Anabolic Steroids in the Coming Future

The action of testosterone can be in ways both beneficial and detrimental to the body. On the plus side, this hormone has a direct impact on the growth of muscle tissues, the production of red blood cells and overall well being of the organism. But it may also negatively effect the production of skin oils, growth of body, facial and scalp hair, and the level of both “good” and “bad” cholesterol in the body [among other things]. In fact, men have a shorter average life span than women, which is believed to be largely due to the cardiovascular defects that this hormone may help bring about. Testosterone will also naturally convert to estrogen in the male body, a hormone with its own unique set of effects. As we have discussed earlier, raising the level of estrogen in men can increase the tendency to notice water retention, fat accumulation, and will often cause the development of female tissues in the breast [gynecomastia]. Clearly we see that most of the “bad” side effects from steroids are simply those actions of testosterone that we are not looking for when taking a steroid. Raising the level of testosterone in the body will simply enhance both its good and bad properties, but for the most part we are not having “toxic° reactions to these drugs. A notable exception to this is the possibility of liver damage, which is a worry isolated to the use of c17-alpha alkylated oral steroids. Unless the athlete is taking anabolic/androgenic steroids abusively for a very long duration, side effects rarely amount to little more than a nuisance. One could actually make a case that periodic steroid use might even be a healthy practice. Clearly a person physical shape can relate closely to one overall health and well being. Provided some common sense is paid to health checkups, drug choice, dosage and off-time, how can we say for certain that the user is worse off for doing so? This position is of course very difficult to publicly justify with steroid use being so deeply stigmatized. Since this can be a very lengthy discussion, we will save the full health, moral and legal arguments for another time. For now I would like to run down the list of popularly discussed side effects, and include any current treatment/avoidance advice where possible.

Anabolic Steroids in the future Introduction The use of anabolic steroids has been often cited as one of the slippery moral issues associated with sports. These drugs that are used by sportsmen to increase their muscular strength have been found to have harmful side effects as well as condemned as medications that can give some sportsmen an unfair advantage over others. At the same time, these drugs can be effective in helping athletes bring out their potential, especially if their downside is brought down by further research. Thus, sportsmen can have access to these drugs if efforts are taken to test sportsmen for steroids and thus neutralize their harmful potential. This paper will attempt to prove that steroids do have a place in the future of sports medicine and sports as such. Arguments against Steroids Most arguments against the use of steroids boil down to the fact that, if abused, steroids can have a harmful effect on human bodies, leading to dangerous effects. Thus, steroids have been found to affect the brain as “high doses can make people feel happy, euphoric, hyped-up, with disturbance of sleep and even serious psychiatric illness such as mania, very aggressive behavior and psychosis (delusions, pananoia, loss of touch with reality)” (Dixon). Thus, the person who abuses steroids can really end up with a mental problem, something that can really disrupt one’s life and is a serious question for someone who is engaged in sports. Sport is meant to heal, not harm the human body. The harmful effect of steroids is not limited to mental problems. Thus, steroids can adversely affect a person’s skin, causing its thinning and weakening. Bones of the people who use a lot of steroids lose calcium, which makes them weaker and can easily lead to fractures. Weight problem can arise as people begin to eat a lot and experience a rise in appetite, which alone can cause them serious problems. The rise in blood sugar that accompanies the use of steroids can cause diabetes. Perhaps the most serious downside of steroids is the harmful effect associated with disruptions of the immune system that will not function properly in someone overusing steroids. Steroids “knock out” immune systems so that “people on high doses of steroids for medical reasons can die from chest infections and cancers of many kinds” (Dixon). People who use steroids open their bodies to the impact of many bacteria and viruses that their immune systems would otherwise ward off, such as candida yeast – the fungus that can cause inflammation of the skin, vagina, and other organs. For women, androgynous effects associated with steroids can be a serious problem. These effects stem from the application of testosterone that is in fact male hormone. In women it triggers the development of qualities that make a woman look like a man. These include but are not limited to “irreversible enlargement of the clitoris, irreversible hoarsening and deepening of the voice, irreversible increase in facial and body hair, decreased breast size” (Anabolic Steroids). Certainly, given the public opinion of female athletes as often deficient in femininity, these effects are less than welcome. Besides, female athletes using steroids face a greater risk of developing cervical and endometrial cancer as well as osteoporosis (Anabolic Steroids). Men, on their part, are also negatively affecting by the use of anabolic steroids. Their reproductive function is often hurt to the degree when they suffer from infertility. Besides, many men using steroids report a decrease in potency and lower sex drive (Anabolic Steroids). What Are Anabolic Steroids? Anabolic steroids are part of performance-enhancing drugs along with psychomotor stimulants. Anabolic steroids “are used to increase muscle bulk and strength (and therefore, to some extent, speed), and to enhance recovery from heavy workouts or certain kinds of muscular injuries” (Coombs, West 1991:117). The correct term is actually “anabolic-androgenic” steroids, but “anabolic steroids” has become a conventional term that is more widely used. They are used in some sports such as track and field and football where muscular strength of the athletes matters and helps them to win. They stay in the body for prolonged time periods, making it relatively easy to identify them in the body, as they are detectable not only directly after use, but also for prolonged periods after the use. The use of steroids dates back to the isolation of testosterone, a naturally occurring hormone, in 1935. This hormone has “both androgenic (masculinization) and anabolic (tissue-building) properties” (Massimino, Sallis 1997: 237). The same properties have been replicated in synthetic steroids, although scientists attempted to bring down the androgenic properties. They were successful to some extent, although steroids still retain their androgenic properties to a great degree. The first use of anabolic steroids was to treat hypogonadism, a condition in which male testes do not produce enough hormones and thus have to receive outside help. The athletes began to use these drugs in the 1950s, as they spread from the Soviet Union to the US and other nations that wanted in this way stimulate the sports performance of their athletes. The wide spread of steroid use as well as their harmful effect finally led the International Olympic Committee to forbid participants to use anabolic steroids at the 1976 Summer Olympic Games in Montreal (Massimino, Sallis 1997: 238). At the moment, there are over 100 anabolic steroids. In the US, an individual has to have a medical prescription to purchase these drugs (Anabolic Steroids).

The Benefits of Steroids Despite the numerous cons, steroids do have their bright side – otherwise people would not use them. Thus, they have been reported to help athletes build their muscular strength and improve their performance in this way. This is explained by the role of the steroids in the generation of protein and growth hormone that are both stimulated by steroid use. This is described as anabolic effect. Steroids also have been described as having an anticatabolic effect. This effect appears “due to interaction with cortisol released in response to physical and psychological stress, causing protein degradation and muscle atrophy” (Massimino, Sallis 1997: 238). In addition, this effect is linked to the effect of corticosteroid testosterone by from other receptor sites. Steroids are believed to increase aggression – the reason for which they were probably used by Nazi soldiers in World War II. These drugs can therefore stimulate the performance of the sportsmen, especially in group games where aggression can motivate them for achievement. The use of steroids can also have a mental effect since sportsmen believe in steroids that can allegedly give them greater power. This is the ground for which a group of researchers found that athletes “showed significant gains in strength, even though the athletes received a placebo” (Massimino, Sallis 1997: 239). Sport is only one use of steroids that were originally invented as anti-inflammatory drugs. They are very powerful substances that produce a variety of effects on the human body. Thus, steroids can be used for treating infectious diseases when it is necessary to bring down the inflammation. Steroids can help bring down death rate caused by asthma as well as applied to painful joints and ligaments. Talking of skin diseases, eczema and a number of other skin problems can be treated using steroids. Other uses of anabolic steroids are “to treat delayed puberty, some types of impotence, and wasting of the body caused by HIV infection or other diseases” (Anabolic Steroids). The first two effects stem from the inclusion of testosterone in synthetic steroids. Besides, “steroids make the whole immune system less active, which can be very useful in illnesses where there is an immune component – a huge number” (Dixon). The latter is especially important as this shows that the negative side of steroids can simultaneously be the benefit as these drugs can be used to reduce the response of the immune system to the stimulant, making them effective treatment for a range of diseases. Indeed, what is a poison in some cases is a cure in others. The opportunities for the use of steroids are not limited to applying them where it is necessary to reduce the response of the immune system, in particular when it comes to brain tumors. They are also useful in cancer treatment. True, they do not treat cancer as they only prolong the patient’s life. However, in many cases it is necessary to help the patient survive the last few weeks. Steroids in this case act as follows: they reduce the swelling around the brain tumor, relieving the patient’s condition. Anabolic steroids have also been described as having a positive influence on the patients recovering after a fracture. Due to their powerful action on muscle growth and weight gain, they can speed up the healing of the fracture and help quickly revive the function of the corresponding organ. A study conducted by M. Hedstrom, K. Sjoberg, E. Brosjo, A. Astrom, A, and others researched the effects of steroids on 63 female patients who had undergone surgery because of fractures. The women were divided into two groups. One group received only calcium for treatment, while others also received steroids and vitamin D. In their article published in Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery (May 2002), the researchers state that the study demonstrated that “the anabolic group did not lose muscle volume during the first 12 months whereas the control group did”. They found that the intake of anabolic steroids had positive impact on the growth of tissue, bone mineral density, and clinical function. The scientists note that functional recovery often takes a lot of time, especially in elderly patients after a hip fracture. The function is often restored incompletely and can be bone mineral density drops after the fracture and the surgery. Therefore, steroids help to solve important problems for patients. The study confirms that “that a low dose of nandrolone decanoate in combination with a low dose of alphacalcidol and calcium has a positive effect on body composition, BMD and the clinical function in elderly women after fracture of the hip” (Hedstrom et al. 2002). Thus, steroids can be of great value in treating patients with fractures.
How and where to buy Anabolic Steroids online? ortpharmacy.com – is the fastest way to buy Dianabol and other anabolic steroids online. Steroid products profiles, steroids experience and many other useful information for bodybuilders.

Jaundice, Jaundice Treatment, Treatment for Jaundice

What is jaundice?

Jaundice is the yellowish discoloration of the eyes (sclera) & skin (advanced cases). Scientifically speaking it is the condition associated with abnormally high levels of bilirubin.

Jaundice means the yellowing of skin and whites of the eyes caused due to the high level of pigment bilirubin in the body. It is the most common liver disorder that results from an obstruction in the bile duct or the loss of function of the bile producing liver cells. The person becomes very weak in jaundice. Bile is a vital digestive fluid that is essential for proper nutrition.

Jaundice
Treatment

All jaundice-associated conditions require medical diagnosis and treatment. In some cases, the only treatment needed may be observation, but ALWAYS consult with your health care provider.

