The Three Types of Female Alopecia

Alopecia is the medical terminology used to describe hair loss. It is an especially disturbing condition in women, since it is less publicized and socially accepted than male alopecia. There are three major types of female alopecia: androgenetic alopecia, alopecia areata and Telogen Effluvium.

The most common type of female alopecia is androgenetic alopecia, which is when women have thinning or diffuse hair loss at the top of the head while keeping their front bangs. What happens in this particular type of female alopecia is that hair follicles become sensitive to hormones and there before the follicles produce less hair. The growing cycle of the hair is shortened and, because of this, the production of hair moves slower (and can, at some point, stop in the area).

Causes for androgenetic alopecia are commonly hormonal. While it is not a single cause, stress can aggravate this type of female alopecia. Androgenetic alopecia by definition means related to hormones and genetics, since there seems to be some pattern of heredity (although this is widely disputed). The most common treatments are the popular Rogaine, Tricomin Therapy Spray and Nizoral. Also, antiandrogens are popular among those concretely diagnosed with androgenetic alopecia rather than any other kind of female alopecia. These drugs reverse the actions of the hormones in the body and can help stop hair loss.

When alopecia in women presents with patchy hair loss it is called alopecia areata. Aside from the hairless patches, this type also has "exclamation point hairs" that narrow closer to the scalp, hence the name. This type of hair loss can happen quickly or slowly. Alopecia areata happens due to inflammation of the hair follicles which then lose their supply of nutrients and therefore go into the shedding stage prematurely.

Causes of alopecia areata are mostly unknown, but it is thought generally that this female alopecia subtype is caused by stress, allergies, infection, genetics, poisoning by environmental exposure to toxins or trauma. The treatment for mild cases includes corticosteroid injections and treatment for intensive cases including topical contact sensitization therapy (chemical creams that may reverse the process). There is also an ointment called Anthralin. It is important to mention that it is rare for this specific type of female alopecia to be reversed.

The third and most typically harmless variation of female alopecia is telogen effluvium which is rapid, but temporary hair loss. It can get dangerous, however, when telogen effluvium triggers another subtype that lay dormant in the body and ends up being a permanent condition. With telogen effluvium, instead of the usual loss of 100 hairs per day, it can go up to 400 lost daily. Apart from hair loss, telogen effluvium can also be accompanied by pain in the scalp similar to the pain of hair being ripped out (this is called trichodynia).

Telogen effluvium usually happens because of stress, illness, recent childbirth or crash dieting. The causes for this alopecia in women can be divided into physiologic, injury / stress and drugs. Physiologic causes include postpartum hair loss, which is a natural condition. Typical stress factors include eating disorders, nutrient deficiencies, recent surgery or illness, infection or just plain stress. Drugs that are commonly associated with temporary female alopecia are anticoagulants, anticonvulsants, heavy metals, birth control pills, thyroid medications and antikeratinazing agents. Treatment of usually involves removing the underlying cause for the temporary hair loss which should solve the problem.

It is important to understand that female alopecia is a versatile condition with many types with different symptoms and causes for each one. Going to a doctor for a solid diagnosis is advisable and female alopecia is usually treatable with the affected female being able to lead on a healthy and normal life.

Alopecia Barbae – An Explanation For Balding Facial Hair

Patches of hair loss in the beard is a unique variety of hair loss known as Alopecia Barbae. This condition is portrayed by little circular shaped spots of facial hair loss. It is a type of alopecia so it is in the same class of hair loss as male pattern baldness. Basically, the it is unknown what causes facial hair loss and there is no known way to inhibit Alopecia Barbae. For some men, the bald patches can stay for a lifetime while others experience hair regrowth a few weeks after it fell out.

Although Alopecia Barbae is regarded as harmless, it can diminish a man’s self-esteem and reputation. It is not connected to any other diseases and does not diminish your health in any way. Men who experience Alopecia Barbae once can commonly experience it again at another point in time though this variety of alopecia doesn’t indicate or raise your likelihood for other types of alopecia or loss of hair. There is no way to predict when you may experience another patch of hair loss because, despite popular belief, this form of hair loss is not triggered by stress.

Alopecia Barbae is a reasonably uncommon type of alopecia. Only about two percent of humans suffers from a variety of alopecia areata where hair falls out in occasional areas. Researchers have concluded it is an autoimmune condition where your immune system erroneously assaults healthy human cells because it believes the body is under attack. With alopecia your immune system attacks the hair follicles. The roots of hair follicles become inflamed and the hair can fall out sometimes in just a couple of days. Thankfully, different from the majority of autoimmune conditions, the hair follicles can repair with time and the bald patches can completely fill in.

Dermatologists commonly care for this loss of hair with cortisone injections. The medical doctor will inject many tiny doses of cortisone in the area affected by baldness. Your body naturally creates cortisone with the adrenal glands. It’s basically regarded as a reliable procedure though unintended effects can include skin thickening or sunken areas in the skin at the site of the injection that normally cures itself over time. You could also be prescribed cortisone capsules that you swallow.

The actual harm of Alopecia Barbae is to a man’s self-esteem. Though the issue doesn’t damage the body, society commonly interprets patches of hair loss to indicate significant disease and labels that person as “sickly”. Remedies can help the majority of men regenerate all or part of their facial hair. Some men opt to just shave their facial hair off completely rather than have a spotty beard.

What Are Compression Socks

Compression socks and compression stockings are hosiery items specifically designed to help with blood circulation. Through the day, the bodies blood supply will tend to pool in the lower extremitudes, the feet and legs. If left unattended this may cause certain circulatory problems such as edema, phlebitis, and thrombosis. All three of these conditions are painful and can result in damage to the legs and feet. Elevation of the feet and legs will help to counteract the pooling by allowing gravity to work to bring the blood supply back to the core but this only offers temporary relief.

Compression socks and stockings can be worn during the day, when it is necessary to be on your feet, in order to help stop pooling and assist in circulation. This is accomplished by having a graduated pressure application built into the socks. These socks are generally constructed of elastic type material such as lycra, spandex, or rubber. The compression is built in tighter at the foot and then is less near the top of the sock. This design helps the body to pump the pooling blood back out of the foot, up the leg, and back to the heart and lungs so the body waste can be removed and the blood flow can be re-oxygenated.

People who are forced to stand for long periods of time at their occupation often times find relief from leg cramps and foot pain by using these socks whenever they work. If a person has poor blood circulation it is very important to assist the heart in removing the excess blood from the feet and legs in order to combat the possibility of blood clotting in the arteries and veins. Blood clots can cause serious damage to the body and even death if they break loose and travel to a major organ such as the heart or brain.

Athletes will also use compression hosiery at times for added support while running, jumping, and quick movements. But the majority of people use them for support due to circulatory problems.

Five Common MRSA Symptoms

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, or MRSA, is a type of bacterium that is resistant to many antibiotics. Familiarize yourself with these 5 common MRSA symptoms and seek treatment immediately if you think you may have this super staph infection.

1. Red, Swollen Skin

The most common symptom of MRSA is red, swollen skin that may look like a boil or surgical wound. The area of ​​infection is usually painful and filled with pus. Many people mistake a MRSA infection for a spider bite or insect bite. If you have what appears to be a bug bite that just will not go away, do not take any chances; see your doctor right away.

