Power of Forgiveness: Super Glue for Marriages

How do you spell forgiveness?

Have you ever felt your marriage needed some super glue to cement the bond? At a time when I really needed some good answers, a mentor arrived who was to change my life. Every month for a year, an elderly doctor flew into our town to spend long and memorable weekends with my friends and me. We owed a deep debt of gratitude to this man who had become like a father to us.

Opening up a window into his world, we would catch glimpses of what a real marriage and raising children and grandchildren looked like . Most of us had come from homes of varying degrees of dysfunction, making Henry's fathering all the more life-changing.

"Mentoring is a brain to pick, an ear to listen, and a push in the right direction." (John Crosby)

We sure did pick Henry's brain! This internship was to forever alter the course of my life, but of all the lessons Henry taught, my favorite is the LOVER way to walk in forgiveness. Henry did not simply teach us to love … he showed us the very strands of love and how he skillfully wove them into the fabric of a typical day.

His mornings began by shaking his right foot to kick his left foot out of bed, very early. His first task after the bathroom was to fix a cup of tea for his wife who remained sleeping, because he knew Tina loved to be awakened to this act of kindness.

Henry taught us that we are created to live, eat, and breathe love more than anything else. When we begin our day with a sacred act of love, it's an act of warfare and it charges the atmosphere with more Love. The world is a very negative place so it's important to start our days with something extremely positive. Then where our feet hit the ground we carry with us an atmosphere that changes our environment wherever we go.

Neverheless, we live in a broken, imperfect world and even in the best of families we get hurt. On days when his wife, Tina, shut down or withdrew, Henry taught us that it's the husband's responsibility, as head of the home, to become a detective and gather clues. He called this the 'LISTENING' act of love – or the "L" in LOVER …

Listen to Your Spouse from the Heart! Become a Detective …

Henry then went into detail, showing us how to really listen .. going beyond physical physical hearing. He taught us to listen to our spouses and children with our hearts. Have you ever been around someone who talks non-stop? With or without realizing it, that's how many of us refer to others. We're so busy waiting for the other person to pause so we an insert our two-bits of information. Our focus is on us when it needs to be directed like a laser beam on the other person.

I carried my listening skills into the business world, and often as I was speaking to clients I would hear an astonished gasp, "You were really listening to me, were not you?" There are so many distractions that compete for our attention that when you actually zero in and listen to someone's heart with nothing else on your agenda except to stick it out in a crowd!

If we truly listen with our heart we will pick up clues and many times the person speaking will put the pieces together themselves, simply by having a good sounding board! Everyone loves to be listened to and understood – it's a basic human need.

If you have offended your spouse, whatever you feel there was just cause or not, you can be an agent of Love. This often gets a bit tricky because we may really do not have done anything to hurt our loved one … but something we did triggered a pain from their past. It's like carrying an inner breeze that happened a long time ago, but not knowing it, we bump into the other person and it instigates a fresh wave of pain.

One way to forever end the pain, if it was our fault our not, is to have a servant heart and offer a genuine apology … with much grace and kindness. Offer it on a silver platter, well thought out and heart-felt.

Offer an Apology! Offer your apology like a butler, carefully prepared and presented …

The apology should be honest and target the specific area of ​​the wound or bruise . We should never exaggerate or use sarcasm … such as, "I'm sorry you're so over sensitive and I'll never be enough for you." That's an "apology with an attitude" and actually rubs salt in the wound. When you love someone traditionally, you're willing to suffer in that person's place. It takes a strong person to love … it's not for wimps!

A better apology may be, "Tina, I'm so sorry my words (briefly summarize) made you feel like (summarize her words). You're right about this making you feel ___ (because feelings are not right or wrong, they are Just are) and I'm going to do my best to change … You will not be singing me say that anymore.

Validate How Your Spouse Feels!

Henry taught us to apologize to the depth of the person's suffering … If your apology has hit the mark, you should begin to see your spouse opening their heart. Depending on how big the braise or how deep the wound, you may expect to repeat this apology later on down the road … or this might be the final healing touch they needed. The older we get the more layers of wounding we carry, so as long as the wounded person is open, keep apologizing as needed until you get the very root of the pain.

Another tactic that really helps to rid our loved ones of pain is to understand the difference between men and women and how they process emotions. To break it down very simply, men are able to compartmentalize their lives. So it's easy for them to move on from one emotion to the next very quickly. It might not be all nice and tidy but it's put away and closed up.

Women, on the other hand, are like a tangled up ball of yarn … one emotion leads to another and then to another. So if you can add patience to your listening skills it really helps. Call it a storm. A woman, many times, will need to keep talking for what looks to be an incredibly long length of time … typical 'storms' last about 45-minutes. If she's allowed to simply share her heart, many times she'll feel a lot better afterwards and that's all that was needed. She's ready for a hug …

Embrace or Encourage Your Spouse!

This would be a great time for an embrace … but if your spouse is not ready to take that step, give them encouraging words instead. Assure them that you are going to be there … you'll be available when they are ready. Keep the focus, like a laser beam on their needs and not your own, to produce the most healing. Words can heal and a touch can heal, too!

The healing power of a hug can be scientifically measured these days! A good hug can release up to 3 points of Oxytocin at a time, depending on the person's ability to receive. Oxytocin is the greatest mood-enhancing hormone of all time and experts tells us we each need about 30 points of oxytocin per day, to maintain health. It's also the world's greatest anti-aging substance!

Oxytocin is sometimes called the Love Hormone . The good news is, whether you are on the receiving or the giving end, each person gets an equal dose of this mood-enhancing brain hormone! Did you get your daily dose of oxytocin today?

Repent, or Make A 180 Degree Change!

The best way to love is "in the opposite spirit" – that is, doing the opposite of what comes naturally. The easy way is to allow anger, resentment and bitterness, or other negative emotions to implode your relationship. But love overcomes all evil … it's the cure-all for every dysfunction.

We never worry about getting the short end of the stick, because in giving love away we receive it back multiplied many times over. The next time your spouse gets angry or withdrawals, become a better LOVER Go above and beyond the "norm" and do what does not come naturally. Watch as your new listening skills elevate you above the crowd and transform your whole life, beginning in your marriage and family and extending to your career, community, and place of worship!

A brief summary of how to get an A + as a spouse for spelling forgiveness:

"L" Listen With Your Heart

"O" Offer A Sincere Apology

"V" Validate How Your Spouse Feels

"E" Encourage or Embrace Your Spouse

"R" Repent, or Make A 180 Degree Change

This " How Do You Spell Forgiveness " article is an example of how to create a story about something important you've learned in life that you want to pass down to your children and grandchildren. We want the next generation to SHINE!

Do not wait until you feel your life is perfect to write your Life Story! Just get started and you'll be amazed at the depth of the wealth in your treasure chest of life experiences!

Vitamin D – What You DO NOT Know

The benefits of Vitamin D are not much talked about in the press. That could be why most folks are unaware of the major benefits of Vitamin D. But please do not think that Vitamin D is not for you.

Vitamin D is another one of those fat soluble vitamins. Fat soluble means that Vitamin D (along with Vitamin A and E) are stored by your body.

Vitamin D is the only vitamin that your body can manufacture. Your body needs exposure to sunlight (without sunscreen) for this to occur.

Your body can also get benefits of Vitamin D from food sources or from supplements. Food sources of Vitamin D include cod liver oil, fatty fish like sardines, tuna or salmon, milk that is Vitamin D fortified and eggs.

However, most folks do not get the required amount of Vitamin D from their diet or exposure to sunlight.