If it is caused by hepatitis you might need to start taking tablets, but not all types of hepatitis can be treated.

If it is caused by taking particular drugs, your doctor might prescribe an alternative.

If it is caused by an obstruction such as a gallstone or a tumour, you may need to have surgery.

PTC is a procedure to X-ray the hepatic and common bile ducts to find the point of obstruction. It is followed by a surgical procedure called percutaneous biliary drainage. A tiny cut is made into the skin over the liver, and a small tube called a drain is placed into the blocked bile duct to keep it open. The bile can then drain away into a bag outside your body. A few days later, the drain will be removed and replaced by a stent. This will allow the bile to drain internally, in the normal way.

Light therapy, also called phototherapy, which chemically breaks down the bilirubin in your baby’s skin to non-toxic forms, is the usual treatment for jaundice. During this treatment, your baby is placed under special white or blue light for one to two days. Their eyes will be covered to protect them from the bright lights.

Jaundice is a condition in which a person’s skin or whites of the eyes have a yellow discoloration. A person with jaundice may also have dark urine and light stool. Jaundice occurs when bilirubin, a substance produced by the liver, builds up in the blood. Normally, bilirubin travels from the liver down the bile duct and passes through the pancreas just before emptying into the first section of the small intestine, called the duodenum. If a tumor blocks the bile duct, bilirubin backs up into the liver, then spills into the blood. This causes a person to become noticeably yellow, or jaundiced.

The most common treatment for jaundice is phototherapy. This consists of special light that changes the form of bilirubin, making it easier for the body to dispose of the bilirubin. Though the treatment is safe and rarely produces complications, premature babies will likely be given special eye patches to protect the eyes during phototherapy. White, blue, or green coloured lights are shone down on the baby with as much exposure of skin as possible. The baby’s blood will be tested to check that the level of the bilirubin is going down. A reduction in bilirubin level can be seen in as little as four to six hours.

Is Stress Such a Big Thing (Part Two)?

While it is often tempting to look at mental and physical stress as an ailment only of modern civilization it is a dangerous misconception. Stress has been essential to the human condition since the beginning of time and is a very important part of continued human survival. It is an active force that assists us in dealing with whatever everyday life throws at us and we thrive at taking up challenges, meeting the deadline and adapting to difficult situations.

How our bodies respond to stress was first described in the 1930's by two American doctors called Walter B Cannon and Hans Selye. They found that the first reaction to some stress is what is known as the 'fight or flight' response, which activates the body's protective mechanism either to fight (confront the stressor) or flee (act to avoid the stressor or threat of it). Initially, the fight-or-flight response alerts us to danger and is, in fact, beneficial. It provides the strength, speed and stamina that is necessary survival.

The stress response is controlled by the endocrine system, which replicates various bodily functions, including the reproductive system, the immune system, growth, metabolism, allergic response and stress tolerance. Any unusual demand on the body's physical and mental resources stimulates the endocrine glands – mainly the adrenal, pituitary and hypothalamus – to secret chemical messengers, called hormones into the blood stream. These stress hormones include powerful stimulants, such as adrenaline, noradrenaline, cortisol. Testosterone and thyroxin, which provide a variety of physical responses. The most common include increased pupil dilation, increased heart rate and blood pressure, muscle tenseness, increased blood sugar, fats and cholesterol and rapid breathing.

Unfortunately, although this natural physical response would have been invaluable at an earlier stage in human evolution, fighting and running away are rarely the correct responses to stressful situations in the modern world. Under long term, unrelieved stress our bodies remain in a constant state of arousal, which can result in the gradual onset of various health problems.

Primitive human beings frequently faced life and death situations, when alertness, strength, speed and performance were vital and the primary, instinctive response was to survive. The types of challenges that we all meet with today, however, are much different and as they are rarely require a physical response, the body's reaction to the situation is often inappropriate.

The stresses of modern life are more complex and last over longer periods of time. In the past, challenges were instantaneous and had to be resolved instinctively. Today, we are subjected to long term emotional, occupational and environmental anxieties, which demand that we maintain a certain level of mental and physical health. We also have to prepare ourselves for times of crisis and events that test us to our full, such as divorce, redundancy, bereavement or illness. This means that we have to be ready to 'fight or flight' at another level and in a completely different way from our forbears.

The rapid way in which our society now changes and constantly creates new challenges, places an unhealthy strain on a system that may be struggling to keep up. The extra mental exertion we all expend to keep – 'on top of things' can create a bottleneck of energy as pressure builds up with nowhere to go. If nothing is done to alleviate the situation the mechanisms that we have for dealing with stress will actually fail us, causing exhaustion and illness. It is vital there before that we make a priority of finding ways of easing our bodies and minds out of 'fight or flight' mode. This will put ourselves on a better footing to be able to deal with the ever changing pressure of the modern world.

In order to do this we need a greater understanding and awareness of how our bodies work. Our automatic physical response to danger or stress involves a complicated chain reaction of bodily and biochemical effects, involving the brain, the nervous system and hormones. As soon as we perceive a threat, our body erupts with energy and strength and thousands of messenger hormones flood into the bloodstream. Our minds and bodies instantly become clear and alert and ready to deal with the threat. In this situation the main players are the brain, nervous system, lungs, muscle systems and hormones. Aroustal is initially initiated by the hypothalamus which controls all automatic bodily functions and reactions; It releases chemicals called endorphins, which act as natural painkillers. They reduce the perception of pain and mental confusion and help us to deal with the situation by blocking out factors that may otherwise prevent us from giving less than our maximum performance.

Adrenaline helps by causing a quickening of the heart rate, a rising blood pressure and a release of vital nutrients. It also creates muscle tension and effects breathing patterns, making them faster and shallow. However it is only one of the arousal hormones released by the adrenal glands near the kidneys. Noradrenaline, which is associated with positive ecstatic arousal, is al; so released into the bloodstream. The hormone cortisol is the agent involved in the conversion of glucose, stored in the liver, into blood sugar, creating instant energy and alerting the brain. The required surge of strength and effort comes from the male hormone testosterone. The thyroid gland also plays a part in the body's arousal response by releasing thyroxin, a hormone that stimulates the metabolic system, increasing its work rate and regulating oxygen consumption. This is very important as the body knows that it will need increased resources of energy. Our digestive system also slows down during this process, as blood is diverted from the skin and stomach. We automatically shut down the less necessary systems in order to concentrate on prioritizing those that are necessary for our survival. As the digestive system is not considered as essential in a life or death situation it slows down and is effectively put on hold.

The body has evolved an efficient and prompt survival response but as already mentioned, the things that cause stress today are more complex and require more sophisticated solutions over a longer period of time. Our hormonal system sufferers if it lasts in 'fight' mode as long periods like this are not healthy for our ongoing mental and physical well being. What starts as a positive range of responses can extremely have a negative effect on our health and well being.

Research shows that we put our bodies on a challenge alert without realizing it. Emotions such as anger, anxiety and impatience produce the same chemical reactions in the body as standing in front of a fast moving car. The same physiology that leaves us feeling poised and alert can create problems over a long period of time. A build up of energy can lead us to become stress addicts, who become reliant on the adrenaline rush that stress situations create.

An overdose of adrenalin is likely to result in irritability and agitation while too much noradrenaline can leave us feeling as if we are high on drugs. If arousal continues, the adrenaline glands create anti inflammatory chemicals to speed tissue repair but cortisol will also suppress the immune system, leaving it vulnerable to illness and disease. Extra sodium is retained, endangering the performance of the cardiovascular system by causing fluid retention, raising the heart rate, increasing blood pressure and the possibly blood clots. Stomach ulcers are a classic symptom of stress, as the stomach can not deal with the extra secret of acid that occurs during stressful periods. Acute and cumulative stress over a period of time can even cause death.

Gynecological Surgeries and Reproduction

Experiencing gynecological problems is not an easy phase to go through. It is even tougher when surgery might be required as it can often carry a whole other set of decision making issues. When a woman is experiencing a medical problem that requires surgery, it usually ends with the dilemma of "should I have surgery or should I try another type of treatment". But when it comes to a gynecological issue, it is often accompanied by the heavy issue of reproduction.

Depending on the specific disease or problem in the reproductive system, the solution might be surgery, which can put an end to a woman's option of barring children, sometimes making the decision to have surgery even harder. In this article we will take a look at some of these conditions and solutions for these types of problems and also take a look at gynecological surgery as a means for a woman to become sterile.

Cancer
There are a number of different types of cancer a woman can get that will affect the reproductive system and may require surgery. There are four main types of cancer that can affect the female system: cervical cancer, fallopian tube cancer, ovarian cancer, endometrial cancer (also known as uterine cancer).

The specific treatment for all these types of cancer will be determined by the exact location of the tumor, its size, the stage of the cancer and if it has spread to additional parts of the body. The first option of treatment, if possible, will usually be the surgical removal of the tumor. The treatment may also include chemotherapy and radiation following the surgical procedure. The problem arises when the removal of the tumor also includes the removal of the organ it has developed in.

Once the surgical option is available, the question of "complete or partial" removal arises. In most cases the oncologist surgeon will prefer to perform a complete removal of the cervix and uterus, to make sure all cancerous cells have been removed for the safety of the patient. The surgeon of course will include the patient in all the decision making and consultations, also inquiring about her intentions of having children in the future and if the situation allows it, the surgeon will take the patient's preferences under consideration. If the patient has not had children yet and would like to, the surgeon can weigh the option of partial removal in order for the woman to bear children in the future.

It should be said that there are cases, in which surgery will not be recommended due to the tumor's stage or location and different treatments (chemotherapy, biotherapy, radiation treatments and clinical trials) will be tried.

Hysterectomy and Ablation as Gynecological Treatments
A hysterectomy describes a surgical procedure in which the female uterus is removed. After a woman goes through this kind of surgery, she does no longer have the ability to bear children and for this reason it is done only for a few medical conditions. A hysterectomy will be suggested when there is a condition of a large benign growth that is causing bleeding and pain for the patient, or when the patient is experiencing irregular, heavy and really painful menstrual periods. Cancer may also lead to a hysterectomy.

Before turning to the surgical option, the gynecologist will first try different treatments in order to manage the symptoms the patient is experiencing. However, if the medication is not helping and these symptoms are no longer bearable for the female patient, a partial or complete hysterectomy may be required. In a partial procedure, only the uterine body is removed while in a total removal the fundus and cervix are removed as well.