2. Shortness of Breath

MRSA may also infect the lungs, which can lead to shortness of breath.

3. Cough

A MRSA infection of the lungs often causes coughing.

4. Fever

If you have a red, swollen skin wound and a fever, you should visit a doctor. While most MRSA infections are successfully treated, they can be lethal if you do not seek medical help immediately.

5. Chills

Chills often accompanies the fever bought on by MRSA. In 2007, WebMD reported that more people in the US die than MRSA than from AIDS. MRSA killed over 18,000 Americans in 2005. In the same year, approximately 16,000 people died from AIDS.

Note that MRSA is not a typical staph infection. Regular staph infections are quite common. In fact, up to a quarter of the population carry staph bacteria in their nose or on their skin without any signs of infection. And when infection occurs, most cases of staph are easily treated. MRSA, on the other hand, requires more complicated treatment because it has become resistant to several antibiotics over the years. This super bug is resistant to penicillin, methicillin, amoxicillin, and many other antibiotics.

MRSA infections are most common among people with weak immune systems and those who have spent time in hospitals, nursing homes, and other extended-stay health facilities. If you've recently had surgery and your wound is not healing properly, it could have been infected.

You can contract MRSA through skin-to-skin contact or by touching a contaminated surface. The best way to prevent MRSA is to wash your hands regularly and thoroughly, especially after spending time in a hospital or another healthcare setting. Be sure to use hot water and soap or a hand sanitizer. Scrub your hands like a surgeon to get rid of all germs.

MRSA infects pre-existing wounds more easily. When you get a burn, cut, or scrape, clean the wound immediately, apply antibiotic ointment, and cover it with a bandage.

Locker rooms and gyms provide fertile breeding grounds for MRSA and other germs. If you go to a gym, take your own towel to wipe down the equipment before and after use. Wear sandals or crocs in the shower, and never share personal items like towels or razors.

When you get home, wash your workout clothes in hot water. Cleanliness is the best way to prevent MRSA. Remember the symptoms of MRSA, and see your doctor as soon as possible if you suspect an infection.

Do you know of any other common MRSA symptoms?

Ways to Make Your Wounds Heal Faster

You might already know how to take care of your wounds for them to heal. But, there are methods that you can use in order to hasten the healing process. Once your wounds are healed, it may be easier for you to resume your activities of daily living. You will not have to worry about tending to your wounds.

Once you have been cut or injured, you have to decide whether or not you are going to seek medical treatment. Minor wounds can be taken care of with the first aid kit that you have at home. These wounds are not life threatening. There might be no need for you to visit a doctor or a clinic at any given time. Major wounds, on the other hand, may put your life at risk. These wounds can make you lose a lot of blood. If you suffer a burn injury, you may lose lots of fluids from your body at a very fast rate. These wounds will require you to go and see a doctor as soon as possible.

After emergency treatment measures have been given and you are now out of immediate danger, the next focus will be on how to heal your injuries. Doctors and medical professionals will first try to avoid more complications like a wound infection. You may be prescribed with the necessary antibiotics to avoid such things from happening.

On your own end, you need to take care of your wounds. Dressings keep your wounds from getting in contact with contaminants. But, remember to regularly change your wound dressings. Once they are soaked, you need to change to new ones as soon as possible. And if you no longer notice a great amount of drain from your wounds, you still have to regularly change your wound dressings. Some amount of dust and other debris might be present. Fresh dressing materials will make sure that your wounds will be kept away from infection.

Wounds that have dried can be freed from the dressing materials. Once the wounds are closed and dry, there will be no danger in letting them out in the open. This can even hasten the healing process as oxygen in the air can get to your wounds at a much better rate. Sometimes, using more aggressive methods to introduce oxygen into the body is something that you can do. There are oxygen therapies that you can undergo.

Disinfect your wounds using the right products. Soap and water can be effective for some wounds. However, for those who suffered huge and open wounds, this method might not be ideal. Instead, a wound disinfectant such as an iodine solution or a topical antibacterial agent is applied to the affected part.

As much as possible, do not touch your wounds. At a late healing phase, most wounds would itch a lot. Resist the urge to touch the affected part. Your hands can carry potentially dangerous organisms. Sometimes, scabs may be accidentally removed and will only cause you to suffer permanent scars once the wounds are completely healed.

Treatment For Snoring – 9 Effective Ways To Cure Snoring

You might find people who snore funny, but you just will not feel the same way when the person you sleep with snores into your ear every night. It in fact will annoy you. This is the driving force behind curing snoring.

The following are some methods to control or if possible cure snoring:

1. Respiratory Exercises: Snoring is mainly caused by blocks in the breathing passage like the nose and throat due to nose blockades, wrong position jaws or an over-strained throat. To resume normal breathing, take many deep breaths to relax the muscles of your throat

2. Decongestants: Nasal congestion can also cause snoring. Since the nose is blocked, the person may try to breathe through the mouth leading to snoring. To clear these blockades, take decongestants.

3. Anti-allergy medications: Enlargement of adenoids may have been caused by allergy to some drug previously prescribed. Once a person gets over the allergy, snoring stops.

4. Healthy diet and exercise: Most obese people snore. This is not just a coincidence. The concentration of fat in the air passage, limits air from flowing freely in and out. The proper functioning of the diaphragm is also hindered by fat accumulation in the stomach resulting in snoring. 4 in 10 obese people are known to snore. Good exercise and a healthy diet will not alone help them over snoring, but will also benefit them in numerous ways.

5. Change your bed position: Sleeping in the wrong position may also induce snoring. For example, you may stretch your neck too much by using too many pillows. Using a single pillow can avoid this. Lying on your back may also cause snoring.

6. Lifestyle change: Intake of alcohol and snoring may directly or indirectly inducing snoring. For example, certain medical complications caused by drinking may have caused snoring. To maintain good health, it is there before advisable to quit alcohol and smoking. This also improves all-round health and mental peace.

7. Medication: Sleeping pills, antihistamines, certain other medicines can cause an increase in snoring.

8. Sleep Pattern: Basically, there are two periods of sleep, the REM sleep and stage 1 sleep. A person dreams constantly in REM sleep and experiences deep sleep often. Stage1 sleep will be experienced while sleeping or if a person sleeps poorly. Both these can lead to unstable breathing which in turn causes snoring. If you do not sleep at around the same time everyday, the irregularity may cause instability in respiration and that cause unstable breathing when you sleep.

9. Salt water nasal drops: Congestion in the nose may be caused by mucus and this can both spoil your sleep and also cause snoring. If you want to avoid this, purchase a small bottle of salt water nasal drops at any drugstore in your neighborhood. These help flush down the mucus. If you are not willing to buy a bottle, these nasal drops can be made right at home by dissolving a teaspoon of salt in roughly 250 ml of water. Once this water cools to the natural temperature of the body, put a dripper in it and use it.

If any other serious condition like sleep apnea or enlargement of tonsils and / or adenoids, surgical procedures such as Laser Assisted Uvula Palatopathy commonly abbreviated as LAUP and somnoplasty or radio frequency tissue ablation can be undertaken. This is more than sufficient proof that the root cause of snoring must be determined prior to taking action.

