Prostate cancer is a disease that occurs in the male reproductive system. This cancer is very popular as the most causes of death in the United States.
The prostate itself is responsible for production of semen. Anatomically, the prostate gland is located between the bladder and rectum, so sometimes in diagnosed the disease we need finger rectal examination besides PSA blood test.
early symptoms of prostate cancer nearly often overlooked, because it is usually without symptoms. This is one answer for the question why this most often found in men aged fifty years and the most frequently diagnosed in the seventies. Indeed in line with the age, symptom that was not visible will be visible. a common complaint expressed by people with the disease is pain, especially when you urinate, sometimes you will found bleeding in urination, and the presence of erectile dysfunction.
Examination and Diagnosis
The diagnosis of prostate cancer is taken through physical examination or with a blood test named PSA. This Prostate Specific Antigen, is the antigen if it contained in someone`s blood, the doctor will suspect him suffer the cancer. Later the suspicions of prostate specific antigen will be confirmed by taking a tissue biopsy.
Prostate Cancer Treatment options
Appropriate treatment for prostate cancer is still under debate. Treatment options vary, depending on the stage. In the early stages can be used prostatectomy (removal of prostate) and radiation therapy. If prostate cancer has spread, hormonal manipulation can be done (reduce testosterone levels through the removal of drugs or the testis) or chemotherapy.
1. Radical prostatectomy (removal of the prostate gland).
Often performed on stage cancer A and B. The procedure is long and is usually performed under general anesthesia or spinal. An incision is made in the abdomen or perineal area, and the patient had to undergo hospital treatment for 5-7 days. Complications that can happen is that impotence and incontinence uri. In patients who are still active sex life, can be done Potency-sparing radical prostatectomy.
2. Orkiektomi (removal of the testes, castration).
Appointment of two testes have decreased testosterone levels, but this procedure causes physical and psychological effects that can not be tolerated by the patients. Orkiektomi is an effective treatment, does not require re-treatment, compared to cheaper drugs and after undergoing orkiektomi patient did not need hospital treatment. Orkiektomi usually done on the cancer that had spread.
Radiation therapy used primarily to treat cancer of A, B and C. Usually if the risk of surgery is too high, then do radiation therapy. Radiation therapy to the prostate gland can be done in several ways:
1. External radiation therapy performed in hospitals without the need to undergo hospitalization. Side effects such as decreased appetite, fatigue, skin reactions (such as redness and irritation), injury or burns to the rectum, diarrhea, cystitis (bladder infection) and hematuria. External radiation therapy is usually done as much as five times / week for 6-8 weeks.
2. Transplant iodine beads, gold or iridium radioactive directly on prostate tissue through a small incision. The advantage of this form of radiation therapy is that radiation is directed directly to the prostate with tissue damage in the surrounding smaller.
1. Hormonal manipulation
The goal is to reduce the level of testosterone. Decrease in testosterone levels are often very effective in preventing the growth and spread of cancer. Hormonal manipulation is mainly used to alleviate symptoms without curing prostate cancer, namely cancer in patients who have been spreading.
Synthetic drug whose function resembles luteinizing hormone Releasing Hormone (LHRH), the more widely used to treat advanced prostate cancer. An example is the lupron or zoladeks.
These drugs suppress the formation of stimulating the testes to testosterone (this is called chemical castration because it has the same result with the removal of the testes). Drugs given in the form of injections, usually every three months. The side effects are nausea and vomiting, flushed face, anemia, osteoporosis and impotence.
Other drugs used for hormonal therapy is androgen inhibitor (eg flutamid), which function to prevent the attachment of testosterone on prostate cells. The side effects are impotence, liver disorders, diarrhea, and gynecomastia (enlarged breasts).
Chemotherapy is often used to treat symptoms of prostate cancer is resistant to hormonal therapy. Usually given a single drug or combination of several drugs to destroy cancer cells.
Drugs that can used to treat prostate cancer is:
The side effects vary and depend on the drugs given. You should carefully consider the benefits and side effects of both treatments to find the best prostate cancer treatment options that suit with you.