Heart Monitors and How They Work

Holter Monitors

Holter monitors continuously record your heart's activity. These monitors may either be wired or wireless. Wired monitors connect to cathodes on your chest via small wires and record your heart's activity for 24 to 48 hours. Wireless monitors also require chest cathodes, but communicate information wirelessly. A patient can wear a wireless monitor for several weeks at a time. It is necessary, however, to change the battery in wireless monitors every 24 to 48 hours.

Presymptom Memory Loop Recorders

A presymptom memory loop recorder, like a wired monitor, connects to your chest via sticky sensors wired to the recording device, which is roughly the size of a cellular telephone. Unlike the monitor, however, the presymptom memory loop recorder continuously records and then erases data. Should you feel a symptom, such as an irregular heartbeat or chest pain, you can push a button on the recorder that will register the symptom. The recorder will then stop to erase data recorded during the episode.

Implantable Recorders

An implantable recorder does not require you to press a button or wear an external monitor. These types of monitors are implanted directly into your chest cavity. Implantable monitors vary considably. While some record data automatically and continuously, others require you to 'activate' the device when you experience irregular heart activity. Still other varieties of implantable monitors record data automatically but only do so when irregular heart activity occurs.

Fetal Heart Monitors

Fetal heart monitors are used to measure the stress a fetus experiences either during daily activity or during childbirth. Most doctors will attempt external monitoring first by placing sticky sensors along the mother's uterus and recording the fetus's heart rate during contractions or other activities. In the event external monitors return data that is difficult or impossible to read, a physician may opt for an internal fetal monitor. Internal monitors are placed directly on a fetus's scalp while the child is still in his or her mother's uterus and transmits a record of the baby's heart activity to external equipment.

Your cardiovascular health depends on a variety of factors such as your age, weight, exercise habits and heredity. If you suspect that you suffer from trouble, see a physician immediately. A monitor can help your physician provide you with a more accurate diagnosis that may just save your life.

The Columbian Exchange Beginning With Spanish Colonization

The Europeans' so-called discovery of the so-called New World goes down in history as one of the most important and earth-shattering moments in human history, ranking right up there with the advent of agriculture, the domestication of animals, and the discovery of the use of fire. Although the Vikings made it to Newfoundland around the year 1000, they apparently decreed that Greenland would make for a much better colony and scrammed, leaving the Spanish with all the glory almost five centuries later. The ensuing exchange of plants, animals, people, and diseases has since been named the "Columbian Exchange" after the charismatic Christopher Columbus, who bumped into the Bahamas thinking he'd made it to India.

Over the next few centuries, different groups of European explorers brought crops such as corn, potatoes, cassava, tomatoes, peppers, cocoa, peanuts, strawberries, and tobacco back to the Old World from the Americas – meaning that the potato is no more Irish than the tomato is Italian, the pepper is Spanish, or the cigarette is French. In particular, carb-rich corn and potatoes helped ease the killer food shortages that were all-too common in Europe; Ireland's population alone swelled 800 percent in 200 years – only to be devastated by the potato injury in the mid-1840's. So much for putting all your potatoes in one basket.

Of course, it would not be called the Columbian Exchange if the process had not gone both ways. Picture the Plains Indians, then subtract the horses. Picture a Central American banana republic, then subtract the bananas. Picture a Columbian donkey carrying a load of coffee beans, then subtract both the donkey and the coffee beans. Picture a spread of Mexican food, then subtract the rice, cheese, lettuce, black olives, onion, chicken, pork, and beef. Or picture a handful of far-flung, arid, completely absent Indian Reservations, then subtract the smallpox, influenza, typhoid, cholera, tuberculosis, measles, scarlet fever, yellow fever, and malaria. These were just a few of the things that Europeans bought with them during the early years of interaction with the New World.

The New World was a pretty healthy place before the Columbian Exchange, which is why Old World diseases had such an easy time decimating the indigenous populations. Think Jim and Dwight talking health insurance on The Office. Dwight: "Do not need it. Never been sick. Perfect immune system." Jim: "Okay, well, if you've never been sick, then you do not have any antibodies." Having already spent centuries suffering continuing outbreaks of some horriblely nasty diseases, Old Worlders had built up quite the array of antibodies by the time they reached the Americas. In fact, many of the animals they brought to the New World – those aforementioned chickens, pigs, and cows, for example – were a major reason that Europe were so sick all the time. Turns out, sleeping in the same one-room house as your livestock can do some wicked damage to your health, especially at a time when bathing once a week made you a real dandy.

Before Spanish Colonization and the Columbian Exchange, the native population of the Americas was estimated to be between 40 and 100 million, meaning that, in all likelihood, Native Americans far outnumbered Europe's 60 million citizens. In fact, in 1492, the Aztec capitol of Tenochtitlan was larger, cleaner, and more beautiful than any city in Europe, while the Inca boasted the single largest empire on earth. The "Great Dying" of indigenous people that followed may well have killed as many as 1 in 5 humans worldwide. Westerners love to go on and on about the Black Death of the fourteenth century, but the plague – or even the sum of Europe's many plagues – can not hold a candle to what happened in the New World.

