You Can Prevent Stroke

If you've ever witnessed someone suffer a stroke, you understand the humbling nature of this disease. It can reduce the mighty human being to an immobile, helpless creature. Impairment of critical functions like speech, walking, and control of bowel and bladder can wrench control from the body in a moment.

Even perpetually youthful TV personality Dick Clark was stuck down by stroke at age 75, despite the outward appearance of perfect health. Clark's stroke resolved in a six-week hospital stay and, judging from fragmented reports, significant disability. Stroke can be like a devastating fire that strikes without warning, leaving only smoldering rubble. Stroke can so ravage basic bodily functions that often all you can hope for is to regain a portion through rehabilitation.

The disease process that underlies stroke requires decades – 30 or 40 years – to develop. With that much lead time, why are not we better able to detect or stop this crippling disease?

The truth is that we are able to predict many, if not most, strokes. Advances in imaging technology allow detection of atherosclerotic plaque that cause stroke years before it becomes a threat. Progress in deciphering the causes of stroke has also leapt forward.

Unfortunately, your neighborhood physician still focuses on diagnosing the crisis rather than anticipating it. Physicians prefer to deal with catastrophes and are just not that interested in prevention. Most doctors ask: "Is it time to operate or not?" The medical community obsesses over procedures like carotid endarterectomy (surgical removal of plaque) or carotid stents. Even when a person is afforded the warnings of a "mini-stroke", or transient ischemic attack (TIA), little more is done once it's determined that surgery is not necessary – even though this person has high risk for future stroke (50) % over 10 years).

Let's flip-flop this approach to stroke. Procedures represent a failure of prevention!

Where do strokes come from?

Stroke develops when some portion of the brain is deprived of blood. This usually results from a tiny bit of debris that dislodges from an atherosclerotic plaque along the walls of an artery (the same sort that accumulates in coronaries causing heart attack). The sources of debris have been a subject of controversy, but new imaging technologies have settled the question. Any blood vessel that leads from the heart to the brain can be a source. The two carotid arteries on both sides of your neck are a frequent source, as these arteries are pre to develop plaque. (Our discussion will be defined to what are called thromboembolic, or ischemic, strokes, ie, strokes that occurs from plaque that fragments, sending debris to the brain, and will not include the far less common hemorrhagic strokes due to rupture of small vessels in the brain, nor will we discuss atrial fibrillation and other heart causes of stroke.

Over the last 10 years, the aorta has been recognized as another important source of stroke. The aorta is the main artery of the body which branches go to the head, arms, and legs.

Atherosclerotic plaque is a live tissue that, through poor diet ,activity, high cholesterol, overweight, etc., grows and becomes progressively more unstable. At some point, plaque fragments. Little bits break away, traveling to the brain. Fractured plaque also poses its detrimental structures to flowing blood, triggering blood clot formation, which in turn can also fragment and go to the brain. Atherosclerotic plaque is a prerequisite for the most common causes of stroke.

If the majority of strokes originate from plaque, why not measure plaque to determine if you're at risk for stroke? How can we easily, safely, and accurately measure plaque in the carotid arteries and aorta? And if plaque can be measured, can it be shrunk or inactivated to reduce or eliminate risk for stroke?

How can plaque be measured?

Just 20 years ago, the only practical method of identifying plaque in the carotids or aorta was through angiography, requiring catheters inserted into the body to inject x-ray dye. Angiography was impractical as a screening measure.

CT scanning and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are emerging as exciting methods of imaging both carotids and aorta. Unfortunately, most centers and physicians are much more focused on the diagnostic uses of these technologies for people who have already suffered stroke or other catastrophe, and application of these devices for preventive uses is still evolving. One exception is when aortic calcification or aortic enlargement is incidentally noted on the increasingly popular CT heart scans; This is an important finding that can signal presence of aortic plaque.

The one test that is broadly available and can be performed in just about any center is carotid ultrasound. It's simple, painless, and precise. Two basic observations can be made:

1. Plaque detection – Atherosclerotic plaque can be clearly visualized. If plaque blocks more than 70% of the diameter of the vessel, or if there are "soft" (unstable) elements in plaque, then stroke risk may be high enough to justify surgery or stents. However, if there are plaques that are less severe, substantial risk for stroke may still be present that can be reduced with preventive measures.
2. Carotid intimal-medial thickness – This is a measure of the thickness of the lining of the carotid artery in areas not involved by plaque, but often precedes the development of mature plaque. Carotid intimal-medial thickness also provides an index of body-wide potential for atherosclerotic plaque that can place you at risk for stroke. The aorta, for instance, can not be well imagined by surface ultrasound but can still be a source for stroke. Increased carotid intimal-medial thickness and carotid plaque are closely associated with likelihood of aortic plaque. The Rotterdam Study of 4000 participants demonstrated that if carotid intimal-medial thickness is greater than normal (1.0 mm), then you can be at risk for stroke (and heart attack), even if no carotid plaques are detected.

Carotid ultrasound is the one test you should consider that provides the most information with least effort. Ultrasound is harmless, painless, and can be obtained just about anywhere. Even if your doctor disagrees with your request for a carotid ultrasound, an increasing number of mobile services are popping up nationwide that make this test available for around $ 100. One important point: many scanners and interpreters will only report whether plaque is present or not. While this is important information, you should request that the carotid-intimal medial thickness be made as well. Not all centers can make this simple measure (because of software requirements), but it does not hurt to try. Any amount of carotid plaque is reason to follow a preventive program, even if the plaque is insufficient to justify surgery.

Can plaque be reduced?

Can we shrink plaque in carotid arteries and aorta and thenby reduce, possibly eliminate, these sources of stroke? That question is gaining momentum as effective therapies become available that pack real punch for reducing plaque.

Study after study has now documented that plaque can be reduced and, with it, risk for stroke. Reduction in plaque of 10-20% is possible within a year or two. Let's consider the most potent effects on carotid and aortic plaque growth that need to be considered in a plaque-reducing program. (I assume that you are a non-smoker – if you are a smoker, you first need to concentrate on quitting.)

Hypertension

Considerable experience documents the power of blood pressure-lowering for prevention of stroke. The most recently updated guidelines, the JNC-VII, recommends a blood pressure of Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome, and Hyperinsulinemia

Just being overweight increases the risk of stroke. A Swedish study in 7400 obese men had double the risk of stroke compared to non-obese men. Increased body weight leads to diabetes and its close relationships, metabolic syndrome and hyperinsulinemia (increased insulin levels), which play an overwhelmingly important role in increasing stroke risk. Of people who suffer strokes, a shocking 70% have one of these diagnoses. When diabetes is present, risk for stroke can be as much as six-fold higher.

Metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance, predecessors of diabetes, are far more common than full-blown diabetes. Metabolic syndrome consists of excessive abdominal fat, high blood pressure, low HDL cholesterol, increased triglycerides, and resistance to insulin. Metabolic syndrome is rampant through the US, afflicting one of three adults due to sedentary lifestyles, processed foods, and overweight. High insulin levels and resistance to insulin are powerful drivers of plaque growth, and carotid plaque grows faster. Judging from the rapid escalation of precalence of metabolic syndrome and diabetes in the population, it is likely that an epidemic of stroke is in our country's future.

LipoproteinsSMall LDL, IDL, and Lipoprotein (a)

More than high cholesterol, various lipoprotein abnormalities carry greater risk for carotid and aortic plaque growth and stroke. Lipoproteins are fat-carrying proteins in blood that cause plaque growth. Patterns which are instigators of plaque growth and stroke include:
o Small LDL particlesSMall LDL particles cause carotid plaque growth more than large LDL particles. This abnormality also triples heart attack risk.
o Intermediate-density lipoproteins (IDL) These triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (present even when triglycerides are low) are a measure of how effectively you clear fat from blood after a meal. IDL is a potent driver of carotid plaque growth. Increased IDL also creates fat-rich plaque that makes it more prone to fragment.
o Lipoprotein (a) This underappreciated lipoprotein is associated with heightened risk of stroke and heart attack by promoting blood clotting, constricting arteries, and increasing dangers of cholesterol. Carotid ultrasound studies have shown that lipoprotein (a) causes accelerated plaque growth.

Fibrinogen

This blood clotting protein not only causes carotid plaque growth, but also contributes to formation of unstable plaques, ones that have more inflammatory cells and a thinner tissue covering, making plaque more rupture-prone. An Oxford University analysis of 5000 participants confirmed the role of fibrinogen in increasing stroke risk. Fibrinogen levels> 407 mg / dl heightens stroke risk six-fold.

C-reactive protein (CRP)

This measure of pollution is proving to be a useful marker for identifying people at risk for stroke, with increased risk beginning at a level of 0.5 mg / l. High CRP also precedes more rapidly growing carotid plaque.

Homocysteine

Homocysteine ​​is an important marker of increased likelihood of both carotid and aortic plaque, as well as stroke. In 1997, the European Concected Action Project reported more than a doubling of stroke when homocysteine ​​levels exceeded 12 mol / l. As homocysteine ​​increases to 20 μmol / l, risk for stroke and heart attack increases an amazing 10-fold over that at a level of 9 μmol / l.

Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA)

ADMA is recently discovered amino acid which blood levels can skyrocket up to 10-fold in the presence of hypertensive, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, high cholesterol and triglycerides, obesity, and high homocysteine ​​levels. ADMA blocks the action of the amino acid, l-arginine. This mimicry reduces the availability of nitric oxide, a powerful dilator and protector of arteries. ADMA levels in the top 10% predict a six-fold heightened risk for future stroke, and ADMA levels in people with strokes are double that in other people. A carotid ultrasound study in 116 subjects showed that higher blood levels of ADMA are associated with more severe carotid plaque. Because of ADMA's shared role across a variety of abnormal conditions, correction or blocking the action of the ADMA has been proposed as a unique therapeutic tool to reduce stroke risk.

Cholesterol

Data suggest that lowering cholesterol with statin cholesterol-lowering drugs slows carotid plaque growth and reduce stroke risk approximately 22%. An interesting study from the Cardiovascular Institute at Mt. Sinai School of Medicine in New York using the precursor measuring ability of MRI of the carotids and thoracic aorta shown an impressive 20% regression of plaque area with simvastatin (Zocor®) taken for two years.

Although guidelines for cholesterol treatment recommend reduction of LDL cholesterol to 100 mg / dl in high-risk persons, a report from the Walter Reed Army Medical Center in Washington, DC, showed that carotid plaque was more effectively reduced when LDL cholesterol of 70 mg / dl or lower was achieved with statin cholesterol drugs. Lower LDL cholesterol may, therefore, be better.

Treatment Strategies to Reduce Carotid and Aortic Plaque

The essential question: How do we reduce carotid and aortic plaque? If we make this the focus of our efforts, many pieces begin to fall into place. If you've had any measure of carotid or aortic plaque such as a carotid ultrasound or aortic calcification on a CT heart scan, you know that you're at increased risk for stroke. You also have a baseline for future comparison to gauge whether your program is working or not.

Because most people have not one but multiple causes of carotid and aortic plaque, there is no one single treatment that effectively eliminates risk for stroke. Instead, most people require a comprehensive program of healthy diet, exercise, supplements, and medication when indicated. Here, we focus on the nutritional supplements that can be critical components of your plaque-reduction program.

Fish oil

Fish oil is a cornerstone of your stroke prevention program. Epidemiological observations suggest a strong relationship of fish intake and reduction of stroke risk. Carotid ultrasound studies demonstrate less carotid plaque with greater intakes of fish.

A cleverly designed University of Southampton study made the fascinating observation that fish oil transforms the structure of carotid plaque. 150 people with severe carotid plaque scheduled for carotid endarterectomy (surgical removal of the plaque) were given fish oil, sunflower oil, or no treatment over several months while waiting for their procedure. (Delays in the British health system permitted this unique design.) Plaque was removed at surgery and examined. Participants taking fish oil had reduced inflammation in plaque and thicker tissue covering the fatty core, marks of more stable plaque. Those taking sunflower oil or no treatment had unstable plaques with greater pollution and thinner, less sturdy covering tissue. This suggests that fish oil stabilizes carotid plaque, making it less likely to rupture and fragment.

A standard capsule of fish oil (containing 300 mg of EPA + DHA) contains the same amount of omega-3s as a 3 oz serving of cod or halibut; three capsules (900 mg DHA + EPA) contain the equivalent of a serving of farm-raised salmon. The dose that sees to provide greatest protection from stroke, lowers triglycerides (that form abnormal lipoproteins; see above), and reduces fibrinogen, is four capsules per day (1200 mg EPA + DHA).

Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10)

Although there are no data specifically addressing whether CoQ10 reduces plaque, it is a marvelously effective way to reduce blood pressure, one of the critical factors causing carotid and aortic plaque growth. A pooled analysis of eight studies showed that, on average, CoQ10 in daily doses of 50-200 mg reduced systolic blood pressure by 16 mm Hg, diastolic pressure by 10 mm Hg. Data suggest that CoQ10 can reverse abnormal heart muscle thickening (hypertrophy), another manifestation of high blood pressure, strongly suggesting that CoQ10 has benefits beyond just reducing pressure.

Supplements to correct the metabolic syndrome

Weight loss is, without question, the most immediate and direct path to correction of this dangerous pre-diabetic condition. A drop of even 10-20 lbs yields improvements across the board: increased susceptibility to insulin, increased HDL, and reductions in triglycerides, CRP, fibrinogen, small LDL particles, and blood pressure. Diet and exercise are fundamental components of an effort to lose weight; low carbohydrate or reduced glycemic index diets (eg, South Beach or Mediterranean) rich in fibers are clearly effective. Several supplements can amplify weight-reduction efforts and be useful adjustments to your lifestyle program. Among them:

White bean extract
White bean extract blocks intestinal absorption of carbohydrates by 66%. 1500 mg twice a day with meals yields, on average, 3-7 lbs of weight loss in the first month of use. The only side-effect is excess gas, due to unabsorbed starches.

