How to Deal With Glaucoma

Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of blindness, especially among African-Americans over the age of 40, people over the age of 65, and individuals with family history of glaucoma. Usually associated with increased pressure in the eye, it damages the optic nerve and often leads to progressive blindness.

Management of glaucoma as early as possible is the key to preventing blindness from developing. However, in the case of open-angle glaucoma, it is not recognized until the disease has progressed to an advanced stage. With closed-angle glaucoma, the patient usually seeks medical attention as soon as possible due to the sudden eye pain.

The most common and most convenient way to manage glaucoma is through medication in the form of eye drops. Several eye drops are used and the functions are usually to decrease the production of aqueous humor and to increase its outflow leading to decrease in intraocular pressure. Some medications are administrated for short-term and long-term effects so each one is necessary. This requires an effort in the part of the patient since compliance with the regimen is important. According to studies, the blindness among those who are already diagnosed and started medication was changed from non-compliance to home medication.

Beside medication, surgery is also one of the effective managements of glaucoma. It is important to note that surgery does not cure glaucoma. Instead, it only provides symptomatic treatment. To date, there is still no cure for glaucoma.

Trabeculectomy is the conventional surgery for glaucoma patients. This is done by removing a portion of the blocked fluid pathways, making an opening in the sclera of the eye and closing it loosely to function as the new drain of the eye fluid. It is effective in lowering intraocular pressure but may have side effects such as scarring, infection and cataract formation.

Laser trabeculoplasty is a treatment specifically for open-angle glaucoma. The laser stimulates the trabecular meshwork to open and drain fluid more effectively. Laser iridotomy is done by making a hole in the iris of the eye to drain fluid. It is effective among those with closed-angle glaucoma.

Artificial drain may also be implanted in the eye if the response to medication is poor. Another procedure called viscocanalostomy is done by making the front of the eye thinner to help drain the fluid, but this is not as effective as the conventional surgery.

You Can Prevent Stroke

If you've ever witnessed someone suffer a stroke, you understand the humbling nature of this disease. It can reduce the mighty human being to an immobile, helpless creature. Impairment of critical functions like speech, walking, and control of bowel and bladder can wrench control from the body in a moment.

Even perpetually youthful TV personality Dick Clark was stuck down by stroke at age 75, despite the outward appearance of perfect health. Clark's stroke resolved in a six-week hospital stay and, judging from fragmented reports, significant disability. Stroke can be like a devastating fire that strikes without warning, leaving only smoldering rubble. Stroke can so ravage basic bodily functions that often all you can hope for is to regain a portion through rehabilitation.

The disease process that underlies stroke requires decades – 30 or 40 years – to develop. With that much lead time, why are not we better able to detect or stop this crippling disease?

The truth is that we are able to predict many, if not most, strokes. Advances in imaging technology allow detection of atherosclerotic plaque that cause stroke years before it becomes a threat. Progress in deciphering the causes of stroke has also leapt forward.

Unfortunately, your neighborhood physician still focuses on diagnosing the crisis rather than anticipating it. Physicians prefer to deal with catastrophes and are just not that interested in prevention. Most doctors ask: "Is it time to operate or not?" The medical community obsesses over procedures like carotid endarterectomy (surgical removal of plaque) or carotid stents. Even when a person is afforded the warnings of a "mini-stroke", or transient ischemic attack (TIA), little more is done once it's determined that surgery is not necessary – even though this person has high risk for future stroke (50) % over 10 years).

Let's flip-flop this approach to stroke. Procedures represent a failure of prevention!

Where do strokes come from?

Stroke develops when some portion of the brain is deprived of blood. This usually results from a tiny bit of debris that dislodges from an atherosclerotic plaque along the walls of an artery (the same sort that accumulates in coronaries causing heart attack). The sources of debris have been a subject of controversy, but new imaging technologies have settled the question. Any blood vessel that leads from the heart to the brain can be a source. The two carotid arteries on both sides of your neck are a frequent source, as these arteries are pre to develop plaque. (Our discussion will be defined to what are called thromboembolic, or ischemic, strokes, ie, strokes that occurs from plaque that fragments, sending debris to the brain, and will not include the far less common hemorrhagic strokes due to rupture of small vessels in the brain, nor will we discuss atrial fibrillation and other heart causes of stroke.

Over the last 10 years, the aorta has been recognized as another important source of stroke. The aorta is the main artery of the body which branches go to the head, arms, and legs.

Atherosclerotic plaque is a live tissue that, through poor diet ,activity, high cholesterol, overweight, etc., grows and becomes progressively more unstable. At some point, plaque fragments. Little bits break away, traveling to the brain. Fractured plaque also poses its detrimental structures to flowing blood, triggering blood clot formation, which in turn can also fragment and go to the brain. Atherosclerotic plaque is a prerequisite for the most common causes of stroke.

If the majority of strokes originate from plaque, why not measure plaque to determine if you're at risk for stroke? How can we easily, safely, and accurately measure plaque in the carotid arteries and aorta? And if plaque can be measured, can it be shrunk or inactivated to reduce or eliminate risk for stroke?

How can plaque be measured?

Just 20 years ago, the only practical method of identifying plaque in the carotids or aorta was through angiography, requiring catheters inserted into the body to inject x-ray dye. Angiography was impractical as a screening measure.

CT scanning and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are emerging as exciting methods of imaging both carotids and aorta. Unfortunately, most centers and physicians are much more focused on the diagnostic uses of these technologies for people who have already suffered stroke or other catastrophe, and application of these devices for preventive uses is still evolving. One exception is when aortic calcification or aortic enlargement is incidentally noted on the increasingly popular CT heart scans; This is an important finding that can signal presence of aortic plaque.

The one test that is broadly available and can be performed in just about any center is carotid ultrasound. It's simple, painless, and precise. Two basic observations can be made:

1. Plaque detection – Atherosclerotic plaque can be clearly visualized. If plaque blocks more than 70% of the diameter of the vessel, or if there are "soft" (unstable) elements in plaque, then stroke risk may be high enough to justify surgery or stents. However, if there are plaques that are less severe, substantial risk for stroke may still be present that can be reduced with preventive measures.
2. Carotid intimal-medial thickness – This is a measure of the thickness of the lining of the carotid artery in areas not involved by plaque, but often precedes the development of mature plaque. Carotid intimal-medial thickness also provides an index of body-wide potential for atherosclerotic plaque that can place you at risk for stroke. The aorta, for instance, can not be well imagined by surface ultrasound but can still be a source for stroke. Increased carotid intimal-medial thickness and carotid plaque are closely associated with likelihood of aortic plaque. The Rotterdam Study of 4000 participants demonstrated that if carotid intimal-medial thickness is greater than normal (1.0 mm), then you can be at risk for stroke (and heart attack), even if no carotid plaques are detected.

