How to Deal With Glaucoma

Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of blindness, especially among African-Americans over the age of 40, people over the age of 65, and individuals with family history of glaucoma. Usually associated with increased pressure in the eye, it damages the optic nerve and often leads to progressive blindness.

Management of glaucoma as early as possible is the key to preventing blindness from developing. However, in the case of open-angle glaucoma, it is not recognized until the disease has progressed to an advanced stage. With closed-angle glaucoma, the patient usually seeks medical attention as soon as possible due to the sudden eye pain.

The most common and most convenient way to manage glaucoma is through medication in the form of eye drops. Several eye drops are used and the functions are usually to decrease the production of aqueous humor and to increase its outflow leading to decrease in intraocular pressure. Some medications are administrated for short-term and long-term effects so each one is necessary. This requires an effort in the part of the patient since compliance with the regimen is important. According to studies, the blindness among those who are already diagnosed and started medication was changed from non-compliance to home medication.

Beside medication, surgery is also one of the effective managements of glaucoma. It is important to note that surgery does not cure glaucoma. Instead, it only provides symptomatic treatment. To date, there is still no cure for glaucoma.

Trabeculectomy is the conventional surgery for glaucoma patients. This is done by removing a portion of the blocked fluid pathways, making an opening in the sclera of the eye and closing it loosely to function as the new drain of the eye fluid. It is effective in lowering intraocular pressure but may have side effects such as scarring, infection and cataract formation.

Laser trabeculoplasty is a treatment specifically for open-angle glaucoma. The laser stimulates the trabecular meshwork to open and drain fluid more effectively. Laser iridotomy is done by making a hole in the iris of the eye to drain fluid. It is effective among those with closed-angle glaucoma.

Artificial drain may also be implanted in the eye if the response to medication is poor. Another procedure called viscocanalostomy is done by making the front of the eye thinner to help drain the fluid, but this is not as effective as the conventional surgery.

A Summary About Hair Loss – DHT and Androgenetic Alopecia

Androgenetic Alopecia is the most common form of thinning hair in men, but is also a surprisingly common cause of female hair loss. Often known as Male Pattern Baldness, it results when:

1. Hair loss occurs at an abnormally high rate;
2. Hair replacement occurs at an abnormally slow rate;
3. Normal hairs are replaced by smaller, thinner hairs, called "miniaturization"

Androgenetic Alopecia affects approximately 30% of men before they reach the age of 30, and 50% of males over the age of 50. More surprisingly, it also affects 40% of women over the age of 50.

The causes of Androgenetic Alopecia are still not fully understood, although as its name suggests, it is widely thought to involve both hormonal (Androgens are hormones) and genetic causes. Of the many hormones that regulate hair on the scalp, Androgens have the largest effect.

Of the androgenic hormones, Testosterone and Dihdrotestosterone (DHT) have the greatest effect on hair loss. Testosterone is converted to DHT by enzymes all over the body, but there are high concentrations of these enzymes in the scalp, and especially inside the hair follicle. DHT is the active form of testosterone that interacts with your body's signaling pathways. In hair loss, DHT stimulates the mechanism that stops hair growth, and begins the hair's Catagen and Telogen Phases.

The genetic aspect of this may be twofold. Firstly there is evidence that some populations have higher basal concenrations of DHT, they simply have more naturally. This, like many hormonal differences, is probably genetically inherited. Also, there is a theory that a set of genes could make some people's hair follicles more sensitive to DHT. This means some people react more strongly to increase in DHT, and lose hair, while others do not from lose hair the same change in hormone level. However, even if you are genetically predisposed to thinning hair, there is no guarantee you will have it, in the same way that people in families with thinning hair often do not suffer from it.

Many women find that the hair on their head is thinning during menopause or pregnancy – this is due to changes in the levels of the hormone DHT in the scalp. Thinning hair in women is often referred to as hormonal hair loss rather than Androgenetic alopecia, but they are in fact the same condition.

In men, DHT is very important for reaching maturity; it is DHT that causes body and facial hair to begin growing. Later in life however, these same Androgens (primarily DHT) are responsible for the reduction in size of the follicles in the scalp.

The longer the hair follicle is kept in the presence of DHT, the more miniaturized the follicle becomes. Miniaturisation is caused by the shortening of the Anagen or growth phase, and is when the hair itself becomes shorter and thinner. DHT also increases the rate of hair loss by signaling to the hair to reach Telogen phase sooner, so more hair is lost is well; these factors combined give noticeable thinning hair.

If treatment is not administrated, this process continues, the follicles progressively become shorter and less visible, and some will eventually close completely and stop growing.

DHT is integral to the majority of androgenetic alopecia sufferer's problems. So it is clear that any hair loss treatment should begin by removing DHT or relieving the effects of DHT. There are many products available to inhibit DHT formation, the prescription option Finasteride is very effective, but unfortunately there is a wide variety of severe side effects, and can not be used by women. There are a variety of alternatives to Finasteride available; some like saw palmetto also prevent DHT production, and some like Minoxidil or Superoxide Dismutases work in a different way to reverse the effects of DHT.