Nobel Peace Prize Winner Makes the Kind of Difference All of Us Can Be Part Of

Peace Prize winner

The surprise choice of this year's Nobel Peace Prize, Bangladesh Professor Muhammad Yunus and his Grameen Bank, applied a simple idea and are making a huge difference in the world. By offering small loans to poverty-stricken entrepreneurs in third-world countries, Professor Yunus is providing the means for free enterprise to begin to transform communities and historically nations. In particular, women are benefitting from the availability of micro-credit. Now banks and other institutions elsewhere in the world are starting similar programs modeled on Grameen Bank's initiatives.

In an interview just after learning he won, Professor Yunus said this:
… [P] overty in the world is an artificial creation. It does not belong to human civilization, and we can change that, we can make people come out of poverty and have the real state of affairs. So the only thing we have to do is to redesign our institutions and policies, and there will be no people who will be suffering from poverty …. People come out of poverty every day. So it's right in front of us what happens and it can be done globally, it can be done more forcefully, we can organize more things to go with it, so this is something not theoretical issue, it's a very real issue …. We did not do anything special; lend money to the people so – but they never lent it to the poor people – all we did was lent it to the poor people, and that makes the trick. That makes the change.

(You can get the interview in text or audio at the Nobel website.)

The amazing difference between this strategy and all the failures of the past is that here is someone taking a proactive approach to the seemingly intractable problems surrounding him. His motives are not alt altistic; His bank is actually turning a profit.

Why can not the rest of the world take a lesson from Professor Yunus and either adopt or adapt his strategy? When we do, an amazing societal metamorphosis is possible.

The Proactive Messiah

The Lord Jesus Christ took a similar approach when He "went around doing good" (Acts 10:38). He invested in people, communicating to them that they had value and tremendous potential. He convinced them that He believed in them and that He was willing to sacrifice for their benefit.

As His Follower, Accept His Challenge!

Jesus challenges His followers to do the same in their world. "Give to the one who asks something of you, and do not turn away from the one who would borrow from you. … That you may be sons of your Father in heaven. good, and sends rain on the righteous and the unrighteous "(Matthew 5:42, 45).

Your investment need not be money. The person you meet may only need a moment's attention, eye contact, an open smile, a friendly conversation, a ride of a few blocks, or directions in an unfamiliar part of town. You have the opportunity to communicate that you care, that you think he or she has worth as a human being, that you do not view them as an "untouchable."

As they respond to your kindness, warm up to your proffered friendship, it's time to confess Christ. In simple ways that are not abrasive, you can let them know that you follow Jesus, and that makes all the difference in your life. It's because of Him that you see hope – hope for our world and hope for them. Because He has invested in you, you are willing to invest in them.

Be proactive – make a change for the better in the world around you.

Want to go deeper?

Palestine of the first century was filled with beggars. These needy people were constantly asking for money and seeking other assistance. Jesus certainly had the power to wave His hand and heal them all in an instant. Why did not He? Because He had a higher purpose.

He was not content to cure paralysis of the limbs and blindness of the eyes. His intention was to reach down into the soul and bringing healing to a paralysis of the will and blindness of the heart. He did not have to touch people to heal them; He proved that on occasion. His touch was therapeutic on a degree level more than just eradicating disease and deformity. It communicated love, acceptance, and esteem in an awesome, life-changing way.

Do you own study of these passes: cleansing a leper – Mark 4: 40-45; healing a deaf mute – Mark 7: 31-37; blessing the children – Matthew 19: 13-15; and healing two blind men – Matthew 20: 29-34.

Look also at the times when He bought and / or accepted help from someone. What did this communicate? Are we merely patronizing people, or do we see them as our companions in life's journey?

Take a look at these accidents: asking for a drink – John 4: 4-42; asking for a place to stay in a strange town – Luke 19: 1-10; accepting a gift of gratitude from a friend – John 12: 1-8. Read also Paul's command in Romans 12: 14-20, and ask yourself, "What would the world be like if we made this our lifestyle?"

Do We Really Know Ourselves and Others As Well As We Think We Do?

I suspect that very few of us will have avoided the feeling of either being betrayed, or having betrayed another – either by word or deed. The income is often a lack of trust, even if the betrayal was unintentional. How often does it happen because we assume that we know what the other person is thinking, and that our actions will be understood – and vice versa?

I, myself, lost a very dear friendship due to a misunderstanding of this kind. I told someone that I wanted them around, but that I did not need them. To my mind, that was the highest compliment I could have paid them – my interpretation, coming from my own perspective, was that if you need someone, then you might just keep them around because of that particular need – in whatever form it takes. However, if you want someone, it means that you care enough about them to want them in your life, even if the only thing they have to offer is their company. Unfortunately, our interpretations of the words 'need' and 'want' were very different and my words were taken as an insult, they were very hurt, disconnection ensued and the friendship surrendered broke down.

So often we absorb that people will automatically come from our own perspective, that what we believe they will also believe, and that they will interpret words the same way we will interpret them. As a graphologist, I always like to do 'off the cuff' analyzes – where a person sits in front of me and I talk to them about their writing. Living on the edge as it was, but the analysis has always been the thing that interested me and writing up the reports afterwards, not so much! It brings to mind a time when I was participating in festivals, which I did for over 14 years. I have analyzed thousands of writings in that time, but a few seem to stand out and be remembered for various reasons.

One young lady came to me and asked if her friend could sit in. As I was analyzing her writing I could see her friend out of the corner of my eye, busy shaking her head. When I was finished she exclaimed – 'that does not sound a bit like you'. To which her friend turned to her and said – 'that is exactly who I am'.

On one occasion, I was analyzing the handwriting of a young boy – he was under the age of 14 so it was not a full analysis – we can only do that when the writing itself becomes automatic and thought patterns predominate. His family were with him and, when I had finished, his mother asked for her writing to be analyzed. All went very well until I said that she was a private person – to which she took great exception and told me that she was 'very open'. I explained in detail why I was saying what I was saying, but she still was not particularly happy and turned to her husband and asked what he thought. He told her that he had to agree with me – around her family and friends she was indeed very open, but with strangers she was private and did not give much away. This is something that she had not actually realized about herself. On top of that, she had heard the word 'private' and translated it into 'secretive and there is deceptive'. Fortunately, possibly because they were paying me for a service, we went into great detail about what I actually meant – this does not always happen within friendships, where there in an emotional content to them.

Another instance comes to mind which happened during the time when I was studying graphology. I was working for an engineering company which regularly sent its employees overseas to build whatever needed building, where it needed to be built. One of the engineers was curious and asked me to have a look at his writing. He almost had apoplexy when I told him that he was cautious and careful – he was really offended and told me that he traveled the world at the drop of a hat and there was nothing careful about that. What he failed to take into account was that he traveled within the safety of a company, where his flight was booked, his accommodation was organized, someone would pick him up at the airport on his arrival, he was doing a job for which he would be paid a salary, plus his medical was all arranged. All he had to do was pack and turn up. We agreed to differ, but it had obviously bothered him a lot because about a week later he thought me out and triumphantly washed a letter in front of me – he told me he had resigned and there was nothing cautious about that. When I congratulated him and asked what he was going to do, he told me that he was going overseas to work for a company he had worked for in the past. The irony escaped him – he had this vision of himself as a buccaneer on the high seas, but his writing told me that there was no way he would travel the world with a backpack and no destination, but who was I to disillusion him?