Can not Get the Benefits of Vitamin D from My Diet Alone

An article in the READER'S DIGEST titled "The Healing Vitamin" states that "Even with a healthy diet, you may be D-ficient (get it? D-ficient?)." The article argues that Vitamin D is not found in many foods and the foods that it is found in, people do not eat enough of.

In addition, folks are using sunscreen to keep the sun from damaging their skin. And even sunscreen with an 8 SPF cuts the UV rays necessary to make your Vitamin D to almost nothing.

An article in the JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION titled "Vitamins for Chronic Disease Prevention in Adults" points out the benefits of Vitamin D. It states that "low levels of vitamin D contribute to osteopenia (comes before osteoporosis) and fractures."

This same article goes on to state that "most people do not consume an optimal amount of all vitamins by diet alone" and "pending strong evidence of effectiveness from randomized trials, it appears prudent for all adults to take vitamin supplements."

Benefits of Vitamin D in Preventing Osteoporosis

Another article appearing in the JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION titled "Osteoporosis, Prevention, Diagnosis and Therapy" tells us that "adequate calcium and vitamin D intake is critical to develop optimal peak bone mass and to maintain bone mass through life."

The major benefits of Vitamin D is in enabling your body to use calcium and phosphorous. Without Vitamin D, your body can not process the calcium in your diet and starts taking it from your bones.

In adults, these results in the bone disease called osteoporosis. In children, a severe Vitamin D deficiency causes what's called rickets.

Rickets is a softening of bones in children and is rare in the industrialized nations though.

An article in the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE titled "What Was Wrong With Tiny Tim" amusingly argues that Tiny Tim of the Charles Dickens's "A Christmas Carol" fame is thought to have suffered from Rickets.

That's Not Very Funny

Although Rickets is rare in the industrialized world, osteoporosis is not. In the US it is estimated that 10 million people have osteoporosis. 18 million more have low bone mass making it highly likely that they too will often have this crippling disease.

Osteoporosis is a major health concern and major source of suffering for us older folks. It is estimated that one in two women and one out of every eight men over 50 years of age will have a fracture related to osteoporosis.

300,000 fractures of the hip, 700,000 fractures of the vertebrae, 250,000 fractures of the wrist and over 300,000 other fractures happen every year related to this disease.

Again, the major benefits of Vitamin D is that it enables your small intestine to absorb calcium from the foods you eat. Calcium is required by your muscles and nerves as well as for bone formation.

When your muscles and nerves are not getting enough calcium because of low Vitamin D levels, your body robs it from your bones.

Your bones then become porous and brittle. This does not happen overnight but over the course of your lifetime. That is why prevention of osteoporosis should begin at childhood. And making sure you get the benefits of Vitamin D along with an adequate supply of calcium is one way to do so.

Benefits of Vitamin D in Slowing Progression of Osteoarthritis

Another Osteo you say? Sorry! This time it's osteoarthritis (OA). This disease is a preliminary deterioration of the cartilage in the joints. It is the most common form of arthritis.

Another of the benefits of Vitamin D is that it has been shown to less the severity of the pain and disability of this disease. The Arthritis Foundation has also reported on the link between low levels of Vitamin D and the increased progress of osteoarthritis of the knees.

Also, in an article in the JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION titled "Steps Toward Understanding, Alleviating Osteoarthritis Will Help Aging Population," we are advised that "preliminary results appear particularly strongly for vitamin D."

Are There Other Benefits of Vitamin D? What About Vitamin D and Cancer?

More research is needed but preliminary studies have shown benefits of Vitamin D in areas such as high blood pressure, cancer of the colon as well as breast cancer and diabetes.

Can I Get My Benefits of Vitamin D Without Taking Too Much?

Dr Reinhold Vieth, Dept. Of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine at Mount Sinai Hospital in Toronto argues that the Recommended Dietary Allowance (birth to 50 years – 200 IU, 50+ years – 400 IU) may keep you from getting osteomalacia. But he feels more is needed to keep you from getting osteoporosis and secondary hyperparathyroidism.

In an article published in THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION, titled "Vitamin D supplementation, 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, and safety," he argues that our ancestors were "naked apes in tropical Africa (his words)." And as such they enjoyed full body exposure to the sun on a daily basis. This, he stated, could give them the equivalent of 10,000 IU every day (and possibly a certain sunburn – my words).

A Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) has been set by the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine. This is the level of Vitamin D that they suggest you do not exceed. The UL for infants 0 to 12 months old is 1000 IU. The UL for both children as well as adults is 2000 IU.

Studies done since 1997 suggest that the current UL is conservative and that Vitamin D is safe below levels up to as high as 10,000 IU.

Since multivitamins supply Vitamin D in doses of 400 to 800 IU as do the single supplements, you should feel more than safe getting your benefits of Vitamin D.

If Your Ex Boyfriend Refuses To Talk To You – Proven Tips To Make Him Beg You To Answer His Calls

At the time of the breakup, you thought he would get over it and be calling soon. But it has been a month and when you try to call him, your ex boyfriend refuses to talk to you.  This kind of treatment can make you start sending emails and text messages begging him to talk to you. Don’t let this is happen to you. Use these proven tips to make him beg you to answer his calls.

The fact that he is rejecting your every attempt to communicate with him should tell you that he wants to be left alone. But, that doesn’t mean that you should give up hope of getting your ex back. You just have to have some patience and make him think you don’t care. The best way to do that is to do what he is doing to you, ignore him.

When your ex boyfriend broke up with you, he was in control. The breakup took you by surprise and all you could do was cry and beg. By refusing to talk to you, he is keeping that control. The more you chase him and tell him you can’t live without him, the more control over you he thinks he has. To make him beg you to answer his calls, you need to take that control away from him.

The first thing you have to do, is stop trying to communicate with him. He is not going to answer you anyhow. The more you let him reject you the harder it will become to get your ex back. You have to turn things around and make him feel rejected. That can be accomplished much easier than you think. You just need to bruise his pride and he will be begging you to answer his calls.

Starting right now, cut off all contact with your ex and appear to accept the breakup and be moving on. Spend time with your family and go out with your friends. Don’t date anyone but do some flirting. When your ex boyfriend hears about what you are doing, he will be the one that is upset. He thought you would just sit at home and wait for him to call. Now he will be the one that is afraid of losing you.

This puts you in control and he knows he will have to act fast to keep from losing you for good. This should make him decide to call you. Don’t take his phone calls, or answer his emails and text messages. Show him you can play the game as well as he can. Soon your ex boyfriend will be begging you to answer his calls.

Leading Teams in Times of Change

Understanding how individuals cycle through change is also helpful to understand some of the major mistakes which leaders make when working with teams. Patrick Lencioni has identified five dysfunctions of teams which leaders should address in order to enhance team effectiveness. Understanding these dysfunctions is helpful in understanding how a first line manager can lead a team more effectively. The five dysfunctions Lencioni has identified, but which are also common to most team effectiveness programs are: 1) absence of trust; 2) fear of conflict, 3) lack of commitment, 4) avoidance of accountability, and 5) inattention to results (Lencioni, 2005, p. 6). Consistent achievement of goals over the long-term is more possible if the team can overcome the five dysfunctions. Each of these concepts also apply to a leader in moving a team through change.

Team members must trust one another in order to be able to depend and rely on one another and help and strengthen each other in ways to improve performance. A team leader must also be able to establish trust with the employees that reports to him or her. As Strebel points out, “Individuals formulate responses to those questions (related to the change effort) in large part by evaluating their relationship with their boss” (Strebel, 1996, p. 88). Within a trusting relationship, there will be more communication, more willingness to listen to concerns and, therefore, less likelihood of the team falling into stages of deep pessimism or resistance.

