OPI Nail Polish By Katy Perry: Dazzling, Colorful, and Totally Unique – Just Like Katy Perry!

If you are a fan of nail polish, or of Katy Perry, then you have got to check out the OPI nail polish by Katy Perry collection. Following in the footsteps of Justin Bieber, Katy Perry has partnered with OPI to bring you the trendiest in nail fashion. OPI is a popular company that produces nail polish and related products. Not only are they a quality product, but they also do not test their nail lacquers on animals. This is great 'cause it's unnecessary for beauty products to be tested on animals. Animals do not deserve to suffer in cages and get painful tests done on them.

In January 2011, Katy Perry's OPI collection arrived and there are five great shades to choose from. Inspired by her newest album called 'Teenage Dreams', all the nail shades are named after her hit songs. Katy's on-stage glam is yours for taking with shimmering shades of silver, pink, blue, and plum. The nail lacquers are eye-catching and interesting metallic shades. The collection includes Teenage Dream, Not Like The Movies, Last Friday Night, and The One That Got Away. Also featured is the Black Shatter shade which you can also find in the Serena Williams Grand Slam OPI collection.

Black Shatter has proven to be very popular and a great way to dazzle up your nails. It is a deep-asphalt black shade that gives a "shattered" effect to your nails. You would put the Black Shatter polish on top of any nail shade and voila, you get a cool leopard look on your nails. You can put a top coat on top of the Black Shatter shade if you like a high gloss finish, or leave it as is for a matte look. Before putting the Black Shatter on your nails, however, you want to make sure that the 1-2 coats of color you put on are dry. The same goes with the top coat.

The OPI nail polish by Katy Perry collection is trend-setting, just like Katy herself. The shades are fun, fresh, and fierce … just like Katy! But they will not be around for too long. Get yours while you can!

10 Reasons Why Sandals Are Just Better Than Shoes Any Day

1. Sandals are downright fashionable. With styles that cover practically every possible reason and season, sandals never go out of style. In fact, many popular designs and styles of sandals remain lasting fashion statements year after year.

2. With sandals, foot freedom reins. Just ask any college student why they love their flip-flops. Ask a beach-goer how come they’re not wearing tennis shoes. Sandals deliver an enticing balance of being almost barefoot but still having shoes on the feet. It’s a lifestyle really.

3. They deliver comfort like no other. There is just something great about the way sandals tend to break in and conform to the foot – almost like they’re an extension of the feet themselves. Shoes haven’t quite found a way to enter this territory yet.

4. Sandals have health benefits. Many podiatrists actually recommend the wearing of supportive sandals for the healthful benefits they provide for feet. Some sandals work in the same way as custom orthodontics do to really help promote foot correct posture.

5. Forget about the fungus. It’s true; sandal wearers get the added foot health benefit of having cool, dry feet. This means there’s no place to harbor fungus, preventing a fungal foot infection before it can ever begin to take hold.

6. Sandals are usually more affordable. Okay, this one is for the practical-minded, but when it comes down to it, sandals are generally less costly than other types of shoes. It might have something to do with the fact that less material used equals less expense or it could just all be wishful thinking.

7. Try to beat the versatility of the sandal. Poolside, at the beach, backyard, or nowhere even close – just slip ’em on and slip ’em off. It’s hard to beat the versatility provided by the always fashionable footwear.

8. Promote balance with sandals. It is really no surprise that sandals have been chosen to help increase and promote balance. Practitioners of yoga have even adapted sandals with individual straps between each toe to encourage an increased sense of balance in the art of yoga.

9. They’re the original footwear from history. Sandals are time tested, having stood the test of time longer than any other form of footwear. The tennis shoe has been around for decades, the boot for centuries, but the sandal has been in use for millenniums. That must speak for something.

10. Sandals show expression. Sure, all kinds of shoes can be fashion-forward. However, no other form of footwear is as conducive to showing off a fun and funky sense of style and spirit like the sandal.

How to Safely Use Natural Remedies to Stop Menstrual Flooding

Three years ago I was shopping with my husband in a small town several hours drive from home. I suddenly had to rush back to the car when I realized that I was experiencing a menstrual flood. This had never happened before. I was shocked and became frightened that the bleeding wouldn’t stop! I thought that there must be a natural method that could help me. After cleaning up in a nearby restroom, pale and weak, but not ready to give up, I asked my husband drive me to the town’s natural health store.

‘No’, the woman who worked there assured me with an amused smile, “there’s nothing that stops menstrual bleeding or slows it down.” The bleeding eventually did stop on its own, but that comment by a well-meaning, but ignorant employee, left me annoyed and inspired to search for herbs I knew must exist that could do what she said was impossible.

I found them.

Red raspberry leaf, ladies mantle, shepherd’s purse, and yarrow all slow or reduce menstrual bleeding. With a little digging and experimentation, I found many other solutions to prevent the problem.

Use one or a combination of herbs to make an infusion, which is also known as a herbal tea, or buy a herbal tincture at the natural food store. I chose to drink an infusion made from a blend of 1-2 tsp each: dried red raspberry leaves and ladies mantle leaves, I covered the pot and steeped the herbs for 10 minutes in just-boiled water. This treatment works best if you have one cup a day for about week before menstruation and 1-2 cups during your period. If you like it sweeter, add several pieces of licorice root or a few lemonbalm leaves to steep with the red raspberry and ladies mantle leaves, or ¼ tsp honey after the tea is ready.

An effective aromatherapy treatment is to rub your abdomen several times a day with 1 tsp olive oil or sweet almond oil blended with 2-3 drops sage or vitex essential oil.

I also came across an unusual suggestion for reducing profuse menstruation in an old herbal by Dian Dincin Buchman in my personal library. ‘Grate and dry carrots and eat one piece at a time several times a day, as a potent aid to regulate menstruation. Grate about a pound from the heaviest part of the carrot. Dry it on paper in the sun for a week or two until it shrivels up into small pieces.” She also suggests adding a few grains of cayenne pepper to the herbal tea of your choice, drinking diluted lemon juice during your period, eating lentils and drinking a half cup of strong thyme tea, morning and evening. She suggests making shepherd’s purse tea by infusing a handful of the herb in a pint of boiling water. Drink the tea warm if possible. Use 2 cups three times a day.