Glucomannan
This unique fiber taken prior to meals absorbs many times its weight in water and thebyfill fills your stomach. You inevitably take in less food. Most people lose around four lbs per month using 1500 mg prior to each meal. Interestingly, glucomannan also blunts the rise in blood sugar after meals, an effect that, by itself, may lead to weight loss. Be sure to take with plenty of water.

DHEA
This adrenal hormone is key to maintaining physical stamina, mood, muscle mass in men, and libido in women. A recent randomized, placebo-controlled study at Washington University in 56 subjects showed a 13% decline in abdominal fat (fat that drives resistance to insulin) measured by MRI with 50 mg of DHEA per day at bedtime, along with improved sugar control and lower insulin levels.

Pectin, beta-glucan
Pectin is the soluble fiber in citrus rinds, green vegetables, and apples, also available as a supplement. Beta-glucan is the soluble fiber of oats and is also available as a supplement. Both are wonderful fibers that provide feelings of fullness, lower cholesterol, slow release of sugars, and can yield modest weight reduction. A USC study in 573 subjects using carotid ultrasound shown that greater intake of healthy fibers like pectin and beta-glucan is associated with less carotid plaque growth.

Folic acid, vitamins B6 and B12
Dr. Daniel Hackam at the Stroke Prevention and Atherosclerosis Research Center in Ontario conducted a study using carotid ultrasound in 101 participants treated with folic acid 2.5 mg, vitamin B6 25 mg, and B12 250 mcg per day. Treatment resulated in plaque reduction, especially when homocysteine ​​levels exceeded 14μmol / l at the start, compared to untreated participants who experienced substantive plaque growth.

An attempt to clarify the role of homocysteine ​​treatment was made through a National Institute of Health-sponsored study of stroke prevention. 3680 participants with a prior history of stroke were controlled and given either a "low-dose" (20 mcg folic acid, 0.2 mg B6, 6 mcg B12) or a "high-dose" (2.5 mg folic acid, 25 mg B6, 400 mcg B12) regimen. Although starting homocysteine ​​levels shown a graduated association with stroke risk (higher homocysteine ​​levels predicted greater stroke risk), the treatment groups experienced, on average, only a 2 μmol drop in homocysteine ​​levels and no reduction in stroke risk over two years. The study investigators as well as critics have suggested that the study failed due to an inadequate treatment period and that the doses were too low. (The doses we use in our plaque reduction program are folic acid 2.5-5.0 mg, B6 50-100 mg, B12 1000-2500 mcg.)

L-arginine
L-arginine can be used to overpower the adverse effects of ADMA. L-arginine is emerging as an important carotid plaque-reversing tool. Early reports in animals showed that l-arginine completely halved growth of aortic plaque, and did so more effectively than lovastatin (a cholesterol-lowering drug).

In humans, L-arginine reduces blood pressure, abnormal constriction of carotid and coronary arteries, blocks entry of inflammatory cells into plaque, increases sensitivity to insulin, and heightens exercise capacity. Following coronary angioplasty or stent placement, l-arginine results in up to 36% reduction in plaque growth.

The average American takes in 5400 mg of l-arginine through food every day. Supplementing with doses of 3000-12,000 mg per day has proven useful to correct many of these phenomena. (We use a dose of 6000 mg of l-arginine powder, twice a day on an empty stomach, dissolved in water, for our plaque regression program.) Does this result in a reduction of stroke risk? The emerging data suggest that l-arginine is likely to exert a powerful plaque-reducing and stroke-preventing benefit, but we await more clinical trial data.

Conclusion

Reducing stroke risk by reversing carotid and aortic plaque is becoming an everyday reality, with better tools becoming available. To know whether you're at risk, the best and most available imaging tool is carotid ultrasound, aiming to identify intimal-medial thickness> 1.0 mm, or carotid plaque. Any degree of calcification of the aorta, such as on a CT heart scan, is another useful measure of risk.

Treatment to reduce risk is multi-faceted but is based on examining all your sources of risk, including metabolic syndrome, small LDL, lipoprotein (a), and C-reactive protein. Fish oil is the one absolutely critical ingredient in any stroke prevention program. Other supplements can be used in a targeted fashion, depending on the causes identified for your carotid or aortic plaque. Ideally, repeat scanning of your carotids should be done once after your program has begun to assess whether you've successfully achieved reversal of plaque growth.

Signs of Stroke – Can Meditations Cause a Stroke in an Otherwise Healthy Person?

Adam was in a good health condition when a stroke hit him. He was doing sports frequently, did not smoke or drink and was not overweight. He also was not aware of suffering from hypertension. What went wrong?

There are various signs of a stroke. It is not true that only obese or old people or people with hypertension can get a stroke. However, Adam did suffer from sever arthritis and took different medications. One was known to cause blood clotting.

Adam was only 42 when he had a stroke. Could the arthritis medication be the reason for it? Probably. Medication can have many different side effects. We all know that. Especially when you take different medications at the same time then the combination to those drugs can have unexpected results. Never take medication without consulting a physician and always tell your physician about the other drugs you probably take.

You often can not tell that someone has a stroke or not. But there is no time to waste. Getting quick treatment is crucial. If you believe you have a stroke then call 911 if you can. If you think someone else has a stroke ask him or her to lift the arms, smile broadly or repeat a simple sentence. If the person can not lift an arm, the smile looks odd or can not repeat the sentence you should get immediate help. If in doubt, get a physician and do not mess around.

Do not give the person medication. It could be that this medication caused the stroke and makes it even worse. There is nothing much you can do then getting help as quickly as possible.

Understanding Alopecia – Causes and Treatment

You see that you're losing tremendous amount of hair and this worry you too much. You think you're healthy and the hair loss just freaks you out. What gives? At some point of every individual's lives, hair loss is most likely to occur. Hair loss or alopecia occurs to both genders. Alopecia, for those unacquainted with it, is the widely-used medical term to describe hair loss in women. However, alopecia can be further differentiated into two more medical conditions which are alopecia areata and androgenic alopecia.

What do you think are the causes of alopecia? A less commonly-known cause of alopecia is the fluctuations in the female hormone estrogen which is acknowledged to contribute to lush hair growth. Women who are close to their menopausal years may find that their estrogen levels tend to fall at this time, so their hair does not grow out in the same volume as in previous years. Actually, it is quite difficult to make the distinction between alopecia caused by heightened testosterone levels and alopecia triggered by a drop in estrogen levels because they have almost the same symptoms.