When European settlers arrived in what is now the US, they were absolutely deluted by how beautiful, pristine, and park-like the landscape was, and since the "Indians" were dying in droves around them, they thought that God was giving them a sign of their entitlement to the land. Little did they know that they had stumbled upon the work of thousands of years of maintenance by native peoples, many of which had been decimated by rapidly-spreading European diseases before the colonists had even gotten there.

The vast majority of indigenous people who suffered during the Columbian Exchange no longer exist to tell the tale. However, some of its unexpected survivors include the black populations of the Americas; the introduction of the cassava plant to West Africa ruled in a population boom that would help fuel the slavery built around cultivating Columbian-Exchange cash crops such as cotton, sugarcane, coffee, and tobacco. Although Americans have long been taught to live by words like "Manifest Destiny" and "American Dream," we must not forget the millions upon millions for, to quote Langston Hughes's poem, America was a Dream Deferred.

The Growth of Supplemental and Alternative Medicine for Cancer Patients

Interest in Supplemental and Alternative Medicine has grown steadily throughout the United States. Reported usage of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) among American Adults is now over 60%. Individuals undergoing cancer treatment and therapy have equally higher rates of usage. CAM activities such as diet, exercise, meditation, and spirituality have become commonly accepted and practiced in health care facilities across the nation.

It is important to remember that no large scale clinical trials have found any alternative or complementary therapies to be able to reduce or eliminate cancer on their own. There are countless anecdotes and personal stories of individuals "beating cancer by simply doing —" but it is advisable for patients to be careful of less than scrupulous CAM practitioners. With that said, many doctors agree that there are numerous CAM therapies that can play a valuable role in helping to manage cancer therapy related symptoms.

Yoga and meditation are two excellent examples of CAM therapies that can play a role in helping to improve a cancer patient's quality of life. Both are ancient practices with roots in India and use in Ayurvedic medicine. In relation to modern cancer care, they each have been found as a great way for cancer patients to reduce anxiety, stress, and mood disorders. Yoga, specifically, has been found to be great for improving flexibility, balance, and range of motion for certain patients. Both Yoga and meditation have seen tremendous growth in terms of public acceptance through the past ten years. Yoga especially has become something of a cultural trend; spawning things such as the yoga pant, yoga body, and yoga mommy. In regards to healthcare, many large health care facilities now offer a wide range of yoga and meditation based classes for a huge variety of patients.

Not every CAM option has been found to be clinically helpful or significant. Many popular forms of "alternative medicine" have little to no large-scale clinical validation. Homeopathy is an ideal example of an extremely popular and main alternative medical practice with virtually no large scale clinical validation. Homeopathy is a complex European medical practice with a wide range of very controversial tenets. Homeopathy is most famous for its law of minimum dose – the idea that the lower the dose of the medication, the greater its potency. Most recently, homeopathic practitioners came under popular media fire for recommending homeopathic vaccinations for children rather than state and government recommended vaccinations. When tested, the homeopathic vaccinations were found to be unable to prevent infection of the designated diseases and were thus highly likely to expose children to risk.

In conclusion, cancer patients and their doctors should seek out the most evidence based practices that are the most likely to have a positive effect on their therapies. For health care providers it is important to work to create an environment of trust in which a patient feels comfortable talking about and asking about CAM options. CAM options work best when used in conjunction with conventional medicine and as such it is crucial that health care providers understand the complete treatment picture in order to avoid potentially adverse outcomes.

Latest Advancement in Breast Cancer Treatment

The latest advanced therapies can be an alternative to traditional therapies for breast cancer patients. These therapies are Cryosurgical Ablation (CSA), Seed Knife Therapy (Brachytherapy), Percutaneous Ablation, Combined Immunotherapy and Targeted Chemotherapy.

1. Cryosurgical Ablation (CSA):

Cryosurgery is an important ablation technique for tumors. It destroys tumors by cycles of freezing and thawing. Cryosurgery’s destructive effects on tumors are due to two major mechanisms, one immediate, the other delayed. The immediate mechanism is the damaging effect of freezing and thawing the cells. The delayed mechanism is the progressive failure of microcirculation; ultimately, vascular stasis becomes operative as an important cause of tumor tissue destruction. Once the temperature falls below -40oC, ice crystals may form within the cells. Once it occurs, cell death is almost certain. During cryosurgery, progressive failure of microcirculation occurs due to a cascade of events: endothelial layer destruction causing vessel walls to become porous, interstitial edema, platelet aggregation, microthrombii, and ultimately vascular congestion and obliteration. It was theorized that during cryosurgery, the immune system of the host became sensitized to the tumor being destroyed by the cryosurgery. Any primary tumor tissue undamaged by the cryosurgery and the metastases were destroyed by the immune system after cryosurgery. This response was termed the “cryo-immunological response”.