A long-term solution to address the underlying cause of hormonal imbalance, is the wonderful woman’s herb Vitex aka Chasteberry, which helps balance hormones. A 1930s scientific study using a tincture of dried vitex berries found that a month or two of using this herb normalized menstrual cycles and reduced flow.

Since excessive menstrual bleeding (or menorrhagia) can indicate several serious problems, be sure to consult your doctor for a diagnosis before beginning self-treatment.

An excess of estrogen and prolactin or an excess of a hormone-like substance called prostaglandin 2 are two possible causes for heavy menstrual periods. A sluggish thyroid also increases menstruation. So can endometriosis, uterine fibroids, an IUD birth control device, and blood thinning drugs.

Menstruation normally causes a decrease in physical energy, and if you bleed heavily you may find that your blood pressure becomes low, leading to a feeling of exhaustion and an irresistible desire to take a nap during the day! Excessive menstruation can lead to anemia and that can also lead to extreme fatigue. Some medical researchers believe that iron deficiency stimulates bleeding, which leads to an even greater iron deficiency.

To correct anemia, drink herbal teas made from herbs that have high levels of iron including stinging nettle, oatstraw herb, red clover, red raspberry, goji berries, and rooibos. Your natural food store will have pills or liquid Floridix which is highly absorbable, unlike iron pills dispensed through conventional drug stores.

If you experience cramping along with heavy bleeding, use the same herbs suggested for alleviating menstrual cramps-wild yam root, false unicorn root, cramp bark and American spikenard-to reduce the severity of both of the problems.

Herbs to Reduce Excessive Menstruation

Vitex (aka Chasteberry)- regulates and normalizes hormones connected to the reproductive system. It is especially beneficial and the herb of choice for many women to relieve menopausal changes. It has a profound action in lessening ‘hot flashes.’ Studies verify that vitex increases the production of lutenizing hormones, enhancing the progesterone cycle. At the same time it inhibits the release of the follicle-stimulating hormone, FSH, and normalizes the estrogen cycle. Vitex may be used for acute situations but it is most effective if taken over a prolonged period of time. No side effects have ever been reported from extensive and extended use of this plant.

Red raspberry: Due to the drying effect of the tannins it contains, Red raspberry is used to treat profuse and painful menstruation. It relaxes uterine and intestinal spasms and strengthens uterine walls. Red Raspberry leaves are nutritious too – containing vitamins A, B, C, and E – they’re also rich in calcium, phosphorus, niacin and iron. They are an excellent source of manganese, a trace mineral used by the body to produce healthy connective tissue, such as bone matrix and cartilage and an important factor in energy metabolism. Red Raspberry promotes healthy nails, bones, teeth and skin. Drinking 1-2 cups of red raspberry leaf every day is a nutritious tonic tea.

Lady’s mantle:Lady’s Mantle’s astringent and styptic properties help reduce period pains and lessen heavy menstrual bleeding. It helps a woman’s body adjust to changing hormone levels during menopause. It is an anti-estrogenic herb that helps regulate irregular cycles, relieves cramps.

Yarrow:A catalyst for the female reproductive system, it has a positive effect on ovarian problems, menstrual irregularity, menstrual cramps, and menopausal symptoms, insomnia, nervous tension, stress related conditions;. It is used to reduce excessive menstrual bleeding, to ease menstrual cramps and to stimulate delayed or absent menstrual cycles. Famous German herbalist Maria Treban writes: “Yarrow is a medicinal herb that would be difficult to be without; it is of great value for many illnesses but first and foremost, it is a herb for women. I cannot recommend Yarrow enough for women…A woman during menopause should take advantage of Yarrow tea and save herself a lot of inner restlessness and other problems.” Drink a cup of yarrow tea daily;

Shepherd’s purse:Shepherd’s purse is used to stop heavy bleeding and hemorrhaging, particularly from the uterus when taken internally. It has also been used to treat postpartum hemorrhage. It is considered most effective for the treatment of chronic uterine bleeding disorders, including uterine bleeding due to the presence of uterine fibroids. Shepherd’s purse has been used internally to treat cases of blood in the urine and bleeding from the gastrointestinal tract, such as with bleeding ulcers. An astringent agent, shepherd’s purse constricts blood vessels and reduces blood flow. Shepherd’s purse is also thought to cause the uterine muscle to contract, which also helps reduce bleeding. It is a remedy for blood pressure problems, nosebleeds, irregular heartbeat, wounds and burns.

Cautions: Pregnant or breastfeeding women, people with kidney stones or kidney disease should avoid Shepherd’s purse. Consult with your doctor before taking Shepherd’s purse if you have blood pressure, thyroid gland, or heart problems.

BV Cures That You Can Rely Upon for Permanent Relief From the Infection

Are you under the impression that you are the only one who is looking out for a bacterial vaginosis remedy to get rid of your chronic infection? Do you know what causes this infection to prevent it? Are you aware that this infection responds extremely well to natural BV cures?

Firstly please do not despair. This infection affects a number of women. Statistically almost 70% of women get it during their fertile years. There are a number of natural remedies which you can make use of to get rid of this infection permanently.

What can you do to prevent the infection?

Before sharing some excellent bv cures let me first explain a few things which you can do to avoid vaginosis.

• do not over wash the vagina or douche frequently

• do not make use of perfumed soaps and sprays in the vaginal area

• have protected sex by making use of condoms

• do not make use of antibiotics if you can avoid it

• Having multiple sexual partners can also trigger this infection. Here is the best to stick to one partner

Bacterial vaginosis remedy that you can rely upon

A) make use of apple cider vinegar to restore the acidic balance of the vagina. Soak in bath water to which couple of cups of cider vinegar has been added for around 20 minutes

B) to ensure that the bad bacterium responsible for the infection does not multiply reduce your intake of sugar, alcohol and food that contain yeast.