“Teams that trust one another are not afraid to engage in passionate dialogue around issue and decisions that are key to the organization’s success” (Lencioni, 2005, p. 7) as well as be able to openly discuss difficult issues that may come up as a result of a change initiative. Change will likely bring about difficult and deeply held feelings by members of the team. A team leader who has established a trusting environment where members of the team can openly discuss and debate difficult issues will more likely be able to discuss the difficult issues related to change openly and honestly. Even if these issues may relate to difficult issues like pay, bonus, relocations, or even lay offs, people who do not trust one another will not truly listen to one another, or try to understand feelings, or work for collaborative solutions, but rather will try to win or manipulate the conversation to their own purposes. The leader who engages individuals in discussions of challenges and possible solutions will recognize that this will later lead to their commitment and help avoid and/or prolong resistance later on.

If a leader allows the team to be open with their opinions in a debate about the areas of conflict and that all opinions and feelings and ideas are considered, there is a stronger sense of commitment within the overall team to whatever final course of action is taken. The free and open discussion of ideas helps bring clarity to the minds of the team members and brings about buy-in to the final decisions accepted by the team. Even if outcomes are grave, for example, there will be no bonus payout, or 20% of the team will be terminated, the open discussion helps bring clarity to the situation and eventual understanding or acceptance of the change effort. Even if the leader does not have these conversations with their employees, the conversations are still going on, but rather than happening in an open environment where some positive result may be the outcome, they happen through the informal grape-vine of the company; at the water fountain; or at the lunch breaks. Furthermore, these conversations are more likely to focus on the pessimistic. They may even help entrench resistance or lead to a point where people begin checking out. Only through positive confrontation and conflict can a leader hope to engage the employee and raise them out of the slump.

With the prior steps in place it is easier for a team leader to help the team members “hold one another accountable for adhering” (Lencioni, 2005, p. 7) to the decisions and commitment of the team. In a situation of change, establishing a sense of accountability to implement the changes and to support one another through the change helps move the team out of the bottom of the performance curve and helps to begin to raise them up through renewed hope and optimism.

Finally, “teams that trust one another, engage in conflict, commit to decisions, and hold one another accountable are very likely to set aside their individual needs and agendas and focus almost exclusively on what is best for the team” (Lencioni, 2005, p. 7). Ensuring these steps helps the team move the team through change more effectively.

This model of team work is similar to other types of team building programs available from various training companies and writers on team performance. It is similar to the concept of a leader helping a team move through an evolution of team development, referred to by different names, but commonly known as “forming, storming, norming and performing”, or as Hersey et al describe them as a “team readiness level” (Hersey et al, 2001, p. 325). It would be beneficial to combine these concepts of team effectiveness with the insights regarding change leadership in recommending concepts which could be taught to first line managers regarding a process to help ensure greater success in implementing change.

The truth about Ulcers and how you can cure Ulcers naturally

What is an Ulcer?

A peptic ulcer is a break in the tissue lining either the stomach or the duodenum (the part of the digestive tract that immediately follows the stomach). Normally, the lining of the stomach and small intestines have protection against the irritating acids produced in your stomach. Nature intended for the intestine to quickly neutralize this acid but this neutralization does not always happen. For a variety of reasons, the protective mechanisms may become faulty, leading to a breakdown of the lining. This results in inflammation (gastritis) or an ulcer.

The most common cause of such damage is infection of the stomach with a bacterium called Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori). Most people with peptic ulcers have this organism living in their gastrointestinal (GI) tract. However, not everyone who is infected will go on to develop ulcers.

Other factors can make it more likely for you to get an ulcer, including:

  1. Using anti-inflammatory medications such as aspirin and ibuprofen.

  2. Drinking alcohol excessively.

  3. Smoking cigarettes and using tobacco.

  4. Family history of ulcers.

  5. A rare condition called Zollinger-Ellison syndrome in which a tumor in the pancreas secretes a substance that causes ulcers throughout the stomach and duodenum.

Many people believe that stress causes ulcers, others refute this. In any event, even if stress is not a causative factor, it certainly is a contributing factor. Stress may aggravate symptoms of peptic ulcers and, in some cases, delay healing.

Who is affected?

Duodenal ulcers affect up to 1 in 10 people at some point in their lives, and tend to affect especially younger men. Stomach ulcers are less common. They are rare in people before middle age and are most common in elderly people.

In Western countries the prevalence of H. Pylori infections roughly matches age (i.e. 20% at age 20, 30% at age 30, 80% at age 80 etc). Prevalence is higher in sub-Saharan Africa. Transmission is by food, contaminated groundwater, and through human saliva.

What to look out for

  • Abdominal pain is a common symptom but it may not always be present. The abdominal pain from peptic ulcers can differ a lot from person to person. For example, the pain may get better or worse after eating a meal.

Other symptoms include: Nausea, Vomiting, Heartburn, Indigestion, Belching, Chest pain, Shoulder pain, Weight loss, Fatigue, Vomiting blood (which may look like ‘coffee grounds’), Bloody or dark tarry stools.

Serious complications include internal bleeding, perforation of the intestine and peritonitis. In all cases, symptoms of an ulcer should be reported to a doctor. Symptoms such as vomiting blood or dark, tarry stools require urgent medical attention.

About 4% of stomach ulcers are caused by a malignant tumor, so biopsies may be carried out in some cases. Duodenal ulcers are generally benign.

Managing ulcers

With the increasing availability of over-the counter ulcer treatments, it can be easy to think of ulcers as just being a minor irritation rather than a potentially life-threatening problem if complications occur. Over-the-counter antacids and acid blockers may relieve the gnawing pain, but the relief can be short-lived. With a doctor’s help, prompt relief of ulcer pain can be obtained as well as a complete healing of the ulcer.

Conventional treatment often involves a combination of medications to kill the Helicobacter pylori bacteria, reduce acid levels, and protect the GI tract. This combination strategy allows the ulcer to heal and reduces the chances that it will come back.

If a peptic ulcer bleeds, an Endoscopy may be needed and a procedure carried out to stop the bleeding. If bleeding cannot be stopped in this way or if the ulcer has caused a perforation then surgery will be required.

How to heal ulcers naturally

First, is Aloe Vera. Most people know about Aloe Vera for its healing and soothing properties on the skin on the outside of the body. We all have skin on the insides of out bodies that line the digestive tract as well as the lungs, the sinuses and all the internal surfaces and membranes. Taking Aloe Vera internally i.e. drinking it has the effect of helping those surface and membranes to become healthy and remain in good condition. Aloe Vera helps to balance the immune system, is good for the skin and is also a natural anti-inflammatory agent so this is why it is helps when taken internally. As far as the digestive system is concerned, I have personal experience of helping people with ulcers, irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease and more.

Second, are various herbal teas and their natural healing properties that can also work very well in existing cases of peptic ulcers or to prevent them from occurring in predisposed individuals. As with many areas of medicine, this is an increasingly popular way of keeping ulcers under control.

Continuing to follow these guidelines once the signs and symptoms clear can help prevent further outbreaks and minimise the need for medical intervention. This is integrated medicine – not to say that you shouldn’t go to your doctor because you should – but this can help alongside and can help the body to get back into balance and start to function as it should.

Dr. Sylvia Chukwuemeka is a Medical Doctor and a Consultant in Health Promotion and Natural Health. She is a Fellow of the Royal Society for the Promotion of Health and a Member of the Institute of Health Promotion and Education, a Member of the Institute for Optimum Nutrition and a Member of the International Stress Management Association. She been a Natural Health Advisor on TV and radio in the past and is a freelance health writer.