I often say that the soul of a person can be seen through their handwriting, and this is true. I've even asked how I can sleep at night, because I can see both the negative and positive that is going on within a person. I find it interesting that the deer and more hidden aspects of a person's character can somehow be easier to see than the wonderful. That is probably why the young lady mentioned above was not able to recognize her friend during the analysis.

During my third and last year of study, about half a dozen of us formed a group with a professional graphologist as a tutor. I remember one incident when we were asked to analyze the writing of a person who was taking the company he worked for to court. The company had discovered that he had done this a number of times before with other employers and had often won damages. Nobody knew how to deal with him, hence a graphologist was hired. Our tutor wanted to see if we would come up with the same results that she had. We did. It transpired that this person was very arrogant and self-important, and the only way to affect him was to talk to him as though he was inconsequential. Following the graphologist's recommendation, during the hearing he was referred to as 'only the clerk and of little importance'. His fury got the better of his good sense, he showed his true colors and strangely lost the case.

Our tutor once told us a story about an experience she had had. A friend of hers had asked her to analyze the handwriting of all the heads of department in his company. This she did and the results were that there was only one person that was border line dishonest, and that was the accountant. She was told that she was talking absolute rubbish, the accountant had been a friend of his for years and that was that – until he contacted her 14 years later with an apology. The accountant had just run off with the new secretary and a great deal of the firm's money – she had been right all along. The secretary was the catalyst – if she had not turned up then he might have continued working without his honesty being tested – she was his tipping point.

In Conclusion

I think we need to 'absorb' less and 'listen' more, especially if the other person has already annoyed us, because we are then less incurred to give them the benefit of the doubt. I believe that a great deal of pain can be dispensed with if we take this route. If we then come to the conclusion that any negative action was intentional, we can walk away knowing that it is for the best.

I also believe that some regular self-analysis is of great benefit – if something, or someone, pushes our buttons then it's good to ask the question 'Why?' If we react to any situation, it is a clear indication that we have some unfinished business and unresolved issues in that area.

Does Your Dog Have Epilepsy?

What is epilepsy?

It is a condition of recurring seizures wherein uncoordinated firing of the neurons in the cerebrum takes place. In dogs, it is not fully understood but it has some similarities with the causes in human beings. Neurotransmitters are chemically imbalanced so the nerves are uncoordinated. An epileptic dog will show uncoordinated firing of the neurons within his brain. These are called seizures, also known as fits or convulsions. It usually starts in dogs at the age of 6 months to 5 years.

Different types of Epilepsy:

1. Idiopathic Epilepsy- The cause is unknown, it may be inherited.

2. Secondary Epilepsy – Normally, a vet will run some tests to rule out possible toxic, or physiological causes before he makes his diagnosis as the dog having idiopathic version. There are many types of seizures seen in dogs and often, the owner is not aware of his pet's condition. Epileptic seizure is the abnormal brain activity manifested in the part of the brain called the cerebral cortex. These abnormalities that cause convulsions vary from petit mal to generalized, full body grand mal.

4 stages of seizure:

1. The Prodome – It lasts from minutes to hours and sometimes days before the actual convulsion. The dog will show changes in his behavior or mood.

2. The Aura – The owner will notice the initial signs during this stage. Some pet dogs will begin trembling, salivating, licking, pacing, wandering aimlessly, hiding, urinating, or whining. Some other dogs may show stranger behaviors like excessive barking and attempts to get the owner's attention.

3. The Ictus – This is the actual seizure stage, wherein the dog may lose consciousness, gnash his teeth, thrashing about his legs and head, crying, drooling, losing bladder and bowel control, and paddling his feet like he is running. Some strange types of seizures in dogs will make the dog suddenly go blank and just stare into space, while others will frantically run in circles. The ones with partial seizures will experience twitching in one area of ​​his body only, it could be in one leg, his face, in his hips, or in the shoulder.

4. The Ictal – It happens just after a convulsion. The dog will act like he's doped, drunk, deaf, or blind. Some dogs may endlessly pace, or drink lots of water. Others pass out and sleep.

Causes of seizures

Seizures can be caused by many conditions: Liver disorders Brain tumors Congenital defects Low sugar (hypoglycemia) or conditions like diabetes mellitus Fever or hyperthermia Heart problems, difficulty breathing, or anemia Kidney disorders Brain damage resulting from trauma or poor blood flow to the brain Infections like canine distemper Low calcium in females that are nursing young Toxins such as antifreeze, chocolate, or lead Primary / idiopathic epilepsy Certain medications the dog is taking What triggers a seizure?

It is unknown but a lot of dogs experience convulsions when excited. Very often, the dog seizures while playing, or when children have just returned from school. One dog had seizures after visiting the vet hospital. Other dogs have seizures while sleep. Do not confuse this with dreaming since it is not uncommon for dogs to shake or bark while sleep. You can awaken a dreaming dog, but not a dog having seizures.

How is epilepsy diagnosed?

Firstly, the vet will obtain detailed history. Neurologic, physical exams, and laboratory tests are then be performed. Sometimes x-rays are also taken. If the vet can not identify the cause of the convulsion, the condition is then diagnosed as idiopathic. No test is yet available to diagnoseose epilepsy per se, the tests simply rule out the other causes of convulsions.

What type of facts about your dog can you hand to your vet to help make the diagnosis?

It is useful if you, the pet owner, can provide your vet answers to the following questions: How does your pet look like when he is having convulsions? How frequently do convulsions happen? What is duration of each convulsion? Observe both sides of your dog if there are symptoms that appear on one side only. Does one side appear much worse? Does your pet dog have hyperthermia? Has he been exposed to poisonous substance? Has your pet undergone any traumatic experience lately or many years ago? Is your pet updated on vaccinations? Has your pet been poorly lauded or with other dogs? Has your pet been sick? In the past weeks, has he been running loose? When and what does he eat? Has he been acting strange laTely or did you notice any changes in behavior? Do the convulsions happen in related pattern to certain activities such as eating, sleeping, or exercise? Does your pet exhibit unalike signs right before or right after convulsions?

Do some dogs have more tension of having epilepsy?

Usually, epilepsy begins to show at 6 months to 5 years of age, typically at 2-3 years. It happens in all dog breeds, that includes the mixed breeds. Epilepsy can be familial, it can be passed on through generations. The Golden Retrievers, Labrador, Cockers, Dachshunds, German Shepherd, Collies, Poodles, Irish Setters, St. Bernards, Beagles, Malamutes and Huskies, Springers are some of the dog breeds with high tension to have epilepsy. Since epilepsy can be inherited, the dogs which has it should not be used to breed.

Treatment

Treatment begins when convulsions are patterned, multiple and severe. You should know your pet dog's pattern so your vet can judge if the treatment helps.

There is no known cure for epilepsy. The aim is to reduce the prevalence, duration, and severity of the convulsions. Oral medications are given to treat epilepsy. Dogs show nonidentical responses to the medicines. The vet may try various combinations of medications to see which is right for your pet. On the start of the medication, most dogs will feel sleepy, but eventually this wears off in a matter of weeks.