There are actually 2 identifying state undering in alopecia and both are worth considering for:

1. Alopecia areata

This is caused by a malfunctioning immune system that tends to target your hair follicles. The main symptom of this type of hair loss is losing hair in patches around the scalp. This type of alopecia is rather unstable because sometimes the hair will grow back again even without medical attention, while in other cases the hair loss is permanent and may even progress further. One source attributes alopecia areata to an under-functioning thyroid gland that has also been targeted by the immune system. The problem is, even when the thyroid has been properly trated that will not bring back your lost hair.

2. Androgenic alopecia

This second sub-condition is caused by malfunctioning hormones and happens to occur quite commonly nowdays – one estimate places incidence at 20% of the entire female population. It is attributed to the overproduction of the androgenic hormone called testosterone which usually is produced in large quantities in male bodies but not to a very significant degree in women under normal conditions. When there is too much testosterone in men, they start to lose hair on their scalp but grow more hair on their bodies, for some strange reason. Women who have too much testosterone may find themselves losing hair on their scalp, growing facial hair and body hair to an alarming degree, and experiencing an outbreak of acne because their skin produces to the heightened testosterone levels.

Regardless of what causes alopecia or hair loss in women or to what degree, it is very traumatizing for women anyway because the hair on a woman's scalp is her crowning glory. A plain-looking woman with healthy hair can seem more beautiful than a pretty woman who is balding. That is why, when women start seeing the symptoms of alopecia on their heads, they will probably try to seek medical help as soon as possible.

If you do seek medical attention, your doctor may ask for a wait and see period to check if you are simply going through a phase where you experience a faster degree of shedding of hair (called telogen effluvium), or are really suffering from alopecia. Your doctor may prescribe certain treatments that aim to increase hair growth in your scalp again. One is to lower testosterone levels by consumption of oral contraceptives. Another is to take medicines that can halt the production of testosterone. Washing your scalp with a hair re-growth solution minoxidil is a third option. But bear in mind that all treatments have their own special effects so you need to be cautious about pursuing any hair re-growth program, particularly if you are pregnant.

General Clinical Assessment of Eyes, Ears, Nose, Mouth, Throat and Neck of a Newborn

Knowing the peculiarities of some body parts of the newborn ensure a very accurate clinical assessment to detect or differentiate between a healthy child and a sick one.

Eyes
Usually the newborn keeps his eyes tightly closed. It is best to begin the examination of the eyes by observing the lids for edema, which is normally present for the first 2 days after delivery. A mongoloid slant, the lateral upward slope of the eyes with an inner epicanthal fold. may be indicative of Down's syndrome, The eyes should be observed for symmetry and for hypertelorism. The mean distance between the inner distance is 2cm, 3cm or more is considered ocular hypertelorism.

Tears usually does not appear until the first or second month of life. Purulent discharge from the eyes shortly after birth may signify Ophthalmic neuronum caused by gonorrhea, Chemical irritation or conjunctivitis may appear within 1 hours after instillation of silver nitrate but should last only 24 hours. The doctor carefully notes and records any discharge.

In order to visualize the surface structures of the eyes, the doctor holds the infant supine and gently lowers the head. The eyes will usually open, similar to the mechanism of dolls' eyes. The Sclera should be white and clear. The Cornea is examined for the presence at birth but is generally not elicited without brain or eye damage is suspected. The pupil usually responds to light by constricting. Absence of the pupillary reflex. particularly by 3 weeks of age, suggests blindness. A fixed, dilated or constricted pupil may indicate anoxia or brain damage.

A searching nystagmus is common after birth. Strabismus is a normal finding because of the lack of binocularity. The color of the iris is noted. Most light-skinned newborns have slate gray or dark blue eyes, whereas dark-skinned infants have brown eyes. Absence of color is characteristic of albinism. Although it is quite difficult to perform a funduscopic examination of the retina, a red reflex should be icedited. Absence of the red reflex may indicate the presence of retinal heamorrhages or congenital cataracts.

Ears
The ears are examined for position, structure, and auditory function. The pinna is often flattened, An otoscopic examination is ordinarily not performed because the canals are filled with vermix caseosa and amnioti fluid. making visualization of the drum difficult. Auditory sbility can be assessed by making a sharp, loud noise close to the infant's head. Normally the infant will respond with a startle reflex or twitching of the eyelids. Absence of any behavioral response to a sudden noise may indicate congenital deafness and should always be reported.

Nose
The nose is usually flatted after birth, and bruises are not uncommon. Patency of the nasal canals can be assessed by holding the hand over the infant's mouth and one canal and noting the passage of air through the unobstructed opening. If nasal patency is questionable, it should be reported because newborns are obligatory nostrils.

Thin white mucus is very common in the newborn, but a think, bloody nasal discharge without sneezing is very common in the newborn. Flaring of the nares is always noted because it is a serious sign of air hunger from respiratory distress.

Mouth and throat
The doctor inspects the mouth to identify existing structures. The palate is typically high-arched and somewhat narrow; a common finding is Epstein's pearls- small, white, epithelial cysts along both sides of the midline of the hard palate. They are insignificant and disappear in several weeks.

The frenulum of the upper lip is a band of think, pink tissue that lies under the inner surface of the upper lip and extends to the maxillary alveolar ridge. It usually disappears as the maxilla grows. It is particularly evident when the infant yawns or smiles. The sucking reflex is elicited by placing a nipple or tongue blade in the infant's mouth. The infant should exhibit a strong, vicious suck. The root reflex is obtained by stroking the cheek and aware the infant's response of turning towards the stimulated side and sucking.

It is difficult to examine the back of the throat. If the doctor attempts to depress the tongue, the infant objects with strong reflex protrusion of the tongue. Therefore, it is best to visualize the Uvula while the infant is crying and the chin is depressed. However, the Uvula may be retracted upward and backward during crying. Tonsillar tissue is generally not seen in the newborn.

Neck
The newborn's neck is short and covered with folds of tissue. Adequate assessment of the neck requires allowing the head to fall gently backward in hyper-extension while the back is supported in a slightly raised position. The doctor observes for range of motion, shape, and any abnormal masses.

The Glossopharyngeal Nerve and Vagus Nerve (Cranial Nerves IX and X) and Their Disorders

Since these two cranial nerves are intimately connected, they are described here together. The glossopharyngeal nerve has a sensory and motor component. The motor fibers arise from the nucleus ambiguous located in the lateral part of the medulla. Along with the vagus and accessory nerves, they leave the skull through the jugular foramen. They supply the stylopharyngeus muscle function function is to elevate the pharynx. Autonomic afferent fibers of the glossopharyngeal nerve arise from the inferior salivatory nucleus. The preganglionic fibers pass to the otic ganglion through the less superior petrosal nerve. and postganglionic fibers pass through the auriculotemporal branch of the fifth nerve to reach to reach the Parotid gland. The nuclei of the sensory fibers of the glossopharyngeal nerve are located in the petrous ganglion which lies within the petrous bone below the jugular foramen and also the superior ganglion, which is small. The exteroceptive fibers supply the faucial tonsils, posterior wall of the pharynx, part of the soft palate and taste sensations from the posterior third of the tongue.

