Obesity Raises Cholesterol Levels

In recent years much of the developed world has become obese. Many researchers support the notification that there exists an obesity epidemic or even a pandemic. One only has to look around in a public area to observe people who are overweight and many are more than just overweight. Being obese causes many health and physical problems for the individual. And as time goes by, the person may develop heart disease and type 2 diabetes.

Obesity may be defined simply as having too much body fat. Waist circumference and body mass index (BMI) are the recommended ways to estimate body fat. A high-risk waistline is 35 inches or larger for women, and 40 inches or larger for men.

Obesity is now recognized as a major risk factor for coronary heart disease, which can lead to heart attack. Some reasons for this higher risk are known, but others are not.

For example, obesity:

  • raises blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels.
  • lowers HDL "good" cholesterol. HDL cholesterol is linked with lower heart disease and stroke risk, so reducing it promises to raise the risk.
  • raises blood pressure levels.
  • can bring on diabetes. In some people, diabetes aggravates the other risk factors and makes them worse. The danger of heart attack is especially high for these people

A measure of obesity is provided by the body mass index. The BMI formula evaluates body weight relative to height. It's a useful, indirect measure of body composition, because in most people it correlates closely with body fat. Weight in kilograms is divided by height in meters squared (kg / m2). Or multiply weight in pounds by 703, divide by height in inches, then divide again by height in inches. In studies by the National Center for Health Statistics,

  • BMI values ​​less than 18.5 are considered underweight.
  • BMI values ​​from 18.5 to 24.9 are normal.
  • Overweight is defined as a body mass index of 25.0 to less than 30.0.

Obesity is defined as a BMI of 30.0 or greater, or about 30 pounds or more overweight. Extreme obesity is defined as a BMI of 40 or greater.

Most obesity is caused by eating too much – taking in more calories than are used up in physical activity and daily life. When people eat too many calories, or too much saturated fat, trans fat and cholesterol, their blood cholesterol levels often rise. That raises their risk of heart disease.

A person can inherit obesity through genetics. Since 1994 there has been an explosion of research and a great increase in knowledge about regulation of the human feeding and satiation cycle. Eating too much relative to physical activity is a simplistic model and does not explain all obesity. Scientists are trying to unravel the neurology involved in human eating. Much is yet to be learned.

However, in the last forty years obesity in adults and children has increased significantly. This is probably related to the sedentary life style and the introduction of sugary, fatty, fast foods. These obese individuals can do something about their increased weight. Today one in three Americans is obese.

The more weight a person gains the greater his or her health risk. Thus the increased cardiovascular health risk for a mild obese person may be relatively small compared to the significant dangers posed by the morbid or the super obese.

If you are obese, do not despair – losing as little as 10 percent of your weight can bring about noticeable improvements in your cholesterol. Find a weight loss program that offers maximum support, and follow a balanced diet rich in fresh fruits and vegetables, with only small amounts of trans fats and saturated fats.

Soothing a Vagina Rash

Vagina rash is relatively common, but can be frustrating when you're suffering from it. A rash is sometimes connected to conditions like yeast infections, herpes, and some sexually transmitted diseases. More often though, it's a result of simple irritation.

What is a vagina rash?

A rash on the vagina appears much the same as a rash on another body part. Visually, the area will appear redder than normal. It may feel hotter than the surrounding skin and be tender. You can also experience burning during urination. Rashes can be spread through sexual contact, so it's best to abstain until your vagina has healed.

What causes them?

A vagina rash can be caused by a number of things. Infections are a potential source. The rash will appear as a symptom of the infection and likely not go away unless you treat the infection itself. Rashes are more commonly caused by irritation to the vagina. Irritation can come in many forms. First, toilet paper or feminine hygiene products containing fragrances or dyes can irritate the vagina and cause a rash. They often contain chemicals to make them look or smell the way they do, and these chemicals cause an adverse reaction to sensitive skin. Second, the soaps and detergents you use may be too harsh for contact with such a sensitive area. Not all products that claim to be gentle actually are. Third, vaginal sprays or cleansing wipes might irritate your skin.

How do I treat them?

A vagina rash is easily treatable if it's the result of irritation. Eliminating the source of irritation will help a lot. Use aloe vera gel or a soothing cream to soothe the rash until it heals. If the rash is a symptom of infection, the infection must be treated for the rash to disappear. Visiting a doctor is the only way to get a diagnosis and a recommendation for treatment. It's important to take this step because if you try to treat a vagina rash yourself, you may end up treating something that is not the real problem.

Can I prevent them?

You can prevent a vagina rash to some extent. Keeping the area dry will help, as will wearing cotton undergarments to allow good air circulation. Use plain, unscented hygiene products and soaps without unnecessary additives. Avoid any similar irritants as well. Finally, just keep the area clean.

Nail Fungus Infections In Children

Young Children Are Prone To Nail Fungus

Children are sometimes speaking to nail fungus because they usually do not understand the importance of good hygiene and hand washing. The fingernails can be one of the dirtiest parts of children's bodies. The underside of the nails can contain a reservoir of microorganisms, especially if their nails are not kept short.

Children who are in day care may be susceptible to fungus infections and other contagious health problems. To help prevent infection, trim the child's nails short and wash the edges of the nails with antibacterial soap and oil of oregano. Doing this on a regular basis will help prevent nail fungus infections in children.

Symptoms of a nail fungus infection in children include:

o Brittle, crumbly or ragged nails

o Nails that are distorted in shape

o Nails that are flat and dull

o Yellow, green or black nails

o Pain in and around the nail bed

The two most common types of nail fungus infections in children are dermatophytes and yeast. Dermatophytes is the most common infection that affects children's toenails while yeast appears to be the major culprit for children's fingernail fungus cases. It is important to correctly diagnose the type of infections so that the proper treatment can be administrated.