Understanding Spatial Neglect in Stroke Patients

Understanding spatial neglect in stroke patients is detrimental to identifying if a patient is suffering from it. Spatial neglect is a syndrome that manifests itself after stroke. Normally, the patient itself is not aware of having it, making it an often under diagnosed complication of stroke without those often-visible indicators such as paralysis and speech impairment.

According to experts, the effect of having spatial neglect to a stroke patient is more harming than other common deficiencies. A stroke patient who is not diagnosed with having spatial neglect but actually has his will find rehabilitation difficulty and functional independence impossible, especially since there is a gap in accurately viewing things as they are and responding to it accordingly.

Caregivers have the important role, therefore, of identifying whether their patient has spatial neglect or not, after all they are the ones mostly with them. To fully gratify spatial neglect requires understanding what actually happens from the perspective of the stroke patient.

The right hemisphere of the brain can get damaged during a stroke, which may lead to the patient experiencing spatial neglect. Note that not all patients who right hemisphere of the brain is damaged during stroke suffer this syndrome. Research shows that only up to two thirds of acute right-hemisphere stroke patients demonstrate this phenomenon.

The right hemisphere of the brain is in charge of object location, mapping and estimation. This also allows us to see the left side of whatever is in front of us. So when a person suffices a stroke and this hemisphere of the brain gets damaged, the person will tend to see of what is actually before him and therefore correlate similarly.

Thus, it involves a stroke patient's inability to report, respond, or orient to stimuli. The following symptoms are good to watch out for:

• disordered awareness of events occurring in the neglected side.
• difficulty maintaining internal map relating to environment, objects, body parts, etc.
• difficulty making appropriate facial expressions or vocal intonations to accompany their emotions or to detect that of the person before them
• trouble directing actions into portions of space
• slow to act or no reaction at all
• attend to the left side of their body only

Stroke patients with spatial neglect generally have difficulty identifying where an item or object and / or have difficulty aiming at something.

Prism adaptation is the most promising treatment for it so far, wherein the rightward horizontal placement of patients' visual fields are induced. But this still requires further research. Although there are stroke patients healed of this, experience has shown that remain severely disabled due to their stroke.

Caregivers have an important role in understanding spatial neglect for ease in identifying its existence in the stroke patient. This way, the patient's rehabilitation program will be formulated accordingly to ensure higher rates of recovery in the long-run.

Top Reasons to Consider Acupuncture for Glaucoma Treatment

Millions of people in America and around the world are affected by glaucoma, a cluster of eye disorders that can result in optical nerve damage, peripheral vision loss and eventually blindness. This disorder usually progresses gradually and alternative therapies such as acupuncture for glaucoma can be effective in preserving the health of the optic nerve and vision, especially if the condition is diagnosed at an early stage.

What Causes Glaucoma?

There are different types of glaucoma and researchers are still in the process of understanding how each type of glaucoma causes damage to the optic nerve. For chronic open-angle glaucoma, it is understood that intraocular pressure gradually increases due to improper fluid drainage from canals in the eye. This leads to an accumulation of fluid that gradually damages the optic nerve and retina. Lack of blood flow to the optic nerve and retina is also observed in many types of glaucoma which gradually leads to retinal nerve cell damage and loss of peripheral vision even though the eye pressure does not go up. Acupuncture for glaucoma is a non-surgical method that can deliver positive results in the form of decreased intraocular pressure and improved fluid and blood circulation, especially when the eye drop caused so much irritation to the eyes and still cannot bring down the eye pressure.

Who is at Risk?

Anyone can develop glaucoma but some groups are at a higher risk than others. If you’re over sixty, an African-American over the age of forty, if you have near-sightedness, diabetes or a family history of glaucoma, you could fall in the high-risk category. Because glaucoma tends to progress gradually, it often remains undiagnosed and untreated before damage is already done. If you’re at a higher risk, it’s important to get your eyes examined by a qualified ophthalmologist every year to rule out the disorder or catch it at an early stage.

Treatment Options for Glaucoma

There are a wide variety of treatments for glaucoma including eye drops, laser surgery and conventional surgery to name a few. Acupuncture for glaucoma can be considered as a complimentary therapy to preserve and improve optic nerve health, vision and reduce the dry eyes. A combination of early detection, diet, acupuncture, Chinese medicines and medical treatment is the ideal plan to slow down the process of glaucoma and maintain the optic nerve function.

Positive Effects of Acupuncture

You might be wondering why acupuncture can be used to treat glaucoma and if it’s really worthwhile to try. Depending on patient’s condition and severity of glaucoma, an acupuncturist will develop an individual plan for each patient. A series of treatments (24 to 36) involving the use of very fine acupuncture needs at various points of the body may be recommended. Further treatment depends on how well your body responds. When done by a qualified and trained acupuncturist, acupuncture for glaucoma has many positive effects including decreasing intraocular pressure, improving fluid and blood circulation in the eye and improving peripheral vision. Considering all these benefits, acupuncture is a therapy worth considering for glaucoma relief and nerve regeneration.

