2.5 million Americans suffer from some type of epilepsy. Epilepsy is defined as any condition that is characterized by seizures. Seizures come in many forms but all have one thing in common, abnormal electrical brain activity. This abnormal activity causes an involuntary change in body movement or function. There are many different kinds of seizures and they vary in intensity and duration. An estimated $ 15.5 billion annually is spent on medical costs and lost wages associated with epilepsy.

Two main types of seizures

The two main types of seizures are primary generalized seizures and partial seizures. Primary generalized seizures include both sides of the brain. Partial seizures include a localized portion of the brain. People with partial seizures often have seizures that go unnoticed by those around them. They may appear to stare off into space or blink rapidly. In contrast, a person having a primary generalized seizure may cry out, have ridged muscle jerks, fall down or appear to pass out.

Not all people who experience seizures have epilepsy. Seizures can be caused by high fever, low blood sugar, withdrawal from drugs or alcohol and as the result of a concussion. People who suffer a seizure from one of these should be treated for the condition not for epilepsy, especially if there is no indication of prior seizures.

It is known that several conditions and events can increase the risk of developing epilepsy. These include oxygen deprivation during birth, brain infections, stroke, certain neurological diseases, brain tumors and genetic disorders. Although we know these factors can increase the risk, in over two thirds of all cases of epilepsy no underlining cause can be identified.

Treatment options

There are several treatment options for those suffering from epilepsy depending on the type and cause. The primary course of action is antiepileptic drugs. There are many different types of drugs available and a healthcare provider will work with the patient to find the best medication that will control the seizures. Close monitoring after starting a medication is necessary to access the drug's effectiveness and to control side effects. About two thirds of all patients treated with drugs are fully controlled.

Surgery is an option for those who suffer from partial epilepsy. Since the abnormal brain activity is localized, surgery to remove the affected area has been shown to less or wholly stop seizures. This type of surgery is commonly used to treat seizures that are focused on the temporal lobe.

When medications are not affective or surgery is not an option, other methods are often considered. An electrical device implanted into the vagus nerve in the neck has been used. Some people find a ketogenic diet, high in fat and low in carbohydrates and calories to be of assistance. Seeing a physician who specializes in epilepsy can help find the best plan of action that works to control seizures and allows the patient to live a normal life.

Progressive Retinal Atrophy – PRA – Is Your Dog Predisposed?

Progressive Retinal Atrophy (PRA) is a group of diseases that cause the retina of your dog's eye to degenerate over time. The consequence is declination vision and extremely blindness. Granted, that's not good news However, nature is a amazing! The majority of affected dogs adjust quite nicely to their situation.

Cause:

Both parents must have the PRA gene for their offspring to be affected. If only one parent carries the PVA gene, their offspring will be carriers of the PRA gene. The disease will re-surface, when any of those offspring mate with another PRA carrier.

Progressive Retinal Atrophy is a progressive, degenerative disease, where your dog will gradually lose its sight. It affects the retina, the light sensitive area in the rear of your dog's eye.

Diagnosis:

This disease requires a veterinary ophthalmologist. Your regular veterinarian can refer you to a specialist.

The earliest stages can not be diagnosed through a routine ophthalmic examination. However, there are DNA tests recently available; regrettably not for all high-risk breeds. Speak with your veterinarian; the DNA testing procedure for other breeds is progressing rapidly.

Once the disease has progressed, it can be diagnosed through a thorough ophthalmic examination. In later stages of PRA examining the retina with indirect ophthalmoscopy can help the veterinary ophthalmologist reach their diagnosis.

An electroretinogram (ERG) is an additional test that can be done, once the disease has advanced. It measures the electrical response of the retina to a known amount of targeted light stimulation.

If breeding your high-risk dog is your plan; you may want to have your dog certified. When a board certified veterinary ophthalmologist can not find any abnormalities, the dog can be certified free of heritable eye disease through the Canine Eye Registration Foundation (CERF).

Signs to watch for:

Night blindness – Dog visits going from a lit area into darkness.
Hesitates going down stairs
Hesitates in dark hallways
Hesitates going into dark rooms
Hesitates jumping ie. out of a vehicle … especially at night
Bumps into things
Clumsiness
Gradually dog ​​has problems dimly lit areas
Sometimes dog's daytime vision will deteriorate
Finally, blindness

In some breeds, the first signs of night blindness can appear as early as 6-weeks of age. Complete blindness may result by the age of 1 or 2.

For other breeds, night blindness appears between 2-5 years of age. It progresses to total blindness in approximately one year. At first, peripheral vision is lost.

Prognosis:

At this time, there is no cure for Progressive Retinal Atrophy (PRA). However, since the disease progresses slowly, most dogs do adjust to their disability.

NOTE: Responsible owners spay or neuter their affected pets. Breeding carriers of the PRA gene only perpetuates the disease.