Make sure your child receives immediate first aid treatment if he experiences a cut on the finger or hand. It is very common for children to get a nail fungus that enters through a cut or scrape on the finger.

Although it is not always easy to get a child to eat a nutritious diet, proper nutrition is essential to keep the immune system strong. Encourage your child to eat fresh fruit instead of sugary sweets. Eliminate sweetened soft drinks from your child's diet and replace them with fresh fruit juices, low fat milk and water. Keep small boxes of raisins in candy bowls instead of sugary trees. Keeps some sliced ​​carrots in a Ziploc bag in your refrigerator and encourage your child to choose those at snack time. You may want to add a multivitamin to your child's daily regimen to make sure he is getting all of the vitamins and minerals that he needs to stay healthy.

If your child has nail fungus infections that linger or worsen, you should consult your pediatrician. Your pediatrician may refer your child to a pediatric dermatologist to further evaluate the nail fungus infection.

Baby Food Allergies – How To Identify And Avoid Them

Many parents find the risk of baby food allergies one of the most worrying aspects of introducing new foods to their baby. But there are simple steps you can take to minimize potential problems and make your child's introduction to solid food a safe and happy one.

Allergic reactions take place when your baby's immune system mistakenly treats a harmless substance as a harmful one. Baby food allergy symptoms include diarrhea, eczema, nausea, constipation and watery or red eyes. Very rarely, a serious reaction known as allergic shock can occur. This can cause the throat and tongue to swell dangerously, which could lead to choking. In this situation, professional medical help must be bought immediately.

Baby food allergies should not be confused with food intolerance. A baby with food intolerance would have difficulty in digesting a particular type of food, which can be caused by many other things besides an allergen. In either case, diagnosis should be made by a medical professional.

In order to prevent baby food allergies such as these, or to identify foods to which your baby reacts, it is important to follow these simple guidelines –

1. Try to delay feeding your baby solid food until he is at least 6 months of age. His immune system will be better developed by this stage.

2. Only introduce one new food at a time and wait for a few days to see if a reaction occurs. It will then be easy to spot the "problem" food and eliminate it from your baby's diet.

3. Avoid foods that are known to be more likely to cause allergic reactions. Examples of such foods include eggs (particularly the whites), shellfish, gluten and citrus fruits.

4. Decide whether or not your baby is at a particularly high risk of developing allergies – for example, do you suffer from an allergy yourself? This can often lead to an increased risk of allergies for your baby, although not necessarily to the same allergen (ie the substance liable for the reaction).

5. Discuss any concerns with a medical professional.

Whilst it is sensible to be cautious, it is still important to remember that baby food allergies only affect around 8% of children. So try to keep things in perspective, introduce new foods individually and stay alert for possible reactions – these measures will give you the confidence to safely introduce the delights of solid food to your little one.

Discovering the Roots of Public Speaking Phobias

If you are faced with a public speaking phobia, then you know just how annoying this can be. When you are alone, you practice in front of the mirror, you think you can do it, but then when the time gets closer and closer, your mind and body begins to freeze up – you begin to go into a deep panic and start to think of ways to get out of the public speaking event.

In the end, you determine that you will call in sick and you feel so much better that you do not have to get up in front of the public, even if it does get your boss angry at you. Within this article, we will be discussing public speaking phobia and tell you why we believe individuals develop a public speaking phobia in the first place.

Personally, we believe that many phobias are caused by trauma that occurred early on in life. Those traumas are embedded in the individual, a lot like untreated parasites. What exactly are these so called parasites?

Well, they are the imprint of a memory that is connected with the trauma that has occurred. The effects are a lot like a virus you would get on the computer as it hijacks the computer from you and drives it to a far off place that it never had any intention of going.

In this same way, these memory parasites will be lurking around in the mind and body that is unconscious. At the right moment, these memory parasites are activated in order to gain control of the mind, behavior, emotions and take that normal life away.

What is even worse is the fact that the emotional software virus will be creating a lot of discomfort, it undermines the self esteem, self confidence, takes away the energy and takes away from the feelings of personal adequacy.

The stimuli that is triggering all of these emotional viruses seem to always be related in one way or another. As an example of early trauma, the individual could have been humiliated as a child in front of their friends, which will create the imprint that we mentioned in the above paragraph.

That little imprint will be stored inside that individual and will act as a landmine for hidden emotions that will go off whenever that person sees that they are in a situation that is a lot like the incident that occurred when they were little. The truth is that being up in front of a group of people could be one of those things that triggers that memory, which in turn will bring about the public speaking phobia.

In the end, you should keep in mind that you are not alone and that you have alternatives available to you to help you to overcome your public speaking phobias without resorting to expensive cures or hiding away from speaking in public forever.

Do Repressed Emotions Cause Anxiety?

For quite a while, mental health professionals have debated the causes of anxiety disorder. One such theory is that repressed emotions are the cause of anxiety disorder. So, the question is, do repressed emotions cause anxiety?

People Pleasers

Some doctors say that when a person does not express their emotions, such as anger, resentment, etc., they will continue to build up inside the mind, and then anxiety results. One example that is cited is "people peasants". These people suffer from the thought that they must always seek to please others, so as not to have anyone become angry with them.

The idea here is that someone who is always trying to make other people like him or her will become an awesome in everything they say or do. Thus, continuing to think this way and not being able to free ones self from this thought train, causes anxiety disorder.

Repressed Anger

Another emotion that can cause trouble is repressed anger. Say you are angry with someone for something they did or said. Unfortunately, you are not very good at expressing yourself, so you do not say anything. Time goes by and you continue to bring up the incident in your mind and you get angrier and angrier. Before you know it, that is all you can think about. So, does continuing to repress anger cause anxiety?