Carotid ultrasound is the one test you should consider that provides the most information with least effort. Ultrasound is harmless, painless, and can be obtained just about anywhere. Even if your doctor disagrees with your request for a carotid ultrasound, an increasing number of mobile services are popping up nationwide that make this test available for around $ 100. One important point: many scanners and interpreters will only report whether plaque is present or not. While this is important information, you should request that the carotid-intimal medial thickness be made as well. Not all centers can make this simple measure (because of software requirements), but it does not hurt to try. Any amount of carotid plaque is reason to follow a preventive program, even if the plaque is insufficient to justify surgery.

Can plaque be reduced?

Can we shrink plaque in carotid arteries and aorta and thenby reduce, possibly eliminate, these sources of stroke? That question is gaining momentum as effective therapies become available that pack real punch for reducing plaque.

Study after study has now documented that plaque can be reduced and, with it, risk for stroke. Reduction in plaque of 10-20% is possible within a year or two. Let's consider the most potent effects on carotid and aortic plaque growth that need to be considered in a plaque-reducing program. (I assume that you are a non-smoker – if you are a smoker, you first need to concentrate on quitting.)

Hypertension

Considerable experience documents the power of blood pressure-lowering for prevention of stroke. The most recently updated guidelines, the JNC-VII, recommends a blood pressure of Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome, and Hyperinsulinemia

Just being overweight increases the risk of stroke. A Swedish study in 7400 obese men had double the risk of stroke compared to non-obese men. Increased body weight leads to diabetes and its close relationships, metabolic syndrome and hyperinsulinemia (increased insulin levels), which play an overwhelmingly important role in increasing stroke risk. Of people who suffer strokes, a shocking 70% have one of these diagnoses. When diabetes is present, risk for stroke can be as much as six-fold higher.

Metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance, predecessors of diabetes, are far more common than full-blown diabetes. Metabolic syndrome consists of excessive abdominal fat, high blood pressure, low HDL cholesterol, increased triglycerides, and resistance to insulin. Metabolic syndrome is rampant through the US, afflicting one of three adults due to sedentary lifestyles, processed foods, and overweight. High insulin levels and resistance to insulin are powerful drivers of plaque growth, and carotid plaque grows faster. Judging from the rapid escalation of precalence of metabolic syndrome and diabetes in the population, it is likely that an epidemic of stroke is in our country's future.

LipoproteinsSMall LDL, IDL, and Lipoprotein (a)

More than high cholesterol, various lipoprotein abnormalities carry greater risk for carotid and aortic plaque growth and stroke. Lipoproteins are fat-carrying proteins in blood that cause plaque growth. Patterns which are instigators of plaque growth and stroke include:
o Small LDL particlesSMall LDL particles cause carotid plaque growth more than large LDL particles. This abnormality also triples heart attack risk.
o Intermediate-density lipoproteins (IDL) These triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (present even when triglycerides are low) are a measure of how effectively you clear fat from blood after a meal. IDL is a potent driver of carotid plaque growth. Increased IDL also creates fat-rich plaque that makes it more prone to fragment.
o Lipoprotein (a) This underappreciated lipoprotein is associated with heightened risk of stroke and heart attack by promoting blood clotting, constricting arteries, and increasing dangers of cholesterol. Carotid ultrasound studies have shown that lipoprotein (a) causes accelerated plaque growth.

Fibrinogen

This blood clotting protein not only causes carotid plaque growth, but also contributes to formation of unstable plaques, ones that have more inflammatory cells and a thinner tissue covering, making plaque more rupture-prone. An Oxford University analysis of 5000 participants confirmed the role of fibrinogen in increasing stroke risk. Fibrinogen levels> 407 mg / dl heightens stroke risk six-fold.

C-reactive protein (CRP)

This measure of pollution is proving to be a useful marker for identifying people at risk for stroke, with increased risk beginning at a level of 0.5 mg / l. High CRP also precedes more rapidly growing carotid plaque.

Homocysteine

Homocysteine ​​is an important marker of increased likelihood of both carotid and aortic plaque, as well as stroke. In 1997, the European Concected Action Project reported more than a doubling of stroke when homocysteine ​​levels exceeded 12 mol / l. As homocysteine ​​increases to 20 μmol / l, risk for stroke and heart attack increases an amazing 10-fold over that at a level of 9 μmol / l.

Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA)

ADMA is recently discovered amino acid which blood levels can skyrocket up to 10-fold in the presence of hypertensive, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, high cholesterol and triglycerides, obesity, and high homocysteine ​​levels. ADMA blocks the action of the amino acid, l-arginine. This mimicry reduces the availability of nitric oxide, a powerful dilator and protector of arteries. ADMA levels in the top 10% predict a six-fold heightened risk for future stroke, and ADMA levels in people with strokes are double that in other people. A carotid ultrasound study in 116 subjects showed that higher blood levels of ADMA are associated with more severe carotid plaque. Because of ADMA's shared role across a variety of abnormal conditions, correction or blocking the action of the ADMA has been proposed as a unique therapeutic tool to reduce stroke risk.

Cholesterol

Data suggest that lowering cholesterol with statin cholesterol-lowering drugs slows carotid plaque growth and reduce stroke risk approximately 22%. An interesting study from the Cardiovascular Institute at Mt. Sinai School of Medicine in New York using the precursor measuring ability of MRI of the carotids and thoracic aorta shown an impressive 20% regression of plaque area with simvastatin (Zocor®) taken for two years.

Although guidelines for cholesterol treatment recommend reduction of LDL cholesterol to 100 mg / dl in high-risk persons, a report from the Walter Reed Army Medical Center in Washington, DC, showed that carotid plaque was more effectively reduced when LDL cholesterol of 70 mg / dl or lower was achieved with statin cholesterol drugs. Lower LDL cholesterol may, therefore, be better.