Breeds Predisposed to PRA include, but are not limited to:

Akita
Alaskan Malamute
American Cocker Spaniel
American Eskimo Dog *
Australian Cattle Dog
Australian Shepherd
Basenji
Beagle
Bedlington Terrier
Belgian Sheepdog
Briard *
Border Collie
Brittany Spaniel
Cardigan Welsh Corgi *
Cairn Terrier
Chinese Crested *
Collie *
Chesapeake Bay Retriever *
Dachshund *
English Cocker Spaniel *
English Springer Spaniel *
Finnish Spitz
Flat-Coated Retriever
German Shepherd
Golden Retriever
Gordon Setter
Great Dane
Greyhound
Irish Setter *
Italian Greyhound
Jack Russell Terrier
Labrador Retriever *
Mastiff
Miniature Poodle *
Miniature Schnauzer *
Norwegian Buhund
Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retriever
Old English Sheepdog
Papillion
Pekingese
Portuguese Water Dog *
Rottweiler
Samoyed *
Shetland Sheepdog
Shiba Inu
Shih Tzu
Siberian Husky *
Soft-Coated Wheaten Terrier
Standard Poodle *
Tibetan Spaniel
Tibetan Terrier
Toy Poodles *
Welsh Springer Spaniel
Yorkshire Terrier

* DNA test available

Bottom line: One way to help your dog if they are a victim of PRA … do not move the furniture around too much!

What Are Short Sightedness and Long Sightedness – How to Correct Them

Short sightedness is also called nearsightedness or Myopia is a common vision problem when the eyes can focus on close objects but distant objects are blurry. Long sightedness, also call far sightedness or Hyperopia is the opposite of Myopia. The eyes can focus on distant objects but not on close objects.

These vision problems are very common, about 30 percent of Americans are nearsighted and 60 percent are farsighted to some degree.

The shortsighted eyeball is too long causing the image focused in front of the retina. The symptoms of nearsightedness are blurred vision but also eye strain and sometimes headache.

The causes of nearsightedness are partly genetic and partly environmental. A person who constantly does close work could end up with Myopia. You can be diagnosed with nearsightedness at any age even after age 40.

The farsighted eyeball is too short causing the image focused behind the retina. Again the result is blurred image.

Genetic factors play a role at developing long sightedness. If the farsighted eye is not corrected it can get worse. It is possible that one eye nearsighted one eye farsighted.

Myopia and Hyperopia can be combined with other eyesight problems especially with Astigmatism. The causes of Astigmatism are irregular shaped cornea or irregular shaped lens causing an out-of-focus vision.

Narsightedness and farsightedness can be corrected different ways. One solution is eyeglasses. Another solution is contact lenses. Glasses and contact lenses are not going to make your eyes better they just help the eyes to focus on the retina. Eye surgery is another possibility. With eye surgery there are some risks involved.

You can also correct your vision and actually improve your vision with eye exercises. There are nearsighted eye exercises and farsighted eye exercises. Eye exercises can help Astigmatism too.

History of Pipette and Pipetting

The pipette which is the most commonly used equipment in laboratories for extracting samples has a history of more than sixty years. Liquids and semi-solids are transferred using pipettes. Genetics, microbiology, chemical research such as pharmaceuticals etc are some other areas that make use of pipettes very frequently.

In earlier 50’s one of the major challenges faced by the laboratories was transferring of ideal volumes of liquid, but later in 1958 the revolutionary invention of pipette was done by one of the German scientist named Heinrich Schnitger but this invention was having a lot of limitations. The working of the pipette was by adding a spring to the syringe that would stop according to a set volume and the syringe’s needle was replaced with a plastic tip. The first pipette was called as Marburg pipette and it was supplied by the eppendorf medical supply company.

The first mechanical adjustable pipette was invented by Warren Gilson the Founder and Managing Director of Gilson medical electronics in the year 1978. The mechanical one is having strong resemblance with the one which is used in the labs now. This new invention led to increased accuracy, comfort, variable volume adjustments and lead to the invention of gilson pipetman. The first autclavable pipette was invented in 1984 by Capp Denmark manufacturers. More than 80% percentage of the pipettes used in the market today is autoclavable. Volume control knob was also invented by the same Denmark manufacturers. In 2002 the Vista labsystems technologies founded a new pipette which used state of art ergonomics. Vista lab also founded the first Ovation Bio Natural Pipette which actually reduced the risk of CTS and all other types of musculoskeletal disorders. Now the electronic pipette is replacing the mechanical pipette with ergonomics, precision and safety becoming an important factor in pipette usage.

The Safety of the pipette and the safety of the user using the pipette is given high importance now by the manufacturers. Each brand pipette is different to each other, the advantage now the customers have is that there is large varieties of pipettes in different brands, price etc. The customer can buy pipette according to his use and even some of the companies are making customized pipettes according to the orders from the customers. Never choose a pipette by looking on the price of the pipette. Buy the pipette according to the use of it first of all try to understand the differences between each pipette the main thing in that is the recalibration time for each one and free warranty of each pipette. If you are using pipettes frequently it is important to calibrate the equipment once in three months even if the The manufacturer claims that their product is having permanent calibration but if it is used frequently it will surely need recalibration in every 3 months. Almost every brand’s is giving warranties for their pipette. Clarify all the doubts regarding the warranty of the product at the time of purchase itself, mainly the time period of warranty and what all things comes under warranty.