The usual drugs used to restrain epilepsy are Phenobarbital and Potassium bromide. They may be used as a single drug or in combination. They should be administrated daily. Before putting the dog on phenobarbital medication, he should have his lab test. Blood levels are also regularly taken. Do not skip or discontinue the medication once it has been introduced, otherwise severe convulsions could result. Almost all dogs taking anticonvulsant will have to continue taking it for life. Some other drugs used for the treatment of epilepsy are carbamazepine, felbamate, primidone, valporic acid, chlorazepate, gabapentine, and clonazepam. Intravenous drugs like valium for fast effect are given to dogs with prolonged convulsions or also known as Status.

Anti-epileptic drugs like phenobarbital may have side effects on liver if high dosage is required. Prior to increasing dosage, liver function test must be taken just to be sure you are on the safe side. Although liver damage is rarely seen even at high levels. It is usual for a dosage level to be effective for a period of time and then the convulsions will multiply in frequency and duration. The dosage then may be increased. On the other hand, if the dog does not exhibit seizures, the dosage may be lowered and still control the convulsions. Keep a calendar of the convulsions with the date and their duration. This will help in determining if there are adjustments needed.

What must I do if my pet dog is having convulsions?

Stay calm. Never put your hand in your dog's mouth. You may get bitten! And it does not help your dog. Put away sharp objects nearby such as tables and chairs to prevent injuries. Place the dog on the floor carefully if he is in a couch or bed to prevent falls. Clear the area of ​​other pets and children. Watch your dog closely and get in touch with your vet if the convulsions last more than 3 minutes or if he has repeating seizures for this is a medical emergency and could be fatal. One mild seizure is not considered an emergency and does not need long term medication. Although you should still report it to your vet. Be sure to record the date, time and duration of the seizure.

How to Master Cleanse to Get Rid of Fibroids Using Natural Detox Solution

Fibroids can be a debilitating and annoying discomfort that many women endure. Many women are constantly searching for methods to get rid of fibroids or at least shrink them down to size in the most feasible and least damaging means to their body and their lifestyle. There are numerous diets and programs containing a lot conflicting information, there is no doubt that huge amount of confusion permeates for seeker in the health industry. A detox diet with health programs including the master cleanse diet can be a gentle solution for elimination heavy toxins and metals found in the body that could be contributing to the problems.

Most women are aware of various options such as surgery and methods are available for removing individual fibroids and groups of fibroids that will cut off the blood supply to the offending fibroids causing them to shrink. Other available methods include drug treatments that are most often used before and after surgery to treat the fibroids. In effect, the drugs quickly reduce the size for optimal surgical success yet there is a common problem with this treatment. Fibroids have reported to grow back quickly and a temporary measure known to have potential undesirable side effects or complications.

These options are not without its merits and maybe necessary depending on the severity of any individual situation. Yet, many women are often searching for a more gently and natural methods that is less intrusive to their body while promoting greater overall health. Fortunately, the unique system of the body is remarkably receptive to natural alternative treatments. In the absence of good alternatives it is obvious to anyone the first thing to want to do is reduce the size through non-invasive means.

In efforts to prepare your body for shrinking or to try to eliminate fibroids, a master cleanse used to detoxify your body is most beneficial. Fibroids are conditioned to respond extremely well to natural remedies are an ideal treatment in combination with other solutions. Using a detox diet will flush out the excess toxins, heavy metals, and hormones from the body that can contribute to the fibroid growth. Some of the side effects of taking a master cleanse is the reduction of weight that most women enjoy. Maintaining a normal weight balance aids the elimination organs to rejuvenate and keep a natural healthy balance.

Fibroids thrive on excess estrogens and in many ways this can be limited by reducing the consumption of animal fats in a diet. Unfortunately, there are many foods and environmental substances that mimic estrogens and the body can absorb excess unable to process and stored in tissue. Cleansing the vital organs like the liver and the kidneys will help restore damaged cells and fortify healthy rejuvenated cells. Often women living in extremely stressful situations over a long period of time can contribute to fibroids growth. Meaning that there is more stress place on the body and its ability to function at its optimum. Stress as a contributing factor is often resolved by eating all the wrong foods for emotional comfort and distraction from the stress in our lives. Master cleanse solution can eliminate poorly ingested foods and allow the body to better produce the needed elements to combat stress naturally.

Detoxing with a master cleanse affords the body the ability to heal itself by the process of eliminating toxins and excess foreign substances that may be a contributing factor to fibroid growth. If nothing else, this is a cleansing system that promotes increased energy, healthier appearance and a safe alternative to harsh drugs and chemicals alone.

How to Prepare for UPSC/IAS Exams

Civil Services Aptitude Test

New Recruitment Process of Civil Services Exam conducted by the UPSC (Union Public Service Commission) is called the CSAT or the Civil Services Aptitude Test with effect from 2011. No changes are being introduced at this stage in the Civil Services (Main) Examination and Personality Test in the scheme of Civil Services Examination (CSE).

Scheme of Civil Services Examination

The Civil Services Examination consists of two stages –

(i) Civil Services Preliminary Examination (Objective type) for the selection of candidates for the Main Examination; and

(ii) Civil Services Main Examination (Written and Interview) for the selection of candidates for the various Services and posts noted above.

The Preliminary Examination consists of two papers of Objective type (multiple choice questions) and carry a maximum of 400 marks. There are two compulsory papers of 200 marks each. The question papers are set both in Hindi and English. However, questions relating to English Language Comprehension skills are tested through passages from English Language only without providing Hindi translation. Each paper is of two hours duration. Blind candidates are allowed extra time of twenty minutes for each paper.

Scheme of CS (Preliminary) Examination

This examination is meant to serve as a screening test only; the marks obtained in the Preliminary Examination by the candidates who are declared qualified for admission to the Main Examination will not be counted for determining their final order of merit. Only those candidates who are declared by the Commission to have qualified in the Preliminary Examination in the year will be eligible for admission to the Main Examination of that year provided they are otherwise eligible for admission to the Main Examination. Thus in short –

The successive stages of examination are:

(1) Preliminary Examination for the selection of candidates for the Main Examination

(2) Main Examination (Written) for the selection of candidates for interview for a Personality Test.

(3) Interview (Personality Test)

How to apply?

Candidates are required to apply only through online mode no other mode for submission of applications is allowed. Detailed instructions for filling up online applications are available on the UPSC official website.

The e-Admission Certificate will be made available in the UPSC website for downloading by candidates. No Admission Certificate will be sent by post.

Academic Eligibility for IAS Exams

(1) A degree of any of recognized University or possess an equivalent qualification

(2) Candidates who are awaiting results of qualifying exams are also eligible to appear for the Preliminary Examination. All such candidates who qualify to appear for the Civil Services Main Examination must produce proof of having passed the said examination along with their application for the Main Examination.

(3) Candidates with professional and technical qualifications recognized by the Government as equivalent to professional and technical degrees.

(4) Candidates who have passed the final year of MBBS or any Medical Examination but are yet to complete the internship can also appear for the Main Examination. However they must submit along with their Main Examination application, a certificate from the concerned authority of the University / Institution that they have passed the final professional medical examination. At the Interview stage they must then produce a certificate from a competent authority that they have completed (including internship) all the requirements for the award of the Medical Degree.

Other Eligibility Conditions for IAS Exams:

(i) Nationality – For the Indian Administrative Service and the Indian Police Service, a candidate must be a citizen of India.