2. Seed Knife Therapy (Brachytherapy)

Seed Knife Therapy (Brachytherapy) is used for breast cancer treatment, Seed implantation with iodine-125 or palladium-103 seeds (brachytherapy) is a highly effective treatment for patients with cancer. Brachytherapy requires no surgical incision, offers patients a shorter recovery time, and has less chance of troubling side effects. For example, for prostate cancer, brachytherapy is an outpatient procedure and most patients go home the same day as their treatment. They can also return to their normal activities a few days after treatment. Seed implantation takes only 45 minutes to 1 hour. Seed implantation with iodine-125 seed gives a lower dose rate of radiation than palladium-103. Because iodine-125 works in your body longer than palladium-103, it is ideal for treating slow growing tumors such as most prostate cancers. The 125 iodine seeds-which have a half -life of 59 days-release a short-course of gamma ray. The seeds implanted into cancerous masses and nearby tissue radiate targeted cells and ultimately destroy cancer. This prevents unnecessarily exposing the whole body to radiation.

3. Percutaneous Ablation

Thermal injury to cells begins at 42? Only 8 minutes at 46? Is needed to kill malignant cells, and 51? Can be lethal after only 2 minutes. At temperatures above 60? Intracellular proteins are denatured (killed) rapidly, cell membranes are destroyed through dissolution and the melting of lipid bilayers, and lastly, cell death is inevitable. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a new technique for treating tumors localized to certain organs. A needle electrode is advanced into the targeted tumors via either a percutaneous, laparoscopic, or open (operation) route. The RF energy causes the tissue around the tip of the probe to heat up to a high temperature above which cells break apart and die. For eradication of all cancerous cells, the goal is to place the probes so that they destroy the entire tumor plus an adequate “rim” of non-cancerous tissue around it.

4. Combined Immunotherapy

Immunotherapy, also known as CIC-combined immunotherapy for cancer-has increasingly become the focus for cancer researchers. The past 10 years have seen an increased understanding of immuno-surveillance and appreciation of the mechanisms by which tumors escape its notice. This has led to the development of promising new strategies against cancer, such as immunotherapy, which is focused on increasing of the body’s natural immune functions against cancer cells.

5. Targeted Chemotherapy

Targeted Chemotherapy is can be an alternative as it leaves minimal side effect as compared to traditional chemotherapy. Targeted therapies are drugs or other substances designed to block the growth and spread of cancer by preventing cancer cells from dividing or by destroying them directly. While standard chemotherapy affects all cells in the body, targeted therapy directs drugs or other specially created substances (e.g., immune system proteins developed in the lab) to attack cancer cells. The goal of targeted therapy is to interfere with genes or proteins involved in tumor growth to block the spread of the disease.

By targeting specific molecules that are responsible for the growth, progression and spread of cancer, targeted therapy differs from standard chemotherapy, which attacks the disease systemically and, therefore, also damages healthy cells. Because targeted therapy specifically seeks out cancer cells, it is designed to reduce the harm to healthy cells, which may lead to fewer side effects than standard chemotherapy.

Targeted therapies serve as the foundation of precision medicine, which uses information about a tumor’s DNA profile to identify additional treatment options. Tailored treatments target abnormalities that may be found in each tumor’s DNA profile. This innovation marks a shift from traditional treatments designed for the average patient, toward more precise therapies.

Targeted therapy is an evolving science, and not all cancer types may be treated with targeted drugs. Several targeted therapies have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for use in cancer treatment, including hormone therapies, signal transduction inhibitors, apoptosis inducers, gene expression modulators, angiogenesis inhibitors and toxin delivery molecules.

What is the Difference Between Bubonic and Pneumonic Plague?

With the latest news on pneumonic plague in China that has killed three as of this writing, and a town of 10,000 people is sealed off to try to prevent the spread of the infection, I thought it would be instructive to differentiate the different forms of plague .

The term "plague" has stuck fear into the hearts of people for centuries and for good reason. Historically, plague has destroyed entire civilizations. Probably the most noteworthy, the "Black Death" of the 1300s, that killed approximately one-third of Europe's population.

Plague is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium, Yersinia pestis. It is found in animals throughout the world, most common rats but other rodents like ground squirrels, prairie dogs, chipmunks, rabbits and voles. Fleas typically serve as the vector of plague. Human cases have been linked to the domestic cats and dogs that brought infected fleas into the house.

People can also get infected through direct contact with an infected animal, through inhalation and in the case of pneumonic plague, person to person.

Yersinia pestis is treatable with antibiotics if started early enough.

There are three forms of human plague; bubonic, septicemic and pneumonic.

o Bubonic plague
This is the most common form. In this form the bacteria enter the body through the bite of an infected flea or rodent. Here the bacteria infect the lymphatic system. After a few days to week, the person will experience fever, chills, weakness, and swollen lymph glands. These are called buboes.

In the US, bubonic plague is sporadic, primarily in the West. Typically there are around 10 cases earlier here. Just a couple months ago, there was at least one death and several exposures in New Mexico.