The vagus : This is the longest among all the cranial nerves. The motor fibers arise from the nucleu ambiguus and supply all the muscles of the pharynx, soft palate and larynx, with the exception of tensor veli palati and stylopharyngeus. The parasympathetic fibers arise from the dorsal efferent nucleus and leave the medulla as preganglionic fibers of the craniosacral portion of the autonomous nervous system. These fibers terminate on ganglia close to the viscera which they supply by post-ganglionic fibers. The are parasympatahetic in function. Thus vagal stimulation products bradycardia, bronchial constriction, secretion of gastric and pancreatic juice and increased peristalsis. The sensory portion of the vagus has its nuclei in the jugular in ganglion and ganglion nodosum. The vagus carries sensations from the posterior aspect of the external auditory meat and adjective pinna and pain sensation from the duramater lining the posterior cranial fossa.

Testing : It is better to test the 9th and 10th nerve functions together as they are affected usually together. Inquire for symptoms like dysphagia, dysarthria, nasal regurgitation of fluids and hoarseness of voice. The motor part is tested by examining the uvula when the patient is made to open his mouth. The Uvula is usually in the midline. In unilateral vagal paralysis, the palatal arch is flattened and lowered ipsilaterally. On phonation, the uvula is deviated to the normal side.

The gag reflex or the pharyngeal reflex is elicited by applying a stimulus, such as a tongue balde or cotton to the psoterior pharyngeal wall or tonsillar region. If the reflex is present, there will be elevation and contraction of the pharyngeal musculature accompanied by retraction of the tongue. The afferent arch of this reflex is reserved by the glossopharyngeal while the efferent is through the vagus. This reflex is lost in either 9th or 10th nerve lesions. Test for general sensations over the posterior pharyngeal wall, soft palate and faucial tonsils, and taste over the posterior third of the tongue. These are impaired in glossopharyngeal paralysis.

Disorders of ninth and tenth nerve functions
Isolated involvement of either nerve is rare and usually they are involved together, often the eleventh and twelve nerves may also be affected. Glossopharyngeal neuralgia resembles trigeminal neuralgia, but it is much less common. It occurs as paroxysmal intense pain originating in the throat from the tonsillar fossa. It may be associated with bradycardia and in such cases it is called vegoglossopharyngeal neuralgia. A trial of phenytoin or carbamazepine is usually effective in relieving pain. Brain stem lesions like motor neuron disease, vascular lesions such as lateral medullary infarction or bulbar poliomyelitis can affect these nerves together resulting in bulbar palsy. Posterior fossa tumors and basal meningitis may involve these nerves outside the brain stem. Complete bilateral vagal paralysis is incompatible with life. Involvement of the recurrent laryngeal nerves, especially the left, occurs in thoracic lesions and this produces only hoarseness of voice without dysphagia.

How to Treat a Sports Injury?

Any game is bound to have injuries and wounds. That is a part and parcel of any game. Even if you take all safety precautions, there is bound to be an injury or two. You just can not separate injury from sports. But, you must not stop playing games because of this fear. There are ways to treat wounds and injuries. By proper first aid steps it is possible to deal with any wound and help in its healing process. Let us learn about this in depth.

If you have an injury or wounded, the thumb rule is to stop playing immediately. The first step you must take is no to exert yourself physically. Most if this is followed you can deal with the injury very well. If you also experience too much pain and swelling, then you should definitely not continue the game. Any physical stress could make the problem worse. If there is little pain then you can continue. But, if the pain is unbearable you must simply stop playing first.

The most commonly bought first aid cure is the ice pack. It is perfect for any sports injury. The ice reduces the pain on the wound and the area around it. This assists in the healing of the wound too. Ice pack is ideal for injuries like tears, springs, bruises and strains. The pain will be minimized and even the inflammation, if any. Regular use of the ice pack several times during the day will help you to cure the injury.

First aid is very essential if you face an injury that has external bleeding. It is very important to provide basic medical immediately. In case of injuries like this, mostly people hold the wound benefit a running tap. This method should be avoided as it is not the right practice. Ideally you must clean the wound very well using a moist cotton pad. Once it is clean then you must look for some anti-bacterial solution. This must be put over the wound to prevent any infection and stop the bleeding. If bleeding does not stop then continue with the ice pack. Antiseptic cream is also good for the healing of the wound.

Heat packs are also of great help in dealing with sports injuries. But remember not to use heat packs on a fresh wound. This could make the injury worse and add to the problem. First measures like ice pack and anti-bacterial cream or solution should be used. Only after the wound has been treated with basic first aid and is clean you must use heat pack. Heat packs are very useful to relieve muscle tension and heal blood clotting. It also brings the pain. Ensure that your heat pack is not beyond your bearable limit. It could burn your skin.

It is always not possible to see a physician at the time of the injury. These first aid measures will help you to deal with the injury immediately. It is very important to give first aid to any injury.

Can Chiropractic Treatment Help Scoliosis?

Back pain is one of the most common health complaints by people across the world. The pain may be localized into one or more of the three major segments of the spinal column; cervical (neck area), thoracic (middle back), lumbar (just above the buttocks), and sacral spine (down into the buttocks area).

By far the most common location of back pain is the lower spine, or lumbar (also called lumbago). Acute low back pain (lumbago) is the number five most common reason for visits to the doctor. But there is another, potentially more serious, spinal problem, and that is scoliosis.

What Is Scoliosis?

Scoliosis is a Greek word meaning curvature; thus scoliosis is a lateral or sideways curvature of the spine. Scoliosis is more common in females, and usually begins in childhood. It is estimated that approximately 2% of the population suffers from this condition. The curvature can start at the thoracic area of ​​the spine, and rotate down to a hump at the rib cage. The Adams Forward Bending Test is even used in Physical Education classes in schools to determine if any children may be afflicted with this abnormality.

The causes of scoliosis are not fully known, which is why it is referred to as "idiopathic". In children three or youngger, it is called infantile scoliosis; ages 4-10 is juvenile scoliosis; and older kids, 11-18, adolescent scoliosis. There is also congenital scoliosis (present at birth) and neuromuscular scoliosis, usually caused by a nervous system malfunction affecting muscles (eg, polio, cerebral palsy, muscular dystrophy, and spina bifida). Scoliosis can worsen during growth spurts.

There are no symptoms overall. However, the Bending Test may show one shoulder higher than the other, the pelvis is tilted; your chiropractor can measure the lengths of the legs to check for uneven lengths. A person suffering from scoliosis can have low back pain, a tired feeling in the spine after sitting or standing for long periods.

It is very important to have X-rays taken from the spine, since a curvature may be worse than can be detected by visual examination. There are also MRI scans, and a special spinal curve measurement called scoliometer screening. If it is determined that scoliosis is present, then the individual may choose chiropractic treatment.

It should be noted that most idiopathic scoliosis cases do not need treatment of any kind. The only thing required could be a back brace, which can be adjusted as the child grows. Only in the most severe cases is surgery recommended by medical professionals.