Detailed Information on Nasal Polyposis

Nasal polyps are the most common tumors of the nasal cavity. Nasal polyposis can impair a person’s quality of life more than perennial allergic rhinitis. Nasal polyps are soft, jelly-like overgrowths of the lining of the sinuses. They look like grapes on the end of a stalk. Large polyps can bloc the nose and increase the risk of sinusitis. They may be yellowish, grey or pink in colour. They are common and are not cancerous. Nasal polyposis results from chronic inflammation of the nasal and sinus mucous membranes. Chronic inflammation causes a reactive hyperplasia of the intranasal mucosal membrane, which results in the formation of polyps.

Nasal polyps can vary significantly in size. There may be only one but sometimes several develop like a ‘small bunch of grapes’ on a stem. Polyps usually affect both nostrils. Nasal polyps can vary greatly in size. There may be only one but sometimes several grow like a ‘small bunch of grapes’ on a stem. The cause of the inflammation is certain conditions make nose inflammation and polyps more likely. These include: asthma, allergy to aspirin, cystic fibrosis, and some rare conditions of the nose. Nasal polyps can occur along with many other respiratory diseases, such as allergic rhinitis, chronic sinusitis, asthma, and aspirin allergy.

Nasal polyps also occur in a majority of people with Churg-Strauss syndrome, a rare disease that inflames the blood vessels (vasculitis). Nasal polyps occur in around 1 in 200 people. It appears that nasal polyps are more common in people with non-allergic rhinitis and non-allergic asthma, rather than allergic types of these conditions. Nasal polyps can affect anyone. However, most cases occur in people over the age of 40 years. They are four times more common in men than in women. In general, women are more likely to have nasal polyps than are men. Nasal polyps are uncommon in children.

Medications are the most common treatment for nasal polyps. Surgery may be needed to eliminate larger growths. Topical nasal steroid sprays, such as Flonase and Nasonex, can help decrease the size of nasal polyps and prevent polyps from growing back after surgery. Use allergy shots in an attempt to treat or stop nasal polyps from growing back after surgery. Intranasal corticosteroid sprays reduce the growth of small intranasal polyps are most effective in the postoperative period. Prevention is better than cure. Avoid over-the-counter saline sprays that contain additives, such as benzalkonium, which can actually inflame the mucous lining of your nose.

Ghost in the Radio

The first job is always troublesome; Especially if you are lucky enough to be given responsibilities which coworkers think is not as per your experience and age.

Those were the days of portable radio receivers and cassette recorders, Televisions was just coming in. Given the responsibility of developing an indigenous TV set with better sound quality available in the market, I spent most of the time breaking-in other sets. I was not given a dead line as there was much unknowns, I had to send a weekly "What I have Learnt" to the Managing Director, who was also the technical head of the R & D.

The R & D cubicle had transparent glass walls, not even curtains. Occasional people from other divisions would look through the glass, as the inside was darker than the outside, it was a little of a nuisance but one get used to it. Looks were one thing but the discussions, which was unheard for the first three months came through corporate grapevines to the MD and one day I found myself scheduled for an after-office-hour meeting with him.

The first thing he mentioned was that I should go through the radio, audio products, evaluate performance, give technical service to the service department and also give weekly one hour lessons on hardware debugging.

This was a little puzzling; Deciphering the innards of the Television sets took up all of my time. There were specialists on every products of the company; They had five to ten years of experience in their relevant fields. Anywhere, I had no choice.

After the official notice, every Saturday forenoon these veterans clustered in the meeting room with technical problems, since I understood schematics better I somehow managed not to make a total idiot of myself.

But the problems began to get harder day by day. Ultimately, I had a big stack of problems on my table, begging to be solved. These products are out there in the market in hundreds and thousands but the ones on my table have some bugs making them fail within warranty period.

Working overtime and comparing similar circuits, slowly the stack of problems began to come down and I found out why the MD in his wisdom gave me this job. To earn the technical respect of the people who used to stare at me thinking -what that boy was doing sitting, sitting ideally over a single piece of paper day in and day out?

He succeeded in his strategy. However, I failed on one person of the radio department. He was the head of the radio service department for fifteen years. He knew the deceases of all the models by heart. All the problems he took me took a lot of time to solve, but by his looks it seemed he still had a secret weapon, a one-shot knock-out for this young up-start.

One morning he waddled into my room, in his hand a radio receiver. By the looks in his eyes and the smile on quite a pleasant face, I knew my omega point has come.

"This set has a strange problem, the model is one of the most successful one in the market. Yet for the last two years most of the sets comes back with the same problem, in the medium wave AM band, at frequencies above 1.2MHz The reception becomes poor, and tuning becomes very difficult during the nighttime. If I re-tune the coils, reception is better, but then daytime reception is affected.The problem is solved if new coils are inserted. But the problem reoccurs again after a Few months. "

With this, he dumped the set and the schematic on my table. "There is no hurry; I know it will take some time, if at all you …. ah, it can be solved."

This was a puzzle with a hint; If the set becomes OK night and day by changing the IF coils then something must be wrong with the coils itself. The super-hetero dyne mechanism mixes a local oscillator frequency with the tuned-in RF frequency in such a way that the difference of the two frequencies is about 455Khz, This is called IF or intermediate frequency. This single frequency is amplified in three stages by tuned, band pass amplifiers.

The band pass frequency was dependent heavily on the coils and associated capacitors. The dumped set had the same problem. In the day time there was normal reception but during the night when I took it home the reception of frequencies above 1 MHz was very bad. I did not change the coils, at that time, we had no good high frequency LCR meters, definitely, the coil inductance or the small capacitance was changing, but what it has to do with night and day, heat had little effect, I ensured That.

I used to carry the thing in a plastic packet. When a series of natural holidays was forthcoming, I concatenated those with my leaves due, took the packaged receiver, my haversack and vanished from the world of technology.

After about twelve days when I returned home, I found that I had completely forgotten about the packaged troublemakers. As soon I unpacked it, a strange smell was in the air, there was no battery, where it is coming from.

The smell quickly disappeared but I decided to take out the metallic cover of the first Coil, the most sensitive one. After taking out the cover I turned the set upside down to de-solder the capacitor, but then decided I would rather do it in the office, I had the set upside down on a clean sheet of brown paper, when I was about to put Back the paper I saw some whish substance on it. On finer examination with homemade microscope, I was in no better position.

Across my office there was shop selling college lab equipment, I took the thing there and asked if I could see the substance through the compound microscope, that was on display. The old shop owner became very interested, as he knew I was working for the big company just opposite to his shop, he let me borrow a microscope on the condition he will come himself and take it back at 5 PM that evening.

Back in my room I found that the whitish dirt looked like spores, organic definitely, not paint or varnish, I carried on after 5 PM, but the shop owner did not come, the shop closes at 7, so I decided to take a last Look and return the microscope myself. This time when I looked I found that the white dirt looked wet, soggy. On the thin tissue paper on which I kept them there seemed to be an imprint of wetness.

Next day I cleaned each of the coils with Ether. Heated each coil and varnished them with standard varnish. The problem was gone forever.

Humidity dirt and heat, they are the greatest enemies of electronic devices. It was the respiration of the fungus, which was alcoholic in nature that was causing the problem.

The coils was hand made in dirty room of a supplier, somewhere in Assam, India, a place with high relative humidity on the average. The Fungus was dormant but after sundown, it used to secret the liquid, which changed the Q value of the coil and therefore the trouble

In human beasts fungus causes Athlete foot, Thrush. Of course there are different varieties of Fungus. One variety of fungus attacks the anti-reflection coating of the lenses of the camera. Nowadays Inductor coils are hermetically sealed. Generally Fungus prefer warm, damp and dark places.

My Biological tour to find the ghost in the radio set is a lesson emphasizing a point in troubleshooting.

Before you are exhausted by using all known methods to find the solution to a problem, do a background research of the part-manufacturer of the components under suspect.