Treatment Strategies to Reduce Carotid and Aortic Plaque

The essential question: How do we reduce carotid and aortic plaque? If we make this the focus of our efforts, many pieces begin to fall into place. If you've had any measure of carotid or aortic plaque such as a carotid ultrasound or aortic calcification on a CT heart scan, you know that you're at increased risk for stroke. You also have a baseline for future comparison to gauge whether your program is working or not.

Because most people have not one but multiple causes of carotid and aortic plaque, there is no one single treatment that effectively eliminates risk for stroke. Instead, most people require a comprehensive program of healthy diet, exercise, supplements, and medication when indicated. Here, we focus on the nutritional supplements that can be critical components of your plaque-reduction program.

Fish oil

Fish oil is a cornerstone of your stroke prevention program. Epidemiological observations suggest a strong relationship of fish intake and reduction of stroke risk. Carotid ultrasound studies demonstrate less carotid plaque with greater intakes of fish.

A cleverly designed University of Southampton study made the fascinating observation that fish oil transforms the structure of carotid plaque. 150 people with severe carotid plaque scheduled for carotid endarterectomy (surgical removal of the plaque) were given fish oil, sunflower oil, or no treatment over several months while waiting for their procedure. (Delays in the British health system permitted this unique design.) Plaque was removed at surgery and examined. Participants taking fish oil had reduced inflammation in plaque and thicker tissue covering the fatty core, marks of more stable plaque. Those taking sunflower oil or no treatment had unstable plaques with greater pollution and thinner, less sturdy covering tissue. This suggests that fish oil stabilizes carotid plaque, making it less likely to rupture and fragment.

A standard capsule of fish oil (containing 300 mg of EPA + DHA) contains the same amount of omega-3s as a 3 oz serving of cod or halibut; three capsules (900 mg DHA + EPA) contain the equivalent of a serving of farm-raised salmon. The dose that sees to provide greatest protection from stroke, lowers triglycerides (that form abnormal lipoproteins; see above), and reduces fibrinogen, is four capsules per day (1200 mg EPA + DHA).

Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10)

Although there are no data specifically addressing whether CoQ10 reduces plaque, it is a marvelously effective way to reduce blood pressure, one of the critical factors causing carotid and aortic plaque growth. A pooled analysis of eight studies showed that, on average, CoQ10 in daily doses of 50-200 mg reduced systolic blood pressure by 16 mm Hg, diastolic pressure by 10 mm Hg. Data suggest that CoQ10 can reverse abnormal heart muscle thickening (hypertrophy), another manifestation of high blood pressure, strongly suggesting that CoQ10 has benefits beyond just reducing pressure.

Supplements to correct the metabolic syndrome

Weight loss is, without question, the most immediate and direct path to correction of this dangerous pre-diabetic condition. A drop of even 10-20 lbs yields improvements across the board: increased susceptibility to insulin, increased HDL, and reductions in triglycerides, CRP, fibrinogen, small LDL particles, and blood pressure. Diet and exercise are fundamental components of an effort to lose weight; low carbohydrate or reduced glycemic index diets (eg, South Beach or Mediterranean) rich in fibers are clearly effective. Several supplements can amplify weight-reduction efforts and be useful adjustments to your lifestyle program. Among them:

White bean extract
White bean extract blocks intestinal absorption of carbohydrates by 66%. 1500 mg twice a day with meals yields, on average, 3-7 lbs of weight loss in the first month of use. The only side-effect is excess gas, due to unabsorbed starches.

Glucomannan
This unique fiber taken prior to meals absorbs many times its weight in water and thebyfill fills your stomach. You inevitably take in less food. Most people lose around four lbs per month using 1500 mg prior to each meal. Interestingly, glucomannan also blunts the rise in blood sugar after meals, an effect that, by itself, may lead to weight loss. Be sure to take with plenty of water.

DHEA
This adrenal hormone is key to maintaining physical stamina, mood, muscle mass in men, and libido in women. A recent randomized, placebo-controlled study at Washington University in 56 subjects showed a 13% decline in abdominal fat (fat that drives resistance to insulin) measured by MRI with 50 mg of DHEA per day at bedtime, along with improved sugar control and lower insulin levels.

Pectin, beta-glucan
Pectin is the soluble fiber in citrus rinds, green vegetables, and apples, also available as a supplement. Beta-glucan is the soluble fiber of oats and is also available as a supplement. Both are wonderful fibers that provide feelings of fullness, lower cholesterol, slow release of sugars, and can yield modest weight reduction. A USC study in 573 subjects using carotid ultrasound shown that greater intake of healthy fibers like pectin and beta-glucan is associated with less carotid plaque growth.

Folic acid, vitamins B6 and B12
Dr. Daniel Hackam at the Stroke Prevention and Atherosclerosis Research Center in Ontario conducted a study using carotid ultrasound in 101 participants treated with folic acid 2.5 mg, vitamin B6 25 mg, and B12 250 mcg per day. Treatment resulated in plaque reduction, especially when homocysteine ​​levels exceeded 14μmol / l at the start, compared to untreated participants who experienced substantive plaque growth.

An attempt to clarify the role of homocysteine ​​treatment was made through a National Institute of Health-sponsored study of stroke prevention. 3680 participants with a prior history of stroke were controlled and given either a "low-dose" (20 mcg folic acid, 0.2 mg B6, 6 mcg B12) or a "high-dose" (2.5 mg folic acid, 25 mg B6, 400 mcg B12) regimen. Although starting homocysteine ​​levels shown a graduated association with stroke risk (higher homocysteine ​​levels predicted greater stroke risk), the treatment groups experienced, on average, only a 2 μmol drop in homocysteine ​​levels and no reduction in stroke risk over two years. The study investigators as well as critics have suggested that the study failed due to an inadequate treatment period and that the doses were too low. (The doses we use in our plaque reduction program are folic acid 2.5-5.0 mg, B6 50-100 mg, B12 1000-2500 mcg.)

L-arginine
L-arginine can be used to overpower the adverse effects of ADMA. L-arginine is emerging as an important carotid plaque-reversing tool. Early reports in animals showed that l-arginine completely halved growth of aortic plaque, and did so more effectively than lovastatin (a cholesterol-lowering drug).

In humans, L-arginine reduces blood pressure, abnormal constriction of carotid and coronary arteries, blocks entry of inflammatory cells into plaque, increases sensitivity to insulin, and heightens exercise capacity. Following coronary angioplasty or stent placement, l-arginine results in up to 36% reduction in plaque growth.