An Endometrial Ablation (the destruction of the endometrium of a woman's uterus with the use of electricity or heat) is done to treat excessive bleeding during the menstrual cycle (a condition called "Menorrhagia"). This condition can be caused by infections, severe cases of endometriosis, a benign growth or coagulation and hormonal disorders. As in the case of a hysterectomy, the physician will try other solutions than surgery first and recommend surgery as a last resort.

If it is decided to go through with this kind of procedure, a woman will no longer be able to bear children as she will no longer menstruate. For this reason, this procedure is not performed on women who are planning to have kids.

Surgery as a Preventive measure
This may come as a surprise, but as some women are trying to avoid these surgeries, others are going to have them willingly. In recent years, female patients are choosing to have an endometrial ablation in order to stop menstruating as they know they do not want to have kids and do not want to keep having cycles. For the same reasons, women also may choose to have a hysterectomy.

In addition to those 2 types of surgery, there are other types of gynecological surgeries performed to prevent fertilization and pregnancy. Women choose to undergo surgery as a form of birth control and can choose to have a tubal ligation ('having the fallopian tubes tied') or a placement of Essure which blocks the fallopian tubes.

Colon Cancer – Symptoms & Treatments

Colon cancer is cancer that starts in the large intestine or the rectum. The colon makes up the longest part of the large intestine, which is a tube-like organ connected to the small intestine at one end and the anus at the other. The colon removes water and some nutrients and electrolytes from partially digested food.

Colon cancer does not always present symptoms in the early stages. Colon cancer symptoms usually do not appear until the disease has progressed into an advanced stage.

Most colon cancers originate from small, noncancerous tumors called adenomatous polyps that form on the inner walls of the large intestine. Some of these polyps may grow into malignant colon cancers over time if they are not removed during colonoscopy. Colon cancer cells will invade and damage healthy tissue that is near the tumor causing many complications.

There is no single cause for colon cancer. Nearly all colon cancers begin as noncancerous polyps, which slowly develop into cancer.

You have a higher risk for colon cancer if you have :

1. Cancer elsewhere in the body
2. Colorectal polyps
3. Crohn’s disease
4. Family history of colon cancer
5. Personal history of breast cancer
6. Ulcerative colitis
7. Smokers and heavy drinkers have an increased risk of developing colon cancer

Certain genetic syndromes also increase the risk of developing colon cancer.

Colon cancer can have many symptoms. However, in the early stages, people with colon cancer often have no symptoms at all. This is why regular screening beginning at 50 is an important investment in your healthy future.

1. A change in bowel habits
2. Diarrhea, constipation or feeling that the bowel does not empty completely
3. Blood, either bright red or very dark in the stool
4. Stools that are narrower than usual
5. General abdominal discomfort such as frequent gas pains, bloating, fullness or cramps
6. Weight loss with no known reason
7. Constant tiredness
8. Vomiting

Unfortunately, colon cancers can be well advanced before they are detected. The most effective prevention of colon cancer is early detection and removal of precancerous colon polyps before they turn cancerous. Even in cases where cancer has already developed, early detection still significantly improves the chances of a cure by surgically removing the cancer before the disease spreads to other organs.

Other things you can do to lower your risk include the following:

1. Quit smoking. Smoking cigarettes has been clearly linked with higher risk of colon cancer

2. Take an aspirin or baby aspirin every day.

3. Take a safe dose of folic acid cevery day.

4. Engage in physical activity every day.

5. Eat a variety of fruits and vegetables every day.

Different types of treatment are available for patients with colon cancer. The primary treatment of colon cancer is to surgically remove part or all of your colon. Treatment for colon cancer may include surgery, radiation therapy or chemotherapy.

Surgery

Surgery is the most common treatment for all stages of colon cancer. Depending on the stage and size of your tumor, your doctor will remove your cancer with Local excision, Resection, Radiofrequency ablation and Cryosurgery

Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy is a cancer treatment that uses drugs to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing. When chemotherapy is taken by mouth or injected into a vein or muscle, the drugs enter the bloodstream and can reach cancer cells throughout the body

Radiation therapy

Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment that uses high-energy x-rays or other types of radiation to kill cancer cells or keep them from growing. There are two types of radiation therapy. External radiation therapy uses a machine outside the body to send radiation toward the cancer. Internal radiation therapy uses a radioactive substance sealed in needles, seeds, wires, or catheters that are placed directly into or near the cancer.

Some of the tests that were done to diagnose the cancer or to find out the stage of the cancer may be repeated. Some tests will be repeated in order to see how well the treatment is working. Decisions about whether to continue, change, or stop treatment may be based on the results of these tests.

http://treatments-for-cancer.blogspot.com/2009_11_08_archive.html

The Natural Treatment Of Ovarian Cysts – Eating the Right Foods

Thousands of women suffer agonising pains leading up to and during their menstrual cycle and in many cases this can be attributed to ovarian cysts. A lot of cysts dissolve away naturally but it is the ones that continue to grow that cause symptoms such as swelling in the abdomen, heavy bleeding and nausea. Traditionally treatment has been by medication or, in the worse case scenario surgery, and even then, the cysts often return. Well the good news is that natural treatment of ovarian cysts can and does work by shrinking the fluid filled sacs and preventing them from returning.

The food we eat determines the ph levels of our blood and research shows that an acidic blood stream creates an atmosphere inside our bodies that cancers and other diseases can thrive in, whereas a blood stream that is more alkaline provides a much healthier refuge. So it is important to cut back on the amount of sugar and processed foods that we consume, so as not to create an atmosphere that is conducive for ovarian cysts to form.

So the low down is that by eating less sugar we are less likely to suffer unhealthy insulin levels which can trigger the growth of  ovarian cysts and at the same time we may well lose some weight, which isn’t normally a bad thing.  Naturally it can be difficult to change your diet overnight but make a real effort to implement healthy changes to your regular meals. I am not suggesting that you become a vegetarian, but it is important to cut down on your meat intake and eat more fish and also to fill your plate with lots of healthy vegetables. Other foods that are vital to creating a good alkaline level are garlic, grains and most fresh fruit.

It is also a good idea to cut back on your caffeine intake which can make you nervy and edgy, preventing sleep and take leisurely sips of a herbal tea, such as camomile or mint, which help soothe and calm any inflammation.

So many women have been led to believe that medication or surgery are the only options, but trust me when I tell you that the natural treatment of ovarian cysts can, and does, work. You no longer have to live with pain, a bloated stomach and feelings of nausea that are the common symptoms of an ovarian cyst. You can change your life if you start to take action now.

Multi-Tasking: De-Bunking The Myth

All of us have tried to do two things at the same time. It could be driving a car and talking on a cell phone, engaging in a conversation while working on the computer, or reading and simultaniously listening to music. Some of us even pride ourselves on how refined our skills have become at what is generally referred to as "multi-tasking" .

The reality, however, is that multi-tasking is a myth that just does not work in the way that most people have been led to believe.

Imagine that you're working on a difficult calculus problem. (Are not all calculus problems difficult?) In the same room, a television show that you really like is near a pivotal moment. Can you pay attention to the show and continue with multiple, complex computations? It is quite unquestionably that you will be able to conduct both activities to a high standard of performance. Something has to suffer.

Look at that car on the highway. Either it's going too slowly in the passing lane or its speed and steering are erratic. As you finally pass it, you glance over at the driver who is talking on a cell phone or, even worse, is e-mailing or text messaging. Is that going to work well?

Examining these types of situations will provide insight into how behavior affects performance. Furthermore, the underlying assumptions and the decisions that are unconsciously made could be understood in a fuller context.

You "know" when you're talking with someone who is driving. The conversation is punctuated with abrupt pauses and interjections, as the driver's primary focus shifts from talking back to driving. The quality of the telephone discussion becomes impaired, because the driver needs to spend a certain amount of concentration on driving. Conversely, the quality of the driving is diminished, as the primary focus vacillates between the separate and distinct activities of driving and talking.

It is accurate to assert that both activities are being contained in a shared time-frame and, therefore, one could argue that this is an efficient use of time which is the underlying assumption guiding the decision to have a cell phone conversation while driving. (This article pre-dates revisions to Ontario's Highway Traffic Act.)

If efficiency is the sole criterion, then multi-tasking is certainly the prudent thing to do, because it clearly maximizes time utilization. In assessing performance, though, the effectiveness, quality and integrity of the action also have to be considered and this is where multi-tasking collapses.

We have become so practiced at driving a car, for example, that for most of us much of it is done on "auto pilot". The full standard of performance for driving a car requires that one is singularly focused on the task of driving: adhering to the speed limit; Maintaining the proper, safe distance from the vehicle in front; Constantly surveying the traffic from all directions; Checking blind spots; Anticipating possible defensive actions; Signaling intentions; Yielding to others; Being courteous; And, oh yes, driving with two hands on the steering wheel. In order to achieve and maintain such performance, all external transactions must be rigorously excluded from the task of driving. Honestly, is this how you drive at all times?

We tend to view the act of driving a car as a convenience, a necessity and a right. We often forget that it also is a dangerous procedure that hurls a bulk machine forward at potentially lethal impulses. Concurrently, communicating with someone, in this instance through a cell phone, is an important human interaction that warrants full attention. What, then, is the acceptable standard of performance for each of these activities?

Picture a manager working on a computer, when an employee enters the office and starts a conversation. The manager chooses to engage in the conversation, but also continues with the computer work. What are the opportunities?

Because part of the manager's overall attention is diverted to the conversation, it is highly probable that the computer work will be less than optimal. It may have errors or be sub-standard, thereby, requiring subsequent re-work. Thus, this approach is both somewhat inefficient and somewhat ineffective.

It is the interpersonal communication between the two people, however, which suffers the greatest deficiency. Interpersonal communication is comprised of verbal and non-verbal components, with the non-verbal aspect being the most dominant. If one's eyes are riveted on the computer screen, then all the non-verbal cues will be missed. The parties will have engaged in a fractured, incomplete communication experience and this often can lead to misunderstandings and frustration.

Even more importantly, every communication encounter is an opportunity to demonstrate respect for the other person. The more one demonstrates respect for another person, the richer the conversation will be. Enriched conversations hold a greater likelihood that the output will be translated into higher performance. By not fully engaging in the conversation, the manager has inadvertently signaled a lack of respect for the employee, unfortunately eroding their relationship. The integrity of the action is renderedadequate. Once again, what is the acceptable standard of performance for each of these different activities?