C) Tea Tree Oil is an excellent bacterial vaginosis remedy that has antibacterial properties. Make use of tea tree oil suppositories for direct vaginal insertion.

Congestive Cardiac Failure – Ayurvedic Herbal Treatment

Congestive cardiac failure (CCF), also known as congestive heart failure, is a condition in which the heart’s function as a pump to deliver oxygen-rich blood to the body is inadequate to meet the body’s needs. CCF can be caused by coronary artery disease, high blood pressure, long standing alcohol abuse and disorders of the heart valves. Fatigue; swelling of the ankles and legs or abdomen; breathlessness; increased urination, especially at night; nausea; abdominal pain; and decreased appetite are common symptoms of this condition.

The Ayurvedic treatment of CCF is aimed at improving the efficiency of the heart, reducing the load on the heart and treating any potentially reversible causes of this disease. The efficiency of the heart is increased by using medicines like Laxmi-Vilas-Ras, Maha-Laxmi-Vilas-Ras, Makar-Dhwaj- Ras, Shrung-Bhasma, Bruhat-Vat-Chintamani and Abhrak-Bhasma. Coronary artery disease, leading to a reduced blood supply to the heart muscles, can be corrected by using medicines like Arogya-Vardhini, Triphala-Guggulu, Medohar-Guggulu and Chandraprabha-Vati. Weak heart muscles can be strengthened using medicines like Trayodashang-Guggulu, Panch-Tikta-Ghrut-Guggulu, Arjun (Terminalia arjuna), Amalaki (Emblica officinalis), Haritaki (Terminalia chebula), Draksha (Vitis vinifera), Nimba (Azadirachta indica), Patol (Tricosanthe dioica), Patha (Cissampelos pareira), Musta (Cyperus rotundus), Kutaj (Holarrhina antidysentrica), Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) and Naagbala (Grewia hirsuta). Disorders of the valves of the heart can be partially corrected using medicines like Laxadi-Guggulu, Sinhanaad-Guggulu, Dashmoolarishta and Arjunarishta.

It is very important to control high blood pressure, since this puts a continuous strain on the heart muscles. Medicines like Sarpagandha (Raulwofia serpentina), Jatamansi (Nardostachys jatamansi), Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri), Dhamasa (Fagonia cretica) and Sutshekhar-Ras can be used for this purpose. Alcohol abuse can make the heart muscles weak, and also cause destruction in the liver, thereby resulting in CCF. This can be treated using medicines like Arogya-Vardhini, Shankh-Vati, Bhunimbadi-Qadha, Kutki (Picrorrhiza kurroa) and Sharpunkha (Tephrosia purpurea). The load on the heart can be reduced using medicines like Punarnavadi-Qadha, Gokshuradi-Qadha, Yav-Kshar, Apamarga (Achyranthus aspera) and Ikshumool (Saceharum officinarum).

A judicious combination of Ayurvedic medicines can thus be used to control CCF and improve the overall survival of patients affected with this condition. It is important to adopt adequate lifestyle modifications for this disease. Daily salt and fluid intake needs to be restricted. Regular exercise in moderation is beneficial for CCF. A complete abstinence from alcohol and smoking is important to avoid further damage to the heart. Stress needs to be minimized by adopting suitable relaxation techniques.

Eating Healthy Food is a Good Concussion Treatment

hockey.jpgMaintaining a healthy diet right after undergoing a head injury trauma treatment is important. The vitamins and nutrition that the patients get from the food they eat helps hastening the recovery. When the patient is eating good food, getting healed will not be a problem.

Most victims right after their treatments are not observing healthy diet. They just eat what they want without listening to the doctor’s advice. When a person has a medical condition, there are some foods that they can’t eat. If they will insist to do so, they are taking the risks of getting the symptoms of their condition back.

Aside from taking supplements, food defines the restoration of the patient’s mental health. Twenty four hours after the head injury, the patient should not be allowed to eat solid foods because stomach could not process food intake very well. Usually, concussion victim vomit a lot due to nausea being felt. As of the moment, give them liquid diet like orange or apple juice.

After the concussion treatment, victims should not be allowed to consume alcoholic drinks within three months. Within this period, the brain is still on the process of healing all the alterations done on its system due to impact. Alcohol consumption could hinder the regeneration of the damaged brain cells and tissues.

In order to guide you what food to eat right after the treatment, here are some of the list that might be very helpful in achieving healthy diet:

  • Settle for grains. After the brain was concussed, energy will run low due to the clots that have developed inside the brain. Clotting blocks the regular blood flow inside the brain. Blood flow is the source of energy inside the brain so when there is a blockade, the supply of energy will also be blocked. Grain can provide large amount of energy towards the body; it could also keep the brain alert mentally.
  • Food with fatty acids. Human body is not capable of producing fatty acids; it could only be obtained through diet. Rich in fatty acid foods are good for minimizing the risks of memory loss and Alzheimer’s disease. Naturally, this kind of nutrients could be found among fish such as sardines, salmon, trout, tuna and many more.
  • Bank on broccoli. If you hate veggies, you are not required to eat all of them, just broccoli. Broccoli is a very good source of vitamin K that helps restore the brain cognition.
  • Eat nuts in order “not to be nuts”. Nuts are really good source of vitamin E which will help you in preventing the decline of brain cognition. 

Predicting Dynamics of an Infectious Disease

Public health study in its generality covers two broader areas: Epidemiology and Clinical Trials. Epidemiology is a systematic study of using observational data collected from a study population that are not under the influence of experimental settings to learn about disease cause and origin (ethology). It is a science of multidisciplinary in nature. It encompasses disciplines such as clinical epidemiology, behavioral epidemiology, occupational epidemiology, chronic disease epidemiology, infectious disease epidemiology, and environmental epidemiology. Nelder and Wedderburn argued that such a study could for instance be carried on to learn the casual relationship between smoking and lung cancer, air pollution and respiratory illness, heart disease and diet, childhood leukemia and water contamination, and investigating the prevalence and incidence of HIV infection and AIDS, etc. [14] [18]. Its function is mainly aimed at improving overall health of the population.