While there are not many really definitive studies on chiropractic treatment of scoliosis, there are certainly encouraging results with specific chiropractic treatments of mild idiopathic scoliosis (less than 20 degrees curvature, with no complicating conditions) in children 9-15 years old. The full-spell adjustments were given three times a week, for one year. Special attention was paid to the sacroliliac joints. Muscle work around the curvature area was also performed. Children with mild scoliosis are encouraged to exercise regularly, and to hang by the hands to encourage the spine to open the concavity of the curve. There has been as much a reduction of 2.6 degrees in spine curvature by utilizing chiropractic treatment of scoliosis.

The medical community does not offer any treatments at all for spinal curves less than 20 degrees, and may not even consider this spinal variance as a case of scoliosis.

While the chiropractic treatment of scoliosis is still in its investigative research phase, the results so far have been extremely encouraging. There still have to be randomized, controlled clinical trials. But chiropractic care of scoliosis offers distinct advantages over the management and monitoring of early-stage scoliosis.

Smartphone Display: Types, Pros & Cons

A smartphone's screen acts as an interface between the device and a user. It is one of the most essential and most delicate components in a Phone / Tablet / PC / Laptop. We interact with our device through a screen, give commands, receive output all through a surface, in short smartphones are nothing without a screen! These smartphones feature different types of display screen each having its own set of merits and demerits. All additional features like color contrast, contrast ratio, sunlight legibility, brightness depends on the type of screen that a smartphone has. Today, smartphones are becoming all screen and iPhone X is an apt example of that! There is an increased demand for large screen phones with a size equal or above 6 inches.

Here are the most common type of screens with their pros and cons. Read till the end to know more about the type of screen that your smartphone features:

TFT is the most commonly used surface in budget phones. TFT LCD offers good quality images & higher resolution. TFT features narrow viewing angles that do not offer HD view when seen from the edges or in the sunlight. It offers the best view and HD colors when seen from the front. TFT's are all passé now and the upcoming smartphone models do not feature it.

IPS LCD's are considered the best all! They consume less power as compared to the TFT ones and offer better view even if seen from the edges of the screen. IPS screen is available in hi-end smartphone models. IPS LCD screens are legitimate in sunlight and have wider viewing angles. The screen consumes less power and emits true to life colors. The screen is backed by a backlight which consumes less battery than the TFT surface but the battery consumption is way more if compared to the OLED screens.

A capacitive screen features a glass and a conductor. It responds to finger touch and is unresponsive if operated by a stylus or gloved hands. The screen offers a great view and colors to the user. Such screen types are not used by the manufacturers anymore.

OLED screens produce better colors, offer wider viewing angles, impressive color contrast and have faster response time if compared to an LCD. An OLED screen is slim, light in weight and does not require a backlight to illuminate the display and then consumes less power. OLED screen is on the expensive side of the range scale.

AMOLED screens do not need a backlight as each pixel on the screen is backed by an LED. High brightness, low power consumption, slim frame, lightweight screen are some major highlights of such screens. These screens are available in hi-end smartphones as they are costlier than the LCD surface. The screen produces pleasing and true to life colors.

Super AMOLED is an improved version of the basic OLED / AMOLED screens. Samsung used the term for marketing purposes with a few improvements. It has the thinnest display screen, its light weight and produces great color contrast and lifelike colors.

Retina display is not a different technology it's another name for IPS LCD with an LED backlight. The term was used by Apple as a promotion tool.

The smartphone market is growing every day and the current focus is not on the specifications of the phone rather has shifted to the looks and screen! The demand for big screen phones has risen in the recent past. This rise has led to the emergence of diverse mobile screens such as LCD, OLED, AMOLED, Super AMOLED and more.

Eye Exercises for Myopia

Eye exercises for myopia are one of the best ways to reverse and manage your myopia. Myopia, known as nearsightedness, occurs when the parallel light rays from distant objects fail to reach the retina and instead are focused in front of it. Distant objects seem indistinct to myopic people. Nearsighted patients see near objects clearly while they find it difficult to focus on distant objects. The cause of near-sightedness can be genetic or environmental, or more likely, a combination of the two. As you know, there is nothing that you can do about your genes, but you can do plenty about your environment. It means that you have to take care of your eyes and how you use them.

Nearsightedness is usually corrected with eyeglasses or contact lenses. Myopic people were advised to wear concave corrective lenses to digress the light rays as they enter the eyes; hence, the light converge farther back the eyes. In some cases, a surgery is needed to reshape the curvature of your cornea. But one of the common prescriptions for vision correction is eye strengthening exercises. One great advantage of doing eye exercise to treat myopia is that patients were prevented from incurring possible complications in subscribing to other treatment options. For instance, complications such as corneal ulcer or infection can occur in people who use contact lenses to manage their myopia. In addition to that, you need not to purchase anything to conduct any of these vision improvement therapy.

When you have myopia, it is likely that your eye muscle grew weaker as you became accustomed in using wrong visual skills. As myopia is becoming a common eye disorder nowadays, there arises a rich catalog of exercise routines that can help in controlling myopia. Some of these eye exercises for myopia are instant relaxants that soothe your tense nerves and relieve eye pains and headaches. Just make sure that you do not strain your eyes as you do the exercise.

One common eye exercise for myopia is to roll your eyes in a circle for 1-2 minutes. This simple exercise can be executed by relaxing yourself in a sitting position and rolling your eyes up and down. You can also make your eyes achieve maximum flexibility by allowing them to do a 180-degree horizontal movement. This is particularly applicable if you felt your eyes get exhausted after using them for a long time. As you do the eye rotation, the six large external muscles responsible in controlling where your eyes is aimed were coordinated and restored. Eye exercises like this prevents double vision and eyestrain. This can also improve your eye coordination.

The same effect can be achieved by doing distance perception test. In this eye exercise for myopia, you have to hold a tiny object with your extended arms. Stare for that object for three seconds, then inhale. As you inhale, move the object nearer to your face as it touch the tip of you nose without removing your eyes from it. Move the object back out when you exhale.

Eye Exercises for Nearsightedness

Other eye exercises for shortsightedness or nearsightedness include relaxing methods that could restore your eye efficiency. The “palming” technique, for example, had you shut your eyes and rest them against your palm which you rub together to generate relaxing heat. Keep you eyes shut throughout the exercise and focus on darkness for a moment. Make sure that the cups of your palms rest gently above your eyebrow and below your check bone. As relaxation sets in your eyes, concentrate on blackness and disregard the flashes of colors. An alternative heating tool to your palm is placing a cloth or towel soaked in lukewarm water. This technique can be complemented with “sunning” technique where you train your eyes to focus on bright lights while keeping them close. If you do not have an artificial light, you can use the sun for this exercise.