Many of us read, while music plays in the background. This might work reasonably well in some circumstances. But Ralph Waldo Emerson, in reference to Thoreau's Walden, once admonished that one should "Read Deliberately". By this, he was accentuating his appreciation that Thoreau wrote with serious intent and great precision, and that, as a reader, one needs to dedicate the same degree of attention and respect to the task of reading. When reading something that is important, serious, weighty, or difficult, all distractions, including background music, need to be minimized, so that the mind does not wander.

Some may contend that mundane, repetitive tasks, requiring minimal concentration, are appropriate for multi-tasking. It is precisely in these types of situations that accidents happen. The truth is that attempting to multi-task different types of activities just does not work as well as one might like to believe. After all, you would not consider doing a space walk to repair a component on the International Space Station and watch a video at the same time! Your concentration and focus would be absolute! All tasks need to be approached with the highest degree of dedication and performance. One must be Zen-like – totally immersed in the moment.

The practice of multi-tasking actually involves conducting activities, concurrently (driving a car and talking on a cell phone, working on a computer and engaging in a conversation, etc.). A modified approach, that produces better outcomes, is to perform tasks, consecutively. This involves shifting back and forth between tasks, thereby filling vacant time. Each change in activity, however, requires a certain amount of rev-up time, re-focusing, concentration, and energy. This may offset the apparel productivity gain of undertaking multiple tasks within a common time-frame.

Many will contend that the ideas presented here are inaccurate and that multi-tasking does work. The critical consideration revolves around the overall performance – the effectiveness, quality and integrity that will be achieved in the disparate activities that are being contemplated. It's not just how quickly one can cycle through a task that is the measure of success. How well that activity is being completed is the other essential element. This needs to become part of one's decision-making matrix.

It is significant to note that high performing executives never attempt to multi-task. Instead, they maintain an intense focus on one task or issue at a time. They are absolutely dedicated and disciplined in what they are doing and then they totally switch their focus to the next issue or task. This is a lesson worthy of learning and practicing.

Mission Impossible (Or Highly Improbable)

A cautionary note: when it comes to what’s possible or impossible; plausible or implausible; probable or improbable, majority doesn’t rule. This isn’t a democracy. If a billion people believe nonsense, it’s still nonsense. This however is in contrast to what has been proven beyond a reasonable scientific doubt. If a billion people continue to disbelieve something that has been proved, then it’s those billion people who are nonsense, not the idea.

Time and time again the self correcting nature of scientific investigation has invalidated the norm of the day, resulting in a paradigm shift. Often the seemingly impossible has proved to be possible, even inevitable. Sometimes what’s been believed to be obviously plausible as proved to be anything but plausible. So, if today’s science says something’s impossible – well, maybe. If I say something is impossible – the same caveat applies. I tend to argue from common sense logic, which, as any philosopher or historian of science will tell you is no sure pathway to what is, and isn’t.

Firstly, let’s list just a few once-upon-a-time scientific impossibilities that have proved to be anything but.

It used to be quite obvious that the Sun went around the Earth – any other configuration was considered impossible.

Once upon a time, our Universe could not be anything but static – neither expanding nor contracting. Einstein however knew the Universe should be contracting because of the attractive force of gravity. To counter that, and keep the static Universe he and the science of the times believed in, he invented his ‘cosmological constant’, a repulsive force to exactly counter gravity’s pull. He later called that his greatest blunder. However, that ‘cosmological constant’ has recently resurfaced in the form of ‘dark energy’, so Einstein might have been right after all!

Those Black Holes, while existing on paper in relativity theory, could not actually exist in reality – in practice they were quite the impossible object.

No one in their right mind would believe that it was possible that mankind had any actual evolutionary relationship with ‘lower’ life forms.

That matter actually consisted of indivisible bits called atoms – the atomic theory was nonsense.

That ‘island universes’ were actually independent conglomerations of stars and not nebulous entities part and parcel of our own Milky Way Galaxy was deemed impossible by experts.

Catastrophism in geology was considered a no-no for much of the time since it began as a legit part of earth science. All geology (especially landforms) could be explained as a gradual softly-softly, slowly-slowly, process. Violent events need not apply to explain things. Tell that to the dinosaurs! Of course we know better today. Catastrophism has taken its place and role playing in the geologic scheme of things.

Speaking of geology, the idea of continental drift was once considered preposterous pie-in-the-sky stuff. How dare a meteorologist (Alfred Wegener in 1912) tell geologists what should have been bleeding obvious! Geologists of course countered that there was no physical mechanism that could push continents around. Well, there was as it turned out, only we may no longer call it continental drift but rather plate tectonics. So, the meteorologist could the geologists flatfooted after all.

Once upon a time, the concept of nuclear energy was pie in the sky – a subject no scientist would take seriously.

Prior to the initial test, there were ‘experts in explosives’ who said that the A-bomb would never work.

Powered flight was once considered impossible – balloons were the only feasible means of air travel.

Rocket travel was utter bilge as there was nothing in space for the rocket’s exhaust to push against.

It was impossible for the human body to travel faster than the speed of a (fill in the blank) without suffering fatal physiological consequences.

The sound barrier would never be broken.

It was considered impossible for stones to fall from the sky – witnesses to the contrary are damned. Today, we incorrectly call them ‘shooting stars’; more correctly meteors, and when then hit the ground, meteorites.

The Titanic was ‘unsinkable’.

The city of Troy was mythology, pure and simple. There was no such place in reality.

Secondly, let’s look at a few really bona fide actual or statistical impossibilities according to today’s scientific thinking.

It’s impossible to divide any number by zero.

It is impossible to travel at the speed of light if you have mass. That’s because at light speed, mass becomes infinite; time stops; your length contracts to zero. However, travel faster than the speed of light seems to be okay (albeit with weird consequences), if only one could figure out how to get from sub-light to faster-than-light without actually crossing the speed of light threshold. It’s like driving your car from zero to sixty km/hour without actually passing through the 30 km/hour region.

It is considered impossible for a macro object to escape from a Black Hole. To escape from a Black Hole would require passing through that speed of light threshold.

Perpetual motion machines are a big no-no. There’s no such thing as a free lunch! No country’s patent office will even remotely consider proposals for devices that operate on perpetual motion ideals.

It’s apparently impossible to get around the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle part and parcel of quantum physics. Einstein tried for decades to do so and failed each and every time.

It’s impossible to ever reach a temperature of absolute zero (zero on the Kelvin temperature scale) where all molecular, atomic and subatomic activity ceases and all is motionless. It’s impossible because it violates the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle and also because of the vacuum energy, also known as quantum fluctuations. At the extreme micro level, virtual particle pairs pop into and out of existence borrowing from the, and returning energy to, that energy reserve that pervades the cosmos – quantum foam. Finally, energy is spread across the Universe, and can not be created nor destroyed. Although the Universe is expanding, that just means that available energy is being spread thinner and thinner – the energy density of the Universe is therefore decreasing*. But, as long as our Universe retains a finite volume, that density can never reach zero. [*There’s one caveat to that. If ‘dark energy’ is a property of space, and if space is expanding, then the amount of ‘dark energy’ is not thinning, but increasing. More space means more ‘dark energy’.]

No matter what the merits of reincarnation are (and there are none IMHO), it is impossible to recall past lives. The egg and the sperm from which you were conceived had no past memory of your alleged past lives since they came from individuals not so related to your past existences. So, you started out from the get-go with no memory. Any and all memories you now have started from day of conception onwards – full stop***.

On a lighter note, films often give you impossibilities. You know they are impossible, but you accept them anyway, at least while the film is running. Superman’s flying comes to mind, or for that matter the original premise behind the various attributes of all our celluloid superheroes. It’s impossible to have any such of a thing as an invisible person. That person would be functionally blind as light would pass right through their eyeballs. A standard of sci-fi are insects the size of houses – impossible as they would quickly die of suffocation. A fifty foot human is also impossible because their scaled up legs get scaled up far less than the increase in body mass, and so the individual couldn’t stand up. Similar physiological problems arise if you shrink humans to standard insect size. The standard impossibility is hearing the noise and sounds a spaceship or space battles make while in the vacuum of space. I’m sure any readers could think up dozens of other examples. Most films never get the science right, but of course it’s just entertainment not to be taken as accurate representation of reality.

Lastly, there’s one impossible thing you just can’t think of and believe before breakfast, or any other time. It’s impossible to think that you don’t exist (either as an actual or simulated being) for who’s doing the thinking if not you? Therefore, the famous observation and quote, “I think therefore I am”.

Thirdly, let’s look at commonly accepted scientific beliefs that are IMHO ultimately flawed concepts – flawed to the point where I suggest they are either flat out impossible or at best wildly improbable. [This is the section where scientists wish there really were a Hell they could send me to!]

Impossible Cosmology:

There are those cosmologists who believe (or so they say) that our Universe was created from nothing – absolute nothing. First there was nothing; then there was something, so they say, but without bothering to explain in acceptable layman’s language the ‘how’ of that. If fact, they just take that as given and then just deal with, and devote their time and energy to, the subsequent expansion and understanding of that something. That something can be created out of nothing somehow violates one of the most cherished and fundamental of all scientific principles, one which even elementary school students are taught. It’s a violation of the ultimate conservation of matter and energy. Matter and energy can neither be created or destroyed, only changed in form, from one kind of matter to another; one kind of energy to another; or matter to energy and vice versa.

That the Big Bang somehow created time and space. I propose instead that the Big Bang happened in previously existing time and space.

That the Big Bang somehow created both matter and energy – matter and energy being two sides of the same coin as per Einstein’s famous equation. I propose instead that the matter/energy that we observe in our Universe was actually matter/energy that was recycled from a previous universe.

You will sometimes find in the literature statements by scientists (who should know better) that at the moment of the Big Bang event, the temperature of our ‘Universe’ – such as it was in the beginning – was infinite. As the Universe expanded, and expanded some more, expanding ever outwards, it cooled and continued cooling to reach what we note as today’s cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) temperature, just several degrees above the theoretical absolute zero. This is absolute nonsense. It is rubbish. It is impossible (the infinite temperature in the beginning, not today’s measured CMBR temperature). Scientists sometimes play extremely loosely with the word ‘infinity’, when they actually mean ‘extremely’ high (or dense or vast, etc.). So, why can’t the Big Bang event have had infinite temperature? Simplicity itself! If you add, subtract, multiply or divide any finite number into infinity, you get – infinity! In the case of the Universe expanding, if you double her dimensions, you have a reduction in her density (mass or energy) by a factor of eight. That’s fine if you start with a finite value, but infinity divided by eight is still infinity. Our Universe would never cool below an infinite temperature no matter how much it expanded! That’s clearly not what we observe (and if that weren’t the case we wouldn’t be here to contemplate the matter since life couldn’t arise in an environment of infinite temperature), so clearly the origin of our Universe had a finite (even if extremely high) temperature from the get-go.