It makes sense in some ways that repressed emotions cause anxiety. However, there is still a huge debt on this subject. But that does not mean that you have to just live with anxiety. It is possible to overflow it. Not just cope with it, but actually get rid of it for good

Cognitive Behavior Therapy

A good therapist using Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) techniques can go a long way to help. The problem here is that this technique is very dependent on how effective the therapist is. And even with a good therapist, the emphasis is still on coping.

Fast Treatment For When Your Dog Has Diarrhea

Do you get that helpless feeling when your dog has diarrhea and everything you try to do just will not seem to make him better? Are you looking for a way to gently treat your dog's diarrhea symptoms so you do not have to depend on your vet for such a common ailment? Well, have I got a solution for you!

Here I'll be showing the treatment I use when MY dog has diarrhea. It works within 24 hours and if you follow these steps, you'll have your dog feeling better fast. Here we go …

1. Keep Your Dog Hydrated: Give your water constantly. Diarrhea poses the rist of dehydration and that's the first thing you'll want to look out for. One particular solution that I give my dog ​​when he has diarhea is a mixture of water, salt and sugar. The combination retains water in its system and keeps him hydrated and safe.

Pour a large glass of water. Add one teaspoon of salt. Add one tablespoon of sugar. Mix up the solution. The water will look cloudy. Pour the solution into your dog's water bowl and see if he drinks it. If he refuses, give him regular water and monitor his drinking. He needs to drink.

2. Clean Up the Diarrhea Thoroughly: I know this part is rather unpleasant but it should be discussed. If your dog is having accidents in the house, you'll want to clean up the mess with a good, strong bleach whenever possible. This not only removes any dangerous bacteria from your house, it also removes the odor. The odor is not only unpleasant for YOU to be around, it also triggered additional bow moves from your dog. Cleaning it up well will mitigate a lot of the accidents

3. Fast Your Dog: You'll want to fast your dog for 12-24 hours ensuring that his belly is empty. Continue giving him water. Putting some probiotic powder in the water is also a good idea. The idea here is to flush out his system and eliminate the culprit bacteria causing his stomach problem.

4. Give Him a Bland Diet: Feed him 100% canned pumpkin (not pumpkin filling). There should be no added sugars to the mix. He'll love the taste and pumpkin contains a healthy fiber to regulate his system and further flush out the cause of the diarrhea. His next meal should be something easy to digest, like boiled chicken and white rice.

5. Introduce Regular Dog Food: The following day, give him half his normal amount of dog food (maybe even less). Over the course of 3 days gradually increase his feeding to normal amounts.

Cool Magic Card Tricks – How to Impress Everyone With Mind Blowing Magic

I am sure you have seen and probably know how to do some of those easy "pick any card and ill find it" magic tricks. If you are like me, these got boring. I wanted to know how to do cool magic card tricks. I wanted to know how to float cards, make them change in someone's hands, and how to make a card appear in somebody's pocket.

Those types of tricks are very rare to see these days which is why when someone can do them, the person will be remembered forever. I am going to be giving you a few tips on how to do magic tricks as well as three cool magic tricks that will make others think that you are a pro!

Tip # 1

There is no rush. At first, doing card tricks may feel a little weird. Do not feel like you have to show these cool magic card tricks to your friends right away, take a day or two to practice them. What is worse, messing up on a card trick and everyone knows how to do it, or practicing for a day or two and nailing the cool magic card trick when you show it to your friends. The answer should be obvious

Tip # 2

Never do a trick in front of an audience until you have done the trick in front of a mirror. Mirrors are great because they show you what the audience is seeing. If you practice in front of a mirror that will help you know what angle you need to do your cool magic card tricks when you do them in front of an audience.

Tip # 3

Once you are ready to do the cool magic card trick, DO IT. Do not be afraid. You know when you are ready. Do not let nerves get in the way. Nerves will happen but just know that you have practiced this trick enough and it will be easy. The more you do tricks in front of people the easier it will get. Remember, if you mess up it is ok. I am a professional magician and I mess up on my cool magic card tricks every now and then, but as you do more cool tricks your audience will totally forget about when you messed up!

How Long Does It Take to Recover From Sprains?

Sprain rehabilitation time is a huge issue relating almost all pro athletes nowdays, specifically those who take up sporting activities that need extension of a certain joint (for instance baseball with constant use of the arms). The healing time typically differs from one individual to another, this is why it frigthens people to accidentally sprain something.

As a rule, however, the three grades of sprains can be used as a guide. A grade one sprain (the least serious) will normally heal in several days. A grade two sprain needs a few weeks to recuperate. A grade three sprain will require months. A number of elements affect these recovery times, especially the level of quality of care both right after injury and during the process of recovery.

So what is a sprain? A joint sprain occurs when anyone inadvertently stretches or extends a limb or a joint beyond what it is able to deal with, as a result compromising and stretching the ligaments. Ligaments' function is to join a joint to a bone, or a bone to a bone, and keeps everything in position. The most common site of the body to be injured is the ankle.

Medical practitioners, typically sports medicine experts, do the diagnosis of sprain injuries. By using a health history, and also by means of bodyily examination, they're able to evaluate if you really have a sprained joint. To be more definitive, doctors employ X-rays to identify the injury more accurately and verify or eliminate the possibility of fractures or broken bones that could be a whole lot worse.

There are plenty variables to be considered in identifying the injury recovery time. One of the most important selective variables how fast the healing may take place is the severity of the symptoms. We must always bear in mind that the more serious the symptoms, the more takes to be able to heal.

Some familiar signs or symptoms that you need to watch for are:

– Tenderness or pain in the damaged joint
– Reduced mobility or inability to move the joint
– Slight bruising
– Tingling and coldness within the extremities of the injured arm or leg
– Inability to walk or place force on the injury

The degree of the signs or symptoms does not only provide a clue on how quick you are able to recover from the injury, but also it would also inform you how seriously the ligament on that certain part of your body was dropped or ruptured. The basic principle is that the more serious the signs or symptoms are, the more serious shape the ligaments will be in.