Do you also know that myopic patients tend to concentrate a lot when staring at a distant object that they forgot to blink? Blinking improves our eyesight as it maintains our eyes cleansed and lubricated so blinking exercise is one effective routine that nearsighted people can execute. For about three to five minutes, you can blink your eyes at a considerable rate. Do this while you are seated comfortably so that you will not feel dizzy afterwards.

Another popular eye exercise for myopia is the use of our imagination to perceive spatial dimension of the objects around us. You see, two-dimensional or flat perception of distant object is very common to myopic patients. So in order to correct such inefficient visual acuity, it is encouraged that you improve your spatial imagination to achieve three-dimensional perception of distant object. Also, you may try eye exercises that enhance your ability to follow fast-moving objects. This can be done by suspending an object at your ceiling and allowing it to swing back-and-forth. As the object moves, you have to follow that object using your eyes.

If you want to attain quick result, you can try eye relaxation massage to eliminate eyestrain at once. You can do this by applying manageable pressure around your eyes using your thumb. Begin at your nose bridge and move your thumb around your eyes and back to the side of your nose. After some movements, you can notice an instant relaxation of the eye muscles. Likewise, acupressure exercises are said to relax the eye muscles. This eye exercise for myopia had you applying pressure at certain point around the eye area.

If it happens that your eyes feel irritated during the exercise, remember that “eye exercises for myopia” are flexible so you can adjust the way you execute the routine to suit your convenience. However, there are those who questioned the efficiency of eye exercises in eliminating such refractive errors. Just note that these exercises were not yet proven to have completely restored optimal vision. What they can do is to reduce your eyestrain so that you can increase the flexibility of your eye muscles. Again, eye exercise for myopia should not replace the treatment of health professionals.

The Proven Health Benefits of Riding an ATV or Off-Road Motorcycle

Good news! The “first ever comprehensive probe of the fitness and health benefits of all-terrain vehicle (ATV) and off-road motorcycle (ORM) recreational riding” proves riding is as good as it feels.

The study

Conducted over several years by the York University Faculty of Health, co-supported by the Government of Nova Scotia and 3 riding associations, the study began with a meticulous countrywide survey to determine the ‘typical’ rider.

That was the entire first phase of this huge experiment.

Then researchers observed 128 riders, divided into 6 groups: 3 age classifications, male and female. After modifying these riders’ equipment, they could measure physical effects: heart rate; oxygen consumption; muscle fatigue and exertion, etc.

The findings

Riding an off-road vehicle requires genuine and serious physical effort. According to Canadian government fitness standards, it should positively affect your health.

While riding, riders’ use of oxygen increased by 3.5 to 6 times their level at rest. That’s 600% more! And according to standards set by the American College of Sports Medicine, that constitutes moderately intense physical activity.

That same moderate intensity taxes the heart and fatigues the muscles. How much? About the same amount as those other individual sports you take at your own pace, like skiing, golf or climbing.

A typical ATV ride was 2-3 hours; ORM was 1-2 hours. The amount of work required in the upper body and arms, if practiced regularly, was enough to increase muscle and skeletal fitness. And how regularly did they need to ride to begin realizing that increase? Just once or twice a week!

The biggie

Researchers also noticed the emotional high that fit people always talk about: “enhanced quality of life and stress reduction”. This surprised no riders.

Antibody Therapy For Prostate Cancer

Scientists in the US led by Dr. Mark Greene of the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine has developed a monoclonal antibody that they hope will become a successful pharmaceutical agent against prostate cancer. Every year thousands of men die from aggressive forms of this disease. This research holds out hope for those affected although it will be some time before clinical trials will be carried out.

When we become infected by foreign cells such as bacteria or viruses or cancer cells one very important means of defense that we can utilize is to produce antibodies. All cells have proteins on their surfaces known as antigens. When foreign cells enter our bodies the antigens are recognized as foreign by our immune system and B Lymphocytes are prompted to produce antibodies. Once antibodies are formed they act by attaching and binding to the antigens on the surface of the invading cell. This absolutely leads to the destruction of the cell and the removal of the infection or cancer cells. Antibodies are a very powerful weapon in our fight against disease.

There are two significant characteristics of antibodies that we can exploit in the treatment of disease. One is that antibodies are totally specific. For example if we contract an infection such as rubella we will produce an antibody specifically targeted to the rubella virus. The second character is that antibodies remain in our bodies after an infection has been cleared thereby conferring protection into the future against that disease.

It is these characteristics that have led to the development of vaccine technology. Pharmaceutical companies take pathological organizations and treat them so that they can not cause infection. These inactive organisms make up the main component of a vaccine. When a vaccine is administered our immune system recognizes the antigen, antibody is produced and we become immune to future infection.

The cells which produce antibodies are B lymphocytes, which are white blood cells. Scientists can isolate and clone B lymphocytes to produce antibodies in laboratory conditions. These antibodies can then be used to treat infection or cancer. The antibodies produced will be either polyclonal or monoclonal. Polyclonal antibodies are produced from several cell lines. Monoclonal antibodies are produced from just one cell line. To produce a monoclonal antibody a B Lymphocyte is fused with a tumor cell. The fused cell is known as a hybridoma and it has the capability of reproducing endlessly. This technology allows scientists to create unlimited and large quantities of very specific antibody which can be used to treat disease very effectively. One of the major advantages of the use of monoclonal antibodies is its absolute specificity. It targets a cancer cell directly with with very few side effects for the patient.

Antibodies are already being used to tackle diseases such as lymphoma and breast cancer. Up to now there has been no successful antibody therapy for prostate cancer. Dr Greenes research team has produced an antibody called F77 which looks very promising. Despite the research being at a very early stage, it raises the prospect of an effective treatment for advanced prostate cancer for the first time.

Interesting Facts About Gwalior

Gwalior is known for its forts and monuments that are built by the kings of the bygone era. Situated in the Indian State of Madhya Pradesh, the city is a favorite destination for tourists from all around the world. Foreign tourists who plan a visit to India always include this city in their itinerary. The city bears a strong historical legacy which is quite a fascinating fact about Gwalior. The forts and monuments are so huge that leaves you gaping just by looking at it! Let’s have a look into more of the varied facts and the history of this beautiful city.

Legend has it that the king of this region suffered from the deadly disease of Leprosy. He was poised to die because there was no cure for the disease in those days. At this crucial juncture, a sage arrives to the kingdom and knowing the misery that has befallen the king, changes his name and cures him. Delighted by the sage, the king renamed the kingdom as Gwalior. Another interesting fact about Gwalior is the number of forts built by the king that shows the strong resilient nature of the people in those days.

Gwalior has quite a number of tourist attractions. The Gwalior Fort is such a magnificent structure which stands at a height of 35 feet and is about 2 miles in length. Another fascinating fact about Gwalior is that it houses an archeological museum which has a collection of rare artifacts and specimens and even has the king’s possessions. The Suraj Kund Building built in the 15th century attracts with its grandeur and magnificence. The memorial of Tansen, the great musician under Akbar’s rule is also located in Gwalior. The city is a historian’s delight.