For other services, a candidate must be either –

a citizen of India or

b. subject of Nepal or

c. subject of Bhutan or

d. Tibetan refugee who came over to India before 1st January, 1962 with the intention of permanently settling in India, or a person of Indian origin who has migrated from Pakistan, Burma, Sri Lanka, East African countries of Kenya, Uganda, the United Republic of Tanzania, Zambia, Malawi, Zaire, Ethiopia and Vietnam with the intention of permanently settling in India.

Provided that a candidate belonging to categories (b), (c), (d) and (e) shall be a person in whose favor a certificate of eligibility has been issued by the Government of India.

Provided further that candidates belonging to categories (b), (c) and (d) above will not be eligible for appointment to the Indian Foreign Service.

A candidate in whose case a certificate of eligibility is necessary, may be admitted to the examination but the offer of appointment may be given only after the necessary eligibility certificate has been issued to him/her by the Government of India.

(ii) Age Limits:

(a) Minimum 21 years and maximum 30 years.

(b) The upper age limit prescribed above will be relaxable.

(i) up to a maximum of five years for SC/ST

(ii) up to a maximum of three years for OBC.

(iii) up to a maximum of five years if a candidate had ordinarily been domiciled in the State of Jammu & Kashmir during the period from the 1st January, 1980 to the 31st day of December, 1989.

(iv) up to a maximum of three years in the case of Defense Services personnel disabled in operations during hostilities with any foreign country or in a disturbed area and released as a consequence thereof.

(v) up to a maximum of 10 years in the case of blind, deaf – mute and orthopaedically handicapped persons.

No. of Attempts for IAS

A maximum of 4 attempts is permitted to every candidate and 7 to those belonging to Other Backward Classes. There is no restriction on the number of attempts in the case of SC/ST candidates. All this, provided you are still under the age limit. A physically handicapped person will get as many attempts as any other non-handicapped candidate of his/her community, but if they are from the general category they will get 7 attempts.

NOTE

(i) An attempt at a Preliminary Examination shall be deemed to be an attempt at the Examination.

(ii) If a candidate actually appears in any one paper in the Preliminary Examination, he/she shall be deemed to have made an attempt at the Examination.

(iii) Notwithstanding the disqualification/ cancellation of candidature, the fact of appearance of the candidate at the examination will count as an attempt.

Below is the list and descriptions of the list of services available through the civil service exams.

All India Services are as under –

Indian Administrative Service

India Foreign Service

Indian Police Service

Group A Services are as under –

Indian P & T Accounts & Finance Service

Indian Audit and Accounts Service

Indian Revenue Service (Customs and Central Excise)

Indian Defense Accounts Service

Indian Revenue Service (I.T.)

Indian Ordnance Factories Service (Assistant Works Manager, Administration)

Indian Postal Service

Indian Civil Accounts Service

Indian Railway Traffic Service

Indian Railway Accounts Service

Indian Railway Personnel Service

Post of Assistant Security Commissioner in Railway Protection Force

Indian Defense Estates Service

Indian Information Service (Junior Grade)

Indian Trade Service, Group ‘A’ (Gr. III)

Indian Corporate Law Service

Group – B Services

Armed Forces Headquarters Civil Service (Section Officer’s Grade)

Delhi, Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Lakshadweep, Daman & Diu and Dadra & Nagar Haveli Civil Service

Delhi, Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Lakshadweep, Daman & Diu and Dadra & Nagar Haveli Police Service

Pondicherry Civil Service

Pondicherry Police Service

It is wiser to be mentally ready for several attempts as cracking the Civil Services Exams is a tough nut to crack the first time around; and if you do qualify you may want to attempt again to improve your ranking and therefore your service allotment.

Display Kitchen

A display kitchen is where much of the food preparation is done in full view of customers. Being able to watch a busy kitchen staff at work is interesting to most of us. It whets the appetite and gives guests the feeling that they are being catered to, with a meal that is freshly prepared as they look on. For today's more refined diner, the perceptions of quality, freshness, and presentation are just as important as how the food tastes. A well functioning display kitchen also accentuates the sense of showmanship that certainly is part of the culinary arts. It enhances the total dining experience by being part of the
atmosphere and the evening's entertainment value.

It presents opportunities for the culinary staff to interact with guests. Of course, this may affect the type of person you hire as a staff member. Not everyone is good at, or comfortable with, conveying such a
"public" image. But for chefs who enjoy the limelight, something magical happens when they can see the patrons, and vice versa. One nice design detail is to install half-walls, in what is sometimes called a semi-open kitchen. The staff can be seen preparing food "from the waist up," without a view of the inevitably messy and unsightly aspects of cooking: soiled pots and pans, stacks of plates, the dirty floor, and the like. Nothing should go on in a display area that indicates any type of "volume cooking." The emphasis is on individually prepared dishes.

Food preparation in view of the guests also addresses another modern-day concern: food safety. Most guests believe that when food is prepared in full view, the staff is more conscious of safe food-handling practices than they would be rounded away at a prep station in the back of the house. Today, as the cost of restaurant space keeps climbing, there is some financial urgency behind such a multitask environment. The modern restaurateur must maximize profit per square foot of space and risks failure by using space extravagantly and having to pay the higher costs of heating, cooling, and insuring it. Combining at least part of the kitchen with the dining area is one way to conserve space.

Yet the display kitchen is generally more expensive: up to $ 360 per linear foot, compared to $ 115 for a regular back-of-house commercial kitchen. When it is in public view, everything from equipment, to walls, to preparation surfaces has to look good. A final word about display or semi-open kitchens: They should be considered as an option only when the menu and food preparation techniques actually lend them to display-pizza dough being twirled overhead, steaks being flame-broiled over an open grill, the intricacy of sushi preparation.

Appliances "on display." In terms of equipment, we've noticed massive, brick wood-burning ovens (or gas-fired counterparts) as display kitchen staples. They're not exactly portable, weighing up to 3000 pounds, but they're attractive, energy-efficient and quite functional-they can turn out a pizza in three to five minutes. Induction range tops have found their way into display kits, since they are sleeklooking, easy to clean, and speedy and energy-efficient. Induction cooking works by creating an electromagnetic field, which causes the molecules (in this case, of a pan) to move so rapidly that the pan-not the range top-heats up, in turn cooking the food inside.

The magnetic field only prompts other magnetic items (ie, metal cookware) to heat, while its ceramic surface stays cool to the touch. Not every metal pan is well suited to induction cooking, but specific, multiple metal pans are made for this purpose. Cleanup is as simple as wiping off the cooktop surface; there are no spills seeping into burners and no baked-on messes. A 2.5-kilowatt induction burner puts out the equivalent cooking power of the 20,000 BTU burner on a typical sauté range.

Yet another display kitchen requirement is the rotisserie oven or grill. We usually think of whole chickens, browning perfectly in a glass-front rotisserie cabinet, but there are now attachments that allow you to bake pasta, casseroles, fish, vegetables, and more. From countertop units no more than 30 inches wide, to floor models 6 feet in width, rotisseries may be purchased as gas-, electric-, or wood-fired. Ease of cleaning should be a consideration when choosing a rotisserie unit, because they are in view of patrons.

And finally, the cooking suite is a real boon to today's hardworking "chef on display." A cooking suite (or cooking island) is a freestanding, custom-built unit which just about any combination of kitchen equipment can be installed. Instead of a battery of heavy-duty appliances against a wall, a cooking suite allows workers to man both sides of the island (see Illustration 3-1) .It is a way to effectively concentrate the cooking activities, improving communication because appliances and personnel are centrally located.