Herpes Symptoms and the Treatment of Herpes

If it has been within a week since you’ve been sexually active and you are starting to get some odd symptoms going on “down below,” you may have herpes.

The first symptom of genital herpes is discomfort soon followed by itching. The pain gets worse and the itching will get more intense. You will get sores on the genital area, rectum, in the mouth or on the lips. These sores will look almost like small blisters. They will burst and usually oozing and/or bleeding occurs. The oozing will go on for a couple days. Then the sores will crust over and gradually heal.

Oral herpes symptoms include getting sores that are white and reddish in appearance. These sores can appear on your lips, on the inside of your cheeks, on your gums, the top of your mouth or your tongue.

The other symptoms of herpes, whether oral or genital is flu like symptoms. Many people experience weakness, fatigue, muscle aches and/or spasms, headaches, and fever.

There are two strains of the oral herpes virus and it takes testing by a Doctor to be able to tell which strain of the virus you have.

The first outbreak of herpes is the worst! It can last up to a month long. It seems to last longer in women than men, but this is not always the case. Some people have one outbreak and never have it again. While other people will have the outbreaks every month. Generally, after the first year it will subside. Even if you don’t have any more symptoms you are still contagious.

Herpes is known as being the fastest spreading sexually transmitted disease in the United States of America. It is said that there are millions of people infected. There is no cure for herpes and it can be transferred to other people even when you are not having an outbreak.

After the initial outbreak, it is unknown how often you will continue to have them if at all, or how long they will last. Some of the things that can contribute to an outbreak is menstruation, extreme tiredness or fatigue, stress in your life, surgeries, various illnesses, certain medications that do damage to the immune system like those for chemotherapy or the AIDS/HIV virus. Some pregnant women say the virus is extremely active throughout the whole pregnancy. Some say this is probably because of the intense hormones in a woman’s body during pregnancy.

The bottom line is nobody knows exactly what leads to an outbreak or not. There are various medications that your Doctor can prescribe to help the symptoms and also to help keep the outbreak at a minimum.

Follow this link to see pictures of herpes and learn more information about herpes:


Cures For Ovarian Cysts That Work

Since most of the ovarian cysts are benign, least life threatening and tend go away on their own, people are wary about taking them seriously. Also, in majority of cases, “ovarian cysts” are nothing but functional cysts which develop at menstrual cycle`s end and get cleared up by themselves after the release of eggs in fallopian tubes. However, when ovarian cysts obstruct the supply of blood to the ovaries or are cancerous in nature, immediate medical attention in the form of surgery is the only option left before the patient.

Surgical intervention is also required in removing certain types of cystadonema cysts that grow into large abdominal tumour, often weighing as much as 300 lbs or more. Chocolate cysts or endometrial cysts that are filled up with stale blood and are likely to rupture at any moment also require invasive surgery for protection and relief. But the burning question that remains unanswered concerns the effectiveness of surgery in curing the disease condition that is responsible for the cysts to occur or grow in size. It has been observed in most cases that cysts reappear even after their removal through surgical means.

Since prescription drugs also have very little or no effect on cysts, people often resort to alternative methods of treatment that include herbs, homeopathy, antioxidant supplements, etc as well as messy concoctions prepared from animal and plant extracts that are supposed to cure occurrence of ovarian cysts. Some even give up consuming red meat in the hope that this will eventually rid them of the evils of ovarian cysts. But alas, No conclusive evidence has yet been made available that such alternate medication can do any good in eliminating the cysts or halt the occurrence of cysts in the ovary.

Oral contraceptives as alternative therapy

However, women having family history of members reporting ovarian cysts are sometimes given oral contraceptives or “birth control pills” as preventive measures in regard to ovarian cysts. Since these “pills” are nothing but condensed form of female hormones, estrogen and progesterone that exercise control over the female`s monthly cycle by preventing the ovaries from releasing the embryonic “egg”, the formation of ovarian cysts becomes remote. But then, the side effects of prolonged use of the “pill” can be perilous for many.

Cystectomy as alternative surgical method

Finding no other safe and effective means of getting rid of ovarian cysts, some prefer Cystectomy which was so long earmarked for treating bladder or gall bladder cancer. In fact, Cystectomy has been traditionally employed for removal of cyst-affected vital organs of the body but is now directed to removal of cysts from the ovary. This procedure is currently gaining popularity amongst many since it spares the ovary while removing the cysts. However, in the case of carcinoma of the ovary there is no other alternative but to remove the organ fully.

Holistic approach is the only way

Although most of the above methods are capable of eliminating the symptoms of discomfort, pain as well as other distressing physical conditions with short-term relief and a long-term rebounding effect, they can never cure the disease condition that prompts cysts to form in the ovary. As long as one consumes “pills” the cysts remain suppressed and the moment it is withdrawn, reappears again.

Experience, however, has taught humankind that a holistic approach towards controlling the ovarian cysts is the only cure left in its hands to deal with the stubborn ovarian cysts since it launches its attack at the base of the disease condition, going through all the stages till it is eliminated from the system for good. To cut a long story short, holistic approach includes regulation of the monthly periods, growth of healthy tissues within the reproductive system, intensification of fertility, diminishing the chances of miscarriage (which is vital in controlling ovarian cysts), removal of excess fat in the lower abdomen and elimination of chances for hysterectomy or ovarian surgery. All these is however, achieved through controlled diet, consumption of essential minerals, reduction in alcohol consumption and a healthy lifestyle.

Holistic approach has been planned, considering the fact that most of the chronic problems of female health, including polycystic ovary syndrome, and also ovarian cysts, are caused by a number of factors, and some of them are even environmental. Many of these factors are biochemical, nutritional, behavioural and also psychological. Knowing what the internal chemistry is and how it works is helpful because you can then make changes to get relief. Such alterations can even remote PCOS and ovarian cysts completely, that is if you go for holistic remedies.

Since holistic remedies treat the body as a whole and attempts to identify and treat all the contributing factors, ovarian cysts can be best resolved with this approach.

How To Give Your Body Natural Immune Power The Way It Wants And Needs It

Well, it’s safe to say that our bodies were designed to receive nutrients from nature… Right?

But sadly, the average everyday person is not getting their fair share of nutrition if at all in the ALL Natural form.

Why is that?

Oh well there’s tons of reasons – with advances in technology, we’re getting all our nutrients in synthetic pill or calculus form.

We don’t have the time or knowledge to cook a well balanced nutritious meal…

People have bills to pay and stresses to fill…

Most of us are either at work and commuting to a job a combined 9-12 hours a day, 5 days a week, 48-52 weeks a year, and sometimes even half days on Saturdays- for you workaholics…

While we’re at the job or commuting, it’s so much easier and fast to have someone else do the cooking. Like a fast food joint, take out place, or home food delivery… Giving us great instant food choices but are not healthy or supporting our natural immune power.

We eat foods that are soaked and drenched in oil, salt, sugar, carbs, and artificial flavors all ingredients that are damaging to your natural immune power that will open the door to serious immune health deficiencies.

If you’re reading this and you’re seeking better nutrition or questioning the quality of our foods today, synthetic vitamins, drugs, and medicine practices – This article is for you!

-Keep reading. >>>

What if you did want to improve your health but are not ready to change your eating habits just yet…?

That’s fine too – keep reading. >>>

See there is a way for you to have your cake and eat it too…

Although, it’s not always recommended if you’re wanting to create definite change – but it still is possible!

See there is a way for you to still eat great tasting foods and build stronger natural immune power while doing so.

Yes – that’s right.

You can enhance your meals, overall nutrition, and natural immune power by the good graces of the nutritional science goods out there.