Clinical Trials on the other hand are specifically designed in a controlled experimental settings to evaluate specific type of medical treatment or intervention. Examples of Clinical trial study could include comparing the effect of applying HIV drug versus placebo on patients survival length who contracted AIDS, learning the effectiveness of new drug on athletes foot fungus development, evaluating hormonal remedy on the lessening of breast cancer, etc.

Modelling is an act of scientific investigation that allows precise, rigorous analysis and quantitative prediction without claiming complete certainty. It is about expressing ideas mathematically to clarify thinking. Cliff & Murray and Spicer have discussed that modelling the dynamics of infectious disease can have a direct bearing on the choice of curious measures, optimal allocation of resources and deployment of best medical intervention techniques [10] [20]. The scientific field epidemiology has entered its exiting time. This is happening not by chance. It is happening due to the high demanding nature of public health study for expertise in epidemiology and its advanced methods. As argued in [3] by Black, epidemiologic methods are capable of handling sophisticated ways of evaluating public health risk indicators that result from many exposure and environmental pollutants of our modern society. Factors and enablers for epidemiologic methods are being emerged as powerful as never seen before. The 21st century information technology advances including super powered microcomputers, the Internet, software developments, and the exhilarating prospects paved the path to execute wider array of studies. The way health care is delivered today, in particular the emergence and grow of organized health care system in a digital world has created chances and opportunities for epidemiology and epidemiologists to shine and involve in evidence-based public health and the valuation of health care operation and excellence. Decisions made and policies formed in public health exploration without sound epidemiologic data analysis and reasoning are becoming the things of the past. The public and medical practitioners will benefit from the awareness brought as a result of evidence based epidemiologic study in regard to important diseases [9] [17]. Knowledge about a disease incidence and prevalence rates, its morbidity and mortality rates, its importance (e.g. population-attributable risk fraction or the global burden of disease), time (trends – whether the incidence is rising or falling), place (whether there are areas where the disease is particularly common or rare), person (the type of person who is most at risk, with regard to demographics, lifestyle, health status and workplace), and prevention (primary, secondary and tertiary) are all contribute to enhance the wellbeing of the society [8] [12].

Epidemiological Modelling has its root at early 18th century when Daniel Bernoulli designed a model to investigate the effectiveness of inoculating healthy people against the smallpox virus in 1760 [26]. Hamer also studied recurrence of measles epidemics in 1906 and carried analysis on discrete time model that he formulated [7]. The mathematical epidemiologic model that almost won universal acceptance was developed by Ronald Ross in 1911 [22] where he developed differential equation models for malaria (Ronald Ross, 1857-1932). Since then mathematical models were developed in 1927 by Kermack and Mckendrick as an extension of Ross’s model and epidemic threshold results were derived [26]. The study made by Ross was to indicate that a disease can go extinct not only by eliminating all the pathogen carrier insects but also by satisfying certain conditions. Hethcote, 1976 and Fred, 2008 have given detailed discussion of such a model, that a model without vital dynamics is termed as SIR model [25] [27].

Studies in the past have demonstrated the requirement to establish stronger link between traditional epidemiology that focus only on methods of determining disease etiologic such as study design, source of bias, and casual reasoning; and applied epidemiology that synthesizes and applies the results of etiologic studies to set priorities for intervention, evaluates public health interventions and policies, measures the quality and outcome of medical care, and effectively communicates epidemiologic findings to health professionals and the public is paramount [2] [15] [21].

Standard World Health Organization guideline [4] highlights that the core principle in conducting an epidemiological study rests around three basic values. These are case finding, increase public health disease knowledge and identification of important diseases.

Case finding is a strategy for targeting resources at individuals or groups who are suspected to be at particular risk of a disease. It involves actively searching systematically for high-risk people, rather than waiting for them to present themselves to medical attention after symptoms or signs of active disease have occurred. Note the similarities between case finding and screening: both seek to risk stratify the population using a simple and cheap procedure, and assume that better outcomes can be achieved through identifying the early stages of disease and offering prompt treatment. As an example, case finding may be used as part of the investigations into an outbreak of a communicable disease (e.g. syphilis) to identify potential sources of the disease. It may also be employed during food-borne outbreaks to identify as many at-risk individuals as possible. The advantage of case finding include that it is cheap and incur low personnel demand, case finding improves the positive predictive value of a diagnostic test by targeting high-risk patients with higher underlying prevalence. By targeting preventive care, case-finding tools can help improve care of individuals and reduce costs for the state. The prime disadvantage might be the presence of a potential to widen health inequalities because some high-risk groups are hard to reach (homeless, refugees, etc.)

Knowledge in epidemiologic study refers defining clinical features, distribution, causes, behavioral features and determinants of diseases that currently make a significant impact on the health of local populations, with particular reference to those that are potentially preventable, or require the planned provision of health services at individual, community and structural levels, or are otherwise of particular public concern, e.g. mental health. The World Health Organization’s global burden of disease project provides an estimate of the relative importance of all communicable and non-communicable diseases, together with intentional harms (e.g. suicide and war). The global burden of disease does not account for the degree to which illnesses are preventable or can be treated, but it does provide a useful guide to which illnesses have the greatest impact globally – and are thus of public health importance [24].

  1. Infectious Disease Characterization

The speed and development of an infectious disease can be qualitatively defined in terms of the causes of the disease. The causes of an infectious disease are either microscopic or macroscopic pathogens that are potentially capable of replicating themselves and invade human body tissues; further producing toxins to poison the cells. The interaction of these pathogens and their growth rate within human body and the human body’s immune response are vital to determine the progress of an infectious disease. The conclusion made from the study by [6] and [16] is that understanding the whole process is the basic principle in infectious disease epidemiology and gaining an insight as to how particular interventions at different stages could prevent or control the disease spread.

A disease occurs when infectious pathogen finds its way and enters human’s body through what is known as route of entry. Potential routes of entry for successful disease transmission are respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract and skin. Infectious pathogen such as mycobacterium tuberculosis enters into human body through air breathed into the lungs. Pathogens that cause diarrhea for instance enters into human body through contaminated food and water taken by mouth, or unhygienic hands. Naturally human skin is capable of serving as a barrier against many infectious pathogens but in some cases such as malaria parasites, infectious pathogens can enter into human body when infected mosquito bites through the skin to suck blood.