Untreated bubonic plague is fatal about half the time.

o Septicemic plague
This form is also contracted from a flea or rodent bite. Sometimes it appears subsequent to untreated bubonic or pneumonic plague. It involves bloodstream distribution to all areas of the body. Buboes do not occur. Symptoms are endotoxic shock and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Untreated septicemic plague is almost always fatal.

o Pneumonic plague
Probably the most serious form of plague and it's when the bacteria infect the lungs and cause pneumonia. It is contracted when the bacteria is inhaled (primary) or developments when bubonic or septicemic plague spreads to the lungs.

Pneumonic plague is contagious and can be transmitted person to person. It is highly communicable under appropriate climate conditions, overcrowding and cool temperatures. This is the form that is of concern in China today. Untreated pneumonic plague is frequently fatal.

In the US, there has not been a case of person to person submitted plague since 1924.

Due to antibiotics, improved sanitation and better living conditions, in 2007 there was just over 2000 cases of plague worldwide with approximately 150 deaths.

Refrigerated Storage Container Hire

Refrigerated storage container hire means the leasing and procurement of cold storage containers which can include;

• Cold stores / containers
• Blast freezers
• Meat rail portable cold storage
• Mobile bars
• Pharmaceutical refrigeration

Container cold stores are hard wearing, robust and have an easy open "butchers door" hygienic stainless steel interior and electronic temperature recorder. They are available in a range of different sizes including;

• 18 pallets: 38 pallets: 58 pallets

Cold store containers are available in grade A, with standard specifications, and are ideal for chilled food storage, frozen food storage, defrosts and product trials.

Available sizes are;

• 4 pallets: 9 pallets: 19 pallets

Other types of refrigerated containers are often referred to as reefers, and these are refrigerated shipping containers which are used for transportation frozen and chilled products and items; they are an important part of the "cold chain". Cold chains are used in the pharmaceutical and food industries and some chemical shipments. They are extremely important in the supply of vaccines that are supplied to distant locations in hot or warm climates.

Many of the refrigeration machines supplied with the containers are covered by factory warranties, and any unauthorized work may result in the loss of the warranty cover. Any consequence of lost or reduced warranty will be for the customers account.

If there is any damage to the container that excludes normal wear and tear, then this will be for the customers account, and under no circumstances should any modifications be made to the container or its machinery.

Refrigerated containers provide an excellent alternative to more cost purpose built walk in freezers and chill boxes. These types of containers are portable and can be delivered to almost any location depending on the road network. They can operate and hold any temperature between minus 10 degrees Fahrenheit and plus 60 degrees Fahrenheit. Temperature control is simple and is as easy as controlling the temperature of any household fridge.

Containers or refrigerated containers are shipping containers that are used for intermodal freight transport, which require refrigeration of temperature controlled cargo. ISO shipping containers have integrated refrigeration units that runs from an external electric power supplies from land based sites, container ships or from quays.

Rheumatoid Arthritis – A Slow and Deadly Disease

Rheumatoid Arthritis is a medical condition which is associated with the inflammation of joints on the hands and feet. It is an inflammatory disorder that affects the lining of the joints which can lead to bone erosion, and furthermore, joint deformity. As a result, this makes Rheumatoid Arthritis different from Osteoarthritis.

This deadly condition is caused because of the development of autoimmunity in the body. In this case, the immune system of the body attacks the healthy body tissues that line the joints. This leads to inflammation and subsequence severe consequences. For this very reason, it is essential to treat rheumatoid arthritis before it reaches high grades of damage. Apart from the aforementioned effects, this type of arthritis can also attack other parts of the body like eyes, vessels, skin, etc. To make sure that one is safe from this, it is essential to know about the symptoms and treatments of Rheumatoid Arthritis, as it helps in curing it in the nascent stages.

Symptoms Rheumatoid Arthritis symptoms should be identified and noted carefully as they can take a long time to slow down and reduce the damage that the disease causes.

The symptoms are as follows:
• The joints become swelled up, warmer than usual and tender
• There is a development of bumps under the skin (especially on the arms) which are fairly firm in nature
• One becomes a victim of weight loss, fatigue and high fever
• Morning stiffness is experienced that lasts for a few hours.

As it is evident, these symptoms make the detection of Rheumatoid Arthritis very difficult in the initial stages because of their resemblance to other common diseases. While it may not be easy, there are still ways to confirm the possibility of having it by performing a blood test and specified X-rays.

Treatment Unfortunately, it is not possible to cure this disease. Rheumatoid Arthritis treatment mainly compositions of medications, surgery and therapy. The medications consist of various drugs like steroids, chemical and biological variants of disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARD) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). While these drugs slow down the damage caused by the immune system on the joints, they have some serious side effects.