The average American takes in 5400 mg of l-arginine through food every day. Supplementing with doses of 3000-12,000 mg per day has proven useful to correct many of these phenomena. (We use a dose of 6000 mg of l-arginine powder, twice a day on an empty stomach, dissolved in water, for our plaque regression program.) Does this result in a reduction of stroke risk? The emerging data suggest that l-arginine is likely to exert a powerful plaque-reducing and stroke-preventing benefit, but we await more clinical trial data.

Conclusion

Reducing stroke risk by reversing carotid and aortic plaque is becoming an everyday reality, with better tools becoming available. To know whether you're at risk, the best and most available imaging tool is carotid ultrasound, aiming to identify intimal-medial thickness> 1.0 mm, or carotid plaque. Any degree of calcification of the aorta, such as on a CT heart scan, is another useful measure of risk.

Treatment to reduce risk is multi-faceted but is based on examining all your sources of risk, including metabolic syndrome, small LDL, lipoprotein (a), and C-reactive protein. Fish oil is the one absolutely critical ingredient in any stroke prevention program. Other supplements can be used in a targeted fashion, depending on the causes identified for your carotid or aortic plaque. Ideally, repeat scanning of your carotids should be done once after your program has begun to assess whether you've successfully achieved reversal of plaque growth.

3 Business Opportunities As an RN Wellness Coach

As an RN or nurse, you are in a great position with expert knowledge and access to the healthcare systems that becoming a health and wellness coach should be a career choice to consider.

Here's 3 business opportunities for nurses have when considering a career as an health and wellness coach.

  • Work from home – This is a great opportunity for nurses to work from home, owning their own business as an RN wellness coach. When you participate in most health and wellness training programs they will also teach about marketing your business. This should be enough to get you started and if you need help here feel free to contact me, I'd be happy to help.
  • Work with other health care practices – Look for business opportunities in massage clinics, chiropractic services and therapy centers. Many health and fitness centers are also looking to hire RN health coaches as an added service for being a member of the club for a total health and wellness experience for their clients.
  • Work in the Corporate world – Big name businesses are now hiring their own wellness coaches as a means to help manage health care costs as well as lower the absent rate among their employees. This is an opportunity for nurses in work in the corporate world helping CEOs live a healthy lifestyle.

You could also do this on a part time basis to supplement your current income or to "test out the waters" to see if becoming an RN health and wellness coach is for you. The business opportunities are there for nurses to become successful RN health and wellness coaches.

Full Cranial Prosthesis Aka Full Lace Wigs – A Solution to Alopecia!

Full Cranial Prosthesis aka Full Lace wigs are the latest development in hair replacement units, and are designed to meet the specific needs of any women suffering from long term, or permanent hair loss to medical conditions. Androgenic alopecia and traumatic alopecia are one of the most common medical cause of hair loss in women.

– Androgenic alopecia is an hereditary hair thinning, and occurs in both men and women.

However, it is the most common form of alopecia in women. It can begin as early as in the 20s. By age 40, 40% of these women have noticeable hair thinning due to this condition. By age 50, 60% of them have severe signs of hair loss. When this type of hair loss occurs, women usually do not develop true baldness in the patterns that occur in men, as the areas affected are in the difficulties and the crown of the head, while the front hairline is usually preserved.

– Traumatic alopecia is a form of hair loss due to scarring of the scalp area. This form of hair loss frequently occurs in African-American women.

Traumatic alopecia is divided into three categories: traction, chemical and follicular alopecia.

Traction alopecia:

Hair loss associated with persistent use of tight braids, hair rollers, weaves, twist, locks, or cornrows. The first sign of traction alopecia is thinning above the ears and the forehead. This hair loss is often seen in young girls. Partial or complete regrowth of hair can follow, but permanent loss of hair can occur when the roots of the hairs are severely damaged.

Chemical alopecia:

Damage to the scalp and hair shaft caused by commercial chemical products, like relaxers. It resemble hair thinning resulting from hereditary causes, but also include scarring of the scalp, which can irreversibly damage the hair follicles.

Follicular alopecia:

Gradual destruction of hair follicles by the excessive use of pomades with a hot comb or iron. Thinning usually begins at the crown and then spreads evenly through the head. It is an irreversible condition.

Full Cranial Prosthesis aka Full Lace Wigs are an excellent solution to restore self confidence in women suffering from any type of Alopecia, as they are designed and constructed to be the closest thing to one own real hair.

It is the most beautiful, natural hair replacement system imaginable. They are actually undetectable because they are constructed with a gauze-like lace material which makes it comfortable for extended wear. The hairline is secured with skin liquid adhesive or / and tape. When the lace is bonded to one own hairline, it creates an invisible hairline, making it look as though the hair is growing out of one own scalp. The hair of those unit are usually made of a 100% human hair, tied one strand at a time into that lace base. The gauze-like lace fabric used for the cap construction of that hair system is very sheer, so that it takes on, the approximate color of the wearer own natural scalp, provides proper ventilation while worn, and eliminates heat and moisture build-up.

Full Cranial Prosthesis aka Full Lace Wigs, are lightweight, ultra comfortable and undetectable! They look so natural, that even from a few inches away, it seems that the hair is growing out of one own scalp. This new and revolutionary hair replacement system can be worn for days or even weeks at a time. the hair can be colored, permed, washed, blown-dry, curled with a curling iron and style any way one like. They are so versatile, that they can be parted anywhere on the head, worn in a high ponytail, braided in cornrows, worn in an up do or any style chosen.

Nutrition and Stroke Patients

Nutrition augments stroke treatment and must be administrated accordingly by the caregiver and stroke patient's family. According to research, nutrition affects the course and outcome of a stroke patient's life and recovery.

A study conducted by Salah Gariballa of the University of Sheffield in the United Kingdom notes that, "stroke patients are highly dependent on others for their nutritional requirements being met. Many are undernourished prior to the stroke and their nutritional status declines further in the hospital" .

Gariballa's research showed that due to poor diet provided to stroke patients, they become susceptible to diseases such as urinary tract infections, undernutrition, dehydration, among others.

A great way to avoid these from happening would be to undertake considering measures such as:

1. Get a reputable nutritionist – the first thing family members and caregivers of stroke patients should do to get a reputable nutritionist to identify what diet should be complied with. This ensures tailor-fitting meals that will help the stroke patient recover physical and mental strength to adapt to the various treatments, as well as absorb learning where applicable.

