Premenstrual syndrome effects over 70% to 90% of women before menopause in the US and less for women in Southeast Asia because of their difference in living style and social structure. It is defined as faulty function of the ovaries related to the women’s menstrual cycle, it effects a women’s physical and emotional state, and sometimes interferes with daily activities as a result of hormone fluctuation. The syndrome occurs one to two weeks before menstruation and then declines when the period starts. In this article, we will discuss how conventional treatment helps to treat PMS and it’s side effects.
I. How estrogen hormone therapy effects women with PMS
Estrogen patch and implant have been used in estrogen hormone therapy to suppress the ovulation by interfering with the normal menstrual cycle in production of FSH and LH resulting in suppressing the ovulation, thereby reducing or stop the symptoms of pre-menstrual syndrome
II. Side effects
1. Risk of endometrial and breast cancer
Since high levels of estrogen interferes the normal cycle of the reproductive system and hormone which support it, it increases the risk of reproductive irregularity resulting in abnormal cells growth in the reproductive system including endometrial cancer and breast cancer.
2. Abnormal function of liver
Liver is important in regulating the production of estrogen during the menstrual cycle. By prolonging the high levels of estrogen in the women body, it interferes with normal function of the liver resulting in liver damage.
3. Nervous system
By introducing high levels of estrogen in the women body during menstrual cycle that disrupt the production of certain hormones and decrease liver in fat and protein metabolism causing hormone imbalance resulting in increasing the nervous tension including emotional and physical stress and depression.
4. Breast tenderness
By introducing the high levels of estrogen in the women body during menstrual cycle, it causes hormonal imbalance resulting in over production of prolactin leading to breast tenderness.
5. Other risks
b) Gallbladder disease
c) Blood clots