If you’re ready to try this treatment, make an appointment with an experienced acupuncturist trained in Chinese medicine!

Alopecia Symptoms – How to Know If You Are Affected With Alopecia

A lot of people can be observed with balding spots or receding hairlines. There are some who has it because of heredity, but a lot of them have the condition because of alopecia. It could be bought many reasons. They could be using the wrong hair care product or there is a problem with their diet. People who are undergoing certain medical treatments like chemotherapy are also aware to have hair loss symptoms. Most of these hair loss condition signs are treatable. Once the cause is removed from their system, the hair grows back. You too could have been practicing an unhealthy habit which could lead to hair loss. If you are not sure, there are some signs of alopecia that you need to watch out, before your hair is all gone.

The first is hair loss. If you observed that your crown is thinning out for no apparent reason, then you can be a candidate for the disease. Humans lose a certain amount of hair everyday. That is normal. But if you notice that you are losing hair in unusual number, then a trip to specialist is recommended. These experts will know what is causing it and can prescribe a remedy before your hair is all gone. Next in line for symptoms of Alopecia that needs to be monitored is baldness. The condition is defined as loss of scalp hair and is caused by many factors including drug side effects and certain medical conditions. However, if you have none of these causes and you are balding, you might already have alopecia and you need to have it treated as soon as possible.

Temporary or patchy hair loss was also observed to be signs of alopecia. Take note that alopecia does not affect scalp hair only. It is observed to be present in body hair as well. Therefore, the scalp need not only be the observed area. The effects of alopecia can be remedied if proper diagnosis and prompt medical treatment is given. It is a disease that affects many so instead of hiding or condemning it, do not be accused to consult with a medical specialist.

Alopecia Areata Treatment – Part 3

Saw Palmetto for Baldness

This herb has the ability to inhibit 5-a-reductase, the same enzyme that Proscar and Propecia affect. In several double blind studies, saw palmetto has been shown to improve symptoms of benign prostate enlargement. One 3 year trail comparing saw palmetto with Proscar showed significantly greater improvement with the herb than with the prescription drug.

If saw palmetto can prevent the conversion of testosterone to DHT by blocking enzymatic activity, then there is a reason to believe, that this herb could be at least as good as Propecia in growing hair.

Aromatherapy

Some people think that aromatherapy is sniffing aromatic herbs. The Scottish dermatologist who did the research with this treatment says that aromatherapy "involves the use of essential oils and essences derived from plants, flowers, and wood resins, which are generally massaged into the skin."

They point out that "Cedarwood, lavendarm thyme, and rosemary oils have hair growth-promoting properlytied These oils have been anecdotally used to treat alopecia [baldness] for more than 100 years.

People in the study had been diagnosed with alopecia areata, an autoimmune condition in which hair loss occurs in patches. It may affect as many as 1% of people in Western countries and is not limited to male or female, old or young. In many instances, hair growth recurs at any time, but treatment is difficult and the condition can be psychologically damaging.

For this study, 84 people were randomly assigned to either of 2 groups. One group of people received a placebo mixture of 3 ml of jojoba oil and 20 ml of grapeseed oil and were told to massage it into the scalp each night for 2 minutes. The head was then wrapped in a warm towel to enhance absorption of the oils, with the addition of essential oils of thyme, lavender, rosemary, and cedarwood. The study lasted for 7 months.

Follow-up was done with photographs and computer analysis of tracings of bald patches at 3 months and again at 7 months. Of those using the essential oil mixture, 44% had measurable improvement, while only 15% of those using the placebo oil improved. This difference was statistically significant. They even provided before-and-after photos that were nothing short of amazing .

None of the people in this study experienced negative effects from the oils. This gives the aromatherapy treatment a better safety record than the pharmaceuticals often used to treat this condition. That does not mean such a concoction is safe for everyone. Some people may be sensitive to one or another of these essential oils and experience a rash or dermatitis.

Although this study focused primarily on alopecia areata, one of the individuals in the study also had male pattern baldness, known medically as androgenic alopecia. This is the most common form of hair loss. The researchers noted "some moderate regrowth of hair loss." Whether other men with this problem would benefit remains to be determined.

Sudden Deafness – Ayurvedic Herbal Treatment

Sudden deafness, also known as Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss (SSHL), is a rapid loss of hearing which may occur all at once or over a period of up to three days. SSHL is defined as a loss of at least 30 decibels in three connected frequencies, and usually occurs in only one ear. It may be accompanied by dizziness and ringing in the ears. Only about 10% of affected individuals have known causes which include infections, trauma, immune disorders, circulatory or neurological disorders or drugs toxic to the ears. While most people recover spontaneously within a few weeks, about 15% experience progressively worsening symptoms. Standard management includes removal of the known cause, antibiotics, steroids and inhalation of a mixture of carbon-dioxide and oxygen.