Here, the doctors are hesitant to prescribe strong drugs unless it becomes absolutely necessary. Therapy is a great way to keep the joints flexible and healthy to minimize the damage. At an advanced stage, surgical methods are an unavoidable yet effective methods to repair or replace damaged joints. Undergoing surgery can help in enabling using the joints, reducing the pain and correct deformities. However, there is always the risk of bleeding and severe infections. Therefore, depending on the severity of the situation, acting on the doctor's advice is the best option.

Rheumatoid Arthritis may not be completely curable but it can be clearly controlled and kept under check by the patients. To avoid it, one should stay fit both physically and mentally. Staying aware, and being informative about all such situations can go a long way in saving you.

How to Relieve Pain in Between the Shoulder Blades

Are you suffering from a nagging, even irritating pain between your shoulder blades? Pain in between the shoulder blades can be quite severe, affecting not only your sleep but also your daily life. In this article we will look more closely at pain of this nature, what may cause it and what you can do to relate it.

A Little Lesson in Shoulder Anatomy

The shoulder blade or "scapula," is the bone that is found in the upper portion of the body. It's considered a part of the socket that connects the upper arm to the body. The shoulder blades are dense with tissue and muscles that protect the bones and joint by providing cushion and support. These supportive structures also allow the shoulders and arms to have smooth and coordinated movements all the time, or so we hope.

Unfortunately, the area of ​​the shoulder blades can be at high risk of developing injury and pain. The frequent movements that involve the scapula can lead to muscle training or teasing of the tendons. These circumstances can cause you agonizing pain, swelling and inflammation.

Some Causes of Pain

Accidents and sports related injuries are common factors that cause shoulder pain because of training or over-stretching. In severe cases, dislocation can occur.

Stress and poor body mechanisms are also factors that are linked with upper back pain. The pain that is thought about by stress is usually localized at the lower neck and in between the shoulder blades. Poor body mechanics can put pressure on the spinal area. Pain can be felt right between the shoulder blades. Other common factors that are associated with scapular pain are organic diseases like tumors and infection.

There are also instances where pain can be felt at the scapula but the main problem is not directly related to the shoulders. This type of condition is called "referred pain". A common example of this is a gallbladder problem. The pain originated from the gallbladder but it radiated towards the right side of the scapula.

Heart attacks also have referred pain associated with it. The chest pain can radiate towards the left side of the scapula accompanied by vomiting. Sometimes, referred pain can be helpful because it can serve as a sign of an impending problem and medical help is soonought.

Consulting A Doctor

With your health care practitioner's assistance, you can find effective relief if you know what the exact cause of the pain is. Any treatment regimen is greatly dependent upon the root problem. The first and smartest thing you can do is to consult your doctor. This is a priority.

Self-diagnosing is the one of the worst things that you can do. Never self-diagnose when it comes to upper back pain because you need to rule out any potential seriously serious disease. It is best to seek an expert's advice. Your licensed health care practitioner is the best person who knows how to deal with your pain problem and who can give you the most effective regimens based upon your particular problem.


Your doctor may prescribe steroids to treat the inflammation, painkillers to relieve you from pain or diuretics to decrease any fluid swelling. Remember to take these drugs judiciously. Even if they are considered safe, over-the-counter drugs, adverse reactions can occur.

Physical Therapy

Physical therapy is usually indicated to rehabilitate a shoulder injured through dislocation, tear or strain. There are also a series of exercises that can help soothe the upper back from pain, relieve you from stress and regain your back muscles' strength and flexibility. Your therapist will teach you those exercises.

Therapy can also provide heat, massage, ultrasound treatments and other measures for pain relief and to promote healing.

Know the Cause

Pain is always a symptom of either disease or injury. There are a lot of factors that can cause pain between the shoulder blades. To effectively treat the pain, you have to pinpoint the cause. Again, knowing the exact cause of pain enables you to target the origin of pain with the right treatment regimen. It also helps you to avoid future re-injury and return of your pain.

Different Types of Medical Malpractices Committed By Medical Professionals

The Journal of the American Medical Association states that despite cancer and heart disease, medical neglect is one of the leading causes of death in the United States. It has been estimated that around 98,000 people pass out each year after sustaining injuries from different form of medical malpractices.

Alarming, right?

Now, are you aware at all that when you can consider yourself a potential victim of medical malpractice and can sue your doctor? Medical malpractice takes place when a health care expert deviates from the established "standard of care" while treating a patient, causing injury or damage to the individual. This act of negligence can take place as the result of errors in diagnosis, treatment, health management or aftercare.

In this article, you will get an overview of different types of medical errors made by health care practitioners. It will help you to determine that under what circumstances you can consider yourself a victim of medical malpractice.

Misdiagnosis or Delayed Diagnosis

Delay in diagnosis or improper treatment accounts as one of the major causes of medical malpractice complaints. When a medical professional fails to diagnose a specific health condition or disease, the patient sufferers consider it sometimes sometimes even causes death. Now, in order to prove a medical malpractice claim based on delayed diagnosis or incorrect treatment, you will have to show the incompetence of your doctor in handling your case. If a competent and skilled doctor in same specialty would not have made the diagnostic mistake under similar circumstances, then your doctor is liable for malpractice.

