Pericardial effusion is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the pericardial cavity. If the onset is rapid or if the volume of the pericardial effusion is large, cardiac tamponade can occur. Cardiac tamponade diminishes the force of heart contractions because of compression by the fluid trapped within the pericardial space.Among individuals with a pericardial effusion, 7% to 10% are at risk of developing a cardiac tamponade. Pericardial effusion usually results from a disturbed equilibrium between the production and re-absorption of pericardial fluid, or from a structural abnormality that allows fluid to enter the pericardial cavity. It may be transudative (congestive heart failure, myxoedema, nephrotic syndrome), exudative (tuberculosis, spread from empyema) or haemorrhagic.
Pericardial effusions can be acute or chronic, and the time course of development has a great impact on the patient’s symptoms. Chest pain, pressure symptoms. A small effusion may have no symptoms. Pericardial effusion is also present after a specific type of heart defect repair. Causes of Pericardial effusion is autoimmune disorders (hypothyroidism, inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis) ,Kidney failure , Hemorrhage (bleeding) into pericardial space due to chest trauma, heart attack, aortic rupture, or cardiac bypass surgery. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the heart impairment. Pericardial effusion due to a viral infection usually goes away within a few weeks without treatment. Some pericardial effusions remain small and never need treatment.
If the pericardial effusion is due to a condition such as lupus, treatment with anti-inflammatory medications may help. In some cases, surgical drainage may be required by pericardiocentesis. Aspirin may be the favorite nonsteroidal agent to treat pericarditis after myocardial infarction. Sometimes a catheter are used to drain excess fluid. Antineoplastic therapy in conjunction with pericardiocentesis has been shown to be effective in reducing recurrences of malignant effusions. Corticosteroids and NSAIDs are helpful in patients with autoimmune conditions. Intravenous fluid resuscitation may be helpful in cases of hemodynamic compromise. Steroid administration early in the course of acute pericarditis appears to be associated with an increased incidence of relapse after tapering the steroid.
Pericardial Effusion Treatment and Prevention Tips
1. Lupus is very effective treatment against Pericardial Effusion.
2. Sometimes a catheter are used to drain excess fluid.
3. Treatment with anti-inflammatory medications may help against Pericardial Effusion.
4. Corticosteroids and NSAIDs are helpful in patients with autoimmune conditions.
5. Intravenous fluid resuscitation may be helpful in cases of hemodynamic compromise.
6. Aspirin may be the preferred nonsteroidal agent to treat pericarditis after myocardial infarction.
7. Indomethacin should be avoided in patients who may have coronary artery disease
8. Intravenous positive inotropes (dobutamine, dopamine) can be used Pericardial Effusion Treatment.