Then there are cosmologists would have you believe that space itself is expanding; that ‘dark energy’ is a property of space that pushes apart space itself, creating more space, which comes equipped with its own quota of ‘dark energy’, which further expands or pushes apart space, creating thus even more space and more ‘dark energy’ – it’s a vicious circle and the ultimate ‘free lunch’ if true. However, I maintain that’s impossible. There may well be a repulsive force, a sort of antigravity called ‘dark energy’, and it may be a property of space itself, but it repels or pushes matter further apart, not space. Translated, the Universe’s matter is expanding, with the assistance of ‘dark energy’, through existing space. That matter is not being carried along by space itself, space expanding due to the repulsive nature of its ‘dark energy’. [As an aside, if one prefers, one can think of ‘dark energy’ as a pull force that pulls things apart, and thus gravity as a push force that pushes things together, instead of associating ‘dark energy’ with push, and gravity with pull. A rose by any other name is still a rose. The bottom line is that ‘dark energy’ is repulsive; gravity is attractive, which has nothing to do with one being prettier than the other!]

That one can squeeze the contents of the entire observable universe into a volume less than that of a pinhead – much less in actual fact. Okay, pull the other one!

Impossible Physics:

Item one in the ‘impossible physics’ category is that the elementary or fundamental particles are only ‘point* particles’ existing as dimensionless objects with no volume. That might simplify particle physics maths, but is nonsense. That idea, if correct, would render impotent particle accelerators like the Large Hadron Collider. How could two particles collide if they don’t have any volume? [*A point is zero dimensional; a line or curve is one dimensional; a square or circle is two dimensional; a cube or sphere is three dimensional.]

A second item in the ‘impossible physics’ category is that particles also behave as waves (the wave-particle duality). The wave aspect, despite experimental evidence, is an illusion IMHO. Particles are particles – tiny billiard balls if you will. If you have mass you do not wave (although under the right circumstances you might vibrate). Photons don’t have mass and so you do have light (photons) behaving as waves, which is also why photons travel at the speed of light. That’s unlike mass particles, for example like electrons that do have mass. They can’t travel at the speed of light. Look at it this way, or at least through the philosophy of Occam’s (or Ockham’s) Razor that simpler is better; the fewer the assumptions required to explain things, the better. Say you have an electron emitted from a specific point ‘A’ in space and time – say from the electron-gun in your TV set. That electron impacts your TV screen at a specific point ‘B’ in time and space. What happens to the electron in-between ‘A’ and ‘B’? Does it wave all over the place on the journey so that its location between ‘A’ and ‘B’ is just probability, or does it travel like a little billiard ball in a straight line from ‘A’ to ‘B’? If all the electrons emitted by your TV set’s electron-gun waved all over the place, each could take varying intervals of time to reach your TV screen. Your TV picture would be a mess!

Thirdly, Black Holes have singularities at their centre with zero volume and infinite density. The problem with that is that if you chuck matter into a Black Hole (ending up ultimately in the singularity), the Black Hole’s event horizon grows in size. If that is so, that is if the Black Hole grows in size, then the singularity must have finite volume that increases as you throw more and more stuff into it.

Now, it has been speculated that matter that gets sucked into a Black Hole undergoes a phase change into a new form of matter, sort of like ice to water to steam, or steam to water to ice. What exactly the nature of that inside-the-Black-Hole phase change is – well, your guess is as good as mine. However, I have come up with an idea. The matter sucked inside a Black Hole has been transformed into ‘dark matter’! Now ‘dark matter’ has mass and gravity, but doesn’t interact with any electromagnetic forces. We know that because ‘dark matter’ exists within our Universe; not of necessity hidden exclusively within Black Holes. So, how does ‘dark matter’ get out of a Black Hole and into our Universe at large? It doesn’t, at least not as ‘dark matter’ but maybe a Hawking radiation. Well, that doesn’t explain the ‘dark matter’ all around us. So there has to be an exception, and I suggest that exception was the transformation of a previous universe’s Big Crunch – forming the Mother of all Black Holes – so warping space-time that it turned itself inside out and emerged as a While Hole, spilling out its contents and forming our Universe in the process. The Mother of all Black Holes transformed much of that universe’s ordinary matter into ‘dark matter’, but the process of Black to While Hole transformation happened so rapidly that not all matter got so converted before the spewing. So, what was vomited out as our Universe was a lot of ‘dark energy’, but not quite 100%, keeping in line with what we observe, or detect but don’t observe directly, today.

A fourth item has to do with the Holy Grail of physics, the TOE (Theory of Everything). It is commonly accepted that there are four fundamental forces in the cosmos – electromagnetism (quantum physics), the strong nuclear force (quantum physics), the weak nuclear force (quantum physics), and gravity (classical physics). A TOE would somehow relate all four forces; they would be unified into just one overall grand physics concept. But, the fly in the ointment has been gravity. Perhaps gravity isn’t a force but a property of space itself (as is its counterpart, ‘dark energy’). If that’s so, then it might prove to be impossible to come up with a TOE that unifies the three quantum forces with classical gravity. Put another way, gravity in the form of general relativity (the macro) and quantum physics (the micro) are forever bound to be un-bonded – it’s like there are two totally separate types of incompatible software governing the cosmos.

Another concept that has actually mastered the TOE is known as string theory, superstring theory, or M-theory. It’s one of these wildly improbably ideas that’s the ‘in thing’ in modern physics – and has been for decades. And therein lays one of the problems. While it is ascetically beautiful and explains much about life the universe and everything from Hawking radiation to the unification of quantum and classical physics, it has three flaws. Firstly, it’s pure abstract mathematical theory. Secondly, variations on string theory is now over 30+ years strong without having one shred of experimental evidence to back up the basic idea that elementary particles are tiny vibrating strings and not little billiard balls. Thirdly, string theory requires the total existence of ten or eleven dimensions. These extra six or seven unobserved and undetected dimensions (additional to the four we commonly interact with) are unobserved and undetected because they are curled up so tightly that they’re down to ultra micro size, way below the threshold of observation and detection – how convenient. If you accept that premise, well there’s this bridge in Sydney I have going for sale real cheap!

Particle/nuclear physicists would have you accept that unstable (radioactive) nucleus decays into more stable nucleus without any reason; without any cause. First it is unstable; then all of a sudden, at a time undeterminable, ‘poof’, it is stable, or at least on the pathway to eventual stability, with alpha, beta and/or gamma radiation given off in the process. Firstly, things don’t happen without a cause. That’s impossible IMHO. Maybe the unstable nucleus got hit with a cosmic ray or a neutrino (there’s lots of them around) which triggered the ‘poof’ event. But something was the trigger. Secondly, how could radioactive decay happen to individual nuclei without cause, yet collectively all the nuclei decay over time by following a neat and precise and predictable (half-life) mathematical relationship?

I believe there is a prim and proper causality explanation to radioactive decay. I suggest above the impact between an unstable nucleus and either a cosmic ray or a neutrino. Of the two, cosmic rays can’t penetrate very far into the ground, but neutrinos can and do, in fact nearly all neutrinos pass right through the Earth itself without the slightest fuss and bother. However, a few neutrinos do run smack into something. Most of the times it’s a stable nucleus and nothing happens. Occasionally, it’s an unstable nucleus and that impact is enough to trigger the instability cascade down the slope to stability. So, unstable nuclei, deep inside the Earth, get whacked too and thus decay too, generating a lot of Earth’s interior heat in the process. Now, I suggest my idea is subject to experimental research and verification – or not. All one needs to do is artificially increase the normal background neutrino rate and see if the half-life of a radioactive element changes! These external influences like neutrinos (maybe cosmic rays), are uniform enough (everyday normal constant background rates) so that given impact events, if 1000 unstable nuclei go ‘poof’ after one time unit; the next time unit sees 500 nuclei go ‘poof’ and so on. So, my neutrino (or cosmic ray) impact idea explains the half-life phenomena.

By analogy, picture a roomful of inflated toy balloons. Standing outside the room, toss dart after dart into the room. At first, you hit lots of balloons; say half of them in one hour’s worth of dart tossing. But, as the number of inflated balloons decrease, so in the next hour worth of dart tossing, you’re not going to hit as many inflated balloons, maybe only half of the half that’s left, and in the hour after that even less (another half of the half), until there’s one balloon left standing – until a stray dart find that and the room is now stable and free of inflated balloons. It’s a half-life relationship. Now substitute a collection of unstable nuclei for the balloons and neutrinos (or maybe cosmic rays) for the darts and there you have it. Causality rules, okay?

Either that or maybe you have to assume intelligent, communicating, all-knowing unstable nuclei. Imagine this conversation as an explanation. Jane: “Hi Clive” Clive: “Hi Jane” Jane: “Look Clive, one of us must go ‘poof’ now in order to keep this half-life relationship in sync” Clive: That’s okay Jane, I’ll go ‘poof’ – see ya”. Jane: “Thanks a bunch!” Of course the above conversation is hardly one that anyone could take seriously!

So if an unstable nucleus goes ‘poof’ without any cause, then the collective of all such nuclei bound together each participant going individually ‘poof’, each without cause, would be have to end up being collectively a totally random and variable result, not a half-life predictable result. That’s not what we observe.

Impossible Philosophy:

I doubt that there is such a thing as ‘free will’. If, in the beginning, one defines a set of initial conditions, a finite number of particles having deterministic laws and relationships governing them, and hence starts the clock running, then, crunching the numbers by cranking the handle, one can predict an absolute outcome for those particles based on those laws and relationships X number of time units in the future. If that is acceptable, then there is no independent ‘free will’ variable. It’s a clockwork universe. 1 + 1 = 2, the first time, the last time; all times in-between. No variations allowed.

I also doubt that you have an invisible friend who art in heaven. Sorry, but there’s no evidence supporting the existence of any supernatural creator God or gods.

Fourthly, let’s look at the reverse, some commonly accepted notions by scientists that they consider impossible or wildly improbable, but which, in IMHO are ultimately flawed concepts they have – flawed to the point where I suggest these scientist’s ‘impossibilities or implausibility’s’ range from an actual near certainty to only somewhat implausible.

One category that immediately comes to mind is ‘sea serpents’. We know from the fossil record that large marine reptiles like plesiosaurus and the mosasaur once existed. There’s no obvious reason why these creatures went extinct as their marine environment is fairly resilient against environmental change such as salinity, temperature, etc.