The Ayurvedic treatment of SSHL constituents of treating the known cause of the condition and giving symptomatic treatment for the hearing loss. Infections related to the ears and upper respiratory tract can be treated using medicines like Sukshma-Triphala, Sitopaladi-Powder, Tribhuvan-Kirti-Ras, Kamdudha-Ras, Sutshekhar-Ras, Shwas-Kas-Mishran-Ras, Ras-Sindur, Yashtimadhuk (Glycyrrhiza glabra), Kantakari (Solanum xanthocarpum) and Pippali (Piper longum). Immune disorders can be treated using medicines like Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum), Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera), Pippali, Manjishtha (Rubia cordifolia), Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia), Yashtimadhuk, Bhumiamalaki (Phyllanthus niruri), Suvarna-Malini-Vasant, Laghu- Malini-Vasant and Madhu-Malini-Vasant.

The treatment of circulatory disorders is important while managing SSHL since it is believed that a reduction in blood circulation to the internal organs in the ears could contribute primarily to the sudden loss of hearing. Medicines are used to remove blood clots, reduce blood toxins and obstruction, and inflammation of the arterial walls. These medicines include Tapyadi-Loh, Ekangveer-Ras, Maha-Yograj-Guggulu, Saarivadi-Vati, Punarnava-Mandur, Manjishthadi-Qadha, Saarivasav, Arogya-Vardhini, Lashunadi-Vati, Suvarna Bhasma, Panchamrut-Parpati, Amalaki (Emblica officinalis ), Haridra (Curcuma longa), Nimba (Azadirachta indica), Saariva (Hemidesmus indicus), Guggulu (Commiphora mukul), Patol (Trichosanthe dioica), Patha (Cissampelos pareira), Musta (Cyperus rotundus), Kutki (Picrorrhiza kurroa) Daruharidra (Berberis aristata). Neurological causes can be treated using medicines like Bruhat-Vat-Chintamani, Maha-Vat-Vidhvans-Ras, Vat-Gajankush-Ras, Vish-Tinduk-Vati and Agni-Tundi-Vati.

In addition, symptomatic treatment for SSHL includes the use of medicines like Kaishor-Guggulu, Panch-Tikta-Ghrut-Guggulu, Punarnavadi-Guggulu, Maha-Rasnadi-Guggulu, Saarivadi-Vati, Punarnava-Mandur, Abhrak-Bhasma, Suvarna-Bhasma , Raupya -Bhasma, Mukta-Bhasma and Pathyadi-Qadha. These medicines improve the perfusion of the inner ear and also increase the functioning of the auditory nerve.

A judicious use of Ayurvedic medicines can thus be used to treat refractory patients of SSHL who do not improve spontaneously or with conventional treatment.

Stammering Help

Children are especially vulnerable when it comes to having problems with stammering. I'd like to go into a little detail about how we can help our children who are suffering from this problem. If we can give them stammering help, it will boost their confidence that they will be able to overcome this condition.

Start by slowing down. This begins with your actions. As children are generally hyperactive by nature, this is easier said than done, but by showing the children that they can gain better control of their stammering by slowing down, they will come around soon enough and slow down.

Along with slowing down activity and not rushing into things quite so fast physically, the child needs to slow their talking down. Along with hyperactive bodies, they have hyperactive tongues, which could wreck havoc on their talking.

Teach the child you are giving stammering help to all about patience, and how having that in abundance will help him or her is able to say what they want to say. There is no hurry when it comes to eliminating their stammering tongue. Patience really is a value. Nothing is ever gained by rushing headlong into it and running the risk of messing it all up. True for kids as well as for adults.

Teach the child to take a moment before they speak to gather their thoughts. Doing so, they can see in their mind what they want to say, and visualize themselves saying it. Kind of like rehearsal for their speech. Take the time here to teach them basic visualization skills. Treat it similar to daydreaming, so that they understand the concept better.

Remember never to force the words out. This will only make things worse. What will provide stammering help is to remember that there is no hurry. No one is timing you when you speak. Relax, get rid of the stress and anxiety surrounding your child, and let them have a go at it. You've been surprised at the results.

Reward the child for their effort. For a child, there is no greater stammering help than a treat. They will even find themselves trying harder, if they know they have a treat waiting for them after a hard session.

What child is not motivated by a candy bar, or even a trip to the movies, for their efforts at improving themselves?

As you give stammering help to these struggling children, be sure to let them know that changes will not happen overnight, but with patience and a little fun, they will be speaking fluently in no time. Let them know that they can accomplish anything they set their mind to, anything at all, and that overcoming their stammering issue is no different than anything else.

How to Treat a Yeast Infection – 5 Tips For Fast Relief

Most women have had to deal with a yeast infection at least once in their lives. Yeast infections are caused by a bacterium in the vagina called Candida, which can cause the yeast in the vagina to overgrow. When this happens it causes the affected area to itch, release heavy discharge and a foul odor. Unfortunately, there are women and even children who deal with chronic yeast infects quite often and it can be difficult having to go back and forth to the doctors all the time. Here are five tips to help cure a yeast infection from home.

Tip Number One: Eat lots of yogurt. Yogurt is known to have many things in it to help with all kinds of ailments. You can also use yogurt as a cream and apply it directly to the infected area. Yogurt has an ingredient known as Lactobacillus Acidophilus, which is naturally found in a vagina that is healthy. There are two ways you can apply the yogurt. You can apply the yogurt frozen and inserted like a tampon or you can use a syringe and apply the yogurt directly into the vagina.

Tip Number Two: You can get an over the counter cream that works well. Although prescriptions tend to work better, there are a few different yeast infection medication kits that you can buy over the counter that actually do work. Some of them come with creams and others come with a capsule that is inserted into the vagina with a syringe.

Tip Number Three: Garlic has anti-body properties that can help cure an infection. A clove of garlic opened and rubbed onto the infected area, do this a few times a day until the infection is gone. If the infection is inside the vagina, garlic cloves can be inserted into the vagina and left for a couple of hours. Be sure to tie a string securely to the cloves or have some other method of removing them safely.

Tip Number Four: Tea Tree oil is an essential oil that has been known to have extremely good anti-bacterial and anti-fungal properties. Tea Tree oil is very strong and needs to be diluted with another carrier oil such as sweet almond oil before applying it to an area like the vagina. You only need a couple drops of the tea tree oil per treatment.

Tip Number Five: Boric acid is another great way to cure a yeast infection. You can get boric acid at your local pharmacy. You will also need some empty gel capsules. Fill the capsules with the boric acid and insert the capsule into the vagina. Do not remove the capsule for a couple of days, then then it should have dissolved letting the boric acid soak into the infection.

These are just five of the great ways of getting rid of yeast infection without having to spend hundreds of dollars at the doctors and on prescriptions. When you do get rid of your infection you should take time and research how to prevent them from occurring in the first place. Make sure you wear loose clothing, this will help the airflow nicely. Also you will want to hold off on eating too much junk food and drinking too many caffeine loaded and carbonated drinks. Buttermilk can help get rid of yeast infections, but it can also help prevent them as well.

The good news is that the causes and prevention candidia is now well understood. With a few lifestyle changes you can ensure that yeast infections are never a problem again.

Warning Signs Of A Stroke

There are some warning signs of a stroke that you should know about. I will try to cover at least the ones I experienced and hopefully more. I was very lucky and had minimal damage. You have to be careful and realize that you may not be completely safe from having a stroke and even though you are healthy, you might be at risk. You would not believe what the risk factor are for a stroke and how easy it is for even healthy people to have one. You have to make sure that you are taking the right precautions so that you are not putting yourself at risk for having the devastation of a stroke happened to you.

There are warning signs of a stroke that you have to know about. If you think that you are having any of these symptoms, you need to seek medical attention at once. It is better to be safe than sorry later on down the road. Pay attention and make sure that you think hard about these signs so that you or anyone that you know can get the attention that they need fast. I want to stress that it is with fast intervention, that the seriousnous of a stroke can be minimized. I was lucky enough to have mine occur while I was at a hospital for an outpatient visit with my cardiologist. I was put into a wheel chair and taken to emergency right away, which really helped minimize my after effects.

* Sudden numbness or weakness of the face, arm, or leg on one side of the body only.

* Sudden confusion or trouble speaking or understanding when others talk around you.

* Trouble seeing in one or both eyes.

* Problems with walking or being dizzy or losing your balance or coordination.

* Sudden or severe headaches with no reason that you can think of.

You should call 911 immediately if you or someone that you know has these symptoms. You need to make sure that you are doing what you can so that you are able to keep yourself or your friends or family living as long as you can. A stroke is a very serious problem and anyone that thinks that they may have signs of having one need to pay attention and keep in mind that this is your life and body and you should not take it too lightly. My gosh man, YOUR LIFE!

When I had my stroke I was visiting with my cardiologist and my wife and the cardiologist both recognized my speech was really baddly slurred. Being diabetic, they thought maybe I had high blood sugar (which causes similar effects) and just needed to take a shot of insulin.

We left the cardiologist annd walked down the hall to the elevator. I walked a good 50 yards and then my legs, mostly the left, got really heavy and I could barely lift it. I knew something was wrong and called my wife's name. We were 10 feet away from the elevator. I do not remember taking that last 10 foot walk, but I did it and fell into my wife's arms. Good thing she was strong enough to catch me or I would've gone down. My wife "carried" me out of the elevator into a chir right beside the elevator. She ran to get my cardiologist and they tested my blood suger. It was high, but not enough to cause what was happening to me.

At this point, I passed out again and do not remember the trip to the emergency room, the time in the emergency room or travel to my bed there in the hospital. This memory will never come back and I feel a great void in my life because of just that. A stroke is so scary it is not unusual for a full grown man to cry, knowing he could have just lost his life or been seriously handicapped. I was very lucky. Minimal damage but a very very big warning sign.

There are many sources that you can find out more about a stroke. Learn about strokes BEFORE one occurs to you or a loved one. I can not emphasize how important it is to help the strike victim recover. Talk to your doctor and find the facts out. You can also go online and find more about this terrible problem and what leads up to the disease. The more that you know means that you can protect yourself better and put your mind at rest about a stroke interrupting your life when you least expect. No time is right for a stroke but location can make a big difference. Treating stroke within 2 hours of it happening is critical to minimizing the damage a stroke can cause.

What Are the Different Types of Wounds Responsible for Causing Tetanus?

Beside roadside injuries, tetanus may occur from various wounds caused by cuts, especially while working in fields / gardens, or when a deep punctured wound occurs in the case of mechanics engaged in various factories / workshops, etc. Tetanus may also manifest itself in patients with bed sores, or wounds caused by splints, or in cases of burns, skin ulcers or, following tooth extraction. It may be due to gunshot wound as well. A simple pinprick, injury by nail, thorn may also cause this problem. Fishermen may also suffer from it when they get an injury while handling the fish-hook. Frost-bite can also prove dangerous in some cases.

Tetanus may appear when injections or intravenous drips are given without proper sterilization. It is usually seen when drug addicts do not use properly sterilized needles / syringes.

The disease is known to occur when the wound is a tiny one, which can hardly be seen and is completely forgotten / healed. In such cases, the patient did suffer from an injury sometimes or the other.

Sometimes tetanus breaks out even in the wards of hospitals. It happens when the various materials used are not quite sterilized. As already mentioned, tetanus spores are highly resistant in nature, and require very high temperature for sterilization / autoclaving. Boiling. for at least 4-5 hours is required to eliminate these spores. In operation cases, tetanus spores get free from the unsterilized material, eg cat-gut, gauze, cotton, etc., the wounds caused by the operation serve as the ports of entry for tetanus spores, and their further germination into vegetative forms, which are responsible for the secretion of the toxin.

A pregnant woman may also become the victim of tetanus by a wound caused during labor / child-birth. It usually occurs when the woman has not been properly vaccinated against tetanus during her period of pregnancy.

Newborn babies may become infected, as a result of tetanus, when the cut ends of their umbilical cords, or any other injuries, they have suffered during their birth, have not been properly treated, with the result that such wound / s get infected by tetanus spores.

Tetanus may also develop in cases of ear discharge (otitis media), when the tetanus spores which may be present in the discharge of the ear, gain entry into the body through perforation / s in the ear-drum of these patients. Such cases are called 'otogenic tetanus'. This is of great importance, because such cases usually remain ignored till they get tetanus. This calls for energetic treatment of the continuing disease of the ear, as well as urgent vaccination against tetanus usually, these cases have not been vaccinated for tetanus earlier. Cases of otogenic tetanus are not uncommon. The author discussed such cases in one of the issues of Current Medical Practice. The disease is more common among children, and the parents should have the requisite awareness about this disease.

Facts About Sinusitis

Paranasal sinuses are air-filled spaces within bone. There are four named sinuses and these are the maxillary, frontal, ethmoidal, and sphenoidal sinuses. These sinuses are named after the bones in which they are located. The paranasal sinuses open into the nasal cavity and are lined with a mucus membrane. There are three primary functions of the sinuses. First, they decrease the weight of the skull. Second, they produce mucus. And third, they also affect the quality of out voice by acting as resonating chambers. The sinuses are involved in many upper respiratory tract infections.

Para-nasal sinuses are air-filled spaces within bone. There are four named sinuses and these are the maxillary, frontal, ethmoidal, and sphenoidal sinuses. These sinuses are named after the bones in which they are located. The paranasal sinuses open into the nasal cavity and are lined with a mucus membrane. There are three primary functions of the sinuses. First, they decrease the weight of the skull. Second, they produce mucus. And third, they also affect the quality of out voice by acting as resonating chambers. The sinuses are involved in many upper respiratory tract infections.

Sinusitis is an inflammation of the mucous membrane of any sinus, especially one or more paranasal sinuses. It often follows an upper respiratory infection or cold, or an exacerbation of allergic rhinitis. It can result from inflammation due to allergies or polyps that obstruct a sinus opening into a nasal cavity. The inflammation can also be caused by viral infections like the common cold. The viral infection can cause mucous membranes to become inflated, swell, and produce excess mucus. As a result, the sinus opening into the nasal cavity can be partially or completely blocked.

When mucus accumulates within the sinus, it can provide an excellent medium for bacterial growth, thus, it can promote the development of a bacterial infection. The upsurge of mucus and the inflammation of mucus membranes due to the infection produce pain. Other conditions that can obstruct the normal flow of sinus secretions include abnormal structure of the nose, enlarged adenoids, diving and swimming, tooth infection, trauma to the nose, and the pressure of foreign objects.

If their openings into the nasal passes are clear, the infections resolve immediately. However, if the drainage is obstructed due to certain conditions like deviated septum, nasal polyps or tumors, sinus infection may persist as a secondary infection or progress to an acute suppurative process, causing purulent discharge.

Four types of sinusitis have been identified – acute, subacute, chronic, and allergic sinusitis. Acute sinusitis refers to rapid-injury infection in one or more of the paranasal sinuses that resolves with treatment. Subacute sinusitis is a persistent purulent nasal discharge lasting therapy with symptoms lasting for less than three months. Chronic sinusitis occurs with episodes of prolonged infection and with repeated oradequate treatment of acute infections. An irreversible damage to the mucosa may also occur. The symptoms last for longer for three months. Bacterial organisms like Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis are the most commonly associated organisms with sinusitis. Less common organizations include Streptococcus pyogenes, Chlamydia pneumoniae, and aspergillus fumigatus (fungi). Fungal infections may occur in immuno-suppressed patients.

The symptoms of sinusitis differ from people to people and depend on the age of the person. In adults, most infections involve the maxillary and anterior ethmoidal sinuses. Symptoms may include facial pain or pressure over the affected area, fatigue, facial pain, nasal obstruction, purulent nasal discharge, fever, headache, ear pain, and a sense of fullness. Other symptoms may also include dental pain, diminished sense of smell, sore throat, a periorbital edema in the morning, and a cough that becomes worse when the patient is in supine position. Acute sinusitis can be difficult to distinguish from an upper respiratory infection or allergic rhinitis. If fewer than two symptoms are present, then acute bacterial sinusitis is ruled out. However, the presence of four or more symptoms suggests acute bacterial sinusitis.

If not raised, acute sinusitis may lead to severe and rare life-threatening complications such as meningitis, brain abscess, ischemic brain infarction, and osteomyelitis. Other complications of sinusitis include severe orbital cellulitis, subperiostal abscess, cavernous sinus thrombosis, and meningitis. Brain abscess may take place by direct spread and can be critical. Frontal epidural abscesses are typically inactive. The goal of treatment of acute sinusitis is focused the treatment of the infection, reduction of the inflammation, and relief of pain.

Antibiotic therapy is utilized to get rid of the infecting organism. First-line antibiotics include amoxicillin, ampicillin, and erythromycin. Second-line antibiotics include cephalosporins like cefuroxime, cefprozil, and amoxicillin. Newer and more expensive antibiotics like macrolides, azithromycin, and quinolones such as levofloxacin can be used if the patient has a certain allergy to penicillin. Careful consideration must be given to the potential pathogen before antimicrobial agents are prescribed because of the resistance that has occurred.

Decongestants are also prescribed to promote sinus drainage, reduce tissue swelling, and relieve edema. When mucous membranes are less swollen, breathing is much easier and the movement of mucus out of the nasal cavity is increased. An example of a decongestant is Pseudo-ephedrine Hydrochloride. It acts by reducing the swelling by causing the release of norepinephrine from sympathetic neurons supplying blood vessels. It will increase the vaso-contradiction of blood vessels in the mucus membranes. As a result, there would be reduction of blood flow as well as fluid movement from the blood into tissues. Nasal saline sprays are also available and these can improve the drainage of the sinuses. Topical decongestants should only be used in adults and should not be used for more than three to four days. Oral decongestants must be used cautiously in patients with hypertension. If an allergic component is suspected, antihistamines like diphenhydramine (Benadryl).

It is also advised to drink liquids like water and juice to maintain hydration. Steam inhalation is also considered in order to relieve the discomfort associated to the explosion and these may be effective for opening blocked passage. If the patient continues to have symptoms after seven to ten days, the sinuses may need to be irrigated and hospitalization may be necessary.

Glaucoma Treatment – How to Manage Glaucoma

High intraocular pressure not only increases the risk of developing glaucoma, but also makes the progress of glaucoma and visual field defects. The cornerstone of the glaucoma treatment is to reduce intraocular pressure, or with drops or surgery. The progress of visual field defects may be suspended if near the eye pressure is reduced below 12 mm Hg, even patients with a type of glaucoma which are visual field defects and progress, despite pressure from the eye to the normal range (normal voltage glaucoma) , IOP declined by 30% is associated with a lower loss of vision.

Other strategies for independent eye pressure in glaucoma treatment are under study. These include increased blood flow to the optic nerve and offers a number of forms of neuroprotection. Maybe in the future are also other ways of intraocular pressure in glaucoma management to reduce. Until then, the reduction of intraocular pressure is the only way to reduce the risk of glaucoma visual field loss and remains the primary goal of treatment.

There are two important mechanisms for intra-ocular pressure: a) Reduce the amount of aqueous in the eye of reducing the production of aqueous, and 2) Increase the amount of the aqueous humor of eye, rarely the omission of the largest Part of the aqueous humor. Some drugs reduce the production of aqueous humor, while others raise the outflow. The aqueous humor leaves the eye by two routes: one that is sensitive to the pressure of the eye (trabecular way) and that operates independently of the pressure in the eye (the way uveoscleral).