At an initial stage the host becomes susceptible to infection. This is the stage where there is no pathogen in anyone’s system at all, but a low-level unidentifiable and suspicious host immunity exist. Example of a person entering this stage could include for example a person shaking hands with someone suffering from a common cold, a child living in the same room as an adult with tuberculosis.

Then the host gets an exposure for infection. A parasite duplicates and grows over time and enter the host, but host might not exhibit any clear sign of infection and the number of pathogens might be small to cause further transmission. This stage puts an individuals at the exposed stage. The exposure is the stage immediate after infectious pathogen enters and assume multiplying. Example is when a person has consumed food that has been contaminated with bacteria causing typhoid fever (Salmonella typhii), it is said to be exposed. But when the bacteria gets to the lining of the intestine and started multiplying, the person is said to have entered infected stage. However, there might not necessarily be clinical manifestation of the disease at this stage. The clinical manifestation happened when there is a match between the disease symptoms (complaints of a person such as headache, vomiting, dizziness, etc.) and disease signs (features like high temperature, high pulse rate, swelling of organs inside the body) that can only be detected by trained health professional. Once at this stage the pathogens will become abundant enough to spread themselves and gain the potential to transmit to another susceptible individual and the disease enters its infectious stage. Infected people can be carriers but not infectious themselves. If they are infectious, they are termed as active cases. After the clearing of the pathogens from diseased individuals and host gets cleared of its infectious stage, the individuals enters recovered stage. Recovered stage is a general term to infer complete recovery from disease, being disabled or dead.

This ultimate infectious disease classification (as susceptible, exposed, infectious, or recovered) exclusively depends on the disease’s ability (host in this case) to pass or transmit the pathogen. The takeaways here are that the host’s status regarding the disease is irrelevant, that is an individual who actually has a perfect healthy feeling with no symptoms can be releasing huge amount of pathogen; and boundaries between exposed and infectious (and infectious and recovered) is somehow grey and the tendency to transmit is not as simple as turning buttons on and off. This is an addition to the complicated nature of infectious disease in understanding the variability in response to disease of individuals and level of pathogens over the infection period. Important to note that diseased period, when symptoms are experienced, is not necessarily correlated with any particular infection stage.

2. Method

The study from [11] [13] [19] [23] illustrates that achieving an iconic objective of an epidemiologic study requires properly crafted public health study method that:

a. Discovers the cause, origin and environmental factors which has an impact on health so as to provide the scientific basis for the prevention of disease and injury and the promotion of health.

b. Determines the relative importance of causes of illness, disability, and death, in order to establish priorities for research and action.

c. Identifies those sections of the population which have the greatest risk from specific causes of ill health, in order that the indicated action may be directed appropriately.

d. Evaluates the effectiveness of health programs and services in improving the health of the population.

The people in epidemiological study are mainly interested in finding the features that are prominent in determining the pattern of the disease and its way of transmission or spread.

The assumption is that we have a constant population, N, and that the population is divided into the three states: susceptible S, infected I, and recovered or immune R. Most specifically, the model covers the simplest form of epidemic SIR model.

The first group are the individuals who are capable of becoming infected with a particular disease. The second group consists of individuals who are infected and can infect others. Sometimes these models include a class of exposed individuals, E, who are infected but cannot yet pass along the disease. Finally, the class R represents those who have recovered from the disease and are immune to infection. Most viral diseases, such as measles or chickenpox, cause the body to mount an immune response [5]. Once the body sees a particular disease, then a future infection is highly unlikely. After a host becomes infected, then they develop a permanent immunity to the disease, R.

2.1 Modelling considerations

Modelling an epidemic should take into consideration factors such as population structure and demography (stratification by age, sex, location, etc.), natural history of the infection (latency, infectious period, immunity, etc.), and intervention (at what stage of disease transmission).

2.1.1 Transmission rate

Consider an individual susceptible to disease:

· Rate of contracting other individual ‘c’ is the contact rate that applies to all individuals irrespective of infection status.

· Transmission requires contact with infected individuals and rate of contacting infectious individuals is ‘cI/N’, where I/N is proportion of infectious population, I is no of infected, and N is total population.

· Rate of transmission from infectious individuals is given by ‘pcI/N’ usually termed as force of infection, where p is the probability of transmission when an infectious individual contacts a susceptible.

· If we consider all susceptible individuals, the total transmission rate in population is pcSI/N, where S is the number of susceptible individuals. Most often, ‘pc’ is written as ‘b’.

2.2 Simulation of Epidemic model (SIR)

A derivative approach to calculate time derivatives of S, I and R is implemented. Given a value of S, I and R at time t, the derivative calculates the time derivatives of S, I and R; and parameters of the model like the recovery period and the transmission rate.

The population size, N is always S+I+R because there are no births or deaths in the model.

dS/dt = – bSI/N + gR,

dI/dt = bSI/N – aI,

dR/dt = aI – gR

Like many processes associated with living organisms, the spread of a disease caused by a microorganism through a population can be modelled mathematically using differential equations. Although numerous models of varying complexity have been developed to describe the dynamics of disease spread in a population, the SIR model presented here combines relative simplicity with good modelling of diseases that are spread from person-to-person and are familiar to public, such as measles, smallpox, and influenza.

In the SIR model, members of a population are categorized into one of three groups: those who are susceptible to being infected, those who have been infected and are able to spread the disease to susceptible individuals, and those who have recovered from the disease and are immune to subsequent re-infection. Movement of individuals is one-way only, and the two fundamental parameters of the model, a (the daily infection rate) and b (the recovery rate), act as rate constants that control how fast members progress into the I and R groups, respectively. A composite parameter, g = a/b is often used and is referred to as the contact number. The SIR model is described by the differential equations

Solving such an equation is difficult algebraically and therefore integration technique is used. Doing so is used to see the change in the different rates at each stage of the model over time. In differentiating an equation, the derivatives indicate how the slopes (changes in rate) relate to the model at any point in time.