Medical professionals also have long been interested in joint sprain rehabilitation time. For many years, they have been looking to formulate medicines and solutions that may accelerate the process of healing. It's unfortunate to notice however, that researchers have not yet developed the mechanism or the mediation that would decrease the time of recuperation.

Even so, doctors created the RICE method. The RICE method is the most effective intervention so far to deal with sprains. It's common and very very easy to use. Although you could seek medical attention – and it's a good idea – it is possible to take care of yourself by using the RICE method. Also, using the procedure, you will not need overpriced gear as the things you would require in this method can be found within your home. More affordable, less painful, faster sprain recovery time. Do not forget, however, that it should apply under direction of your physician.

Bite Mark Forensic Evidence


In struggles between assailants and victims, there is a tendency for teeth to be used as a weapon. Sometimes it is the only defensive tactic for a victim to inflict serious injury on the assailant. It is a well known fact, that in sexual attacks including sexual homicide, rape and child sexual abuse, the assailants more often than not bite their victims. This can be viewed as an expression of dominance, rage and animalistic behavior. Not many people have the view that teeth can be such violent weapons (Sweet & Pretty, 2001).

Early recognition of bite marks is seen in old English Law where 'member proper for defense; including arms, legs and anterior teeth '. The first bite mark case in the United States was the famous Salem Witch Trials, in 1692. Rev. Burroughs who was persuaded and hungered used to bite his victims. During the trial his bite marks and of other people were compared to the victim's marks. The judges readily accepted the bite marks as evidence. In 1870, AI Robinson was suspected of murdering his mistress. Five bite marks were found on her arm. The bite mark evidence did not hold and Robinson was acquitted. Despite the negative outcome of the Robinson case, by 1890 bite mark evidence started to be recognized in scientific circles (Vale as cited Dorion, 2004).

Prior to 1950, the number of cases where bite marks were used as evidence was small when compared to today. A large proportion was reported in Europe and Japan, but most cases originated in the USA. In 2002, over 400 forensic odontologists were listed in the American Academy of Forensic Sciences (AAFS) (Dorion, 2004).

A major development in bite mark investigations in the USA began in 1962 when courses in forensic odontolgy began at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology in Washington DC The development of forensic odontology was furthered by the publication of a book in 1966 by Gustafson, called 'Forensic Odontology'. This book had a substantial chapter devoted to bite marks and was the first major work to be published on this subject. Then in 1970, forensic odontology became a department in the AAFS, and became recognized as a specialty in forensic science. In 1976, the American Board of Forensic Odontology (ABFO) was organized. This was a step towards professionalism in the sector of forensic odontology. The ABFO started to provide a program of certification in forensic odontology. This furthered the science of forensic odontology and made it more reliable (Dorion, 2004).


A forensic dentist is not an ordinary dentist; s / he is a board- certified specialist who deals primarily with bite mark evidence. Although, one does not have to be a specialist to become an expert witness, it helps to strengthen the validity of the scientific evidence in court (O'Conner, 2006).

Forensic odontolgy is a branch of forensic medicine that in the interest of justice deals with dental evidence presented in the courts of law. The work of a forensic odontologist is to identify human remains through dental records, estimate age of both living and Deceased Persons, analysis of bite marks on victims and other substances such as foodstuffs and presentation of bite mark evidence in court as an expert witness (Sellar , 2002).


Of all the components of the human body teeth outlast all other parts after death. Their durability makes it perfect for identification. Sometimes, they are the only means of identification left. A clear example is Adolf Hitler's dental records, which identified his corpse. It is claimed that no two people have identical teeth. Unlike fingerprints which remain unchanged, teeth become unique with wear and tear. For successful identification both ante and post mortem data should be available, even one tooth can be useful for identification (Evans, 2004).

There are about two hundred different tooth charting methods in the world, which provide an almost 100% reliable means of identification. The American approach, which is known as the universal system, gives a number to each of the thirty two adult teeth. Information is then recorded on each tooth according to the five visible surface of the tooth. With this information, the odontologists can complete a dental grid, unique to that person (Evans, 2004).

Human bite marks are found when teeth are used as weapons. They can be used as weapons of anger; weapons of excitement; weapons of control or weapons of destruction (Lotter, 2008). Bite marks are usually found on the skin of the victim. Females are usually bitten on the breasts and legs during sexual attacks, while men are usually bitten on the arms or shoulders and when in defensive postures bites can be found on the hands and arms (Sweet & Pretty, 2001).

The marks left by the teeth in a person may be used to identify an individual. Nowadays forensic odontologists have become reasonably skilled at identifying bite marks and relating it back to the person who has infected the mark (Horswell, 2004). A human bite mark is usually described as an elliptical or circular injury and the differences in size and shape of teeth can sometimes be easily noticed especially when teeth are missing or prominent (Lotter, 2008). However, a bite mark is not an overall accurate representation of the teeth; it also depends on the jaw movement and use of the tongue. The lower jaw is moveable and is the one that gives the most biting force, while the upper jaw is usually stationery and holds and stretches the skin (Evans, 2004). The most common type of bite marks are contentions. Incisions offer the best three dimensional images of the teeth. If avulsions and artefacts are combined, one can produce a three dimensional image too. There are seven types of bite marks; haemorrhage which is a small bleeding spot, abrasion which is an undamaging mark on skin, contusion which is a ruptured blood vessel bruise, laceration which is punctured or torn skin, avulsion were there is removal of the skin and artefact were a piece of the body is bitten off. These are then further divided into four degrees of impression, which when analyzed can help to note what kind of violence was executed and may be used as aggravating circumstances.

1. significant pressure

2. first degree pressure

3. violent pressure

4. skin violently torn from body

(O'Conner, 2006).