Often a cooking suite requires less floor space than a conventional hot line, with shorter electrical and plumbing connection lines. Men that include mainly sauteed, grilled, or charbroiled items would be
well served by a cooking suite.

Why Are Ear Infections More Common In Children?

Ear infections are one of the more common reasons for children visiting a pediatrician’s office on account of health problems. Many parents constantly worry about it. What causes this condition? How do parents know their child is suffering from one?

An ear infection is basically an inflammation of the middle portion, the part responsible for transmitting sounds from the eardrum to the inner ear. With the help of the Eustachian tubes, the middle section secretes a fluid which drains to the back of the throat. If this fluid does not drain, it accumulates in the middle ear and serves as a breeding ground for bacteria. This eventually causes an infection.

What Are The Common Symptoms Of An Ear Infection?

Many times, parents may find it difficult to identify the symptoms. It often begins with a cold or flu. A child may experience a running nose or cough, followed by fever. This leads the child to become cranky as they constantly touch the ear in a bid to ease the discomfort.

The child will also experience:

• Vomiting

• An unpleasant smell coming out from your child’s ear

• No appetite

• Inability to hear

• Trouble falling asleep

• A whitish/yellowish fluid

Why Are Children More Affected By Ear Infections?

Immature Immune System: A child’s immune system is not as developed as an adult. This makes it harder for children to fight off harmful viruses, bacteria and infections.

Smaller Eustachian Tubes: The Eustachian tubes of children are smaller and more level. It becomes difficult for fluids to drain out of the ear, even when they function normally. When the tubes are blocked/swollen with mucus, it becomes all the more difficult for the fluid to drain out completely.

Trapping of Bacteria in the Adenoids: Adenoids help to fight off infections by trapping bacteria entering through the mouth. When bacteria get trapped in the adenoids, it causes infection which passes to the middle ear.

Treatment Of Infections

More often than not, the pain disappears within 24 hours, so it does you good to wait for a day. If symptoms persist, it is time to contact the pediatrician. Some doctors prescribe an antibiotic to treat the infection. If the infection is mild, pain relievers or drops also help to alleviate the pain. Be sure your child takes the antibiotics as prescribed and after that, return for a follow-up visit to check whether the infection has cleared out.

Causes and Flu Treatments

What is flu?

Influenza, commonly known as flu, is an acute febrile highly contagious viral disease that is caused because of the flu virus. You must get flu treatment and complete rest before the condition becomes too complex. Flu is a highly contagious respiratory illness which can be spread either by the coughing and sneezing of an infected person or from an infected person if you come in close contact with them or even touch them. Flu viruses hit or attack our body by spreading through the respiratory tract. Many of the infected people get better and recover in 1 to 2 weeks, but few people develop serious and critical medical complications like pneumonia. The infected person can spread the flu infection before they are aware of the fact that they are infected. There is no perfect cure for the flu but you can get relief from flu infection with the help of flu treatments. Flu treatment can be obtained with the help of herbal remedies, homeopathic remedies and natural remedies.

Causes of Flu

You may at times wonder about the causes of flu. Flu Infections are usually caused by airborne transmission. To understand details on causes of flu you must first understand the basic flu facts. Knowing about the causes of flu can help you in preventing yourself from getting the flu and its symptoms. So, its very important to know about causes of flu and how they affect you and your loved ones.

The flu is very different from a cold. A cold can be caused because of 100 different viruses but flu is caused only by the influenza virus. Later, we will give details of the types of influenza viruses, which is the only cause of this contagious disease.

Firstly, flu is spread by inhaling a respiratory droplet from a flu infected person. The flu virus gets an opportunity to enter into individual individual bodies when they breathe in infectious droplets expelled by the infected person while coughing or sneezing.

Secondly, flu is spread by indirect contact with a contaminated object. The virus gets on the hands of the uninfected person while touching any object, which was earlier touched by an infected person. The flu virus enters into the body of an uninfected person by touching eyes, ears, nose, and mouth making him / her ill.

Flu can also be caused by the items infected with respiratory secretions.

Influenza virus attacks your respiratory tract that as a result causes soreness and rashes. These viruses frequently change with time. Because of the constant change in viral RNA, it is able to avoid the resistant system in our bodies.

Symptoms of the Flu

Before you go for the flu treatments check the symptoms of flu. Some of the flu symptoms are exactly the same as cold symptoms. Symptoms like stuffy nose, sore throat and cough are found in a cold as well as the flu. Symptoms which are found only in a flu infected person are:

• High temperature: Usually 100 F-103 F in adults and at times much higher in children

• Shivering and sudden sunset of chills

• Severe headache

• Complete Body pain

• Fatigue, weakness

• Nausea, vomiting

• Diarrhea

Symptoms of flu may continue for about a week or two but cough and weakness may persist for a long period.

Flu Virus Characteristics

Flu virus was first identified in 1930s. From that time onwards scientists have started classifying flu viruses into three categories normally Type A, Type B and Type C. These flu viruses are listed into different categories on the basis of their protein composition.

• Type A or Influenza A virus: This is the most prevalent type of flu that attacks every year. Influenza A virus is further divided into subtypes HA and NA, which is based on the two surface protein structures of the virus. Currently there are about 16 HA and 9 NA known. Recent subtypes of Influenza A viruses found in humans are H1N1 and H3N2.

• Type A or Influenza A flu virus is found in human beings and many different animals like:

Ducks – Chickens – Pigs – Whales – Horses – Seals

Influenza A is the most dangerous in comparison to the other two flu types.

• Type B or Influenza B virus: This type of flu virus mostly revolves around us humans and is less severe than Type A influenza. Both Type A and Type B are responsible for the seasonal epidemic of flu. It can be a serious health hazard but basically most of the cases are mild. Type B is not divided further into subtypes or subcategories.

• Type C or Influenza C virus: This type of flu virus is common and is only found in humans, pigs, and dogs. Type C or Influenza C virus causes mild respiratory infections. People normally do not become extremely ill from influenza type C viruses.

Various flu vaccines and shots are available to protect you from the Type A and Type B viruses. For the Type C flu virus no treatment or shots are available.

Who are at greater risk of getting infected by flu virus?

People with chronic diseases, poor immune systems, elders and small children are at a greater risk for coming in contact with the flu. In a priority of cases flu is mild but unpleasant. If the flu symptoms worsen then it can cause serious complications. Below are those that are most susceptible to severe consequences of the flu and flu complications:

• If you are an elderly person (above 50 years of age)

• If you are a new born baby or a young child

• If you are pregnant

• If you are suffering from heart or cardiovascular disease

• If you are suffering from Asthma or bronchitis

• If you are suffering from kidney disease

• If you are a diabetic

• If you are using steroids

• If you are taking cancer treatment

• If you are anemic

• If you are a HIV positive

• And last but not the least, if your immune system is poor

Basic tips which you must remember when infected with the flu

When you are infected with the flu, along with flu treatment you must also take extra special care of yours. We all know that flu is caused by a virus, so antibiotics will not help us in recovering from viral infections. If you have a headache, body ache or muscle ache then you can take a painkiller, it may help you get some relief.