Initially, S(0) = 1.

dI/dt = bsi – ai = (bs/a -1)ai, I= I/N, s = S/N

Now, an epidemic occurs if the number of infected increases.

dI/dt > 0.

This is true when b/a > 1.

On the contrary, the disease dies out if the number of infected decreases.

dI/dt < 0

This is true when b/a < 1.

b/a = R0 is the base reproduction number. It is the mean number of secondary infections generated by single infected case in a completely susceptible population.

When initial conditions for these groups are specified, the change in size of these groups may be plotted over time.

  1. Simulation Results

Whether an epidemic will ensue under certain initial conditions can now be discussed in terms of the contact number, and we may reasonably be expected to empirically determine that the transition between epidemic and non-epidemic states occurs when the initial fraction of the population in the susceptible group is equal to the reciprocal of the infected number. The recovery rate,b can also be indirectly introduced as the more accessible duration of the disease 1/b.

By discussing epidemic dynamics in terms of these more easily understandable parameters and allowing R to convert to the actual model parameters behind the scenes, it is possible for discussions of an important topic to be tailored to the public. The dynamic nature of the output also facilitates discussions of the effect of different parameters on the nature of disease spread in a population without necessarily resorting to the equations governing the model. In particular, the importance of infected number and the effect of artificially moving members of the population directly from the susceptible group to the recovered (and therefore immune) group through immunizations can be easily investigated by manipulating the appropriate rates of the model.

  1. Discussion

Careful inspection of SIR model will reveal insights into the dynamics of the disease in a population. For example, if the fraction of the population in the infected group is initially increasing (i.e., dI/dt > 0 at t = 0), it means an epidemic has begun. The transition between an epidemic and a non-epidemic spread of a disease then occurs when dI/dt = 0, and inspection of the differential equations will quickly reveal that this transition point results when so= b/a. Likewise, the peak of an epidemic occurs when s=b/a and the rate of change of the infected group stops increasing and starts decreasing. The contact number also has an easily understood “real-world” interpretation: the average number of susceptible members of the population. An infected individual spreads the disease while that individual is in the infected group. The anatomy of an epidemic is such that initially the number of infections will not be extreme and are small that follow stochastic nature. The infection then start to experience increased prevalence and at increased speed. As infection depletes the number of susceptible, the spreading rate declines through time.

4.1 Limitations

The classic SIR models presented here assumes that the total population size remains constant and the population is uniform and homogeneously mixing. Mixing depends on many factors including age, sex, geographical location, etc. Different geographic and social-economic groups have different contact rates. Also the models ignores random effects, which can be very important when s or I are small.

  1. Conclusions

In efforts to control the spread of the disease, we must select the optimal solution for the maximum public health benefits. Mathematical models can help us to better understand the spread of an infectious disease and to test the control strategies. In this paper, the epidemic problem can be solved by using SIR model and through R statistical package program and simulating the epidemic problem. Different deterministic models can be constructed by choosing different number and types of epidemic models. The approach of the analysis is based on theory of dynamical systems. It is reasonably enough to justify the modelling approach clarifies what the underlying assumptions are. For optimum results model analysis and simulation predictions suggest crucial data that should be gathered and control strategies that could be implemented. Estimates of R0for various diseases are useful for comparing diseases. If R0 > 1, an epidemic is prevented when R0S(0) < 1. Thus, if the initial susceptible fraction has been reduced to less than 1/R0, for example by immunization, then an epidemic can be prevented.

  1. References

[1]. Bailey Ntj. The mathematical theory of infectious diseases. London: Griffin, 1975.

[2]. Anderson RM, May RM. Infectious diseases of humans. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991.

[3]. Black FL Measles. In: Evans AS ed. viral infections of humans: epidemiology and control. New York: Plenum Medical, 1984: 397.

[4]. World Health Organization. Epidemiological and vital statistics report. 1952; 5: 332.

[5]. Chapin CV. Measles in Providence, R.I. American Journal of Hygiene 1925; 5: 635-55.

[6]. Evans AS. Epidemiological concepts and methods. In: Evans AS ed. viral infections of humans: epidemiology and control. New York: Plenum Medical, 1984: 20.

[7]. Hamer. WH Epidemic diseases in England. Lancet 1906; I: 733-39.

[8]. Soper. HE Interpretation of periodicity in disease prevalence. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society A 1929; 92: 34-73.

[9]. Greenwood M. On the statistical measure of infectiousness. Journal of Hygiene 1931-31: 336-51.

[10]. Cliff AD, Murray GD. A stochastic model for measles epidemics in a multi-region setting. Institute of British Geographers, Transactions New Series 1977; 2: 158-74.

[11]. Fox JP. Herd immunity and measles. Reviews of Infectious Diseases 1983; 5: 463-66.

[12]. Bailey Njt. The elements of stochastic processes. New York: Wiley, 1964: 183.

[13]. Bartlett MS. Deterministic and stochastic models for recurrent epidemics. Proceedings of the Third Berkeley Symposium on Mathematical Statistics and probability, 1956; 4:81-108.

[14]. Nelder JA, Wedderburn Rwm. Generalised linear models. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, 1972; 135: 370-84.

[15]. Semple AB. Epidemiology of the influenza epidemic in Liverpool in 1950-51.Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine 1951; 44: 794-96.

[16]. Kilbourne ED. The molecular epidemiology of influenza. Journal of Infectious Diseases1973; 127: 478-87.

[17]. Fox JP, et al. Herd immunity: basic concept and relevance to public health immunization practices. American Journal of Epidemiology 1971; 94: 179-89.

[18]. Elveback LR, et al. An influenza simulation model for immunization studies. American Journal of Epidemiology 1976; 103: 152-65.

[19]. Longini I., et al. An optimization model for influenza A epidemics. Mathematical Biosciences 1978; 38: 141-57.

[20]. Spicer CC. Mathematical modelling of influenza epidemics. British Medical Bulletin1979; 35: 23-28.

[21]. Rvachev LA, Longini IM. A mathematical model for the global spread of influenza. Mathematical Biosciences 1985; 75: 3-22.

