Colles’ fractures, named after Abraham Colles who first described in 1814 the common fracture of the last inch of the radius and ulna near the wrist, is a very common consequence of a fall on the outstretched hand (FOOSH). Typical treatment is immobilisation in a plaster of Paris or similar material for five to six weeks to allow bony union, followed by a rehabilitation period of a month or more, a short period of which might involve a wrist brace for comfort during activity. Due to the functional importance of the hand, the period of immobilisation is kept to a minimum to prevent dysfunction of the hand and wrist.
Physiotherapy examination starts once the hand has been released from the Plaster of Paris, manually feeling the fracture site which should not be more than minimally uncomfortable, signifying the fracture is well on the way to healing. Hand colour should be normal, the hand should not be swollen much nor have severe muscle wasting. Wrist movements are often restricted in one or two planes but all the movements should not normally be reduced or not significantly. Pain may be present but again should not be severe or occur on all hand movements.
Two hourly range of motion exercises are the first treatment taught to the patient by the physiotherapist and in many cases the wrist movements improve sufficiently for this alone to be required. Elbow and shoulder movement should be reviewed to rule out restrictions before moving on to the rotatory forearm movements of pronation and supination which are important for normal hand use. Further movements assessed are flexion and extension of the wrist, fingers and thumb, along with thumb adduction and abduction. Wrist extension and forearm supination are the most commonly affected movements.
After the plaster comes off the wrist often feels vulnerable, partly because the plaster is seldom left on until the bone is entirely healed to prevent the onset of complications due to immobilisation. Physiotherapists may give the patient a futura type brace, a fabric brace with Velcro straps and a metal piece for the underside of the wrist to stiffen it. This is not meant to keep the wrist immobilised further but to support the wrist while the patient is performing functional activities and then to be removed for light activities and regular exercise performance.
If the ranges of motion do not improve as they should then the physiotherapist will consider using joint mobilisations to ease the movements. Accessory movements can be performed to the inferior radio-ulnar joint to help pronation and supination, and to the radiocarpal (wrist) and midcarpal joints, with the physiotherapist fixing one side of the joint as he or she moves the other side of the joint passively. This can be done gently or more vigorously at the end of range to push against the restrictions within the joint. Mobilisations can also be performed with the joint at the end of its available movement to give it the sliding and gliding movements it requires.
Strengthening the wrist occurs with a gradual increase in functional activities but joining a hand class can instruct the patient in practicing the large variety of small movements that the hand can perform and needs to strengthen for optimum hand function. Repetitive work at pieces of apparatus can strengthen and harden the hand to turning, twisting, pulling, grasping and fine work with the thumb and index finger. This can move on to work with weights or functional activities if the person needs to return to manual labour or another job requiring upper limb strength.
Urgent treatment is indicated if the hand is extremely painful, tightly swollen and has poor movements, before a pain syndrome develops. At this stage medical review is important to make sure there are no complications with the fracture such as poor healing or lack of healing. Analgesia and contrast baths can help with the pain, desensitisation with the hypersensitive areas which can develop and massage and exercise with the swelling. Patient education is vital so they know they have to work hard and through the pain to rehabilitate their hand.