We understand you like to eat protein, carbs, and stomach heavy meals with a side soda or alcoholic beverage of your choice. And you should, it’s part of who we are in today’s world – we’re not planting veggies, raising our own cows and chickens – those days are way in the Past!

We’re living in the today and in today having a strong natural immune power is even more relevant. So much so that eating great and building a stronger natural immune power can happen simultaneously, nothing has to be substituted.

There’s a way for your to eat biscuits and gravy while still giving your body the vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, and nutrients it needs to help support your natural immune power.

In fact, you can even support your body’s cell-to-cell communication, brain health, digestion, energy levels, antioxidant, cardiovascular and immune systems without eating a single vegetable or fruit if you don’t want to…

Sounds too good to be true?

Well, it is…

And no I’m not talking about the latest and greatest magical pill that you can buy off the shelf – No, I’ll save story telling for the kids another day…

I’m talking serious adult stuff here and it’s only for those who can handle it. See the truth about optimum natural immune power can be found anywhere if you know what you’re looking for…

Oral Thrush Outbreak- Top 3 Ways To Stop Oral Thrush

Oral thrush outbreak or oral candidiasis is caused by overgrowth of Candida fungus. The fungus normally lives in the moist areas of the body like the mouth in controlled quantity and kept in check by other microorganisms normally present in the mouth. If not kept in check, the fungus grows rapidly resulting to oral candidiasis or thrush.

The appearance of oral thrush can be really annoying and painful. They appear as whitish or yellowish lesions in the surface of the mouth including the tongue and sometimes the throat. They are painful and may bleed and accompanied by a lot of discomforts like difficulty eating or swallowing food. It is important to get rid of oral thrush outbreak to get rid of the pain and discomforts.

How to stop oral thrush outbreak?

Anti-fungal medicines. If you are suffering from painful oral thrush outbreak it is best to consult your doctor. Your doctor may recommend anti-fungal medicines or anti-fungal mouthwash to help ease the infection. If you are experiencing recurring outbreaks, your doctor may recommend taking anti-fungal medicines on a regular basis.

Improve your immune system. If you have weakened immune system, you have an increased risk of developing the infection because fungus grows faster when your immune system is not strong enough to control the overgrowth of the fungus. To improve your immune system and make you strong against infection, have a healthy lifestyle. Eat nutritious food, have enough sleep, exercise regularly and avoid bad habits like smoking and drinking alcohol.

Cut down on sweets or sugar. Candida fungus feeds on sugar and it encourages the growth of the fungus leading to infection. It is best to cut down on sugar or sweets like chocolates, ice cream and other sweetened foods to avoid oral thrush outbreak.

Oral thrush outbreak can be treated and prevented. Discover the step-by-step methods to get rid of oral candidiasis or yeast infection, visit Cold Sore Natural Remedies

To know more about health and beauty remedies visit Great Discovery-Health and Beauty

Weddings and Ancient Kingdoms

Several months ago I was browsing through a list of China's 41 World Heritage Sites that includes famous travel spots such as the Temple of Heaven and the Summer Palace. I was surprised to see that most of the sites where travel spots I've never been to and many that I had never even heard of. I decided then and there to see as many of these sites ASAP starting with a site in the nearby city of Jian called "Capital Cities and Tombs of the Ancient Koguryo Kingdom".

God must smile on fools, drunks and travelers because around 3 weeks ago a good friend of mine invited me back back to her home town with her husband and her to attend their wedding. Where was her home town? The city of Jian. Honestly, I would have accepted her invitation no matter where her home town was!

A little background info on the "Capital Cities and Tombs of the Ancient Koguryo Kingdom".

From 37 BCE to 668 CE there was a Kingdom called Koguryo with territory that covered modern day central and southern Manchuria and central and northern Korea. The founders of Koguryo are believed to have been refugees from Korea and people from local tribes and ethnic groups.

Through interaction with the Chinese Han and later Wei Dynasties, alliances and warfare, the Koguryo Kingdom reached its peak around 450 CE and rule three quarters of the Korean Peninsula and China's Manchuria. Internal conflict and hostilities with the Sui and Tang Dynasties weakened the Kingdom and it was finally destroyed by an alliance of the Tang Dynasty and the Silla, a Korean Kingdom to the south of Koguryo.

The legacy of the Koguryo Kingdom includes 40 tombs and the ruins of two capital cities at Jian.

The Wedding

The wedding was a smashing success. The bride was beautiful, the groom handsome, their union romantic, the spokes moving and profound, the food delicious and the alcohol plentiful. None of the wedding guests drank too much bai jiu (extremely potent Chinese white wine) and urinated in public, vomited outside the restaurant or made appropriate gestures to other guests of the opposite sex.

The only drawback with the wedding is there were no kisses, hugs or emotional displays of affection between the married couple. A typical traditional Chinese wedding that was very business like and practical.

Visiting the Tombs and Ruins

With the wedding out of the way, I was free the following day to see the tombs and ruins. From talking to some other guests at the wedding that lived in Jian, I found out t hat there were only two sites worth seeing. They were the ruins of an ancient city to the north west of Jian and a General's Tomb to the north east.

Every one I spoke to was surprised I was so keen to travel to these sites and told me the sites were nothing special. Fair enough. Different people like different things and not every one has the travel bug.

Had a ticket home on a bus leaving Jian 3:00 pm that afternoon which left 4-5 hours to see the two sites. Just enough time if I go directly from the second site to the bus station. Armed with the names of the sites written in Chinese on a piece of paper and a rough estimate of a fair taxi fare I set out for site number one, the General's Tomb or Jiangjunfen Tomb.

General's Tomb

After 3 attempts I found a taxi driver who was happy with a 10rmb taxi fare and set out to see the first part of Jian's World Heritage Site. The Tomb did not take long to reach and once there, the taxi driver asked if I wanted him to wait for me. Thanks but no thanks, this site would take an hour or two to see. Paid 30rmb for a ticket at the site entrance and set off down a clearly marked and well trodden path.

The first time I've seen a Chinese tomb with that structure and was surprised by the size. The sloping stone terraces of the tomb remind me of the smaller Aztec Pyramids. Easy to see that the tomb architecture was not influenced by Han who are China's dominant ethnic group.

The tomb is believed to be the burial tomb of King Gwanggaeto or his son King Jangsu. The tomb is made of 1,100 stone blocks and the tomb is 75 meters wide on each side and 11 meters high.

There was no access to the inside of the tomb so after several laps, it was time to move on. The next stop down the path was the No.1 subordinate tomb. This was a tomb for a member of the Koguro royal family. No where near the size of the General's Tomb but fascinating. The tomb has a very basic structure with a chamber surrounded by 3 huge stones, covered by a huge stone and blocked by another huge stone that has since been moved.

That was it. Nothing else to see or do at that site apart from browsing the obligatory gift shop near the site entrance. Next stop was the ruins of the ancient city.

Hidden Ruins

Caught a bus back into Jian city then negotiated another 10rmb taxi trip to the site of the ruined city.

At the ticket office and site entrance, there are two path ways to take. One pathway winds up into the hills and leads to the southern city gate. The other path heads into a field full of mounds (ancient tombs) that are clearly visible from the road. The mounds were not too impressive so I took the path to the ruined city.

The path went past a ruined western city wall and finished at a viewing platform overlooking a small structure called the watch tower. No ruined city so I backtracked down the path to see if I missed a turn. Nope. No turns or side paths. Just the one track from the ticket office to the viewing platform. Bumped into a group of Korean tourists with a tour guide and followed them to see if they knew the way to the ruined city. Nope. They just went up to the viewing platform like I did.