2. Subscribe to a health and wellness food magazine – exposure is one of the best ways to adapt to change. If the patient used to love unhealthy food it is relevant then to immerse him or her to literature that will boost the desire for healthy food. This is also a great way to improve memory and reorient the patient in relearning various topics, especially since food magazines are typically very visual and can pose as a great activity for learning images.

3. Watch cooking shows for the health-conscious – if food magazines are not available, find useful purpose for the television through cooking shows the inspire consumption of good food and health habits.

4. Encourage everyone to adapt to the new health lifestyle – any endeavor, to be effective, requires conscious group effort. The same goes to having a healthy lifestyle for the patient. This must be supported by family and friends – the best way of showing support is eating nutritious food yourself.

5. Enjoy the food together – there's no better way to enjoy good nutritious food than eating it with loved ones. Boost the patient's gusto for food by joining them in their meals.

Proper and good nutrition augments stroke treatment as it provides the necessary antioxidants and components for the body to recover from the deficiencies of stroke. It is the role of caregivers and family members to ensure the stroke patient gets the nutrition needed as the latter is solely dependent on the former for this.

Epileptic Seizure Solution

Being a very unpredictable disease, epilepsy frequently rules the lives of those attacked by it. The solitary way to maintain control over symptoms is by using assorted combinations of anti-convulsive drugs and developing a well-balanced style of living that keeps excesses of all sorts away.

Mysoline, is an anti-convulsive drug that stops seizures triggered by epilepsy. This form of long-term treatment can be taken for an indefinite period of time. However long you keep taking it, be absolutely sure a close contact with your doctor is maintained for a professional monitoring of your condition.

Treatment Specifics

This medication should be administered as suspension or capsules, and quantity depends on the intensity of the problem, body weight and age. If you choose Mysoline in liquid form, keep it in a dark location and vigorously shake the bottle prior to every usage to ascertain you get the accurate amount.

If you miss a dose, take it as soon as possible. If it is within 1 hour of your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule. Do not take 2 doses at once.

Warnings

The only health circumstance that is totally mismated is porphyria, an inherited metabolic disorder.

At the conclusion of treatment, never discontinue taking this medication abruptly, as this may contribute to stronger seizures than you've experienced previously. Withdrawal must be a gradual process.

Taking into consideration the fact that this drug is, for the most part, administrated for an eminently
long period of time, intermittent blood tests are imperative to maintain an accurate view of your health condition, and to inhibit any possible system decline in quality.

Beware of drug interactions

Prior to beginning any new drug therapy, make sure it does not interject with this medication.Or you risk to jeopardize the effectiveness of either. Medications that are susceptible to Mysoline incumbrance include: estrogen based oral contraceptives, certain antibiotics, blood-thinning drugs, anti-depressants and steroidal drugs

On that account, try to abstain from all alcoholic drinks while using this medication. In order to circumvent possible unwanted side effects, it is important to inform your health care provider on the use of this drug.

There are an abundance of other drugs that can be safely mixed with Mysoline without triggering any negative effects. Your doctor is the most qualified person to talk to when needing to interpret other asserted health problems that inevitably appear.

Use this medication exactly as prescribed. Do not change from one manufacturer's product to another without consulting your doctor.

Continue taking Mysoline even if you feel well. Do not miss any doses.

Mysoline gives you the effectiveness of phenobarbital plus additional protection. A patient who seizures have not been controlled by phenobarbital may have better results from Mysoline.

study in children-which also included Depakote (valproate) -focused on the rate of side effects. Only 8% of the children who were given Mysoline had to stop taking it because of side effects. Phenobarbital, which can be an excellent medication, often is avoided in children because of the possibility of mental slowing. By using Mysoline alone, children can enjoy many of the same benefits while avoiding this problem because the amount of phenobarbital produced by breaking down the Mysoline is low.

It is important to remember that no single combination of antiepileptic medications is perfect for everyone. Sometimes, a series of combinations must be tried before finding what is best for the individual patient.

Does Stuttering Have Something to Do With Intelligence?

Does stuttering have something to do with intelligence? This is one of the most ellogical questions occupying the minds of most of the non-stutterers. And the answer to such a question is a definite no. Stuttering is only a speech hindering disorder which causes the sufferers to stammer when they speak. Being a speech disorder, stuttering has no connection whatsever to intelligence and intellect. Although some may argue that the neural patterns of stutterers differ from those of non-stutterers, the neurons are responsible for hearing and speech are in no way related to the neurons liable for intelligence.

The notion of comparing stuttering to intelligence is in itself erroneous because the intelligence of a person is measured through the IQ or Intelligence Quotient. The IQ of a person depends large on the ability of a person to help new things and learn stuff quickly. But the neurons responsible for determining one's IQ is present in the frontal cortex whereas the ones responsible for hearing and speech are present at the posterior and this clearly shows that one can in no way affect the other.

Although scientifically there is no connection between intelligence and stuttering, the intelligence of a stuttering individual can deteriorate because of the problem. This is largely based on how the stuttering kids were treated in their surroundings. Stutterers are generally made fun of and are never given a chance to show their prowess. Although the society considers them to be disabled in a way, it denies them the compassion which is usually shown towards disabled people. Where concessions are made for other disabled, the stutterers are either given the concessions nor are they treated with concern and even worse are the taunts pointed at them.

Even though some stutterers have been able to successfully overtake the taunts and displayed their intelligence, they have not been able to showcase their abilities because of the society's indifference to them. On top of that, the society has created a view around them depicting them as a dull lot, giving the world an impression that they are not as intelligent as other people. But one proving point to show that there can be no link between stuttering and intelligence is the number of famous successful people including Sir Winston Churchill, King George VI, etc., who have provoked their astuteness in spite of their stutter.

Mushroom Spawn Making – How to Make Your Own Mushroom Spawn

One of the best things about growing mushrooms is that when you have started to grow them you can continue to grow them for years and years without the need to purchase any more mushroom spawn. It is very simple to create your own spawn and be able to store this in a fridge ready to use for several weeks.

Mushroom spawn is simply some kind of food which has mycelium growing through it. The food is usually some kind of bird seed such as corn or rye grain, and this is used because the mycelium loves to grow through it and because of the shape and small size of the grain it provides many innoculation points (it has a large surface area which means you have more chance of the mycelium “leaping off” and growing through your substrate).