In odontology, for a physical comparison of a bite mark to be successful, the questioned evidence (Q) photograph of the bite mark must be accurately produced. It must then be recreated in a life size dimension, and is then called the Known (K) evidence. After this is done, the plaster cast of the defensive's teeth are used to identify any similarities in shape, positioning and so on and forth (Bowers & Johansen, 2004). The methods typically used include the older ones for example hand tracing the teeth perimeters on clear acetate, then Xeroxing the dental casts and then tracing them on acetate too. The dental cast teeth are then pushed into wax and filled thereafter with metallic powder. After this is done an x-ray film is used to capture the teeth impression. The direct superimposition of Q and K photographs are used when dentists testify in court, to show that there is sufficient identification value to reach a result. These are all meticulously made to scale to be able to provide consistent and accurate comparison results (Bowers & Johansen, 2004).

Recently, digital imaging software and image capture devices have created a more advanced and accurate way to avoid any discrepancies and allows the examiner to use the computer functions into a microscope for comparison. The computerized system of analysis bite marks has the benefits of creating accurate means of measuring physical parameters of crime scene evidence, corrects common photographic distortion and size discrepancies, helps to eliminate any examiner subjectivity, betters the control of image visualization, standardizes comparison procedures, helps to create reproducibility of results between separate examiners and is ideal for electronic transmission and archiving (Bowers & Johansen, 2004). The better the bite mark, the better an expert can make a reliable comparison (O 'Connor, 2006).

The American Board of Forensic Odontology (ABFO) follows bite mark standards and guidelines. The ABFO provides a list of generally accepted methods that meet the criteria of the scientific model. This is to help forensic odontology to achieve the objective of universally acceptable methodology. The ABFO provides guidance on how to preserve bite mark evidence, which is saliva swabs of bite site, photographic documentation of the bite site which includes lighting and scale, obtaining impressions of bite site including victim's dental impressions, tissue specimens. Guidelines are also formulated on the evidence collection of suspected dentition and these include the photographic documentation of the dentition, clinical examination with extraoral and intraoral considerations and dental impressions. In 1994 the ABFO indicated that the most widely used methods of comparing bite mark evidence were; the generation of overlays (acetate), test bite media such as wax exemplars, Styrofoam and so on and comparison techniques mostly using acetate.

All ABFO diplomats are expected to use the most analytical standards and methods suggested. Certain vital information must always be recorded and noted. These are done both in the case of a living victim as a Deceased individual. Demographics include details such as name of victim, case number and date of examination, person to contact, age of victim, sex and name of examiner. The location of bite mark, which includes the anatomical location, description of surface contour and whether it is flat, curved or irregular and a description of the tissue characteristics with details on the underlying bone, cartilage, muscle and fat structure and if the skin is fixed or mobile. The shape of the bite mark must be described for example if it is round, ovoid, crescent, irregular etc. The color of the bite mark is also important to note, eg red, purple.

The size is also to be noted, whether it is vertical or horizontal and preferably noted in the metric system. The injury can be a petechial hemorrhage, contusion, abrasion, laceration, incision, avulsion or artifact. Other information that is to be collected if possible is either the skin surface of indented or smooth (Bowers & Johansen, 2004). Since the skin is elastic, and depending on the victim some bite marks may last for hours while others may last for days. All bite marks alter themselves as time elapses, therefore it is important to photograph the bite marks as consistent intervals over a period of hours and days as recommended by the ABFO (O'Connor, 2006).


The criminal justice system has long endorsed odontology as a major source of valuable aid. Apart from identifying perpetrators of crime, odontology has also assisted in the identification of unidentified persons (FBI Laboratory, 1989 as cited in Brennan, Gray-Ray, & Hensley, 1997).

Differences in teeth are as different as those marks found by other tools and fingerprints. Although a person's teeth may look the same, they are different in size, shape, arrangement, wear, damage, age, quality and quantity and habits of the individual (Levine, 1972 ac cited in Brennan, Gray-Ray, & Hensley, 1997 ). The FBI Laboratory in 1989 has concluded that dental uniqueness is beyond any reasonable doubt.

Bite mark analysis and evidence has been judiciously accepted in the United States since 1954 (Doyle vs. State). It was only in 1975, that bite mark evidence gave us the Marx standard of admissibility (People vs. Marx, 1975). The identification of a biter has been useful and instrumental in criminal investigations especially in cases of homicide; sexual abuse and child abuse cases (Pretty & Sweet, 2000 as cited in Bowers & Johansen, 2001). The USA has quite a developed system of dental records based on the Universal system and this helps considering especially in identifying 'John / Jane Doe' victims (O'Connor, 2006).

The Forensic weight and value of the bite mark is based on the characteristics of the bite marks that are similar to the defendant's. Most dentists' though, rely on a 'rule in' or 'rule out' fashion and therefore provide a weak linkage. So at this stage, the forensic weight of this evidence can be argued (Bowers & Johansen, 2004).

Forensic odontology is still new to criminal justice officials and its success in the criminal justice field has never been researched as yet. In the meanime two leading experts in the field, Dr. Haynes and Dr. West have been doing well by using ultra violet lighting to detect human bite marks on rape victims. With this method they have helped to capture and convict ten rapists. Bite marks in the investigation and prosecution of rapists is vital, since many rapists bite their victims. Bite mark evidence can be as conclusive as both DNA and fingerprint evidence in the case of rape. Valuable information can be obtained from the analysis of the bite mark. Odontology has proved to be exceptionally accurate in violent rape cases, since bite marks are mostly present in violent rape cases (Haynes and West, 1992 as quoted in Brennan, Gray-Ray, & Hensley, 1997).