The ruined city had to be there somewhere so I went back to the ticket office and spoke to one of the guides there asking where the ruined city was. She took me inside office to a room with maps and background information on the site (all in Chinese) and explained that there was no actual ruined city to see. All the surrounding land was heavily cultured and all the ruins above ground on the surface had been gradually taken way way and used by local residents and farmers over the last 1300 years.

Piles of Rock

The only other part of the site to see was the field of 40 tombs. The country was beautiful with the field of tombs surrounded by lush green hills. Very picturesque. I wish I could say the same about the tombs. The tombs were either grassy mounds or piles of rock. Very plain, ordinary and uninspiring and definitely not what you'd expect for a world heritage site.

I read a review online before going to Jian where a foreign tourist to the site called the tombs a pile of rock. At that time I just thought he was being excessively harsh and lacking in appreciation. After seeing the tombs I have to say I agree with him. There was only three things to see site. A ruined wall, a partly restored watch tower and a field of tombs that were either piles of rock or over grown mounds.

Back Home

The two sites, the General's Tomb and the ruined city and tombs took less than 2 hours to see and thoroughly explore. With nothing left to do I headed to the bus station where I had three hours to ponder what makes a site eligible for inclusion on the list of world heritage sites. The weather was outstanding I really enjoyed getting out and visiting the sites but I expected a little more from a world heritage site.

Some world heritage sites like the Great Wall and the Forbidden City are worth flying half way around the world to see. Other sites like the "Capital Cities and Tombs of the Ancient Koguryo Kingdom" are great to see if you are already in the area but I would not recommend traveling long distances to see them.

3 Symptoms of Asbestos Poisoning

There are three main symptoms of asbestos poisoning that you must be aware of. See if these symptoms describe any of the issues that you are facing and quickly see a doctor if something does not seem right. Any time lost with delays can help put you at greater risk for long term illness and pain. Here are the three top symptoms of asbestos exposure, which may lead to lung cancer, asbestosis, and / or mesothelioma:

  1. Chest Pain. Chest pain is the most obvious of the three main symptoms, but it can also be the cause of a number of other disorders, making it more difficult to diagnose clearly. The chest pains may feel like a 'seizing' of your lungs and a stunted breathing pattern.
  2. Shortness of Breath. This is a big one, and one of the first symptoms to generally appear. This can also be related to a number of other issues (including not being in very good physical shape), but you can tell what your body is doing and if you notice a change for the worse and breathing difficulties that seem out of the ordinary then It is time to contact your doctor without delay.
  3. Finger Deformity. This is one of the most shocking and the most disturbing of the symptoms that can come upon someone that has asbestosis. It may take many months or many years to develop and is not present in all cases. There may be rounded and somewhat flattened on the ends, and can be harder to notice.

Keep all of these things in mind if you feel like you may have been exposed to asbestos and are afraid that you may have asbestos poisoning or lung cancer forming. These are very serious matters and should not be taken lightly. There are a number of other issues that may spring up like a resistance to physical exercise and relentless coughing. Especially if you are seeing any kind of blood in your coughing, you must see a doctor straight away.

If you feel that your issues may have been caused by the safety neglect of a company that you have worked for in the past, make sure to plan on contacting a mesothelioma attorney as well as see if you might be Eligible for some kind of cash settlement. Thousands of lawsuits have been won in similar situations as what you may be involved with (and have been exposed to). You should not delay in seeking treatment for these issues nor in seeking legal representation for a potential settlement.

Liver Biopsy And Its Indication

One of the most useful body organs inside the body is the liver. Unfortunately, there are plenty of illnesses and diseases associated with liver. In diagnosing a number of liver diseases, a liver biopsy is often suggested. It is a diagnostic examination wherein a small sample of liver tissue is being removed for analysis. A liver biopsy can assess the severity of damage of the liver and monitor the progress of the treatment given in improving the health of the liver. This test is very vital in identifying the severity of the injury of the liver of those individuals who are affected with hepatitis. Also, it can also detect cancers, abnormalities, infections, and the reason of its enlargement. This has been one of the safest procedures, with approximately one in a thousand individuals experiencing serious complications from one. The first liver procedure was performed by the German physician Paul Ehrlich around 1833.

Indications of Liver Biopsy

Liver biopsy is often suggested to diagnose a liver problem. Also, it is suggested when hepatitis can be the possibly result of medication, other than the exact nature of the reaction is unclear. Tuberculosis and alcoholic liver disease of the liver can be diagnosed through liver biopsy. In addition, direct biopsy of detected tumors of the liver may assist the diagnosis, although it can be avoided if the source is clear. When the diagnosis is already clear, liver biopsy becomes useful in assessing the severity of the associated liver damage. These cases are also the same with hemochromatosis or iron overload, although it is often omitted. On the other hand, primary biliary cirrhosis and primary sclerosing cholangitis may also require biopsy. However, other diagnostic procedures have made it less necessary. Intermittently, liver biopsy is suggested in monitoring the development of treatment, such as viral hepatitis.

Several Approaches in Obtaining Sample Tissue

  • Percutaneous Liver Biopsy – In this procedure, the doctor will use a local anesthesia to numb the skin in creating a small incision. A needle is inserted through the skin reaching the liver, where the doctor obtains the specimen. In this situation, the doctor institutes the location of the liver by percussing the skin that overlies the liver and listening to the sound created to search for an area of dullness. This is where the liver often lies. Patient’s cooperation is very vital while the procedure is going on.
  • Percutaneous Image-Guided Liver Biopsy – this procedure is quite similar to percutaneous liver biopsy. However, this procedure uses needle that is guided by CT scan or ultrasound images. This is usually helpful when the condition of the disease is contained in the discrete spots of the liver.
  • Laparoscopic liver biopsy – This procedure can be done safely for the purpose of acquiring the biopsy specimen, or it could be another part of another operative procedure. Small incisions are created in the abdomen, and instruments are often introduced using trocars in obtaining the biopsy specimens. A laparoscope is a type of telescope that amplifies the objects it views, allowing perfect visualization of the liver surface. Ultrasound can also be utilized as a part of the procedure.
  • Open Surgical Liver Biopsy – This procedure is rarely performed at present unless they are included in an operative procedure. When an open biopsy is performed, the surgeon may prefer to use a biopsy needle or can be surgically expunge a small wedge of the liver tissue.

What to expect during the procedure

Upon performing the procedure, the blood samples are usually taken to ensure that the blood is properly clotting. Inform the doctor about the medications that are regularly taken, especially if they are blood thinners. A week before biopsy, patients are told to stop taking ibuprofen, aspirin and other medications that have an anticoagulant property.

Liver biopsy is often considered as a minor surgery, thus it can be done when the patient is awake. Patients are usually told not to drink or eat anything for eight hours before liver surgery. An intravenous fluid line is connected to provide an access in administering sedatives and pain killers. Once the patient is in position, the physician will create a small incision on the right side to insert the biopsy needle. The needle will extract a sample and the incision area will be covered with a bandage. The patient is advised to lie on the right side for a period of time. After the liver biopsy, the patient will be instructed to stay in bed up to twelve hours for resting.

I Almost Died Preparing for a Colonoscopy

My name is David and I almost died while having a seizure as a result of my colonoscopy preparation using OSMOPREP®. I am 53 years old and had my last colonoscopy 8 years ago. I was due for another. During my first colonoscopy, I had no adverse side effects from any aspect of the prep or the procedure.

I visited my proctologist in Murrieta CA who recommended using the drug OSMOPREP to clean out my system prior to the colonoscopy. He told me that I would far prefer the tablet approach rather than drinking the gallon of liquid prep (Nulytely) for the procedure. The doctor didn’t suggest that there could be any potential bad reactions to the medication. When I picked up the medication at the pharmacy, the warnings didn’t suggest how bad the side effects could be.