Creating your own mushroom spawn can be a very easy process when you know exactly how its done and when you are aware of the possible problems caused by contaminations (which is why it is very important to have good sterile procedures). To make your own spawn you firstly need your own mushroom spores. Take a mushroom and leave it on a piece of foil to leave a spore print. Next you add a little distilled water to this print (a few millilitres) and mix this solution using something called an innoculation loop (small piece of wire with a metal curve in one end). This will mix the spores with the water. Next you need to use a syringe and suck up this solution. As mentioned before its important that the syringe is clean and any other equipment too.

You can store this spore syringe in a cool place such as a refrigerator until ready to use. Next you will need to get a large jar and fill it up with the chosen grain (such as Rye grain). Place a piece of tyvek over the cover and seal with a metal lid. It helps if you drill 4 small holes in the lid (near the corners) which are used as innoculation points later.

When you are ready take the spore syringe and inject a few millilitres of your solution into the 4 holes in the lid of the jar. Usually one syringe can innoculate around 5 jars. When complete, place the jars in a warm place and after about 4 weeks your contents will have colonised and mushrooms will start to form! Or you could simply use this colonised jar of grain and use it as spawn – the choice is yours. You could even multiply the spawn and turn the 5 jars into as many as 25! This is simply done by getting more jars of grain and mixing in part of the colonised spawn jar with the others. One jar can turn into 10 if done properly!

Symptoms of Swine Flu

Have you or someone you know got Swine Flu? Would you know if they had it? Would you know what to do about it? You would have to be living on the moon to not have heard about Swine Flu, this potentially fatal flu has seen people panic, become fearful, paranoid and more. The best course of action to take of course is to get to know about it, become familiar (theoretically of course) with the flu's symptoms.

Symptoms Of Swine Flu

We know that flu (or influenza is the generic name) and that there are variants. The good news however is that broad speaking speaking all flu's exhibit similar symptoms. Well, I say good news, because it can be bad news too, or in the very least makes differentiation difficult.

Common to all flu's fever, often with a body temperature exceeding 100 Fahrenheit or 38 Celsius. Other common symptoms include fatigue, a feeling of weakness, loss of appetite and possibly coughing and most certainly a loss of motivation to do simple tasks.

Other symptoms of swine flu can be; sore throat, diarrhea, sickness and nasal excretion.

You see, I told you the symptoms are similar to "regular flu", the bottom line and most prudent action is to get you or anyone you know who has swine flu symptoms [http://thehomebusinessventure.com/swineflu.html] is to get checked out by a doctor.

At the first sign of symptoms you really must get a medical professional's opinion, write the symptoms down a piece of paper, in addition to when they first appeared. It's imperative you do so as if pneumonia sets in you could be in real trouble – Pneumonia is a complication you just do not want.

Glaucoma and Laser Surgery

Certain factors can cause poor drainage of aqueous fluids in the eye and this results in the build up of pressure which can cause damage to the optic nerves that helps the eye function for vision. This leads to an eye disease called glaucoma and if left untreated, it can cause permanent loss of vision. Through the years many techniques and procedures have been developed to diagnose and treat it and at this time the most promising solution is glaucoma laser surgery.

Glaucoma comes in different forms and determining what type of glaucoma a patient has helps in determining what treatment options there are. Initially, in an attempt to relieve pressure in the eye, doctors give eye drops and medication taken orally are given. If it does not help, then glaucoma laser surgery is the next option.

Argon laser trabeculoplasty is one form of glaucoma laser surgery technique used primary open angle glaucoma. Tiny burns are made into the trabecular network of the eyes to improve the draining and flow of aqueous fluid in the eyes. A specific form of this procedure is selective laser trabeculoplasty or SLT. This uses laser beams to remove only very specific target cells in the trabecular network. As a result, it improves the flow of aqueous fluids and relieves the pressure.

In some cases, it may take two sessions and in some, it may require repeating the procedure after two or three years. This, however is recommended because it avoids the need for medication after the procedure. It is also the glaucoma laser surgery procedure commonly recommended for pigmentary glaucoma which is common among males of African-American descent.

Angle closure glaucoma results if the space or angle between the iris and cornea is too narrow and this results in poor drainage of aqueous fluids. Peripheral iridotomy is the glaucoma laser surgery option for this type.

To relieve the pressure, laser beams are used to make a small hole on the iris. The space or angle widens as the iris moves away from it. This corrects the flow of aqueous fluids.

For more severe cases of glaucoma, the procedure usually recommended is laser cyclophotocoagulation. An example is when new blood vessels are formed in the eye as a result of diabetic retinopathy. The new blood vessels can seriously affect the flow of aqueous fluids in the eye resulting in pressure buildup. This leads to a form of glaucoma called neovascular glaucoma.

For this glaucoma laser surgery procedure, the doctor uses endoscopic cyclophotocoagulation to observe the ciliary body. This is also connected to an endoscopic camera. This will then guide the application of the laser beam to treat the ciliary body so it reduces or stops the production of fluids. By using a laser beam, part of the ciliary body is destroyed so that it no longer produces aqueous fluid. Less aqueous fluid means less pressure on the eye.

These glaucoma laser surgery procedures are usually painless. Some may feel a slight stinging sensation but apart from that, no major pain is felt. After undergoing glaucoma laser surgery, some rest for a few days is required and soon one can go back to the normal daily routine.

Also, in some cases, the patient needs to take some medication to relieve some minor discomforts that may appear after the procedure. Eye inflammation and slight risks in developing cataract may be some of the problems that may arise after each glaucoma laser surgery.

Glaucoma is a serious problem that can lead to permanent damage to the eye. It is important that it is well-understood and that a number of techniques are available to treat it.

Laser surgery is fast becoming a popular option for glaucoma treatment. The techniques are also becoming more and more advanced and refined to ensure that treatment results only in success and there is complete absence of discomfort during and after the treatment. They are also being improved to make the positive results long lasting, making glaucoma laser surgery a very promising form of treatment for glaucoma patients. As with any medical problem, thoroughly discuss all options with your physician.

Antibody Therapy For Prostate Cancer

Scientists in the US led by Dr. Mark Greene of the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine has developed a monoclonal antibody that they hope will become a successful pharmaceutical agent against prostate cancer. Every year thousands of men die from aggressive forms of this disease. This research holds out hope for those affected although it will be some time before clinical trials will be carried out.