There’s the eye witness evidence of sightings of creatures very similar to these apparently extinct beasties both from ship, and from shore.

There are examples of other thought-to-have-been-extinct animals, and I mean extinct for many, many, many millions of years, that have turned up alive and well (such as the coelacanth), thank you very much!

Another item that comes to mind is one of the great mysteries of ancient history – what happened to the Minoan civilization 3,500 years ago on the island of Crete? They just vanished as a unique culture. Was it invaders or natural disaster? Modern archaeological and geological evidence all point to a massive order of magnitude greater volcanic eruption than happened at Krakatoa on the island Thera immediately to the north of Crete, yet still too far away to totally account for the mystery. By now, you’ve probably guessed the answer. The eruption generated a massive series of tsunamis some 30 meters high which destroyed the villages and towns, all of which were on the coast. The one-two punch, a mega-volcano plus mega-tsunamis and you had the total destruction of the Minoan civilization. That, in turn gave rise to the origin of the Atlantis tale. The legend and mythology surrounding Atlantis has long been consigned to the pseudoscience dust bin. Yet while there’s no proof positive and probably never will be, it is quite plausible that legends and mythology derived from the above Thera (or Santorini) eruption plus associated tsunami wiping out the Minoan civilization on Crete, did indeed, form the foundation for the legend of Atlantis.

Fifthly, there are those other apparent impossibilities that involve contradictions between solid theory and solid observation. For example, astrophysicists predict that in-the-beginning (the Big Bang event) equal amounts of matter and antimatter should have been created. Observation says otherwise – it’s a matter dominated Universe. Physicists predict a certain value for the vacuum energy. Experiment shows the vacuum energy to be some 120 orders of magnitude less that what theory mandates – the biggest discrepancy between theory and observation ever in the history of science. Theory suggests that the physical laws, principles and relationships that govern the Universe should be able to be unified into a Theory of Everything (TOE) – an ultimate equation that can fit on the front of a tee-shirt. The most brilliant minds on the planet have struggled decade after decade after decade to find one that works in practice. Absolute failure has resulted – at least to date. Something’s screwy somewhere!

Finally there is a resolution to all of this that will make nobody happy! That resolution is that life, the Universe and everything is a work of fiction – an illusion. For example, there are art works that can depict 2-D images of objects that are impossible to construct in 3-D. You can believe hundreds of impossible things before breakfast, lunch and dinner if you take films, TV shows, holograms and video games at face value. The list of impossibilities that you’ll find written in novels, short stories, plays, fine literature or the pulps, comic books galore – well, fiction full-stop – would itself fill a goodly sized book, perhaps several volumes worth.

So, our Universe, filled with many paradoxes, contradictions, impossibilities, implausibility’s, or improbabilities reads more like sci-fi or looks more like a video game or computer simulation. If so, then we’re part of a simulation by powers or people (aliens?) unknown and probably unknowable, just like a character in a video game can’t be aware of the identity of either who created the game, or the player.

Our Universe isn’t real; Planet Earth isn’t real; you’re not real; I’m not real. However the Universe is virtually real; Planet Earth is virtually real; you are virtually real; as am I. We’re all the creation of someone, or something, else that is real. Or maybe that entity in itself is the creation of an even more remote – one step further removed – something. It’s like a character in a film making a film; a character in a video game creating a video game; a character in a novel writing a novel; a person depicted in a painting who is making a painting.

Now if you imagine yourself as god (or a good computer programmer or creator of video games) creating a universe from scratch, well, being not quite Mr. or Mrs. or Ms. Perfection, might you not for one reason or another cut corners or accidentally stuff things up and end up creating in your virtual world impossibilities, implausibility’s or improbabilities?

In this scenario, as the song lyrics state, ‘heavens knows, anything goes’!

What would it take to swing one around to the simulation point of view? Well, you’d need a set of observations that could not be refuted, ideally experimental ones that are repeatable and repeated, that science, not even in it’s wildest theoretical best, can adequately and naturally explain, and which at the same time shatters some ultra well established and most fundamental of scientific principles – say gravity. What if all tennis balls, and only tennis balls, started floating upwards? Either that would demonstrate a simulated Universe, or else you’d better be prepared to think supernatural. Of the two, at least the former is still scientific and rational!

How to Cure White Tongue with Home Remedies

The presence of a white tongue coating is a common problem that can have a variety of causes. Generally, the occasional white tongue, especially when the whole tongue is white (not white in spots or patches), is due to minor inflammation of papillae, the tiny bumps that coat your tongue. These can, like skin cells, collect things like white blood cells, bits of bacteria and the like and as a result, look swollen and white in color. This condition can be caused by poor oral hygiene, dehydration or may be chronic for smokers.
But if the symptoms are a thick white or creamy lesion and an inflamed tongue are the usual signs of an oral thrush. These lesions are very sensitive, thus touching them can cause them to bleed.

What is Oral Trush?

Oral thrush, also known as oral candidiasis is a yeast fungi infection of the genus Candida that develops on the mucous membranes of the mouth. It is most commonly caused by Candida albicans, but may also be caused by Candida glabrata or Candida tropicalis. Candidosis or Moniliasis refers to adult oral thrush, while “oral thrush” can refer to both adults and babies.Oral thrush causes thick white or cream-colored deposits, most commonly on the tongue or inner cheeks. The lesions can be painful and may bleed slightly when they are scraped. The infected mucosa of the mouth may appear inflamed and red.

Oral thrush can be caused by a very weak immune system. It can also be an adverse effect of using too much corticosteroids and antibiotics. Anti- fungal medications are the drug of choice for this kind of condition but there are also home remedies for white tongue that are equally effective. What causes this condition is a fungus known as candida albicans. The best way to prevent the fungus from spreading is by not feeding it. Sugar and gluten are the usual sources of food for the fungus, so it is best to avoid food products that contain them. A lot of commercial products contain gluten such as milk, bread, and cereal. If you want to avoid these products, there are other substitutes available which can be found at the health section in most grocery stores.

How to Make Home Remedies to cure With Tongue?

This condition should be given immediate attention because of its ability to spread quickly to the throat and sometimes to the esophagus which can lead to more complications.

Here are some home remedies for white tongue that you can easily try:

  1. Mix 1/2 tsp of salt and 3 ounces of warm water and gargle with this mixture for about 45 seconds. Gargle with it thoroughly before you spit it out. Repeat this twice daily for immediate relief.
  2. The next procedure after gargling would be the scraping of the tongue. Get another ½ tsp of salt. Sprinkle it on your tongue then brush it with your toothbrush. It is not necessary to brush too hard becaue the bristles of the toothbrush will scrub off the white bumps easily. There might be a little discomfort, though. Continue this until all the areas of your tongue have been brushed thoroughly. Gargle with water and check your tongue. Focus on the areas that require the most attention. Repeat the procedure, makig sure that you rinse your mouth with water after every brushing. After this, clean your toothbrush then use it to remove the white residues on your tongue. You may also use a tongue scraper. Once the oral thrush is removed, make it a habit to brush your teeth on a regular basis and gargle with mouthwash after every brushing.
  3. Maintain a gluten and sugar free diet, until you see all the symptoms disappear. You should also avoid using too many medications such as antibiotics and corticosteroids, which can destroy the natural beneficial bacteria in your body that keeps the candida albicans in control. Try to include probiotics, “the friendly bacteria” in your diet, such as yogurt. Maintaining a healthy digestive tract through the right diet can help prevent any recurrence of oral thrush.

If your condition persists, despite doing these home remedies for white tongue, consult your doctor right away in order to rule out other serious causes. Read how I Gain white tongue Complete Relief In As Little As 12 Hours, Using A Unique 5-Step Method >>click here<<

E. Coli, Botulism, and Salmonella

When we eat out at restaurants, we expect for the food we are served to have been stored properly, handled safely, cleaned adequately, and cooked thoroughly. When we purchase goods at the grocery store, again we expect for it to have been processed, packaged, and stored safely. Unfortunately, however, sometimes the reality of the situation does not fully meet our expectations.

If food is handled in a poor manner, it runs the risk of being contaminated by harmful bacteria and viruses. Those who eat these infected edibles are at risk of developing an illness known as food poisoning. While food poisoning is typically not fatal, it can be quite uncomfortable and painful. Three of the most common forms of food-borne illnesses are E.Coli, Botulism, and Salmonella.

E. Coli

E. coli is a type of bacteria that can cause infections in the digestive tracts of humans. There are several different strands of infectious E. coli, all of which can cause any of the following symptoms:

· Bloody diarrhea

· Severe abdominal cramping

· Nausea and vomiting

· Fatigue

Sometimes, E. coli is diagnosed as a different (yet similar) disease, such as a stomach ulcer or inflammatory bowel disease. Other times, those with E. coli infections do not experience any symptoms. This can be particularly dangerous if these individuals handle food. They can easily pass the infection onto other, unsuspecting individuals without realizing it.

Botulism

Botulism is another type of food-borne illness that is passed onto individuals through their ingestion of contaminated foods. Typically, botulism cultures grow in home-canned goods, although they can also arise in roots like garlic and potatoes. The symptoms of a botulism infection include the following:

· Nausea and vomiting

· Stomach cramps

· Difficulty breathing

· Compromised vision

· Difficulty swallowing

· Weakness

· Paralysis

Typically, botulism is treated through medication-induced vomiting or the prescription of drugs that cause bowel movements.

Salmonella

Salmonella is a disease most commonly spread to people through their ingestion of contaminated food. Like E. coli and botulism, those infected with this disease will typically get better after a few days without any outside treatment. The typical symptoms of a salmonella infection include the following:

· Diarrhea

· Nausea and vomiting

· Abdominal cramping

· Fever and chills

· Headache

· Bloody stools

· Achy muscles

If the salmonella bacteria enter the body’s bloodstream, then the patient is at risk of developing a very serious condition known as bacteremia. Patients who develop this condition need immediate outside treatment in the form of antibiotics. When bacteremia is not treated, it can be deadly.

Contact Us

If you or someone you love has suffered from any of these types of food poisoning as the result of poor restaurant or food manufacturing sanitation, then you may have the right to claim compensation. The St. Petersburg personal injury lawyers of Beltz & Ruth, P.A. have the experience necessary to help you recover the damages you deserve. To learn more, please visit http://www.personal-injuries-attorneys.com/ today.