[22]. Ross. R (1911). The Prevention of Malaria. London: John Murray. 651†686p.

[23]. Lyle D. Broemeling (2014). Bayesian Methods in Epidemiology. Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

[24]. Alan D. Lopez, et al. (2006). Global Burden of Disease and Risk Factors. The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank

[25]. Fred Brauer, et al. (2008). Mathematical Epidemiology, Springer.

[26]. Nicolas Bacaër (2011). A Short History of Population Dynamics, Springer-Verlag London Limited.

[27]. Herbert W. Hethcote (1978). An immunization model for a Heterogeneous Population, Academic press, Vol. 14, No 3, p338 – 349.

Formula for Spiritual Growth

The formula for spiritual growth is given briefly in 2 Peter 1: 5-7. Make every effort to add to your faith goodness, and to goodness, knowledge, and to knowledge, self-control, and to self-control, perseverance; And perseverance, godliness, and to godliness, brotherly kindness; And to brotherly kindness, love.

This is given in a logical order. It must be in the order given.

All one has to know to obey the Gospel is that we are lost and that our only hope is the grace of God. After we obey the Gospel, we must first add goodness to our faith. We must acquire goodness before more knowledge because if we have not cleaned up our act, eliminated evil things from our life, more knowledge would probably be interpreted wrong and we would not mature spiritually. If we have not committed to being good people, knowledge would give us false pride, not make us more spiritual. Knowledge
Puffs up, but love builds up (1CO 8: 1).

Knowledge must be added to a pure heart committed to being the good person God desires. Without the proper attitude a little knowledge can be dangerous. Without being fully committed to becoming what the Lord calls good, one would probably stop after learning a little and think he has all he needs. He would then have the wrong idea about God's grace and sin more, influencing others to follow.

Before we can persevere at anything, we must have self-control. It is impossible to be an effective Christian or even a good citizen without self-control. If we can not control our actions' others, have to. That is why prisons are necessary. If we can not control our sins, we will be back in Satan's prison of bondage again. If we can not live right, others will be tempted to follow our evil ways. If we can not control our tongue, others will be offended and the unity of the church will be lost.

After we have mastered goodness, and knowledge, we are ready to tackle perseverance. It takes all of the Christian virtues we have to keep climbing the spiritual ladder in the mid of trials and temptations we all face. Satan will throw all he has in our path to stop us. Christians that live for God are considered bitter enemies by the evil one. They are a menace to his cause. He will stop at nothing to distract them. All that we have to keep us going is our faith. He knows that we will be given strength when we pray, so he will attempt to keep us so busy that we will think we do not have time to talk to God. Do not listen to the devil. He is a liar. Ask the Lord for help, resist the evil one and you will succeed.

Godliness can only be achieved after the precedent attributes are acquired. We can read see that there is quite a bit to be learned between goodness and godliness. There is a difference between worldly and spiritual goodness. The world's idea of ​​good does not include biblical principles. We must have the purpose to be totally committed to him. He is as much impressed by our intents and purposes as he is to our actions. Our works make our faith complete.

It is only at this point in our journey to spiritual completeness that we are ready for brotherly kindness. We do not qualify for this type of kindness until we master the other virtues. Being kind to a worldly friend does not possess the spiritual qualities that brotherly kindness has. This term comes from the Greek word
Philadelphia, which indicates to kindness, love of the brethren. Christian brothers and sisters are to be closer than family members (if they are not Christians). We are to prefer Christian brethren and love them with special affection.

Love is the ultimate and most difficult to achieve. This is translated from Agape, which is love in a spiritual and social sense, a God like love. Christians with this type of love can agree to disagree with no hard feelings, respecting each other's
Position. Paul said that we should consider others better than our self (PHIL 2: 3). He did not say that others are better, but that we should consider them better.

This has nothing to do with self-esteem. It is laying down the principles of relationship. If I consider you better than me, and you consider me better than you, we are going to have a beautiful relationship. When we have achieved all these virtues, we will be complete, spiritually mature.

You may publish this article provided you leave the resource box intact. It would be appreciated if you notify me at lynn_b2@yahoo.com when you do.

Carbon Monoxide Come From a Dirty Inefficient Furnace

What Is CO?
Carbon monoxide (CO) is an odourless, colorless gas that interferes with the delivery of oxygen in the blood to the rest of the body. It is produced by the incomplete combustion of fuels.

What Are the Major Sources of CO?
CO is produced as a result of incomplete burning of carbon-containing fuels including coal, wood, charcoal, natural gas, and fuel oil. It can be emitted by combustion sources such as unvented kerosene and gas space heaters, furnaces, boilers, woodstoves, gas stoves, fireplaces and water heaters, vehicle exhaust from attached garages and tobacco smoke. Problems can arise as a result of improper installation and maintenance of the furnace and inadequate ventilation.

What Are the Health Effects?
Carbon monoxide interferes with the distribution of oxygen in the blood to the rest of the body. Depending on the amount inhaled, this gas can impede coordination, worsen cardiovascular conditions, and produce fatigue, headache, weakness, confusion, disorientation, nausea, and dizziness. Very high levels can cause death in minutes. The symptoms are sometimes confused with the flu or food poisoning. Foetuses, children, elderly, and people with heart and respiratory illnesses are particularly at high risk for the adverse health effects of carbon monoxide.

What Can Be Done to Prevent CO Poisoning?

  • Annual Service & Safety inspections for heating systems, chimneys, and flues.
  • Ensure that appliances are properly adjusted and working to manufacturers’ instructions.
  • Open flues when fireplaces are in use.
  • Do not use ovens and gas ranges to heat your home.
  • Do not burn charcoal inside a home, tent or camper van.
  • Make sure stoves and heaters are vented to the outside and that exhaust systems do not leak.
  • Do not use unvented gas or kerosene space heaters in enclosed spaces.
  • Never leave a car or lawn mower engine running in a shed or garage, or in any enclosed space.
  • Make sure your boiler has adequate intake of outside air.

What if I think I have Carbon Monoxide Poisoning?