Childbirth Injuries

A large percentage of fetal injuries are caused by negligence in diagnosis. It includes brain brain injuries like seizure disorders and cerebral palsy. Bone fracture or klumpke's palsy that causes damage to nerves that control the hands and arm are other common childbirth injuries. However, these injuries are not only due due to the negligence of doctor during childbirth but also due to the negligence during prenatal care.

Take note of the common examples of prenatal care negligent that doctors often make:

· Fail to diagnose any specific medical condition of the mother, such as preeclampsia, hypoglycemia, Rh incompatibility and other diseases.

· Fail to identify any birth complications due to the large size of the baby or tangled umbilical cord.

· Failure to identify the signs of fetal distress.

· Failure to treat any disease that could prove contagious to the fetus.

Anesthesia Errors

Anesthesia mistakes are very dangerous and even a minor error by the anesthesiologist can lead to brain damage, permanent injury or even death. Keep in mind that an anesthesiologist is liable to medical malpractice even before doing anesthesia, like failure in doing proper investigation of the medical history of the concerned patient to anticipate possible complications.

Surgery Errors

A number of medical malpractice claims also arise from errors that occurred in the operating room. The surgeon can do mistake while performing the surgery itself like operating the wrong body part or leaving surgical instruments inside the body of the patient.

Medication Errors

A recent study has revealed that around 1.5 million people in the US suffer due to medication error. This may take place in a number of ways – from the initial prescription to prescribing of drugs. Most common medication errors involve prescribing wrong or incorrect dosage of medicine to the patient.

These are few common types of medical malpractices made by doctors and you can always claim compensation from your health care provider in such circumstances. However, to obtain the best possible settlement it is always recommended to get in touch with competent medical malpractice lawyer , since the process of achieving successful claim is quite stressful and time consuming. Attorneys specialized in this field will deal with the insurance companies effectively to increase the settlement value of your claim. So, contact experienced law firms for effective representation of your case.

Hippotherapy – A New Therapy For Autism?

The word hippotherapy is derived from the Greek word "hippo," which means "horse." It describes physical, occupational, or speech therapy that uses the multidimensional movement of a walking horse to optimize the rider and help enhance balance, good posture, mobility, coordination, and strength. Often, hippotherapy aids mental functioning, improves mood and self-confidence as well.

The rhythmic and multidimensional movement of the horse provides variable yet repetitive sensory stimulation to patients. That stimulation can be varied and manipulated by a trained therapist to fit a patient's needs and stimulate improved functioning of daily living. For example, physical therapists can use a variety of horse movements to improve gross motor abilities, such as sitting, standing, and walking.

According to the American Hippotherapy Association, hippotherapy is indicated for children and adults with mild to severe neuromuscular dysfunction. It aids impairments such as abnormal muscle tone; impaired balance, coordination, and sensory function; postural asymmetry; poor postural control; and reduced mobility. Hippotherapy has been used for conditions such as cerebral palsy (CP), developmental delays, traumatic brain injury, stroke, and autism.

Hippotherapy has been used in the US since the 1970's. However, it is still considered an experimental and investigational treatment because there is insufficient scientific evidence for its effectiveness in the treatment of CP, autism, and other conditions characterized by motor dysfunction.

A recent study by Bass, Duchowny, and Llabre (2009) examined the effects of a 12-week-long therapeutic horseback intervention on social functioning in children with autistic spectrum disorder. The results showed improved social interaction and less inattention and distractibility in autistic children. These findings indicate that hippotherapy may have a place in the treatment of children with autism. However, more studies need to demonstrate its therapeutic effectiveness before hippotherapy is highly recommended as a treatment for autism.

Bass, M., Duchowny, C., & Llabre, M. (2009). Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39 (9), 1261-7.

Looking For Sleep Paralysis Treatment? Well Read This First

Sleep paralysis is not harmful physically, but it can leave you feeling tired and restless when you wake in the morning. The resulting lack of sleep will then trigger more accidents and if they do become frequent then you have to consider sleep paralysis treatment. The question to ask though is, is there a treatment for this condition.

There are some drugs and medicines that you will find that have been prescribed for sleep paralysis but they do not cure the condition they just help you sleep better that's all. The way that this condition manifests itself makes it possible to be valued by simple and easy to understand preventive techniques. That is by staying away from all the things that are known to cause it you can avoid accidents.

It generally occurs when in the middle of your sleep you are suddenly interrupted and you were having a dream. What you need to know is that the reaction times of the body and the brain in this situation are becoming different. You became locked in a state of partial awareness and sleepiness at the same time. Trying to figure what is part of the dream and the reality that you have woken up to can be confusing for the body.

So to avoid you having to physically respond to things that are part of a dream you become paralyzed. Sleep paralysis treatment therefore involves avoiding anything that will likely interfer with you r sleep and cause you to wake up.