When we become infected by foreign cells such as bacteria or viruses or cancer cells one very important means of defense that we can utilize is to produce antibodies. All cells have proteins on their surfaces known as antigens. When foreign cells enter our bodies the antigens are recognized as foreign by our immune system and B Lymphocytes are prompted to produce antibodies. Once antibodies are formed they act by attaching and binding to the antigens on the surface of the invading cell. This absolutely leads to the destruction of the cell and the removal of the infection or cancer cells. Antibodies are a very powerful weapon in our fight against disease.

There are two significant characteristics of antibodies that we can exploit in the treatment of disease. One is that antibodies are totally specific. For example if we contract an infection such as rubella we will produce an antibody specifically targeted to the rubella virus. The second character is that antibodies remain in our bodies after an infection has been cleared thereby conferring protection into the future against that disease.

It is these characteristics that have led to the development of vaccine technology. Pharmaceutical companies take pathological organizations and treat them so that they can not cause infection. These inactive organisms make up the main component of a vaccine. When a vaccine is administered our immune system recognizes the antigen, antibody is produced and we become immune to future infection.

The cells which produce antibodies are B lymphocytes, which are white blood cells. Scientists can isolate and clone B lymphocytes to produce antibodies in laboratory conditions. These antibodies can then be used to treat infection or cancer. The antibodies produced will be either polyclonal or monoclonal. Polyclonal antibodies are produced from several cell lines. Monoclonal antibodies are produced from just one cell line. To produce a monoclonal antibody a B Lymphocyte is fused with a tumor cell. The fused cell is known as a hybridoma and it has the capability of reproducing endlessly. This technology allows scientists to create unlimited and large quantities of very specific antibody which can be used to treat disease very effectively. One of the major advantages of the use of monoclonal antibodies is its absolute specificity. It targets a cancer cell directly with with very few side effects for the patient.

Antibodies are already being used to tackle diseases such as lymphoma and breast cancer. Up to now there has been no successful antibody therapy for prostate cancer. Dr Greenes research team has produced an antibody called F77 which looks very promising. Despite the research being at a very early stage, it raises the prospect of an effective treatment for advanced prostate cancer for the first time.

Look, No Needles! Dentists Are Now Providing Painless Clinics

If there is one place many of us dread to go, it is the dentist's chair. The sight of a large syringe being injected into tender gums can bring tears to the eyes of even the most red-blooded person. Fears about the dreaded needle, as well as the sight and sound of the high-pitched drill are enough for many to avoid the dentist until we are in consideration pain ourselves. Recent advances in dentistry, however, along with age old relaxation techniques have gone a long way toward riding people of their needle phobia with the result that many patients are now leaving dental clinics without little or pain whateversoever.

CHILD'S PLAY

An English dentist has invented a technique known as photo-activated disinfection or PAD to attack decay in teeth. The method, popular in Australia and Japan, uses a special disinfectant, activated by laser, to kill instead of drill out the bacteria. The tooth can then rebuild itself aided by a porous sealant and a tooth mousse, which is used at home and promotes tooth growth. With no injection, no drilling and no filling, there is no "fear factor" and children, who have more reason than most to visit and be afraid of the dentist, reportedly like using the fruit-flavored mousse on their teeth.

THE WAND

Many dentists through the world now use an electronic injection device called "The Wand", a computer-controlled device that automatically "senses" the precise pressure and flow rate needed to administer the anesthetic. "The Wand" works by using a very thin needle, which is positioned near the gum, but before the needle touches the gum a drop of anaesthetic numbs the surface tissue. As the dentist glides the needle into the gum, the tissue just ahead of the needle tip is numbed by the anesthesia. Once the needle is fully inserted, the computer slowly releases a stream of anaesthetic. There is no sudden prick or burning sensation. 82% of patients surveyed said "The Wand" is a completely painless process.

WATER-BASED LASERS

Dentists in America are using hi-tech laser type devices as an alternative to anaesthesia. Contrary to other laser devices, the dental laser does not use heat and light directly; it uses water combined with air. The high pressure water laser numbs the nerves in the tooth as it cuts, eliminating the need for an anaesthetic. The laser also sterilizes the tooth, enhancing the bond of the filling. Lasers operate with better precision than a drill, making it easier to remove decay and treat specific areas of the tooth. Healing time is also faster, so the risk of infection is greatly reduced. The procedure, according to patients is pain-free.

SURFACE ANAESTHESIA

This involves using an anaesthetic on the surface of the tooth or on the gum in the form of aerosol, gel, ointment, or solution. Surface anaesthesia is mainly used with minor pain procedures such as exploratory procedures, treating abscesses and the extraction of milk teeth in children. The technique can also be used to de-sensitize the insertion point of a needle for complex dental procedures.

THE POWER OF THE MIND

Many dentists today train their patients in hypnodontics, a form of hypnosis to control and eliminate pain. Through deep relaxation techniques, a soothing atmosphere and a calm, reassuring dentist, patients can learn to ease their anxieties and reduce their stress levels. For especially nervous people, dentists sometimes practice deep relaxation techniques in conjunction with harmless Nitrous Oxide or "laughing gas".

MAKING THE WHOLE VISIT MORE COMFORTABLE

More dental clinics are now investing time and technology in painless anaesthetic options because they realize procedures which increase patient's fears can offer a competitive advantage in the market place. Dental clinics have also realized that certain people feel uncomfortable through their visit, and dislike sitting in the chair for long periods. To help them relax, special DVD glasses with a wide selection of movies and sitcoms are provided. Another way of taking people's mind off what the dentist is doing is hand and foot massages before, during and after treatment.

Painless procedures like all of the above now available in clinics throughout the world, so there's no real reason to fear a trip to the dentist in the future. With RevaHealth.com , you can quickly find and contact a dental clinic in the destination of your choice and ask about pain-free treatments.

Mental Retardation – Physical Causes

During the normal development of the individual from conception to maturation, interruptions may occur that result in retardation. These exogenous causes will be discussed according to when they occur-prenatal, perinatal, or postnatal.

The primary prenatal physical causes of retardation are infections and trauma. During the nine months of pregnancy the fetus develops from one cell to a fully functioning body with a brain and all organs in proper order. An interruption of this normal development affects the part of the body that is growing at the time. Most infections are invented from reaching the fetus by the placenta. Rubella, or German measures, is the only acute infection commonly acquired during pregnancy that is not blocked by the placenta. This acute infection disrupted the normal development and results in severe damage and deformity. In one study of 153 children whose mothers contracted rubella during pregnancy, one-half evidenced borderline to severe mental retardation. Deafness, blindness, and heart defects are common.