Airports and railway stations are located in the city itself and transportation is not an issue over here. An interesting fact about Gwalior is the Tansen music festival, celebrated annually in the months of November and December. The festival is a major cultural event comprising of performances from eminent dancers and musicians. Gwalior has a pleasant climate from the months of October to March. The tomb of Mohammad Ghaus, a saint of the Islamic faith dating back to the 16th century is also located here. The local people are quite gritty and resilient in nature, but they are friendly too. If you want a date with history, you can have an exciting time at this place.

Tonsilloliths 101 – Who Else Wants a Cure For Tonsilloliths

Tonsilloliths, or also called tonsil stones, tonsillar debris, or calculi of the tonsils, are clusters of calcareous matters that build up in the tonsillar crypts of the palatin tonsils. They are white or yellowish and irregularly shaped bumps caused by the collection of food particles, mucous, dead white blood cells, sulfur producing bacteria, post nasal drip and other debris in the mouth. They are not dangerous, but can be an annoying nuisance. People having this problem feel an irritation in the back of their throat.

Tonsilloliths are usually confused with tonsillitis. Tonsillitis is an infection of the tonsils that cause severe sore throat, swollen glands, pain, headache, ear pain and sometimes fever. They can be either a bacterial infection or a viral infection. An antibiotic can be taken to cure a tonsillitis caused by a bacterial infection. A viral infection, however, will take time to go away and will not receive any treatment.

Tonsilloliths irritate the throat and cause horrible bad breath. They are not a serious heath problem and can be treated in the comfort of your own home. But first, you must change your daily oral routine. Brush your teeth at least two times a day followed by scraping of your tongue. You can try to remove these nasty foul smelling chunks by using clean syringes or cotton swabs to force the bumps out. Also, gargle with salt and water solution. Another home remedy you can use is the Waterpik which is a curved tip syringe. You just need to be extra careful not to blast the stones so as not to damage the sensitive areas near your throat. Once the bumps are out, make sure you practice a good oral hygiene to prevent them from coming back.

Penis Size Concerns: How to Avoid Penile Atrophy

For most men, worries about shrinkage are limited to those moments when his penis encounters cold water or chilly air – and in that case, every man is quite accustomed to his penis size diminishing as much as possible as his body tries to protect itself. However, there is another penis size issue that many men worry about, and that is penile atrophy. In some cases, a man will notice this happening gradually as he go about his daily penis care regimen. But what does it mean? Is it permanent? What can he do about it? Here are the answers.

What is penile atrophy?

Penile atrophy is just what it sounds like – a shrinking in penis size. It usually happens very gradually, over the course of several years. But one day, a man might look down to realize that his penis looks a bit different. At this point, many guys will break out the handy measuring tape and discover that yes, their penis is actually a bit shorter than it once was. Needless to say, this is often when a quiet kind of panic ensures.

What causes penile atrophy?

Penile atrophy can be caused by many things, including the simple aging process. As the body gets older, everything changes – and that includes the function and appearance of the penis. But here’s what’s behind the issue.

1. Lower testosterone levels. As a man ages, his levels of testosterone naturally drop. Along with that natural drop comes several physical changes, including issues with sexual function and desire. However, some men have also noticed that the lower their testosterone stays over time, the smaller their penis size becomes. In fact, a man might experience the loss of a full inch between his 30s and 60s.

2. Issues with connective tissue. As a person ages, the wrinkles start rolling in. That happens thanks to the breakdown of connecting tissue in the body. The penis isn’t immune to this, and though it might be tough to see the wrinkles most of the time, the result isn’t so much in the appearance as it is in the penis size. In addition to loss of size, a man might also experience a loss of function, as the penis no longer properly fills with blood when he becomes excited.

3. Gaining a bit of weight. Fatty deposits in the body happen to the best of men, and unfortunately, many of those have a direct impact on the penis. In addition to abdominal fat making the penis appear smaller – even if it really hasn’t changed – fatty deposits in the blood vessels of the body can compromise the blood flow and lead to circulatory problems. This translates into problems with sexual function, such as erectile dysfunction. Besides that, the lack of blood flow means the body isn’t getting the nutrients it needs everywhere it needs them. This sort of ‘malnutrition’ can lead to penile atrophy.

What can be done about it?

For many men, penile atrophy is an inevitable situation. The question isn’t what can be done to stop it, but rather, what can be done to slow it down. The answer to that is pretty simple: A man must exercise regularly, eat properly and take care of his overall health. The more he can fight the signs and issues of aging, the more likely he will continue to have a vital and healthy sex life through his elder years.

In addition to this, a man should take care to give the penis all the help it can possibly get. That’s why an excellent penis health crème (health professionals recommend Man 1 Man Oil, which is clinically proven mild and safe for skin) is a good idea. Formulated with alpha lipoic acid to fight the free radicals that hasten signs of aging, L-carnitine to keep the nerves healthy and vitamin A to fight against aging, a good penis health crème will make sure a man’s penis stays as healthy as possible for as long as possible.

Ultrasound Therapy Explained – An Introductory Guide on Ultrasound Therapy

Ultrasound therapy machines are the modernized machines that are used by the chiropractors and physical therapists in treating muscle pain, arthritis pain and any joint pain in the body. Many Chiropractors prefer ultrasound therapy for their patients as it is one of the best treatment methods today. This kind of treatment method is also referred to as therapeutic ultrasonograpy and generally, it takes a very short time that is, at least three to five minutes to be carried out.

This method works by the use of a wand device, which produces heat that is subjected to the muscles, joints or the tendons to facilitate rapid healing. Apart from healing the joints very fast, ultrasound therapy also increases the blood flow in the body and helps in the vibrating of the body tissues, which in turn speeds up the repair of damaged cells.

Therapeutic ultrasound has several benefits, which include:

– Reduces swelling thought about by heated sound waves
– Reductions inflammation
– Reduces muscle spasms
– Reduces stiffness and pain at the lower back
– Cures other related health complications such as fibrositis, myalgia, radiculitis, sciatica, and osteoathritis among others.

All kinds of treatment have precautions that must be followed strictly in order to avoid other serious health problems and ultrasound therapy is not exempted. When under this kind of treatment you must follow your doctor's advice strictly in order to get the best results in the long run. Some of the safety measures that you have to adhere to when under ultrasound therapy include, including the wand is always mobile and must be used with gel. This is because the gel prevents the patient from burning and it also prevails the wand from breaking. This is particularly important aspect of ultrasound therapy is is mis-understood by most of the individuals.

Several treatment methods can help you solve your problem. Apart from ultrasound, therapy there is also another therapy known as infrared therapy. Infrared therapy uses a lot of light, which penetrates at least two inches into the patient's skin. This infrared light penetration improves the blood circulation in the body. It is also capable of eliminating toxins from the body, which in turn helps in relieving the pains. The same penetration of infrared light brings in good nutrients and together with increased blood flow in the body, it allows for the strengthening of the cardiovascular system among others.