There are a number of things that are known to disrupt a normal sleep pattern, such as light and sound. Not keeping to a regular sleep schedule is another. Sleep paralysis treatment looks at all factors involved and is aimed at you avoiding them. Give yourself time to acquiesce fully with this condition.

Ins and Outs of Removable Data Media Recovery

Students and working professionals need to transfer data for their projects. Family members and relatives share precious documents and photos with one another as well. As such, thumb-drives and portable USB drives have become almost a necessity. The proliferation of mobile technology has also engendered the burgeoning popularity of cameras and PDAs. Smartphones can double up as devices to store MP3, movies and also photos.

Typically, there are different types of removable media such as solid state memory; optical; and magnetic. Let's take a look at the different types of devices.

Solid State Memory Data Media

USB thumb drives, smart media cards, memory sticks, multimedia cards, mini SD cards and xD Picture Cards all fall under the umbrella of solid state memory data media. They are extremely light but come with a large storage capacity. They are however prone to virus attacks, bad sectors as well as condemning of file access. When they become kaput, dialogue boxes prompting a reformat will pop up.

Optical Data Media

These optical data media include CDs, mini CDs, DVD and magneto optical. In the past, they were used to store and back up important data. Problems such as not being able to access the data, missing directory information and blank information are common with this type of media. Strange characters or garbage display will also pop up. There are also times when the computer would freeze when trying to access the media files. As a result, the data becomes unreadable.

Magnetic Data Devices

Floppy diskettes, Iomega Zip or Jazz disks fall under these categories. Once popular and ubiquitous, they have now become increasingly rare. The devices are made up of soft data platter -right where the data is stored magnetically as bits and bytes. They are susceptible to physical damage as well as dirt contamination, which come after prolonged use. The common problems include errors such as "disk not formatted", "click of death" which results in accessibility to access the media and freezing of system.


It is important to note that the data is recoverable. When data loss occurs, it is critical to stop all operations on the device and do a proper ejection. Any attempts to fix the disks may cause further damage without the help of a professional. Always seek the expertise of a certified technician. He will be able to help you recover the data safely, lowering the risk of unrecoverable situation.

Safe Weight Loss Supplements

Many individuals are now becoming more and more watchful of their weight as the epidemic of obesity looms overhead. It is estimated that there are as many overweight individuals as the undernourished individuals in the world. The surplus weight has been implicated on several factors; so many health-conscious individuals are looking for safe weight loss supplements available in the market. The increased awareness of lifestyle diseases attributed to obesity has also increased demand for such products.

It is normal to find and take diet supplements, as long as you are sure that they are safe. Remember that in the $30 billion dollar weight-loss industry, the market has been saturated with supplements. Some are effective and safe for public, others are little more than encapsulated powders with obscure origins, and the remaining niche contains unsafe habit-forming drugs that are packaged as safe and effective.

There are several factors that are needed to consider before being certain that a dietary supplement is safe. First thing to look is the label, check it has proper and clear label. Although weight-loss supplements classified differently from drugs, they must be treated as so because they still affect the body in regarding weight loss. The label must include generic names, composition, manufactured and expiry dates, government safety approvals, unusual effects and allergy alerts. It must be genuine; it is wise to look in the internet about the drug and its contents to be sure that it does contain a weight-reducing supplement. In that way, you could prevent yourself from taking fake products that produce lot more harm than good.

Another thing to be certain that a weight-loss supplement is safe to use is to take a look at its ingredients. Many drugs derive their weight-loss properties from two sources; laboratory-produced drugs and herbal/plant sources, or a mix of both. Both are safe if approved safe to use by your local health department, and are clearly stated in the label.

The ideal weight-loss supplement must be clearly effective. The effectiveness must be proven by a scientific study done by medical professional and sanctioned by the health authorities. It would took some research in the internet but it is worth the try; there are a lot of supplements out there approved as safe and effective by the FDA that you might find.

All of weight-loss supplements acts on a part of the body that helps reduce weight; the hypothalamus of the brain, thyroid, intestines and liver that suppress appetite, increase metabolism, and inhibit fat absorption from food and bloodstream, respectively. A safe product can promote weight loss by using one or two of those pathways without harming or damaging the organs involved and the body as well. It should not have long-term undesirable effects to the user, and most of all, not habit-forming (notable was the drug Ephedra, which contains compounds similar to methamphetamines, and now banned by the FDA).

A popular idea that an herbal medicine has little or no side effects is not always the case. A lot of prescribed drugs in the market originate from plant sources. Some examples of these are Digoxin (from foxglove plant) that increases heart contractility, chemotherapeutic agents Vincristine and Vinblastine (from Madagascar periwinkle), and habit-forming drugs like Nicotine (Tobacco plant), Cocaine (Coca Plant) and Opium (Opium Poppies). These drugs have terrible side effects and they are derived from plants. All plant-derived supplements must be labeled with unexpected adverse effects.