It must be kept in mind that bite marks are not limited to skin. Teeth leave impressions on a number of things and if these are found at the crime scene they can help in the investigation, for eg a piece of chewing gum or food like cheese or chocolate (Geberth, 2006). As far back as 1906 in the UK, two burglars were convicted after one of them bit a piece of cheese which was found on the crime scene. The attorneys then showed that imprint exactly his front teeth (Evans, 2004).

The quality of the physical evidence, the variable nature of skin bruising and the insufficiency of scholars to accurately and scientifically prove that teeth are unique, create problems in the determination of positive identification to be used in court (Bowers, 2004). Legal challenges for bite mark evidence are usually two: relativity of analysis and whether it violates constitutional rights (Stimson & Mertz, 1997).

Although there are strong arguments that sustain that each human has a unique dental profile and is discernable in bite marks this has not been proved valid by any experiments and that causes serious problems when presenting bite mark evidence in the courts of justice. The amount and degree of detail of the bite mark may vary from case to case and if it is assumed that human dentition is unique it is sufficient to use as forensic evidence. In the case where it is not known whether this individual is specific, the most a bite mark can do is to exclude or include a person, as bite mark evidence is not sufficient to get a conviction (Bowers, 2004). More research is needed to prove beyond doubt that each human dentition is unique (Sweet & Pretty, 2001).

Other problems that are encountered with expert witnesses in court are that it is high that certainly their qualifications will ever be challenged on stand and most of the time odontologists work only on a part time basis with a law enforcement agency. Another issue is the problem if a standard protocol. In this particular field, specialists tend to use their own methods. There is also the digital divide, while others use the older methods (acetate). When comparing results this causes difficulties since the methods used are not the same and therefore blind reviews reflect poorly on the professionalism of odontologists (O'Connor, 2006).


The most famous case where bite evidence led to a conviction is definitely the case of the serial killer Ted Bundy. Nowadays when referring to bite mark evidence, people still talk about the Bundy case. Bundy was never talked until the expert testimony of Dr. Sauviron secured a conviction and consequent execution. In the trial, photographic evidence of the bite marks and Bundy's teeth were shown. The acetate of the bite mark was then placed over the photo of Bundy's teeth leaving no doubt which teeth had left the impression.

Nobody is certain how many people Bundy killed between 1973 and 1978, but he was finally convicted for the murder of Lisa Levy of Florida. This was done because of the bites that were found on her body. Forensic bite mark analysis showed beyond doubt that the impressions were left by Bundy's irregular teeth (Lotter, 2008).

There were other cases were men were unfortunately convoked because of erroneous bite mark identification evidence. Ray Krone was jailed for ten years for a crime he had not committed. A waitress, in Phoenix was murdered in 1991 and Krone was sentenced for her murder. After DNA testing was done, Krone was free and the true perpetrator was identified. Forensic DNA was not available at the time of the prosecution and only a bite mark found on the victim's breast connected Krone to the murder. Even though the evidence was very weak, he was persuaded because of the bite mark a forensic odontologist had said matched the dentition of Krone. After an appeal, the tank top the victim was wearing was re examined and salvia was found that did not belong to Krone (Unknown Author, 2008). In 1992, Roy Brown was persuaded of stabbing, beating, biting and strangling a social worker in New York. The case rested on one piece of evidence, a bite mark. A local dentist tested that they matched Brown's teeth. He has been released in January 2007. DNA testing has proved that the saliva left in the bite mark did not match Brown's. Other inconsistencies were that Brown had two missing front teeth, but the expert tested that these could have been filled by twisting the skin (Santos, 2007).

Unfortunately there were cases were the prosecution used bite mark evidence to secure convictions, even if the person was innocent. With DNA and other evidence becoming more broadly available, most cases have been overturned where justice had not been served. Bite mark evidence must be used carefully and the over zealousness of candidates in acquiring a conviction must not interfere with evidence. In fact, in 1995 forensic odontologists have started to avoid using the term 'match' to eliminate errors, since other evidence should have produced together with bite marks (Santos, 2007). CSI effects on the general public has exaggerated the accurateness of bite mark evidence. Bite mark evidence can determine whether a subject can be excluded or whether the suspect could be the one who infected the bite. More research is needed since bite mark evidence on its own does not always produce comprehensive results.

Gallstones – All You Need To Know

About the gallbladder and bile. The liver makes bile, which then trickles down channels of tiny tubes called bile ducts. These tiny tubes join together and form the main bile duct. Bile constantly flows through the bile ducts, into the main bile duct and then into the first part of the gut, which is the duodenum. The gallbladder is a sac lying under the liver and joins the main bile duct through the 'cystic duct'. It is filled with bile and acts like a 'reservoir' for bile. When we eat, the gallbladder contracts (or squeezes), pumping bile into the duct systems and extremely into the duodenum and assists with digestion of fat.

Gallstones – What are they? Gallstones are solidified bile in the gallbladder. Bile is normally fluid, gallstones occurs when it forms stones. There are many types of gallstones, some people get multiple small stone while others get one large stone, some have a mix of both. Gallstones commonly contain bits of cholesterol-like stuff that has hardened and sometimes are formed by bile pigments or calcium deposits.

How common are they? According to an epidemiology study, gallstones are very common, be it symptomatic or asymptomatic. Nearly one out of every three women and one out of every seven men, form gallstones at some stage in their lives. Other risk factors associated with gallstone formation include increasing age, pregnancy, obesity and certain drugs. If you are a vegetarian and if you consume a moderate amount of alcohol, the chances of you getting gallstones are less. Other rarer causes include a special type of anemia called hemolytic anemia and certain blood-borne infections.

What are the symptoms of gallstones? Usually none. Most people form gallstones in their gallbladder without realizing their presence. Most of the time, gallstones sit in the gallbladder without causing any symptoms. Given this reason, gallstones are usually picked up incidentally when people go for scans or x-rays of their abdomen. These tests may be done for other reasons. If gallstones are found they do not mean that treatment is needed, in fact most people who die from other diseases, do not know that they have gallstones.