Some basic things which should be done when infected with the flu are:

• You must stay at home until and unless you have fully recovered

• Avoid coming in contact with anyone

• Get plenty of rest

• Cover and keep yourself warm

• Drink lots of liquids, like water, chicken broth, and other fluids

• Avoid alcohol

• Avoid Smoking

• Avoid Tobacco

• Eat light food

• Wash your hands at least three times a day

• Use alcohol based hand sanitizer to get rid of germs

• Take a sauna or hot bath

• Wear the flu mask to prevent yourself from catching flu infection or to prevent spreading the virus to others when you're sick

Flu Treatment

Prevention is the first step in flu treatment. You must take certain precautions so that you may avoid the flu infection. There is a famous saying "prevention is better than cure" so we must take preventative actions like

• Covering your mouth and nose with a tissue when sneezing or coughing. After using the tissue throw it away and wash you hands with warm water and soap for at least 15 seconds.

• Use antibacterial cleaners to clean hands and surfaces. You can also use alcohol based hand sanitizer.

• Do not touch your eyes, nose, and mouth without cleaning your hands thoroughly and ensuring that your hands are germ free. Dirty hands can easily transmit the virus from your hands into your body.

• Get your annual flu shot, especially those people who have poor immune system and other serious complicated diseases.

After taking all the precautions, if you still become ill then you must begin flu treatment. There is a long list of basic flu treatment, which you can take along with the doctors' advice.

• The most important step for treating yourself is getting a lot of rest. Flu takes all your energy and you become weak and tired. Resting can help you in boosting up your immune system.

• Drink lots of fluids. Your body becomes dehydrated when you fall ill, so consuming a lot of fluids is essential.

• Take Antibiotics. It will help you in treating as well as preventing yourself from the bacterial infections and other flu complications.

• Take a painkiller if you have some headache or body ache. Painkillers help you get some relief from the aches.

• Antiviral flu treatment:

Tamiflu – Relenza – Flumadine – Symmetrel

With the help of these antiviral medications you can decrease the duration of the illness and their symptoms. Medicines are taken for improving symptoms of flu.

Some important flu treatments with the help of home remedies and natural cures are:

• Flu treatment using Long Pepper:

Take half teaspoon of the powder of long pepper. Mix it well with two teaspoon of honey and one teaspoon of ginger juice. Take this mixture three times a day; it will help you alot if you take it in the initial stages of your illness. It also helps you to avoid severe complications.

• Influenza treatment using Garlic

Garlic has an antiseptic property which is used as a superb remedy for flu.

• Influenza treatment using Turmeric

Take a teaspoon of turmeric mixed well in a cup of warm water and religiously take it three times a day. It helps a lot in boosting your immune system, activating liver when it becomes sluggish and also anticipates complications of flu.

• Influenza treatment using Onion

Onion is a useful solution for flu. Mix equal amounts of onion juice and honey, and take this solution three times a day.

• Influenza treatment using Ginger

Ginger is the best remedy for flu. Take a teaspoon of ginger juice and mix it with a cup of fenugreek decoction, if required add honey for taste. This solution helps a lot and increases sweating which reduces fever.

• Influenza treatment using Grapefruit

Grapefruit is a useful remedy as it tones up your body and the digestive system.

• Influenza treatment using Basil Leaves

Basil Leaves are also useful remedy for flu. Boil one gram of leaves with ginger in about half a liter of water until half of the water is left. This solution provides immediate relief.

Conclusion

The flu symptoms can be cured with the help of vitamins, herbs, homeopathy, and some other foods. Natural flu remedies and other flu treatments can help you in reducing pain and suffering that comes along with the flu infection.

Poisoning – Its Clinical Manifestation and Management

Acute poisoning accounts for about 4-7% of admissions into major general hospitals in the world. Poisoning may be suicidal, accidental or homicidal. The high incidence of poisoning is attributed to the widespread use and free availability of insecticides, pesticides and other harmful chemicals for use in agriculture and industry. Depending upon the cost and local availability, varied substances are used.

In the order of frequency, the toxic agents include organophosphorus compounds, barbiturates, vegetable poisons, phenothiazines, corrosive acids, and several others. The precipitating factors which drive persons to commit suicide are depressive illness, financial problems, domestic conflicts, and frustration in studies, jobs or incurable illness. Among epileptics and alcoholics, the incidence of suicidal poisoning is high. Accidental poisoning is common in children. Persons engaged in the use of toxic chemicals in agriculture and in industry are liable to suffer if proper safety precautions are not adhered to.

Clinical presentation of acute poisoning: Though poisoning by many chemicals lead to characteristic clinical features, in the majority of cases, symptoms are nonspecific and may be mistaken for other acute illnesses. The common presentations are coma, acute psychosis, convulsions, gastroenteritis, circulatory collapse, or pulmonary edema. Corrosive poisons produce noticeable lesions at the points of maximum contact such as the mouth, esophagus and stomach. other poisons affect specific organs maximally, e.g, Liver damage in paracetamol poisoning, renal damage in copper sulphate poisoning, and Cardiac dysfunction in Cerebral odullum poisoning. Poisons consumed on an empty stomach are absorbed more rapidly than if taken on full stomach. Also, if taken along with alcohol, many poisons are quickly absorbed and their damaging effects are cumulative.

Diagnosis: Diagnosis is rendered easy if proper history or evidence of the material is obtained, but in many cases such help is not available. A high index of suspicion on the part of the physician is absolutely necessary for arriving at an early diagnosis in such cases. Abrupt occurrence of acute illness in a person who is in good health should suggest acute poisoning as a possibility. Smell of alcohol or kerosene, severe respiratory depression, circulatory collapse, convulsions, constricted pupil, Cardiac arrhythmia’s, dystonic postures, and muscle fasciculations add support to this diagnosis. The outcome depends upon factors like:

1. The amount of poison and its mode of administration

2. Presence of food in the stomach at the time of ingestion.

3. delay in starting treatment.

4. Age,

5. General health and concurrent illness, and

6. Availability of specific antidotes.

Patients who are comatose owing to acute poisoning face the twin dangers of the toxic effects of the chemical and the grave consequences of an obstructed airway.

general management of acute poisoning: Acute poisoning is a medical emergency and is best treated in a well-equipped hospital with teams specially trained to handle such cases. Since in many cases the nature of the poison will not be evident at first, the aim of treatment is to keep the patient alive with support of vital functions and eliminate as much of the poison as possible from the body. Specific antidotes are given as soon as the nature of the poison is known.

Supportive management: Most important is to clear the airway and ensure adequate ventilation. If there is respiratory depression, stimulants like nikethemide (500 mg) should be given along with oxygen inhalation. Intermittent positive pressure respiration has to be instituted after tracheostomy or endotracheal intubation, if conservative measures fail. The patient should be turned from side to side at four hourly intervals to prevent aspiration and hypostatic Pneumonia. Frequent bronchial suction helps in preventing atelectasis and aspiration Pneumonia. Shock is managed on the usual lines. Maintenance of fluid and electrolyte balance is of utmost importance in all cases. An intake-output chart should be maintained and a urine output of 1500 ml should be ensured. Replacement of electrolytes and correction of acidosis should be done with proper laboratory monitoring. Maintenance of nutrition is equally important. Diet containing 2000 calories should be given through a nasogastric tube or parenterally. Repeated examination of blood and urine help in monitoring the level of poison in blood and the amount eliminated.