The point is the consumer must be vigilant in choosing supplements because there are a lot of fake, unsafe, or improperly labeled brands that are highly-priced in the market that are ineffective, contains little or no active substance, or possibly dangerous adulterants. Unlike drugs, weight-loss supplements are not subject to rigorous testing, and they are only removed from the market once the health authorities receive large numbers of reports about adverse effects. In that case, consumers are likened as guinea pigs for tests. We must not easily believe advertisements telling their brands as safe and effective.

Being overweight is already a problem, and having unpleasant adverse effect presents additional problems; it wastes your time, hard-earned money and adds to the frustration of reducing weight. Anyone must be careful in choosing weight-loss supplements; it must be truly effective and safe to use.

Tonsil-Stones (Tonsilloliths) – How to Treat and Prevent?

In order to treat and prevent tonsil-stones you first must understand what they are. The tonsils are structures that are very much like glands that are located at the back of the throat. Each side of the throat houses a tonsil and tonsils contain tissue that is made up of cells called lymphocytes that are there to prevent as well as fight any infection that invades the mouth.

The tonsils contain plenty of crevices where bacteria, dead cells and mucous can hide. When this takes place the material that becomes trapped can develop into white formations that become concentrated in the pockets of the tonsils.

Tonsil-stones (also known as tonsilloliths) develop when the material that is trapped gets harder and then calcifies. To treat these stones you first must recognize that you have them. They most commonly develop in individuals who suffer from tonsillitis fairly often and / or those who suffer from tonsils that are inflamed on a more or less chronic basis.

Bad breath is one of the most common symptoms of tonsilloliths and so is white debris in the back of the throat and a problem swallowing. Ear pain can sometimes accompany tonsil-stones as can a sore throat. It is likely that the tonsil in question can swell and become infected as a result of tonsilloliths.

In order to prevent tonsilloliths take care with your mouth. Gargle with warm salt water on a consistent basis. Or if you prefer, find a mouthwash that is both free of alcohol and sugar.

To prevent the development of bacteria in the mouth, choose toothpaste that oxygenates your mouth. To treat these stones you have a few options available to you. First of all be aware that many people get them and do not even know it as they do not cause any symptoms and fall out on their own (such as when the person coughs).

If you do have tonsil-stones and they are causing you problems then dislodge them at home with the help of a water pick or a cotton swab. Gargling with salt water can help to loosen the stones and relieve discomfort.

Type 2 Diabetes – The Cholesterol and Diabetes Connection

A diagnosis of Type 2 diabetes is not to be taken lightly. It can be a fearsome disorder, as excess sugar in the bloodstream is extremely damaging to your body. While diabetes affects blood vessels and how they transport nutrients throughout your body, it also has another substantial effect. Type 2 diabetes has the dual duty of lowering your "good" cholesterol level while simultaneously raising your "bad" cholesterol level.

When there is too much of the "bad" cholesterol or LDL, it has the tendency to attach itself to the walls of arteries. Here, it forms plaque which not only imposes blood flow but allows pressure to build or, as it is more commonly known, high blood pressure. It also has the nasty ability to lead to some other ailments, the most notably of which is heart disease.

But that is not the only action taking place. At the same time the LDL levels continue to increase, the body is systematically lowering HDL, or "good" cholesterol levels. Since HDL is necessary for getting rid of LDL, it paves the way for LDL cholesterol levels to continue to escalate. Your bad cholesterol level goes up, good cholesterol level comes down!

Since uncontrolled Type 2 diabetes has such a unique effect on cholesterol levels, it is imperative cholesterol be kept in check. This is more than just elevated cholesterol readings at a doctor's appointment. This affects atherosclerosis, or hardening of the arteries, which is a result of the plaque buildup referred earlier.

Anytime you impede blood flow, you are asking for major trouble. It may start out as shortness of breath or slight chest pain and discomfort, but eventually it will transpire into something no one wants to consider: a heart attack! Or, along the same lines, you could have a stroke instead. In either case, cholesterol is something that you do not want to ignore.

Anyone with high cholesterol should heed these warning signs, but this is especially significant for those who also have Type 2 diabetes. The best way to combat cholesterol is to prevent it from having the chance to become elevated in the first place. That means a comprehensive plan to keep it down to more manageable levels.

Prevention is a two-fold plan. It involves exercise and diet. For individuals who are in their proper weight range, they should be exercising at least 30 minutes per day, 5 to 6 time a week. Overweight people should increase the time to between 60 and 90 minutes. Exercise has an impact on several factors that are part of Type 2 diabetes … blood pressure, triglyceride levels, and HDL cholesterol levels. Many studies have shown regular exercise improvements:

  • blood pressure,
  • lowers LDL cholesterol levels,
  • raises HDL cholesterol levels, and
  • lowers triglyceride levels.

All these improvements are helpful in decreasing the risk of heart disease.

Cutting out fatty foods and limiting alcohol are also crucial. The most effective diets are those that eliminate animal products altogether. Many studies have revealed following this sort of diet cut LDL cholesterol by more than 20 percent. Incorporating high amounts of fiber in your diet are also part of the overall plan to help combat heart disease.