Symptomatic gallstones only happen in about three out of 10 people who have them. These symptoms or problems include:

Biliary colic. Colic means intermittent, wavelike pain. Biliary pertains to the gallbladder. So biliary colic basically means pain that originates in the gallbladder. It is usually felt in the upper abdomen on the right side, just under the rib (where the gallbladder sits!). Usually described as sharp in nature and can be very disturbing. A stone that gets stuck in the cystic duct usually causes it. The pain usually eases off when the stone falls back into the gallbladder. People with biliary colic commonly describe of having the pain after consuming a hearty, fatty meal. This is because fat in the duodenum stimulates the gallbladder to contract, thus causing the stone to jam at the cystic duct. The pain can last for several minutes to an hour or so.

Cholecystitis or inflammation of the gallbladder. This is usually caused by infection of the gallbladder. Symptoms include fever, constant pain in the upper abdomen, nausea, vomiting and being generally unwell. You will usually be informed to the hospital and have your gallbladder removed urgently if you develop cholecystitis.

Jaundice. A term used to describe yellow discoloration of the skin and the sclera (white part of the eye). This is uncommon. This occurs when the stones come out of the gallbladder and get stuck in the main bile duct. Bile can not flow forward and thus moves in the opposite direction and extremely seeps into the bloodstream. A procedure called ERCP is usually needed to get the stones out of the way.

Other problems include pancreatitis (inflammation of the gallbladder) and cholangitis (inflammation of the main bile duct).

What are the treatments? In most cases, no treatment is necessary. It is often better to leave gallstones alone if they cause little symptoms.

Surgery. Keyhole surgery is the commonest way to remove a gallbladder. It is commonly referred to as laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Several small cuts are made in the abdomen with few remaining scars afterwards.

Medicine. Medicines are usually used to control pain and to fight infections in gallstone diseases. Medicine can not cure gallstones, so surgery is the preferred way to go.

2 Popular Ways to Treat Erectile Dysfunction

Men like to judge themselves pretty harshly when it comes to their bedroom performance. The anxiety of not being able to rise to the occasion can develop into a nightmare for men. If you suffer from erectile dysfunction also known as ED or impotence, there is positive news. This male issue can be improved with treatment, without having to rely on Viagra or other similar medicines. Whether you are looking of ways to treat erectile dysfunction, or hope to prevent the condition, here are some useful tips to overcome this issue.

Erectile dysfunction occurs when a man is not able to achieve or maintain an erection that is firm enough for sexual intervention. Occasional erection issues are not really a cause for concern. Erectile dysfunction is typically considered where there is an ongoing problem over many weeks and even months. Your doctor is likely to diagnose men with erectile dysfunction if the condition is persistent.

A number of factors can increase your risk of erection problems. Many issues can block the normal functioning of the penis.

Some common causes of ED include:

Heart disease
Tobacco use
Excessive alcohol
Poor diet

Your doctor may prescribe some common chemical treatments if other health issues are not found to be the culprit of your erection issues. However, you may also choose alternative non-drug or other natural options.

Non-Drug Options

A non-drug treatment for erectile dysfunction can involve using a penile vacuum pump. This pump is used right before before to draw blood into the penis and is attached directly to the end of the manhood. A constriction ring or band is placed on the cylinder at the other end, which is applied to the body The cylinder and pump are used to create a vacuum to help the penis to achieve an appreciation. A band or constriction ring is used to maintain the section. This is a popular choice for men, however, this method can cause side effects such as bruising.

Natural Solutions

More and more men are turning to natural solutions. Standard treatments can only include a few lifestyle changes, such as:

Losing weight
Stopping smoking
Curbing alcohol intake

Several natural treatments for erectile dysfunction have been talked about over the years and these days are the most popular form of treatment for men. Some simple lifestyle changes may be all that is required to notice a steady improvement. Other alternative treatments thought to help may include:

Amino Acid Found in Your Body!

L-arginine is an amino acid naturally found in the body. It helps produce nitric oxide. Nitric oxide relaxes blood vessels to create a natural erection. Researchers say the effects of L-arginine is significant as improvements in men are very common. Nitric oxide is responsible for making the blood vessels relax, which helps support a natural erection.

Drink Watermelon Juice

A cold slice of watermelon can help with bedroom performance. Citrulline, the amino acid is found in high amounts in watermelon. It is found to regulate blood flow to the penis helping men with erectile difficulties to have a more satisfied sex life. Natural watermelon juice, or "nature's Viagra," can be more effective than taking cost pills like Viagra which can cause nausea and other side effects.

Other alternative therapies thought to help treat erectile dysfunction may also include zinc supplements. Low zinc levels are blamed for a wide variety of health issues including erection problems. If your levels are low, zinc supplement from your health provider can help to recharge your sex life. Zinc can also be found in foods such a oysters, lamb, nuts, egg yolks and oats.

Colorectal Cancer Treatments From Surgery to Chemotherapy

Treatment of colorectal cancer completely depends upon the stage it is at. In its initial stages, colorectal cancer can be treated successfully. However, as the disease advances, it becomes severe and therefore, the treatment also becomes complicated. Although there are a number of colorectal cancer treatments available these days, the success rates at advanced stages still low. So, one must try to avoid reaching this stage.

The most common treatment of colorectal cancer is surgery. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy are also popular treatments but they are advised according to the stage of the disease. Surgeries can also be classified in to different types, often curative, bypass, palliative, open and close and fecal diversion. For a localized tumor, curative surgery is performed. In the early stage of surgical removal of polyp inside which the cancer has developed is the best treatment. Curative surgery for the colorectal cancer involves the lower anterior resection.

When the tumor has reached the metastatic stage, palliative surgery can be performed. This surgery helps to reduce the morbidity of the tumor, resulting in to comparatively less pain and severity. If the tumor has enlarged to the extent that it invades the awards of other organs, doctors prefer to perform the bypass surgery of the tumor or fecal diversion through the stoma.