  • Don’t ignore symptoms, especially if more than one person is feeling them. If you think you are suffering from carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, you should:
  • Get fresh air immediately. Open doors and windows. Turn off appliances and leave the house.
  • Seek medical attention (call 911 if required) and tell the doctor that you suspect CO poisoning.

Be prepared to answer the following questions:
Is anyone else in your household complaining of similar symptoms? Did everyone’s symptoms appear about the same time? Are you using any fuel-burning appliances or old furnace in the home? Has anyone inspected your appliances lately? Are you certain they are working properly?

What About Carbon Monoxide Detectors?
Carbon monoxide (CO) detectors can be used as a backup but not as a replacement for proper use and maintenance of your fuel-burning appliances and furnace Vancouver.

7 Ways to Prevent Breast Cancer

We'd all love for there to be a magical pill we could take or a food that we could add to our diet that would – poof! – make our risk of cancer disappear. While that's not available to us yet, there are steps you can take to reduce your risk and these 7 ways to prevent breast cancer can help.

Lose the Belly Fat

Decrease your risk of breast cancer and breast cancer recurrence by reducing your abdominal fat. Body fat boosts estrogen storage, so the heavier you are, the more circulating estrogen you'll store and the more circulating harmful estrogen you'll have. The good news is, you do not have to be a size six to reduce your risk. Research shows that even moderate weight loss can lower breast cancer risk by 25 percent. Belly fat is especially dangerous, so flatten that tummy. The quickest way to get rid of a spare tire: portion control and reduced intake of stripped carbohydrates. Failing that, try resistance exercises, and in a distant third place, vivid cardio (exercise) like jogging or speed-walking.

Limit the Alcohol

If you want to diminish your risk of breast cancer, cut way back on the booze. Drinking alcohol, even moderately, can increase your cancer risk. Even as little as one drink per day seems to be associated with breast cancer, and the more you drink, the higher your risk. Three or more drinks per week boost the risk of breast cancer recurrence by 30 percent, and overweight and postmenopausal women may be particularly at risk. What matters most is the cumulative amount of alcohol you drink over a lifetime, so whether you have a glass of wine every night with dinner or a few cocktails on weekends, the effect is still the same. To keep your breast cancer risk low, limit your cocktails at one or two a week

Eat Veggies, Especially From the Cruciferous Family

Just as there's a strong association between emotions and cancer, there is also an established link between our eating habits and the disease. Red meat and fried foods are shown to heighten cancer risk. Sugar feeds infection and tumor growth. On the other hand, fruits and vegetables provide abundant antioxidants that help to neutralize free radicals. Cruciferous vegetables, like broccoli, kale, and cauliflower are especially beneficial because they contain ingredients that support breast health by helping to balance hormones.

Bone Up on D3

Your pale complexity may confirm that you have not seen the sun in weeks or that, when you do, you're covering up as you should. But lack of sunlight also keeps us from manufacturing vitamin D3 – and vitamin D3 is an essential nutrient that may help prevent breast cancer. Most of us are walking around with low vitamin D3 levels, in fact, less than one in ten Americans get the amount of vitamin D that studies suggest is optimal for breast health. The latest research shows that vitamin D is crucial for breast health. For breast cancer protection, research from America's most prestigious medical schools suggest that optimal health requires 2000IU to 5000 IU of Vitamin D3 per day.

Butts Out

If you're still smoking, it's time to call it quits. Women who smoke have an increased risk of breast cancer – and the earlier you start, the higher the risk. A recent study found that women who maintained a pack-a-day habit for 30 years or more increased their risk by 28 percent. Light smokers who quit after fewer years had only a 6 percent greater risk – so quit now.

Strategic Supplementation -Breast Health Formulas

While many foods are great sources of anti-cancer compounds, optimal vitamin D levels require supplementation. Every woman should consider adding a combination supplement formula designed to promote breast health to their daily routine. Key ingredients to look for include: Vitamin D3 in sufficient levels, as well as Calcium D-glucarate for detoxification and hormone balance, DIM for healthy estrogen metabolism, Green Tea extract for its polyphenols and Lycopene as an antioxidant with specific benefits for breast health.

Take Time to De-Stress

Although we do not have a lot of research to prove it, stress, loneliness and other negative moods increase the risk of developing most cancers, so they may affect your odds of developing breast cancer, as well as your chances of surviving if you do Get it. A stress-fueled lifestyle may be linked to more aggressive tumors, and women with a family history of breast cancer may be more easily frazzled by everyday stresses. Too much stress is clearly bad for you, and getting it under control will help. Studies recommend meditation, regular exercise, spending quality time with loved ones, engage in hobbies you love, and laugh – these are all potent stress reducers, so enjoy 'em daily.

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. These products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease. The information on this site is for information purposes only and is not intended as a substitution for advice from a physician or other health care professional or any information contained in product labeling. You should consult a healthcare professional before starting any diet, supplement or exercise program, before taking any medication, or if you have or suspect you might have a health problem.

How to Deal With Bile Reflux

It’s bad enough to have acid reflux–the backflow of stomach acid into the esophagus that causes heartburn and discomfort for millions. Add on bile reflux, where digestive fluid from the liver flows into the stomach and esophagus, and you’ve got a recipe for major discomfort that can be difficult to treat.

Many people who have acid reflux also have bile reflux, and it can be difficult to distinguish them, since both have heartburn as a major symptom.

People with bile reflux often also have a burning pain in the upper abdomen, nausea or vomiting of bile. Sometimes they will also have a cough or sound hoarse. It can be caused by a peptic ulcer, having had your galbladder removed, or having damage to the valve that keeps bile from getting into the stomach. This damage often occurs during gastric surgery such as gastric bypass.

Drugs known as proton pump inhibitors (Prevacid and Nexium are two popular ones) are normally prescribed for bile reflux, even though the drugs are technically designed to reduce acid. Ursodeoxycholic acid is a very common treatment, as it reduces the amount of bile that is produced, which limits opportunities for reflux.

There are also surgical options when it comes to treating bile reflux. Bile can be diverted away from the stomach by making a new connection lower down in the intestine. