Penile Oddities: What Is Happening to My Junk?

Men in general are as familiar with their junk as they are with the back of their hand, and they rely on it to work properly and stay healthy and wholesome. However, occasionally, penile oddities may crop up that are a cause for concern. In most cases, these are not serious, but knowing what is happening can both prevent panic and help a man to determine whether treatment is warranted. Here are just some of the environmental and psychological factors can play a part in a guy’s penile health.

1) Shy bladder. This issue is something that many people struggle with, especially men. Also referred to as avoidant paruresis or psychogenic urinary retention, it refers to a condition in which a person is unable to urinate in the presence of others (e.g., in a public restroom). In mild cases, shy bladder, or paruresis, happens only occasionally; in other instances, it can be an ongoing problem. If you have trouble peeing surrounded by other men, using a stall instead of a urinal may help. If you are experiencing significant anxiety with urinating, to the point that it is affecting your day to day life, seek professional treatment. This may start with a visit to a urologist, but in many instances, psychotherapy to address the underlying cause is the most appropriate form of treatment.

2) Penile shrinkage. The idea of a shrinking member sounds like the stuff of nightmares, but it can actually happen in real life, and unlike the spontaneous shrinkage that might happen in an anxiety dream, there is generally a rational explanation. Shrinking of the manhood is more common in older men, especially those who are overweight. During aging, fatty deposits can build up in the arteries, effectively reducing the journey of blood flow to the penis. This will cause smaller, less firm erections. Excess body fat can also engulf the penile tissue, making it appear smaller, although the actual size does not change. On the other hand, smoking can damage the tissue to the point where it does actually shrink, sometimes up to a centimeter or more in length! If that’s not a good enough reason to snuff the butts… !

3) Bladder stones. These painful little objects are hard masses of minerals that can develop in the bladder when the minerals in urine crystallize. This happens often if a man cannot fully empty his bladder due to a health issue or surgery. Symptoms can range from very serious abdominal pain to blood in your urine, although in some cases, they don’t cause any pain. In order to be diagnosed with bladder stones, you will need a physical exam, urinalysis or ultrasound. Treatment typically involves inserting a rigid tube into the urethra and breaking up the stones with a laser, after which the fragments are washed out in the urine.

4) Varicoceles. This condition involves an enlargement of the veins in the scrotum, similar to varicose veins in the legs. They may not cause direct pain, but if the veins are severely enlarged, they can cause the testicles to swell, leading to discomfort. Varicoceles are common causes of low sperm count, production and quality, and they can even effect testicle growth and development. For pain or discomfort, men can take ibuprofen to reduce the swelling. The most common treatment for varicoceles is surgery.

5) Ejaculation disorders. Ejaculatory issues such as premature or delayed ejaculation can wreak havoc on a man’s sex life and on his relationships. Premature ejaculation is often caused by an underlying psychological problem such as anxiety; delayed ejaculation may be due to psychological concerns, as well, or can be caused by medications or certain medical conditions. Medical treatment with a trained urologist or psychotherapy can address these problems.

6) Erectile dysfunction. Most men will experience occasional ED, which can have a profound effect on their sex life, their relationships and their self-esteem. Erectile dysfunction is particularly common in older men, but those who smoke have a higher likelihood of experiencing issues with their penis later in life. Other common causes for erectile dysfunction are heart disease, diabetes, obesity, Parkinson’s disease, atherosclerosis, high blood pressure and high cholesterol. Keep your heart and lungs healthy by eating right, exercising, avoiding alcohol and cigarettes, and taking your vitamins.

When unusual penile symptoms do occur, it’s important to seek appropriate treatment and to follow the recommendations of your health care provider. But everyday care can go a long way toward preventing abnormalities and promoting overall health and wellness. To keep the penis in good form, be sure to wash every day with a mild cleanser. While bathing, use the opportunity to check over the skin for any unusual spots, rashes, lumps or bumps. After properly cleansing the area, pat dry and make sure to moisturize the skin with a penis health creme (health professionals recommend Man 1 Man Oil, which has been clinically proven safe and mild for skin). This particular health crème is a super weapon, containing vitamins and nutrients essential to the wellbeing of penis skin, like vitamin C, for collagen production, and Shea butter, which hydrates the skin leaving the area soft and smooth. Keep the penis skin clean, dry, and hydrated for optimal health.

3 Business Opportunities As an RN Wellness Coach

As an RN or nurse, you are in a great position with expert knowledge and access to the healthcare systems that becoming a health and wellness coach should be a career choice to consider.

Here's 3 business opportunities for nurses have when considering a career as an health and wellness coach.

  • Work from home – This is a great opportunity for nurses to work from home, owning their own business as an RN wellness coach. When you participate in most health and wellness training programs they will also teach about marketing your business. This should be enough to get you started and if you need help here feel free to contact me, I'd be happy to help.
  • Work with other health care practices – Look for business opportunities in massage clinics, chiropractic services and therapy centers. Many health and fitness centers are also looking to hire RN health coaches as an added service for being a member of the club for a total health and wellness experience for their clients.
  • Work in the Corporate world – Big name businesses are now hiring their own wellness coaches as a means to help manage health care costs as well as lower the absent rate among their employees. This is an opportunity for nurses in work in the corporate world helping CEOs live a healthy lifestyle.

You could also do this on a part time basis to supplement your current income or to "test out the waters" to see if becoming an RN health and wellness coach is for you. The business opportunities are there for nurses to become successful RN health and wellness coaches.

Simple Steps to Improve Your Health

There are various ways of attaining good health and this article discusses easy techniques and small lifestyle changes that you can make in order to achieve a better, healthier lifestyle. Here are a few simple steps that might help you achieve better health –

1) Nutrition

Sustenance and Health is an online worldwide companion investigated diary that spotlights on the connection amongst nourishment and wellbeing. In the event that you need to keep your body clean, avoid sugar-loaded artificially treated nourishment that is so normally sold nowadays. Stick to home-made clean nourishment things that exclusive join crisp fixings without additives. These practices enable you to accomplish a superior build, as well as give a special reward of mental fulfillment. Consuming a sensible, balanced diet can help us to achieve optimal health throughout life.

Drink plenty of clean and safe water.Water is important for life and is necessary every day. A person needs about eight cups of fluid per day. When it is very hot, while working, sweating or suffering from diarrhea, vomiting or fever, a person needs to drink even more to replace the water that has been lost. If drinking-water is collected from a protected well or borehole it is important to store it in a clean container. If the water is from an unprotected well or river the water should be boiled for at least ten minutes and stored in a clean container (see advice on food hygiene)

2) Exercise

Exercise can help prevent excess weight gain or help maintain weight loss. When you engage in physical activity, you burn calories. The more intense the activity, the more calories you burn. Regular trips to the gym are great but don’t worry if you can’t find a large chunk of time to exercise every day.

Our bodies are designed to move — they actually want exercise. Regular exercise is necessary for physical fitness and good health. It reduces the risk of heart disease, cancer, high blood pressure, diabetes and other diseases.

3) Sleep

Sound sleep is as important as nutrition and exercise. Try to have at least 7-8 hours of sleep on a daily basis. Sleep is involved in healing and repair of your heart and blood vessels. Ongoing sleep deficiency is linked to an increased risk of heart disease, kidney disease, high blood pressure, diabetes, and stroke. Adequate sleep is a key part of a healthy lifestyle and can benefit your heart, weight, mind, and more.

Research suggests that people who get less sleep i.e. six or fewer hours a night have higher blood levels of inflammatory proteins than those who get enough sleep sleep

4) Yoga

Yoga can provide relief from the hustle and bustle of modern life. Yoga is being practiced as an alternative healthcare practice. The number of Yoga practitioners continues to rise tremendously. Of the many benefits ascribed to yoga practice, blood pressure control is among the most studied. Now-a-days, millions and millions of people across the globe have benefitted by the practice of Yoga which has been preserved and promoted by the great eminent Yoga Masters from ancient time to this date.

Yoga’s attention to breathing techniques and meditation can also improve your health. Regular yoga practice may promote better posture and help you do activities requiring a greater range of motion, from dancing to reaching up to a high shelf. A lot of yoga poses, especially the warrior pose, plank pose and boat pose, also help tone the muscles of the trunk – the hips, abdominals and lower back. These muscles contribute to balance and improve back function.

Summarizing these points, I would say that choosing a healthy lifestyle is in our hands and its a good change that we should bring in our lives and embrace it fully. Make these points your habit and I am sure you would not be disappointed.

Boo Hoo, The Flu – Top Three Homeopathic Remedies For the Flu

Are you worried about the flu? You need not be. Get yourself set with the remedies best suited to this year's flu season with the top three homeopathic remedies. If you're already attuned to the way homeopathy works, you know that each person reacts to a flu in a different way and that often this requires different remedies for each person. However, I'll let you in a secret that experienced homeopaths know. That is, once the flu season begins, there are often only one or two that seem to present for many people. Have them on hand and you and your family will be covered.

The most common remedy for people on the go is Nux vomica 30. It covers the first set of symptoms of chills especially down the back, exhaustion, and that beat up feeling from achy joints. Take it immediately every 3-4 hours and be sure to get sleep and plenty of water, bone stock, freshly made orange juice or raw milk. Staying hydrated is key. Sometimes this person experiences gastro intestinal discomforts and it is likely that if the above cluster of symptoms presents, Nux vomica will resolve the illness within a day or two. Stay away from over the counter meds, as they prolong the illness in the long run.

If the weather is warm and then turns cold, such as in the fall or spring or the person is warm and then steps out into the cold air, the shock of the cold can soon bring a cold or flu. In this case, the best remedy is Dulcamara 30 taken the same as for Nux vomica. And interestingly, if these remedies work well, it is likely the same remedy will be correct for other family members and people in daily close contact.

When the flu comes on with extreme exhaustion as the main symptom, consider Gelsemium. This is the remedy used by the infamous homeopathic doctors of the 1918 flu epidemic. Records indicated that those under the care of homeopaths had survival rates that greatly exceeded those under the care of doctors who had nothing in their bags.

With this method, it is best to take the remedy as soon as possible after the first symptoms appear. The longer you wait, the longer it can take to recover, since the illness has progressed. Get ready, have your remedies and good chicken stock at hand and prepare for a short duration of illness when you use the most intelligent medicine on the earth – Homeopathy .

Causes of Loss of Hearing in Children

Hearing loss can be broken down into various categories such as sensorineural, conductive or mixed. Sensorineural occurs when the inner ear, cranial nerve, or the central processing centers of the brain are damaged. This type of loss is usually permanent and can not be corrected medically or surgically. Conductive returns to a problem in the ear that interferees with sound, such as earwax buildup, and can usually be surgically or medically corrected. Mixed is a combination of sensorineural and conductive loss of hearing.

There are many different reasons why a child may suffer loss of hearing. Some of those are listed below.

Hearing loss can be genetic, meaning that it is passed from the parents to the children. Some parents do not have hearing problems, but carry a recessive gene. If that is the case, the loss of hearing generally occurs in one out of every four children. Normally, there is no other deafness in the family, so the presence of the recessive gene is not expected. In other cases, one or both parents may carry a dominant gene and suffer some type of loss that has about a 50 percent chance of being passed on to their children. X-linked hearing loss occurs when the mother carries a recessive trait for hearing loss in the sex chromosome. In those cases, the hearing loss will only be passed on to the sons.

Premature babies, especially those born before seven months gestation, do not have a mature auditory system and can suffer from sensorineural loss of hearing. Oxygen deprivation during birth and a condition called jaundice may also cause this loss within infants.

Infections in the mother prior to birth can cause hearing loss in the child by damaging the inside of the ear. Such infections include measles, syphilis, some forms of herpes and toxoplasmosis. Maternal diabetes can also cause hearing problems in children.

Infections during childhood can damage the inner ear and result in hearing loss. Some of those include mumps, measles, chicken pox and bacterial or viral meningitis.

Meningitis causes an inflammation of the brain and spinal cord covering. The hearing nerves became irreversibly affected resulting in hearing loss. This is the most common after-effect of meningitis. The loss can range from mild to profound deafness.

In most cases, a hearing aid will help restore hearing to the extent that the child can attend school and function normally. The type of hearing aid will depend on the type and extent of the loss. Behind-the-ear devices are often recommended due to their durability and to growth and safety issues of the child. This type of hearing aid rests behind the ear and a plastic tube runs from the device into the ear canal. Children's hearing aids are now made using advanced technology and include many new practical features.

If it is suspected that a child is suffering from hearing loss, parents should immediately have their child tested by an audiologist so that the reason for the loss can be determined and treatment options explored. It is important to discover the reason for the hearing loss. In some cases, lack of treatment can result in total deafness of the child.

Just What is Glaucoma and What Are the Symptoms?

You may already know that glaucoma is a disease of the eye that is very serious, but if you're unsure of just what the disease actually is and what the symptoms are to look for, you're not alone. As serious as this eye disease is, many people are simply unaware of the symptoms or even what it means to have glaucoma. Since it is something that can lead to loss of peripheral vision and even blindness, and since about 1 in 200 people under the age of fifty and 1 in 10 over the age of eighty actually get this disease, it's a good idea to learn more about it.

To better understand the disease of glaucoma, we do well to think about how the eye is structured in the first place. Behind the actual eyeball that we can see is a series of nerves that translate the light we take in through the eye into electrical impulses that then travel to the brain. The brain descrambles these impulses and reads them as sight. These nerves are as important to sight as the eyeball itself. Remember, all of our senses actually function in the brain; our eyes, ears, tongue, nose, and skin only act as receptors for the signals that travel along the nerve pathways to be translated into sight, sound, taste, smell, and touch. Just like a deaf person can have two perfectly good ears, damage to the nerve cells behind any of our sensory organs that can result in a loss of that particular sense. The word glaucoma is applied to a wide range of diseases that affect these nerve endings behind the eyeball itself.

Typically the disease is brought on by continued pressure on the nerve, but this pressure itself is no exact indication of who exactly will actually contract glaucoma and who will not. Some seem to be very sensitive to this nerve pressure while others seem to have a high tolerance level for it. So, this pressure itself is not an exact indication of contracting glaucoma or not.

The fluid in the eye is called aqueous humor and drains out of the eye through a network of drainage tissue between the iris and the cornea. In people with glaucoma this drainage tissue becomes blocked and fluid is replaced faster that it can be drained. This caused pressure to build up in the eye causing the blood vessels that nourish the eye with essential nutrients and oxygen to become constrained which cause the nerve fibers to die.

When left untreated, any form of glaucoma will lead to permanent damage of these optic nerves which will in turn lead to blindness. Typically this starts with a minor loss of a general vision but can lead to permanent cloudiness of vision. Unfortunately, glaucoma can develop slowly over several years so that the patient is unaware that he or she even has the disease until it can not be corrected.

It's important to get regular eye exams even if you do not have problems with your vision. Your optometrist can give your eyes a thorough exam and be aware of any symptoms of the sunset of glaucoma. This condition can typically be treated with medication before blindness sets in or permanent damage is done, so it's good to be vigilant about eye exams.

Common vitamins and over the counter products can help with glaucoma such as Vitamin C, Ginkgo, Vitamin A, Vitamin D, Beta Carotene, Vitamin B, Vitamin E, Multiple Mineral, Herbal Diuretic.

Vitamin C has been shown to dramatically reduce the intestinal pressure in patients suffering from glaucoma.

Ginkgo is needed for the proper functioning of the vascular system and improvements blood circulation to the brain.

Vitamin A is important for the proper development of the eyes.

Vitamin D plays an important in nerve and muscle function.

Beta Carotene helps protect Vitamin C from oxidation and the body converts beta carotene into vitamin A.

Vitamin B is needed for healthy blood vessels and the proper functioning of the nervous system.

Vitamin E promotes the healing process of the body.

Multiple Mineral are required for healthy bones, teeth, muscles, blood and nerve cells.

There are several Herbal Diuretic on the market that will help the body to reduce excess body fluids.

Always consult your doctor before using this information.

This Article is nutritional in nature and is not to be construed as medical advice.

The Importance of Preventing Chicken Pox

As a disease chicken pox is considered not to be very harmful to a healthy patient. Recent studies have shown that it is the leading death bridge compared to measurements, mumps, whooping cough and Haemophilus influenzae type B meningitis.

Some 14,000 people are admitted each year into hospitals for chickenpox, 60% of them being children. From 1000 individuals only only 5 require hospitalization, and in the worst cases this disease can prove to be fatal. The type of people witch are at the greatest risk of dying from this disease are actually adults, followed by infants, but from the 100 patients to die from chickenpox 40 were still children. A vaccine could have been used to prevent all of these, however recent studies have shown that the number of patients is the same in hospitals.

One of the good aspects of the disease is the fact that it actually gives immunity to the body making the chance of getting ill again from this very slim. Aside from itching a few rare complications may appear in patients.

20% of people who have had chicken-pox may later on in their lives suffer from a reactivation of shingles.

Itching, being the most common complication of the varicella infection, can be easily alleviated with some simple home made remedies.

Secondary Infection and Scarring may also appear; small scars usually remain after the falling of the scabs but this does not last long, the scars clearing up after a few month. In the case of itching there is an all other problem, Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus pyogenes bacteria sometimes causing infection in the patient. Children are the most in danger of this kind of complication because of the simple fact that they are more likely to scratch. Also in children another rare complication would be year infection leading sometimes to hearing loss.

Bacterial Superinfection is the most common serious complication of chickenpox being caused by group A streptococcus. Although mild and not very dangerous its spreading to muscle, fat or even the blood can lead to life threatening situations such as the necrotizing fasciitis (the so-called flesh-eating bacteria) but this is still very rare. Persistent or repeating high fever, redness, pain, and swelling in the skin and in the tissue benefit and even pneumonia are some of the symptoms. In the case of pneumonia the most likely people to suffer complications are pregnant women, smokers, and those with serious medical conditions, serious complications appearing in some cases caused by varicella: lung scaring that makes the patient's breathing very difficult.

More complications would even be brain and central nervous system damage or even strokes, but as said they are extremely rare.

The Secret to Chicken Pox Relief

So, there I was with two children covered in chicken pox. I felt grateful that they were both getting them over with while they were young, and nervous about my ability to treat them effectively on my own, without over the counter remedies.

This was definitely the most serious illness I had yet faced as an herbalist parent. How I wished for a chicken pox treatment page like the one I'm about to write, a page from another parent saying here's what I did, and it worked.

Luckily, my herbalist husband was on hand to remind me to trust the plants and to use the plants we know.

Chicken pox, we discovered, is a herpes related virus, so we chose St. Louis. John's Wort, as our primary healer, since we know it to be effective against herpes.

We brewed up teas for their baths – concoctions of St. John's Wort (dried leaves, stem and flowers), dried burdock root, and dried licorice root.

To make the concoctions we would put one large handful of each into a gallon of boiling water and simmer for 20 minutes.

Then strain out the herbs and add the tea to the bath water.

I would also fill a thin cloth bag with oats, calendula flowers and baking soda and put that into the bath. The kids would squeeze the oat milk onto their skin and even rub the bags over the irritated areas. These baths did wonders to relate the itching and calm the children. What a great herbal chicken pox treatment!

We also had the children drink the St. Paul. John's Wort, burdock and licorice tea as much as possible while they were broken out.

Still, we had times when the itching and burning was very uncomfortable and made sleeping especially difficult.

At these times, St. Johns Wort oil offered some relief. We did not come up with the perfect anti-itch formula, but have since learned that tea tree oil can provide amazing relief, and that chickweed poultices are effective for cooling and calming the itch.

We did try a mixture of baking soda and water and found it not only ineffective, but irritating to the children. This is actually a popular chicken pox treatment for some reason.

Hailey had the easier time with the chicken pox. At one year old, she did not get nearly as many as her six year old brother, and for the first few days was happy and playful and still practicing her walking.

She did get quite a few pox on her butt and genital area, probably because of the heat from her diaper. Then, just about the time that Rowan was beginning to feel better, Hailey got a fever and we not one of the pox on her leg where her diaper wrap was rubbing was very red and swollen.

We took her diaper off and began using poultices of calendula flowers and plantain leaves (crushed in a mortar and pestle with a little bit of water) directly on the pox. The swelling and redness went away by the end of the day and her fever was gone by morning.

We then used these poultices (attached with gauze and tape) on any of the more angry looking pox until they were cured.

Another worrisome occurrence that happened for us, was that Rowan sat up in bed near the middle of the night with his eyes wide open, yelling nonsense. It was a very unsettling experience for me as a mother, but after doing some research on the web, I found that it is not uncommon during chicken pox. I simply calmed him and he went back to sleep and woke a few minutes later with no memory of the episode.

The worst of the virus had passed within a period of about four days, and they were intense days for me. My suggestion to you is that if you call on whatever support system you have during this illness.

Find ways to get rest yourself, drink nourishing, calming teas, and rest assured that the remedies on this page worked for our family and that your children will get better given love and herbal nourishment. We hope our herbal chicken pox treatment works for you.

For more information on St. Louis Johns Wort, go here: www.familyherbalremedies.com/saint_johns_wort.html

Occupational Therapy For Children With Epilepsy

The Effect of Epilepsy on Development

Epilepsy is the name of a group of conditions where there are electrical disturbances in the brain. Children with epilepsy have the same range of intelligence and abilities as other children. However, learning disabilities, emotional problems, and motor impairments commonly accompany seizures and may be exacerbated by the medications used to assist with seizure control. These complications in the child with epilepsy frequently lead to poor school performance, depression, low self-esteem, and withdrawal, drowsiness or hyperactivity) and behavioural disturbances.

Occupational Therapy Intervention:

  • Doctor referral
  • Evaluation and diagnostic process when seizures are suspected
  • Work with relevant health care staff (speech pathologists, physiotherapists, psychologists), family and teachers for seizure control and modification of lifestyle and activity
  • Look specifically at any problem areas such as using a knife and fork, getting dressed, writing etc. This may involve recommending specialist equipment like adapted cutlery, kitchen equipment, specialist seating, bathing and showering equipment
  • Coping skills for dealing with social and psychological stresses of seizures and unanticipated vocational change
  • Compensatory techniques for long term difficulties and to reduce the risk of injuries
  • Modify work or home environment that will support the child and the seizures
  • Set up supportive environment that facilitates and promotes autonomy and independence
  • Encourage and assist with organisation and preparation for participation in sporting and social activities
  • Consider providing protective helmets or pad aspects of the environment, if required.

    For more information:

  • Epilepsy Helpline Tel. 1300 852 853
  • Children’s Epilepsy Program, Royal Children’s Hospital Tel. (03) 9345 5661

Eye Myopia Myth – The Truth About Near-Sightedness

Eye myopia, or near-sightedness, as it is often called, is one of the most common and annoying eye ailments.

It is due to muscular imbalance. The myopic eyeball is elongated by pressure of the two oblique muscles which bind the eyeball about the middle. Because of the tightness of these muscles, the parallel rays of light are brought to a focus at a point in front of the retina. The result is blurred, distorted vision when trying to see a distant object. Myopia, in other words, involves a strain to see at the far point and it is our task to stretch the vision.

When the eyes are fitted with lenses, the light rays focus on the retina as in normal vision. But-since the shape of the eyeball remains unchanged-the cause of the difficulty is not remedied. On the contrary, the eyeball becomes more elongated as time goes on, and lenses must be made stronger and stronger to counteract the increasing myopia of the eye.

Myopia usually appears in school children between the ages of eight and fifteen. The reason appears to be that during puberty the child's physical and nervous system is undergoing such drastic changes that the anxieties and fears often accomplicing the confinement and competition of the school room create an entirely new series of strains.

These strains, in turn, are potent factors in the development of myopia and other visual defects. The effort to see words on the blackboard, fear of being unable to solve the problem as quickly as Mary or Johnny, dread of failure-all of these elements give rise to certain mental and physical tensions that, more often than not, result in the child's inability to see what is on the blackboard.

The result is that the child begins to strain to see, to develop a stooping post as he crouches lower and lower over his book or trips with head down, trying to see the sidewalk. He develops heads and nervous habits. Half-closing his eyes, he squints in an appeavor to clear his vision.

Little by little he begins to reveal the emotional characteristics of eye myopia. He withdraws from competitive games and places by himself. He draws into his shell, contented with his contracted world. He emerges from it only reluctantly and after persistent effort on the part of his anxious parents.

Too often the well-intentioned parents hustle the child off to the ophthalmologist who fits him with glasses. It is always an unpleasant sight to observe a child's face behind spectacles. Automatically, they cut him off from many games and forms of exercise which the growing body needs. But away from that, the vision generally gets worse and the glasses are increased in strength until, some ten or fifteen years later, the patient's eyes have lost much of their power of accommodation. The nerves and muscles of the eyes, depending on their glasses, have lost all flexibility of movement.

Because every part of the body reacts on every other, it is important-especially so with myopia-to check on your posture. This business of stooping over as you walk and bending forward as you read does not help you to see. Actually, it impedes vision because the cramped neck muscles cut off the circulation of blood to the brain and the eyes.

Another effect of the stooping posture of myopes is that it promises to create an attitude of inferiority and failure. With your head bent down and your eyes peering up you are constantly in the physical position of a person looking up at a situation which is too big for him. Naturally, this creates a sensation of inadequacy.

Stand erect and look straight ahead. It gives you a new focus. You see better because you have the proper circulation to the eyes, and along with it you have gained a feeling of confidence. The situation is not too big for you-you are now on a physical par with it.

Relaxation exercises for the eyes can also often help improve eye myopia.

Neonatal Hepatitis

Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver that can be caused by numerous viruses, diseases or environmental conditions that cause the liver to become inflamed. When hepatitis occurs in infancy, this is called "neonatal hepatitis."

Twenty percent of neonatal hepatitis is caused by a virus that was passed from mother to child either before birth or shortlyly thereafter. In eighty percent of the cases of hepatitis medical experts are unable to determine the exact cause; however, it is suspected that these cases were also caused from some type of viral infection.

Viruses that Cause Neonatal Hepatitis

"Cytomegalovirus" or "CMV" is one of the viruses that are responsible for causing neonatal hepatitis in some infants and is the most common type of virus that is passed on from a mother to their unborn child during pregnancy. Other viruses that can be passed from mother to child during pregnancy causing neonatal hepatitis include, measles (rubella), and hepatitis viruses including A, B, or C.

In many cases of hepatitis where the exact cause is undetermined, a biopsy of the liver will be done. This biopsy will often show the presence of "giant cell hepatitis" which is characterized by four of five normal cells of the liver combining to form one cell that is still functional, however, it does not perform as well as the normal smaller liver cells.

Symptoms and Complications that can occur with Neonatal Hepatitis

The primary symptom that occurs when an infant has neonatal hepatitis is jaundice which causes the skin and the whites of the eyes to become a yellowish color. This condition is caused by the bile ducts of the liver becoming inflamed or swollen blocking the flow of bile to the digestive system causing it to become backed up and enter the blood stream.

For this reason, neonatal hepatitis causes some of the same or very similar symptoms to another liver disease that is primarily seen in infants called "biliary atresia", however, the spleen will become enlarged in neonatal hepatitis but typically will not with biliaty atresia. This symptom of an enlarged spleen and laboratory tests including a liver biopsy is what is used to determine and confirm a diagnosis of these diseases as opposed to biliary atresia.

Infants with neonatal hepatitis will also have a delay in growth and will not gain weight at a normal rate due to the fact that they are unable to absorb the necessary vitamins and nutrients needed for growth.

Most infants will recover from giant cell hepatitis and may have little or no scar tissue develop on the liver; however, about twenty percent of infants who have giant cell hepatitis will develop liver disease that is chronic causing permanent damage to the liver by the formation of scar tissue and will require a liver transplant at some point in time. In cases where the neonatal hepatitis was caused by the viruses cytomegalovirus or rubella, there is the potential for an infection to occur in the brain that may cause cerebral palsy or mental retardation.

Treatment for Neonatal Hepatitis

In infants who have developed neonatal hepatitis due to the hepatitis A virus, this condition will typically clear on its own within a six month period of time, however, when the hepatitis is caused by the hepatitis B and C viruses, this will likely cause liver disease that is chronic resulting in cirrhosis that will require a liver transplant in the future.

Infants will typically be prescribed vitamin supplements and phenobarbital that will increase the production of bile within the liver as well as a special formula that contains fats that are easier to digest.

There is the potential for infants who have developed neonatal hepatitis due to the A, B, or C hepatitis viruses, rubella, or CMV to pass this virus to others. It is essential for pregnant women to avoid coming into contact with an infant who is infected as there is the potential that they may pass this virus to there unborn child.

What is Prenatal Stroke?

Meaning of prenatal stroke:

Strokes which occurs in an infant 5 months before birth and 1 month after birth is known as prenatal stroke. Sometimes this may ensue in childhood epilepsy. Research is being contracted so that strokes in infants can be detected at an early stage which would make treatment possible and reduce the damage.

How is Prenatal Stroke connected to Epilepsy?

An enduring damage to the brain as an outcome of a stroke leads to repeated seizures which is known as epilepsy. 5 months before birth and 1 month after birth strokes is the most usual reason for prenatal seizures in infections. Around 17% of the infants who get prenatal raptures suffer from strokes.

Reasons of stroke prior to birth:

The different causes of stroke prior to birth are as follows:

o Pore cephalic vesicles:
Pore ​​cephalic vesicles are uncommon liquid packed caves which can be seen in the brain of some babies. These cavities block the flow of blood to a particular region of the brain which results in stroke.

o Blood curdles:
Formation of blood curdles results when more than two or at least two babies carve up in the same womb, and one dies before birth. The dead baby turns out to form dead tissue and this is taken in again and moves inside the placenta resulting in a stroke to the unborn baby which is alive.

o Cramps of the blood vessels which helps in carrying blood to the baby's brain:
If a to-mother mother uses cocaine or amphetamines when she is carrying then cramps of blood vessels occurs in the baby.

o Exuberant hemorrhage in delivery:
When there is trouble in delivery and a huge quantity of blood is lost then the mother gets low blood pressure. The pressure becomes so low that the required of blood can not be pumped to the brain of the baby. These results in ischemic stroke in the baby due to local anesthesia given to the mother.

Reasons of stroke after birth:

The different causes of stroke after birth are as follows:

o Irregularities in the composition of the heart:
When the composition of the heart is irregular then blood clots are formed. These clots are transmitted to the brain and results in stroke.

o Result of infectious endocarditic:
A tiny pellet from bacteria which infects the valves of the heart gets transmitted to the brain resulting in strokes.

o Abnormal antibodies in mother:
Antiphospholipid in the mother effects the formation of blood clot resulting in stroke in the baby.

o Polygenic disorder in the mother can also incidence stroke in the baby.

o Suffering during birth also results in strokes.

o When an operation is connected in the baby to set right a defect in its heart also may result in stroke in the baby.

Hearing Loss Explained

Balance and hearing are the two primary tasks provided by our ears. As we get older we have to accept that our ability to hear deteriorates, and the deterioration will usually be in our perception of audible frequency range and the ability to hear quiet sounds. Hearing injury is in reality so common that of those older than sixty five, one third experience a degree of hearing loss. For those older than seventy five fifty percent suffer a hearing reduction. There is another factor here as well, and that lies in our genes. Our inherited capacity may also reduce our hearing with age. Some people will suffer due to the effects of heredity alone, and others from heredity and excessive noise damage.

Hearing loss affects us in different ways but usually exhibits as one or more of the following symptoms: –

1) If you find yourself constantly asking for people to speak clearly and sounds are fuzzy or muffled

2) Your understanding fails despite you think you can hear what is said

3) A common request you make is for others to say things for you again, more clearly, loudly etc.

4) You find you are continuously turning up the sound level on the television etc.

If you suffer from any of the above, combined with a desire to withdraw from conversations or avoid social settings, it is highly likely that you are suffering from a loss of hearing. Damage within the cochlea is the most common cause of hearing difficulties. The cochlea is the coiled structure within the inner ear within which hearing takes place. Exposure to loud sounds, that is above 85 decibels is damaging to it after a period of time. A common way to show decibels is to refer in text to dBs.

Other common causes of hearing are: –

1) Diseases of the ear, such as can be during child illnesses

2) Build up of unwanted bone or tissue obstructing the bones of the ear

3) Outer or middle ear tumor growth

4) Ear drums which have ruptured.

Other non-age related causes for deafness include Auditory Neuropathy, Meniere's Disease, Noise Ostosclerosis and Usher's Syndrome.

All of these causes result in just three types of causes of deafness, which comprise: –

A) Conductive Hearing Loss

This occurs when sound is not conductively efficiently to the middle ear, which may be caused by fluid, earwax, infection, foreign matter or malformation of the middle or outer ear.

B) Sensorineural Hearing Loss

Inner ear problems of any kind, and here we include all those listed earlier plus damage due from any accident to the head which also damages the hearing organs. A person suffering from this type of hearing loss may exhibit a lack of speech comprehension.

C) Mixed Hearing Loss

Combine A) and B) and you have this unfortunate type of loss or deafness. Thankfully, this is not a common event.

That completes our discussion of the three types of deafness.

Hearing injury may be sudden and incurable, or it may be short term. Deafness may strike quite quickly and be resolved equally speedily when infections of the ears occur.

This article is for general information use. It does not contain advice, nor must it be in any way be interpreted as doing so. Consult your own doctor, or other qualified hearing expert.

There are very few people who have a hearing loss problem who can not be helped by the careful choice of the right hearing aid.

Emotions and Babies – When and How Babies Display Their Emotions

Emotions are revealed through facial expressions and modulation of voice tones. During infancy stage, expression of emotions is done in a forceful way and it occurs without any external cause. They express it in the form of crying and shouting. During the first two months of infant stage, the baby shows only two emotions — pleasure and displeasure, caused by physical stimulation. The baby shows out these emotions through body movements like relaxing the body to show pleasure and tensing the body with waving arms and kicking legs while crying to show displeasure.

By the third month, physical stimulation combined with psychological stimulation allows the baby to express the emotion of pleasure with a smile when he comes in contact with a human face and expressing displeasure with facial expressions and crying. During childhood, expressions are no longer displayed forcefully but through more reasonable means. This is due to factors of language development and also development of social behavior, which enables the child to understand that it is not proper to show emotions at all times. The development of her mind puts a check on emotional outbursts. Some common emotions a child expresses are happiness, anger, sadness, fear, love, sympathy and empathy. Let us see how these emotions are expressed.

Happiness

Happiness is expressed by the baby with fully joyful smiles to start with, and later with lively or prolific laughter. The baby smiles and laughs on attaining new skills or on overcoming an obstacle to reach a goal. He also shows happiness at the affection and stimulation of the care-givers. During the early weeks baby smiles when full, to gentle touches and sounds. By the end of first month, he smiles at something, say a bright object that comes across his field of vision. Social interaction begins by 3 months when baby smiles on coming into contact with familiar people, Laughter begins around 3 to 4 months when the parent is playful with the baby.

Around 6 months, baby smiles and laughs more on contact with familiar people. Around 10 to 12 months, baby’s smile differs with context like a broad cheek raised smile in response to a parent’s greeting, a reserved smile to a friendly stranger and a mouth-open smile while engaged in stimulating play. The baby is socially well developed when he is 2 years old and his emotional expressions become intentional or purposeful. He is delighted to respond to an adult attending to him amidst his play with an interesting toy.

Anger

Anger is expressed by newborn babies when they are hungry, find any inconvenience in body condition like change in temperature and when they face over-stimulation or too little stimulation. The frequency and intensity of anger increases from 4 to 6 months into the second year. They express this emotion in specific situations like when an interesting object they are playing with is removed from them or when their goal is blocked by an obstacle or when the care-giver leaves the place for a brief time or when a toy he is playing with stops functioning. Anger is intense when the baby does not receive the expected warm behavior from the care-giver. Anger is expressed in the form of outburst of bad temper – the baby may hit, kick, cry and scream.

Sadness

Sadness is also expressed in the same situations as that which causes anger. But this emotion is expressed much less frequently than anger.

Fear

Infants around 6 to 12 months express this emotion. They express fear for an animal, when left alone, when they meet a stranger, go to strange places and when they hear a sudden loud noise. Fear is expressed by crying. Infants of this age-period show reluctance to play with a new toy due to fear. Those who have just started to crawl show greater fear. Rise in this kind of fear after six months comes as a hurdle in the way of exploratory behavior of crawling and walking babies. Most infants and toddlers, though do not express their fear when they get to interact with strangers. They are still cautious of strangers, though. The baby cries out of fear when picked up by an unfamiliar adult in a strange setting. This fear can be reduced by the way of approach of the stranger who picks up the baby. He has to approach slowly, presenting the baby with an attractive toy or playing an interesting game the baby is familiar with.

Love and Sympathy

These emotions are expressed by the baby mostly to the intimate care-giver, the mother of the baby. When the baby sees the mother in his room he gives out a broad friendly smile. When picked up he pats her face, puts his gentle tiny hand into her hair and clings close to her body. Sympathy is expressed by the baby through facial expressions which the baby learns from the mother’s reaction to a situation.

Empathy

Empathy is an emotion caused by observing and recognizing what is happening to others – feeling bad because someone else is feeling bad.

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Exercises That Aid in Stroke Recovery

There are many exercises that aid in stroke recovery. There are physical, mental, and occupational exercises used by therapists during stroke rehabilitation. Some of them are:

1. Physical Exercises – As the word connotes, these are a range of bodily motions meant to tone fat, enhance muscle buildup, and strengthen the body. Stroke patients are given physical exercises to hone them to move their body, avoid spasticity of the muscles, and regain strength, balance, and independence. Samples of exercises that aid in stroke recovery include:
a) Passive Range of Motion = this aims to keep the muscles flexible and the joints lubricated through movement of the shoulder, elbow, wrist, fingers, hip, knee, and ankles.
b) Active Assisted Range of Motion = this set of exercises begin once the affected limb has been restored of its function and involves the help of another person in its performance
c) Active and Resisted Range of Motion = exercises taught during this phase enables the patient to move their own limbs without assistance through all the range of motion at every joint, such as those involving free weights, resistance bands, and the manual resistance coming from the therapist.
d) Coordination Exercises = this focuses on the regaining control over the affected limb by lifting the leg or placing it on the heel of the other leg, for example.
e) Balance and Stability Exercises = this entails the control of the person's trunk while sitting or standing. Thus, the patient is asked to do a series of exercises incorporating sitting and standing with the aid of parallel bars, walkers, and canes.

2. Mental Exercises – Mental exercise to reverse the effect of stroke on the patient are normally done under cognitive rehabilitation as the case may apply. Often, exercises include memory retention and sharpening such as math functions, reasoning, logic, and concept. These exercises are repeated over time as long as it is necessary.

3. Occupational Exercises – Exercises include learning to do daily activities that will help the patient go back to normal life, such as sweeping the floor, brushing the teeth, picking up pieces, folding clothes and linen, among others. The goal is to let the patient do this things, over time, on his own.

There are many exercises that aid in stroke recovery and are used during the rehabilitation process. These exercises should always be done with caution to avoid further injury. It is best that these are performed with professionals only.