Lymphadenitis – Ayurvedic Herbal Treatment

Lymphadenitis means inflammation in the lymph nodes. This can be generalized or localized. This condition usually points to some infection or inflammation. A common example of this is tonsillitis, where the tonsil glands are swollen and inflamed, usually due to repeated infections involving the throat. Generalized swelling of the lymph glands may point to more serious infections like HIV and tuberculosis, or may be indicators of serious diseases like cancer. Filariasis causes significant inflammation of the lymph glands and lymphatic channels, usually in the lower limbs, resulting in gross edema of the feet.

Clinical examination and relevant medical tests usually help pinpoint the exact cause of lymphadenitis, and conservative treatment is usually sufficient to help treat and cure the condition. Of late, however, more and more individuals have started presenting with gross lymphadenitis in various parts of the body, without evidence of any specific cause like tuberculosis, widespread infection, or cancer. Symptoms vary according to the location of affected lymph glands. Inflamed and enlarged glands in the chest may cause breathlessness, cough, or fluid collection in the layering of the lungs (known as pleural effusion). Similarly affected glands in the abdominal cavity may cause symptoms like abdominal pain, adhesions in the intestinal loops, and fluid collection in the ovaries or peritoneal cavity (known as ascites).

The commonest chronic cause of such swelling and inflammation of lymph glands is tuberculosis infection, so much so that even when all diagnostic tests come out negative, most health professionals still consider it worthwhile to give a therapeutic trial of anti-tuberculosis medications. Indeed, a large percentage of such affected individuals do benefit with this therapy; however, when even this treatment does not work, it becomes necessary to explore other causes for this condition.

Chronic inflammation due to stress, food allergies, exposure to toxins, hidden and obscure infections, and autoimmune processes within the body, is fast becoming a reality of modern times. Such inflammation, in addition to lymph glands and lymph ducts, may also affect blood vessels, skin, and various organs in the body. If multiple tissues and glands are involved, the presentation of clinical signs and symptoms will vary accordingly.

Coming back to non-specific inflammation of lymph glands, treatment needs to be given at various levels. Herbal medicines are given to reduce inflammation, and remove excess accumulated fluid. Herbs with known antiviral and antibacterial actions are given to treat infections. Immune-modulating herbs are used to treat a dysfunctional immune system. Specific diet instructions are given to address food allergies, and prevent inflammation. Adequate lifestyle recommendations are given to reduce stress and get sufficient, good quality sleep on a regular basis.

It is also necessary to normalize the digestive capacity and intestinal flora of affected individuals. Detoxification may also be necessary, especially for people who do not respond well to the treatment mentioned above. People with a strong autoimmune component may need more aggressive therapy for a longer period of time.

Most people having non-specific lymphadenitis respond very well to this line of treatment and report complete resolution of all symptoms. It is necessary for them to continue following a healthy diet and lifestyle so as to prevent a recurrence.

Party Punch Recipe – Tropically Fruity Yet Milky and Sweet, the Kids Will Love it and so Will You

One of the most essential drink items you could have at a kids party, or any party for that matter, is good old just as nature intended it, water. It is essential to keep those sweaty little bodies hydrated as sweet drinks just make you feel more thirsty, wanna pee a lot, and possibly even vomit….we speak from experience! So, make sure you have plenty of fresh cool water on hand.

That being said it never hurts to have at least one yummy punch or even one special individual mocktail for each child. Little kids love to feel like grown-ups, and surprising them with wonderfully decorative mocktails is a great way to show what a special occasion a birthday is.

One of my most requested party punches was actually a creation of my husbands, and can be delivered as either a punch or a mocktail.

All you need is:

  • 2 litres (which is roughly 2 quarts) of Lemonade

  • I can of tropical fruit salad

  • 1 can of Evaporated Milk…which is NOT condensed milk.

Now just mix it all together.

It probably sounds weird, but it is in fact completely delicious, but there is one secret to making it so, flat lemonade. So, open the lemonade the day before to allow it to go completely flat. Trust me, I have tried it fizzy and it just doesn’t work.

Now the canned fruit can be used in different ways, you can just simply plop it all in the punch, though much of it will sink to the bottom, which is fine of you are serving as a mocktail as the kids will love scooping out the fruit with one of those long Knicker Bocker Glory spoons. However, consider freezing the fruit and using as ice cubes, or even threading the fruit onto swizzle sticks or kebab sticks and using to decorate your mocktail. As long as you remember to put the liquid from the can IN the punch, it will taste great.

If you think the kids will turn their noses up at anythng lumpy, then simply turn it into a wonderfully refreshing smoothie, everyone loves smoothies, so give it a whiz and they’ll be none the wiser about the fruit content.

Mmm, it’s hot today; think I might go whip some up for myself.

Is Your Heart Committed? Is His?

Women, in particular, are looking for commitment. Hollywood, the media, and dating websites all focus on getting a marriage proposal. The art of seduction pre-dates expert Cleopatra. Dozens of books have been written about getting an unavailable man to say, "I do." For six years, Carrie Bradshaw of "Sex in the City" tried to get Big to commit.

But is there a commitment of the heart? It's one thing to get married, it's another to have a deep emotional connection. Both men and women often create obstacles to getting the love they want. They may avoid inconvenience with time spent at work, watching television, engaging in hobbies or sports. Addiction by either spouse blocks intimacy. Women complain their husbands spend too much time on the computer or watching sports. Yet, women may spend time cleaning, volunteering, or criticizing their husbands or boyfriends or be over-emotionally involved with their children. To be clear, I'm not talking about the demands of raising young children or the necessity of working two jobs to pay the bills. Stress makes intimate harder, but does not need to eliminate it, unless it's an excuse.

Fear of discomfort may show up in the bedroom. One man complained about his wife's coldness. He had an affair, only to discover that he was now impotent with his new lover. As walls build, the lack of communication usually will ever affect sexual intrusion.

Not infrequently, one spouse is unconsciously married to someone else. In one marriage, the husband's heart was still committed to his late wife. It was as if her ghost slept between them. In another, the husband cheated, but it was not the lovers who had stolen his heart – it was his mother! In another case, the husband was unfaithful, but the real cause of their marital problems lay in the wife's emotional marriage to her older brother, who died when she was a child. It sometimes happens with twins who are so close that no one else can share that intimate. It also can be a problem in step-families. One single mom found fault with every boyfriend, but she was not ready for romance. She did not realize her overly-involvement with her son was the problem. Similarly, in a marriage one parent may avoid intimacy by using a child of the opposite sex as an emotional surrogate. In these cases the unavailable partner is unconscious of their contribution to the very maritime problem about which they complain and think it's their mate's fault. Frequently, they must grieve and let go before they can open to their spouse.

People rarely believe that getting the love that they seek might be a problem. Connie finally overcame her pattern of loving abusers, and found Mark, a kind and gentle man. Being loved proved to be more terrifying to Connie than the familiar abuse. Her entire life and personality had been built around the belief that she was unlovable. She was sure that Mark would leave when he discovered the "truth" about her that she imagined was bad. Mark had his own self-esteem issues, and before Connie, he had always dated overweight women, in whom he ever lost sexual interest. He worried Connie would leave. Sharing their fears, not only helped them to heal their wounds, but moved them closer to a commitment of the heart.

What makes intimate so difficult? It requires vulnerability – risking openness. Everyone's been hurt before, and I mean everyone. From childhood onwards, people get hurt even by well-intentioned parents, by friends, teachers, and lovers, and by losses due to death, illness, rejection, and divorce. Animals, including humans, are programmed to avoid pain. It's hard-wired into your brain in order to survive. It requires awareness, intention, and courage to feel everything that may arise once the heart is open. If it's been wounded before, no one wants to re-open an old wound. Opening your heart to love will open those wounds. But it's also an an opportunity to heal, rather than seal them it over.

Copyright © Darlene Lancer 2010

Reduce Blood Pressure Naturally With the Help of Homeopathy

So this guy said: “If you really want your blood pressure to go down to normal, you ought to go to a homeopath.” Everyone at the party listened. Probably because many of them were on hypertension medication and wished they could get off. They were also interested because everyone knows homeopathy is an alternative and that means no side effects, no costly pharmaceutical bills and the potential for total relief. But I wonder if that guy and the others know that homeopathy is a medical method that has a world wide reputation for reducing both the systole and diastole of high blood pressure naturally? And that it doesn’t require ceasing the present conventional drug? The person can take them simultaneously since homeopathy doesn’t interfere with conventional meds. However, as this little party recognizes, high blood pressure medications frequently fail to show a benefit. This is a perfect opportunity for homeopathic remedies to make good. Once the remedy begins to act, it only makes sense to eliminate the drugs and continue on the remedy.

One of the most common remedies to decrease the systole and diastole is Veratum veride 6. When properly used, it can reduce blood pressure slowly and comfortably so that over a week or two, the pressure returns to normal. Yet, this is not the only benefit of taking this remedy. Many times it is reported that the person experiences better quality of sleep and their disposition improves. This isn’t because the remedy is a drug of falsity that induces an unnatural, forced state, but rather because homeopathy simulates the body’s ability to bring itself to its best place. It does this by safe, natural means.

Homeopathy is often called the rational medicine. For hypertension or any other ill, there is no better way than the polite and gentle, yet powerful, way of homeopathy. I guess the guy was right.

Traveling To America? New ESTA Registration Mandated January 2009

For years, visitors from certain foreign countries have been able to travel to America without first getting a formal Visa sticker placed in their passport. Implemented in 1998, the “Visa Waiver Program” (VWP) has allowed for visitors of several countries to come to America for tourism or business purposes for up to 90 days without getting a Visa put in their passport. During 2007, more than 15 million visitors from VWP countries arrived in the United States.

As of January 12, 2009 America’s new ESTA program requires Visa Waiver Program visitors coming to the U.S. for tourist or business purposes via a plane or ship to “register” online before entering the United States to see if they pose a law enforcement or security risk to the U.S. ESTA is not required for land crossings. Officials are asking that the ESTA registration be done at least 72 hours prior to leaving, but theoretically it is possible to register at the last minute. An ESTA Travel Authorization is free, valid for 2 years, and valid for multiple entries.

Here are some Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) for ESTA Travel Authorization:

What Countries Are in the Visa Waiver Program?

Andorra, Austria, Australia, Belgium, Brunei, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Monaco, The Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, San Marino, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom.

Where Do I Apply for an ESTA Travel Authorization?

A website, operated by the American government, is where you register for ESTA: esta.cbp.dhs.gov. The ESTA information you submit via the computer is compared with certain American law enforcement databases and then either approved or denied. Foreign travelers will not be able to submit ESTA applications at American airports after arriving or at a U.S. Embassy in their country.

What if I Don’t Have Plans to Travel to the U.S. Yet?