My wife was very concerned that I follow the directions very closely while prepping for my colonoscopy. First we read the directions. Next, I went online to make sure that if I was going to take 4 tablets every 15 minutes, that the manufacturer really suggested so many pills. They did. So I started the regimen early in the day by drinking lots of water (three 44 oz. glasses of water). At 6pm I started taking 4 OSMOPREP tablets every 15 minutes with a 12 oz glass of water. Getting down all that water was hard.

After taking the tablets for 45 minutes, my back started to burn. My wife scratched it for me but the itching became more severe. Next my face got real itchy and irritated. I went upstairs and shaved hoping that with a clean face, the irritation on my face would go away. By the time I finished shaving, my feet started to itch. I tried scratchimg them on a rough rug. That didn’t do any good. They started to burn. Next I went outside to scratch them on the concrete — once again, it just got worse.

Within 10 minutes of the itching symptoms, I started to get light headed. I had my wife call 911. She hung up before they answered the call as she thought she might want to call the doctor first to ask about the problems were were having with our colonoscopy prep using OSMOPREP. 911 called back and asked if we had called and if we had an emergency. By that time, I had started to throw up. My wife had them send an ambulance. A minute later, my wife watched as my eyes rolled to the top of my head, I passed out, and my bowls let loose. She was panicked. She quickly went to open the front door so that emergency people could come in on their own. They arrived within 5 minutes.

When the emergency people finally arrived, they found me passed out in the bathroom in a mess of my own vomit and feces. They took my vitals and put me into the ambulance. They tried to give me intravenous fluids but even with three attempts could not get a needle into my veins as they had collapsed. After being rolled into the emergency room, the nurses tried to get an IV started but failed three more times. At this point, they got the senior nurse on the floor to try and after another three tries, got the IV started. They said that the OSMOPREP had dehydrated me to the point that my veins had collapsed.

I was out of consciousness for hours at the hospital. At about 3am the next morning, I was released. The next day I informed the proctologist doctor of what I had been through with OSMOPREP and he convinced me to have the procedure since I had already gone through so much. The procedure went without a hitch.

Since my experiance with OSMOPREP , I had had low energy and slept more hours than was typical for me. My routine was to go to bed early and sleep 7 to 7.5 hour nights. The next morning I was up by 6am and be back in bed by 8am for a three hour nap. If I missed my morning map, I would be in physical pain until I took a nap. I visited my general doctor and he said that the recovery period was expected based on what I had been through. I have the feeling that there is something more wrong but I don’t know what?

Last week, I received an ambulance bill of $1800 and a hospital bill of $2591.  WOW — I was not ready for that after my experiance.  I talked to Salix Pharmaceuticals Corporate Headquarters in Morrisville, North Carolina and they offered to reimburse me for the cost of the pills but none of my other costs. I informed them that I had a lot of bills as a result of their OSMOPREP drug and thought they should have taken responsibility since there was no warning that the potential side effects of the drug were so severe.



On December 11 2008 the FDA announced that it had ordered a Black Box Warning, its most serious caution, for both Visicol® and OsmoPrep®. Here is the text of the Black Box Warning, which must now be displayed on all prescribing literature for these medications: There have been rare, but serious reports of acute phosphate nephropathy in patients who received oral sodium phosphate products for colon cleansing prior to colonoscopy. Some cases have resulted in permanent impairment of renal function and some patients required long-term dialysis. While some cases have occurred in patients without identifiable risk factors, patients at increased risk of acute phosphate nephropathy may include those with age 55 years and above, hypovolemia, increased bowel transit time (such as bowel obstruction), active colitis, or baseline kidney disease, and those using medicines that affect renal perfusion or function (such as diuretics, Angiotensin converting enzyme [ACE] inhibitors, Angiotensin receptor blockers [ARBs], and possibly nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs [NSAIDs]).


Administration of sodium phosphate products prior to colonoscopy for colon cleansing has resulted in
fatalities due to significant fluid shifts, severe electrolyte abnormalities, and cardiac arrhythmias.
These fatalities have been observed in patients with renal insufficiency, in patients with bowel
perforation, and in patients who misused or overdosed sodium phosphate products. It is recommended
that patients receiving OsmoPrep be advised to adequately hydrate before, during, and after the use of

Considerable caution should be advised before OsmoPrepTM Tablets are used in patients with the
following illnesses: severe renal insufficiency (creatinine clearance less than 30 mL/minute),
congestive heart failure, ascites, unstable angina, gastric retention, ileus, acute bowel obstruction,
pseudo-obstruction of the bowel, severe chronic constipation, bowel perforation, acute colitis, toxic
megacolon, gastric bypass or stapling surgery, or hypomotility syndrome.

Consider performing baseline and post-colonoscopy labs (phosphate, calcium, potassium, sodium,
creatinine, and BUN) in patients who may be at increased risk for serious adverse events, including
those with history of renal insufficiency, history of ? or at greater risk of ? acute phosphate
nephropathy, known or suspected electrolyte disorders, seizures, arrhythmias, cardiomyopathy,
prolonged QT, recent history of a MI and those with known or suspected hyperphosphatemia,
hypocalcemia, hypokalemia, and hypernatremia. Also if patients develop vomiting and/or signs of
dehydration then measure post-colonoscopy labs (phosphate, calcium, potassium, sodium, creatinine,
and BUN).


There have been rare, but serious, reports of renal failure and acute phosphate nephropathy (also
known as nephrocalcinosis) in patients who received oral sodium phosphate products (including oral
sodium phosphate solutions and tablets) for colon cleansing prior to colonoscopy. These cases often
resulted in permanent impairment of renal function and several patients required long-term dialysis.
Patients at increased risk of acute phosphate nephropathy may include patients with the following:
hypovolemia, baseline kidney disease, increased age, and patients using medicines that affect renal
perfusion or function [such as diuretics, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin
receptor blockers, and possibly nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).

Use OsmoPrep with caution in patients with impaired renal function, patients with a history of acute
phosphate nephropathy, known or suspected electrolyte disturbances (such as dehydration), or people
taking concomitant medications that may affect electrolyte levels (such as diuretics). Patients with
electrolyte abnormalities such as hypernatremia, hyperphosphatemia, hypokalemia, or hypocalcemia
should have their electrolytes corrected before treatment with OsmoPrep Tablets.


There have been rare reports of generalized tonic-clonic seizures and/or loss of consciousness
associated with use of sodium phosphate products in patients with no prior history of seizures. The
seizure cases were associated with electrolyte abnormalities (e.g., hyponatremia, hypokalemia,
hypocalcemia, and hypomagnesemia) and low serum osmolality. The neurologic abnormalities
resolved with correction of fluid and electrolyte abnormalities. OsmoPrep should be used with caution
in patients with a history of seizures and in patients at higher risk of seizure [patients using
concomitant medications that lower the seizure threshold (such as tricyclic antidepressants), patients
withdrawing from alcohol or benzodiazepines, or patients with known or suspected hyponatremia].
Cardiac Arrhythmias

There have been rare, but serious, reports of arrhythmias associated with the use of sodium phosphate
products. OsmoPrep should be used with caution in patients with higher risk of arrhythmias (patients
with a history of cardiomyopathy, patients with prolonged QT, patients with a history of uncontrolled
arrhythmias, and patients with a recent history of a myocardial infarction). Pre-dose and post-
colonoscopy ECGs should be considered in patients with high risk of serious, cardiac arrhythmias.

For more information on OSMOPREP, you might want to look at Salix Pharmaceuticals web site at http://Osmoprep.com or call them at 919-862-1000. I doubt that my experience was unique.  To read more about my case, check out http://www.osmoprep-prep-colonoscopy.com.