Trauma includes drugs; maternal undernutrition; radiation; Rh blood incompatibility; chronic maternal infections such as certain viruses, bacteria, and protozoa; and various disorders such as maternal anemia, high blood pressure, and diabetes. Treatment during pregnancy and at birth may reduce the severity of effects in many of these cases.

Perinatal problems, those occurring during the birth process, including prematurity, anoxemia, and direct injury to the head. Premature infants are those born weighing less than 5 1/2 pounds. Babies weighing about 3 pounds at birth stand a greater chance of developing more slowly and evidencing lower intellectual abilities. Anoxemia, or oxygen deprivation, occurs when the placenta is blocked at birth or spontaneous breathing does not occur. In several studies with rhesus monkeys deprived of oxygen at birth, up to 7 minutes of deprivation had no noticeable effect on later functioning. The breech or transverse birth may increase the likelihood of suffocation, but the physician is usually able to turn the baby properly. Direct trauma to the head may arise from a quick birth through a narrow cervical opening. Evidence is scanty for mechanical damage to the head using forceps. It has been suggested that poorly adjusted mothers tend to blame the child's problems on the birth process rather than seeing them as a response to her or the family's tensions.

Postnatal hazards include head injury, asphyxiation, poisons, malnutrition, infections, and brain tumors. Automobile accidents and child abuse are the two most common causes of severe head injury in young children. Meningitis, a viral infection of the brain's lining membrane, and high, persistent fever may affect the brain. These are treatable, and it is usually in several cases that lingering effects will be noted. Asphyxiation may result in brain damage, depending on the length of time of oxygen deprivation.

Babel

Life is Simple – Living it is Complex

Babel

From the first frames of an endless Moroccan desert landscape mystically unfolding with a haunting musical background, the last installment of Alejandro Gonzalez Iñárritu’s trilogy takes hold. Events are taking place that, while seemingly disconnected, cleverly connect as if pieces of a puzzle. The connections are subtle and a small part of a larger story. The beauty of the film is the beauty of Iñárritu’s vision enhanced by cinematographer Rodrigo Prieto and the colourful cast of characters he chose to inhabit the screen from four disparate parts of the world.

The story weaves around the simple idea that small mistakes can take on tragic consequences, and while doing so, a “butterfly effect”- defined in Webster’s New Millennium Dictionary of English as; a chaotic effect created by something seemingly insignificant, the phenomenon whereby a small change in one part of a complex system can have a large effect somewhere else – occurs in the lives of all of the main characters.

There are four stories going on here. The story of Americans Richard (Brad Pitt) and Susan (Cate Blanchette), who, while touring Morocco after the tragic death of one of there children from SIDS, find their relationship strengthened by events that occur as a result of an additional storyline to the film. Two children in a mountain village in Morocco practice with a rifle bought by their sheep-farming father for the purpose of killing predators to his flocks. One son aims for the tour bus and Susan is shot, sparking an international incident with terrorist undertones. While this story evolves, another story is spinning back home in the United States where Richard and Susan’s children are in the care of their Mexican nanny Amelia (Adriana Barrasa) who must attend her son’s wedding in Mexico and cannot find a replacement to mind the children when Richard and Susan are delayed due to the shooting. Amelia’s decision to take the children with her turns into chaos at the hands of her nephew Santiago (Gael Garcìa Bernal). The fourth story woven into this tapestry involves the disturbed life of deaf-mute teenager Chieko (Rinko Kikuchi), who is testing her teenage boundaries in Japan with an abandon created as a result of the death of her mother and life with her distant father.

One powerful scene has ecstasy enhanced Chieko and friends entering a rave to the sounds of a phenomenal remix of Earth Wind and Fires disco hit “September” by Shinichi Osawa. The sound is cleverly muted on and off allowing the audience to experience Chieko’s life first hand in a most disturbing-yet engrossing way. This heart-pumping scene alone is worth the price of admission.

That’s the wonder of the film. It involves the viewer with the struggles in the lives of everyone. Iñárritu’s masterful talent brings an intimacy between the audience and the characters on the screen that is so immediate it hurts to watch their individual pain. Each performance is achingly honest and emotions are revealed so close to the bone that the viewer cannot possibly disconnect from the personal tragedies unfolding.

The film gives you a close-up on the human condition and you are left considering people and places with a familiarity gleaned from the experience of watching.

What Happens After a Blood Test?

Rhesus factor

Some women are described as having Rhesus negative blood. This can be a problem if the baby has Rhesus positive blood. During delivery, blood cells from the baby can pass into the mother's bloodstream and the mother reacts to the foreign blood cells by manufacturing antibodies to destroy them. If the mother becomes pregnant again with a Rhesus positive baby, these antibodies will pass to the baby and start to destroy his red blood cells.

So after giving birth, every Rhesus negative mother is given an injection of anti-D. This masks any of the baby's red blood cells which have got into her bloodstream, so that the mother does not manufacture antibodies against them.

Women who are Rhesus negative have their blood tested repeatedly during pregnancy to make sure that they are not forming anti¬bodies. If antibodies are found, the baby can be treated with blood transfusions while still in the uterus.

Nowadays, Rhesus negative women do not have problems if they have proper antenatal care during each of their pregnancies.

Rubella testing

If your blood sample shows that you have no immunity to rubella:

1. You will be advised to keep well away from any child or adult thought to have rubella (sometimes called German measles).

It will be suggested that you are vaccinated against rubella once your baby has been born (you then need to avoid getting pregnant for the next three months).

If your blood sample shows that you have been recently infected with rubella, you will be offered a termination of your pregnancy (abortion). This is because there is a very high risk of the baby being born with serious problems.

Anemia

If your blood tests shows that you have low levels of haemoglobin, you may:

1. Be advised to eat more foods such as bread, cereals and potatoes which are rich in iron; more fruit and vegetables which contain vitamin C and there help your body to absorb iron.

2. Be prescribed iron tablets (which, for maximum effect, should be taken with the first and last meal of the day).

All pregnant women appear to be slightly anemic because their blood is thinner than that of non-pregnant women (the same amount of red blood cells but much more diluted). Nowadays, there is a strong feeling that mild anemia during pregnancy should not be treated as thinner blood probably improves the circulation through the placenta.