VWP travelers are not required to have specific plans to travel to the United States before they apply for an ESTA Travel Authorization. As soon as VWP travelers begin to plan a trip to visit the U.S., they are encouraged to apply for travel authorization through the ESTA website. Applicants are not required to update their destination addresses or itineraries if they change after their ESTA Travel Authorization has been granted.

Does the ESTA Travel Authorization Guarantee Entry to the U.S.?

An ESTA Travel Authorization only authorizes a traveler to board an airline or ship for travel to the U.S. under the Visa Waiver Program. After they arrive, travelers who obtained an ESTA Travel Authorization may still be denied entry (also called “admission”) at a U.S. port of entry, such as an American airport. An approved ESTA is not a guarantee of admissibility at an American airport. In all cases, the American airport officers make the final determination whether a foreign traveler can enter the U.S. or not. You still have to establish to the satisfaction of the inspecting officer that you are entitled to be admitted to the U.S. under the Visa Waiver Program.

Can I Change My Travel Itinerary?

It is possible to change an itinerary on an existing ESTA Travel Authorization; ESTA is designed so that you can update parts of it at any time. Travelers who did not get an ESTA approval may be denied boarding by the airlines, experience delayed processing, or be denied admission to the U.S. at the American airport.

What If I Already Have a Valid B1/B2 Visitor Visa?

While the ESTA Travel Authorization is completed online with no interview, there are Visas that require a U.S. Embassy interview. The Visa process has separate procedures, which generally require an appointment, travel to a U.S. Embassy, an interview with a Consular Officer, processing time, and the payment of an application fee. If a foreign national already went to the U.S. Embassy and has a valid B1/B2 Visitor Visa pasted in their passport it is not necessary to get an ESTA Travel Authorization because the traveler will be entering with a B1/B2 Visitor Visa and not through the Visa Waiver Program. Keep in mind that an approved ESTA Travel Authorization is not a Visa.

Can I Re-Apply for an ESTA Travel Authorization if Denied?

Yes, but you must wait at least 10 days to reapply and your circumstances must have changed. Unless there is a change in a substantive fact, re-application will not change the result. Keep in mind that applying for an ESTA Travel Authorization with false information can cause a foreign national to be permanently barred from ever entering America. The ESTA system is designed to try to prevent individuals from changing and manipulating an ESTA entry until they receive an approval.

What If I am Denied an ESTA Travel Authorization and Have No Changed Circumstances?

There are three types of responses to an ESTA application; approved, pending or travel not authorized (denied). Applicants who receive a “pending” response are advised to check the website 72 hours later. Applicants who are denied will be required to go to a U.S. Embassy to apply for a formal nonimmigrant visa, such as a B1/B2 Visa, which may take months.

Can a Traveler Find Out the Reason Why an ESTA Application was Denied?

The U.S. Dept. of Homeland Security has stated that travelers may contact the DHS Travel Redress Inquiry Program (DHS TRIP at dhs.gov) but there are no guarantees that information about a denial will be divulged. U.S. Embassies and Consulates are not required to provide details about an ESTA denial nor resolve the issue that caused the ESTA denial.

What If I Have a Criminal Record?

Only those qualified to travel under the VWP are eligible to pre-register through ESTA. Persons who have been arrested and/or convicted are generally not eligible for VWP and probably require a formal Visa, such as a B1/B2 Visa, to travel to America. If a foreign national has received tickets for speeding (which don’t usually result in an arrest or conviction) they are probably still eligible for the VWP and ESTA. If a foreign traveler has been denied entry into or deported from the U.S., they require a formal Visa.

Do Any Other Countries Have a Similar Program?

Australia has a program called the Electronic Travel Authority (ETA) that mandates travelers to submit an ETA application electronically through a website requesting permission to travel to Australia. Airlines may refuse to accept passengers who do not have either an approved ETA or Visa to enter Australia.

How Long Will the ESTA Application Data be Stored? Who Can Access It?

The ESTA Travel Authorization is valid for two years or until the traveler’s passport expires, whichever comes first. The American government will maintain the information for at least 15 years to allow retrieval of the information for law enforcement, national security, or investigatory purposes. Information submitted through ESTA can also be shared with any U.S. government organization.

What Information Does the Airlines Get?

Airlines will receive confirmation of a passenger’s ESTA status visa the “Advance Passenger Information System” (APIS) which shows whether the ESTA authorization has been granted for a Visa Waiver Program traveler. It is recommended that the traveler print out the ESTA application approval in order to maintain a record of their ESTA application number and to have confirmation of their ESTA status.

What About Children?

Accompanied and unaccompanied children, regardless of age, are required to obtain an independent ESTA Travel Authorization.

What if a Mistake was Made on the ESTA Application?

The ESTA website will ask applicants to review their application before submitting it. Also, there is an update function for certain information such as email address, telephone number, or flight information. If an applicant makes a mistake that cannot be “updated,” he will need to submit a new ESTA application.

What if I Only Have a Connecting Flight Through the U.S.?

Visa Waiver Program visitors who have a connecting flight in the U.S. are required to either have ESTA Travel Authorization or a Visa from a U.S. Embassy in their passport to travel through the U.S. even for a one hour stop. If a traveler is only planning to stop in the U.S. en route to another country, the traveler should enter the words “In Transit” and his final destination in the address lines under the heading “Address While In The United States” on the ESTA application.

What Are the Questions on the ESTA Travel Authorization Application?

The traveler must provide (in English) biographical data including name, birth date, country of citizenship, country of residence, email address, sex, telephone number, passport information, destination address in the U.S., travel information (round trip airline ticket, flight number and city where you are boarding) as well as questions regarding communicable diseases (chancroid, gonorrhea, granuloma inquinale, HIV, leprosy, lymphogranuloma venereum, syphilis [active], tuberculosis [active], and others), physical or mental disorders, drug addiction problems, arrests, convictions, past history of visa cancellation or denial, and prior deportations from the U.S. The traveler will also be asked whether they are seeking work in the U.S., have ever been deported or tried to get a visa by fraud or misrepresentation. The traveler will be asked if they have ever detained a child of a U.S. Citizen granted custody of the child, and whether they have ever asserted immunity from prosecution.

Do I Select “Business” or “Pleasure (Tourist) at the Airport Port of Entry?

After the ESTA Travel Authorization is granted, the foreign traveler will be interviewed by government officers at the first American airport they land. The officer will ask what the foreign traveler will be doing in America and the questioning can take up to four hours in a detained setting called “secondary inspection.” The officer may ask the traveler “what else are you doing in America?” repeatedly to try to get “the real” answer. If the traveler is only going to be a tourist, they are not allowed to do any business, including meeting with any attorneys, applying for a bank account, meeting with real estate agents, or other business consulting activities. Even though the traveler is going to conduct just one business meeting while in America, they are required to report it and enter as a business visitor. The business visitor is allowed to participate in tourist activities, but the tourist visitor is not allowed to participate in any business activities. Therefore, if any business might be conducted while in America, it is best to tell the government officers about it at the airport to avoid being accused of lying, put immediately on a plane back to your home country, and barred from America for life.

What Else Do Can the Airport Officers Make Me Prove After I Land?

The airport officers will ask the traveler proof of a foreign residence (address on foreign driver’s license), whether their intention is to depart at the end of the visit (round trip airline ticket), whether the traveler has a job (letter, paystub, business card) and family in their home country, (marriage certificate, childrens’ birth certificates), and whether the traveler has the money to travel around America (bank statement or credit cards with bank letter showing credit limit). The airport officers are also required to ask where the traveler will stay in America (hotel reservations or friends/relatives’ homes) and have been known to pick up the phone to verify all of the aforementioned information.

Can I Be Searched in the American Airport? Am I Entitled to Legal Representation?

While being interviewed at the American airport, all luggage (even locked bags) can be searched, as well as the traveler’s body and his/her cell phone (including text messages and phone numbers) and laptop (including hard drive). The officers may “google” a traveler’s name and check out their myspace, Facebook or hyves pages. The traveler is not allowed to be represented by an attorney or even call their attorney while in “secondary inspection.” Bathroom visits, water and food may be limited, so it is best to prepare for such an occasion while still on the plane before landing.

Do I Still Have to Go Through the “US-VISIT” Program at the American Airport?

Foreign travelers arriving at American airports and seaports must still be photographed and fingerprinted every time they enter the U.S.

Who Should I Ask For Help to Fill Out the ESTA Application?

The information a traveler provides on the ESTA application can remain in their file with U.S. authorities for a minimum of 15 years – probably longer. If a foreign traveler has some questions about how to answer the questions so as not to be permanently barred from America, it would be prudent to them to pay for a legal consultation with an American Immigration Attorney who is a member of the American Immigration Lawyers Association (AILA). Beware of unauthorized private websites that offer ESTA application assistance for $49.99 – they are usually not authorized to practice immigration law and are asking travelers to pay for a copy of the application questions, which are free on the dhs.gov website.

If I Am Denied the ESTA Travel Authorization Will it Effect My Ability to Obtain a Visa at the U.S. Embassy?

When the ESTA Travel Authorization is denied, the foreign traveler must make an appointment at a U.S. Embassy in their country to apply for a formal Visa. The U.S. Embassy is operated by the U.S. Department of State and there are no expedited procedures for those who have been denied ESTA Travel Authorization. Because the ESTA program is so new, it is impossible to predict how badly a denial of the ESTA Travel Authorization will impact a traveler’s application for a Visa at a U.S. Embassy or impact their future travel to America in general. American Immigration Attorneys are in close contact with their foreign clients and will share the denial information with each other starting in January 2009. Currently there are no government policies regulating this area of the law, or opportunities to appeal a denial.

When Is the a “New” ESTA Travel Authorization Required?

A new ESTA Travel Authorization is required during the two years if (1) the traveler is issued a new passport (2) the traveler changes his name (3) the traveler changes his or her gender (4) the traveler’s country of citizenship changes or (5) the circumstances underlying the traveler’s previous responses to any of the ESTA application questions requiring a “yes” or “no” response have changed (such as a new arrest).

Can an American Immigration Attorney, Travel Agent or Employer Fill Out the ESTA Application?

A third party, such as a relative, travel agent or American Immigration Attorney, is permitted to submit an ESTA application on behalf of a VWP traveler. Be aware that the traveler is still responsible under the law for the answers submitted on his or her behalf by a third party.

Over 68,000 travelers have already voluntarily registered by using the ESTA online system in the last few months. Applicants are reminded to obtain a new “e-passport” which has an integrated computer chip capable of storing biographic information from the data page, as well as other biometric information, when registering with ESTA.