Of all the options available, a reasonable first approximation would have been a drop in the eye causing intraocular pressure as low as possible to secure every patient to choose. The choice of the first agent is guided by patient characteristics and medical conditions. The driver is to avoid known problems with side effects while maintaining the convenience of a once-daily reducing to maximize compliance. The first drop in the eye may be Timoptic, Xalatan or Alphagan. Each patient must be checked regularly to ensure that the IOP was maintained at a level low enough to prevent the progress of glaucoma. If the intraocular pressure, a further reduction is needed, it is better to add a drop in the eye with a different mechanism of action as the original drug. For example, if the original eye drop Xalatan is used for work by increasing uveoscloral production, then the second bottle of Trusopt Timoptic drops at work by reducing production of aqueous humor. We discuss the key points to consider medication. We have used, because the brand is well known by names, but several drugs are available at the same efficiency and cost-effective generic form.

Causes of Seizures

Epilepsy is a group of disorders in which there are recurrent episodes of altered cerebral function associated with a seizure. The clinical manifestation of these seizures varies in effect from brief lapses of awareness to prolonged bouts of unconsciousness, lim jerking and incontinence.

There is no clear cause of seizures in many cases. However, in up to 40% of people with epilepsy there is a family history of epilepsy in a close relative. Genetic factors are there before a strong feature in the cause of seizures.

Lesions and seizures

Lesions (caused by either disease or injury) which involve the cerebral cortex are also likely to cause seizures. Partial seizures have the highest incidence of a detectable cortical lesion. This is particularly the case when the lesion is in the temporal lobe. Lesions can be caused by disease, brain damage at any age, meningitis, encephalitis and brain abscess, cerebrovascular disorders (such as stroke), cerebral tumors and degenerative diseases of the brain. However, it is also true that around three-quarters of patients with epilepsy have no evidence of an underlying lesion.

What can precipitate seizures?

A number of precipitating factors may provoke a fit in susceptible people or exacerbate established epilepsy. For example, causes can include sleep deprivation, hyperventilation, hypoglycemia and antidepressant drugs. Other factors which are also proven to provoke fits include alcohol and drug ingestion or withdrawal, high fever, anoxia, physical and mental exhaustion, a flickering light, visual patterns, and even procurement to television screens. Uncommon triggers for a seizure include loud noise, hot baths, music or reading.

Single seizures

Sometimes there can be a single seizure associated with some of these factors, such as a spike in temperature, alcohol use or drug withdrawal. These people would not be given a diagnosis of epilepsy my a medical professional, since epilepsy is by definition a chronic brain disorder characterized by recurrent seizures which occurs intermittently over an extended period of time.

Both children and adults with epilepsy have a higher than expected rate of psychiatric disorder. In children this increase can not simply be attributed as a reaction to the stress of coping with a chronic illness. It has been found that children with epilepsy were five times more likely to have psychiatric disorder than children with chronic handicaps not affecting the brain.

How Well Does Medical Marijuana Work For Glaucoma?

Glaucoma affects more than 60 million people worldwide and the second leading cause of blindness behind cataracts. Both marijuana and THC have been shown to lower intra-ocular pressure, which is a key contributor to glaucoma. One of the most well known uses for medical marijuana is

The most common form of glaucoma is called primary open angle glaucoma and represents a slowly progressive disorder that destroys cells in the retina and also degrades the optic nerve. A person’s visual field gets constricted and eventually disappears. The patient goes blind.

Three factors have been identified which create risk factors for glaucoma. The first two are out of a person’s control = Age and Race. The third, increased intra-ocular pressure, is the one that’s potentially controllable.

Intra-ocular pressure normally results from the eye shape being maintained by fluid in the eye called aqueous humor. The fluid flows between the front of the eye and the back of the cornea. If a person has increased intraocular pressure, the flow of fluid from the front of the eye is restricted, and the pressure rises. It is this fluid that is suspected to provide nutrients to the optic nerve.

Reducing intra-ocular pressure to normal does not guarantee glaucoma prevention, but since it’s the only controllable risk factor, it is the one that is worked on with medications.

The two ways that medications work on reducing intraocular pressure are as follows:

1) Reducing the production of aqueous fluid 2) Making it easier for the fluid to flow out of the front eye

There are also a few surgical options which attempt to achieve the same objective.

Several studies have shown the effects of marijuana and THC on reducing intraocular pressure. Whether the THC is smoked, inhaled, or eaten, intraocular pressure is reduced. Applying cannabinoids directly to the eye did not work however.

Research has not shown us exactly how cannabinoids reduce IOP. They work at reducing IOP for about 4 hours. That means having to take it 4 to 8 times per day, whereas, there are other medications only necessary twice per day.

The side effects of marijuana intake, such as the psychoactive effects, may be difficult for the elderly to tolerate. Marijuana may cause the heart to “race” and make patients anxious. The IOP in patients with glaucoma needs to be controlled continuously since it’s a progressive disease.

With the onset of the latest medications that are effective for controlling the IOP in glaucoma, marijuana is no longer a first line treatment for controlling it. It is less effective and potentially more problematic than the latest medications. If, however, a patient needs a second or third line choice, marijuana may fit the need nicely.