To avoid the worsening of the situation and bring the tumor under control, chemotherapy is performed. The metastatic stage of the tumor is the most dangerous stage and to control the tumor, chemotherapy is performed. It can be applied either after the surgery or before it.

Radiotherapy and immunotherapy are other effective treatments for colorectal cancer. Usually, radiotherapy is not used for colon cancer. It is difficult to target the particular part of the colon. However, radiation can be used for rectal cancer. This therapy is given in the metastatic stage. In case the tumor extends beyond the rectum, this therapy is given before the surgery. To increase its effectiveness, doctors also use the chemotherapy agents to perform radiotherapy.

Immunotherapy is another very common and effective therapy for treating the colorectal tumors. In this therapy, the immune system of the patient's body is used to battle cancer. The immune system is boosted and made strong enough to fight it. There are different types of immunotherapies for different types of cancers. Fighting colorectal cancer with immunotherapy is a new and effective method.

Apart from these methods, there are certain natural and alternative ways to fight colorectal cancer. In case you observe any of these symptoms, contact your doctor and get screened to avoid the worsening of disease. There are a number of colorectal cancer treatments available and it is best advised to seek them to avoid the fatal consequences of the disease.

Yeast Infection of the Tongue Thrush

A yeast infection of the tongue thrush can be absolutely horrible. It effects our self esteem, makes our breath smell horribly, and it is completely embarrassing.

There are a few solutions to a yeast infection of the tongue thrush. The first is to use over the counter or pharmaceutical drugs to cure it. This is a good solution for a temporary fix, however, it does not fix the problem of the fungus growing in your body.

Another solution is to boil 3 cloves of garlic in 2 quarts of water. Allow it to simmer for 5 minutes and then mix in 2 tablespoons of epsom salt. Use this as a mouth wash 3 or 4 times a day until the yeast infection of the tongue thrush has gone away.

Once you have fixed the thrush, you need to take a look at how you intend to get rid of the fungus in your body or you will only have another outbreak again in the future and on other parts of your body. The best solution is to fix your diet.

The problem with most people is that they simply do not eat the right foods, and they certainly do not eat enough of the right foods. This is especially true when talking about illness or yeast infection of the tongue thrush.

It is essential that you eat lots of green vegetables and other vegetables that are high in fiber and low in starch. This should make up at least 60% of your daily diet while trying to rid yourself of the Candida fungus.

You will have to stop eating foods that contain lot of of sugar, that are high in carbohydrates, and high starch foods. Foods with sugar and yeast in them, such as soda, alcohol, snacks, most cerial's, and many other foods feed the fungus and only prolong the infection. Carbohydrates are turned into sugar. Things such as pasta, breads, and grains.

If you really want to get rid of yeast infection of the tongue thrush, you will certainly need to pay attention to the food you eat. Drugs will fix the break out on your tongue, but it will not get rid of the fungus.

All You Need To Know About Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B is a dangerous disease that is commonly thought about by the hepatitis B virus (HBV).

Originally known as serum hepatitis, this condition has been reported in parts of Asia, Africa, and china. It's estimated that about a third of the world population has been affected by the condition and over 350 million people are chronic carriers.

The virus is usually transmitted when one is exposed to body fluids such as semen and vaginal fluids. The virus is also transmitted when one comes into contact with infectious blood. Although, the viral DNA has been found in saliva, urine, and tears of affected people, it's very rare for the virus to be transmitted via these fluids.

While everyone can be infected by the virus there are some people who are more exposed. The most exposed people include: those working in healthcare settings, blood transfusion centers, dialysis rooms, acupuncture, and tattooing.

People who tend to share razors and toothbrushes have also been shown to be among the high risk groups.

The virus can not spread through: holding hands, coughing, breastfeeding, hugging, kissing, sharing of eating and drinking glasses, and sneezing.

The condition usually brings about a number of side effects. In acute illness, the condition brings about vomiting and jaundice. It's only in very rare cases that acute infection will bring about death.

In chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and liver cancer are common. As a result of liver cancer, death is common.

If you think that you have the condition, you should rush to your nearest health center where your blood will be taken and the virus detected.

Although, the condition is fatal, the good side is that it's preventable through vaccination. Here you are infected with attenuated viral particles after which you develop antibodies against the virus.

The vaccination has been shown to be very effective in young children and the effectiveness of the vaccine has been found to decrease with advancement in years where the vaccine is less effective in older persons.


There are a number of medicines that can be used to treat the condition. The most common medicines that can be used include: lamivudine, adefovir, telbivudine, and entecavir. While these drugs are very effective, they have been found to bring about a number of side effects such as loss of appetite, lack of energy, and anemia.

Due to the side effects, scientists have come up with natural supplements that have the potential of treating the condition. Some of the natural treatments include:

Reishi mushroom: it has been shown to be very effective in treating the condition especially in cases of severe liver injury. Other than treating hepatitis, the mushroom has also been found to be very effective in treating auto-immune disorders.

Milk Thistle: also known as liver tonic, this substance protects the liver by strengthening the outer membranes of liver cells which in turn leads toxins from entering the cells. Thistle has also been found to have very strong antioxidant activity and as a result it protects the liver from damage.

Black seed oil: it improves liver function and associated digestive problems. In Japan, the herb is used in treating chronic hepatitis.

Scientists have found that the herb offers to stimulate the liver to produce cholesterol. The herb has also been found to be effective in increasing bile excretion and as a result cholesterol levels in the body are reduced.

Oils: a number of oils have been found to be very effective in treating hepatitis. Some of the noticeable oils include: eucalyptus, oregano, thyme, lemon and virgin coconut oil. These oils typically have antiviral properties which result in death of the viruses.