Technically there is no surgery for feline urinary tract infections (UTI). Infections are infections, — either bacterial or fungal. A urinary infection in a cat will be treated as such. Surgery is only necessary when there is a structural problem or blockage that is obstructing the flow of urine.
Many urinary tract infections have an underlying cause: a problem that makes a cat more susceptible to infection, and more likely to have critical problems with their urinary system. Cats can form a wide range of crystals in their urine, that form what are called uroliths: bladder stones, or kidney stones.
These uroliths are abrasive, irritating to the bladder and urethra walls, and worse, they can cause complete blockage of the urethra (the urethra carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body). This problem is made likelier if the urethra is already irritated and swollen from either the crystals or from a secondary infection associated with the crystal production.
The crystals form a dam, closing off the flow of urine entirely, and placing the cat in mortal danger from bladder failure, built up toxins, and even from a burst bladder or internal tearing of the urethra and bladder. In this case the vet may choose to perform a very minor surgery for feline urinary tract infections, sedating the cat, using a catheter to back-wash the dam of crystals and organic wastes, and drain the bladder.
If a cat continues to get crystal blockage, and appears to be at severe risk, then further surgery may be considered. Male cats are the primary candidates for further, more extensive surgery for feline urinary tract infections. Male cats are structured in such a way that there is a severe narrowing of their urethras as they pass over the edge of the pelvic bones — a narrowing not present in female cats.
If a male cat continually gets blockages a vet may choose to alter the entire layout of the lower urethra and penis, making the male cat structurally similar to the female and allowing safer and more reliable urination without blockages. This form of surgery for feline urinary tract infections is extreme, expensive, and not always successful.
The best approach to dealing with all forms of UTIs, if at all possible, is through natural treatments aimed at altering metabolism and urinary pH. The primary approaches are through day to day care and maintenance.
Most commercial cat foods are made to deter the formation of crystals. Natural and medical supplements can also help to reduce infections and promote healthy and highly dilute urination. Water should always be readily available, even if multiple water dishes are needed in the house. The more dilute the urine, the less likely crystal formation is, and the smaller the crystals.
The vital thing is to ensure that your cat is seen by a veterinarian, and then placed on a sensible regimen of safe and natural foods and supplements, with medical augmentation if necessary. This will, with luck, avoid the question of surgery for feline urinary tract infections completely.
Feline Urinary Tract Conditions and Surgeries:
Renal Biopsy: used to determine if there is any cancerous tissue.
Cystotomy: surgical incision into the urinary bladder
Bladder Rupture: A problem cause by injury to the abdomen, urethral obstruction or from catheterization. Aggressive palpation outside of the body (touching) could also cause the bladder to rupture. A veterinarian will catheterize the bladder, drain it and pursue surgical repair of the bladder.
Prescrotal Urethrostomy: Surgical technique to remove calculi (stones) lodged in the urethra that are located at the penis base.
Perineal Urethrostomy: surgical treatment for obstructions in male cats. Feline urologic syndrome, which is the most frequent cause of feline urinary tract disease (FLUTD), has multiple causes. Surgery is considered a last resort for treatment of FLUTD.
Urinary Incontinence: there are many reasons for urinary incontinence. Surgery is used for cats that have urinary deformities.
Prostatic Cysts: these occur due to inflammation and a problem called ductal occlusion. A simple surgical approach can correct the problem.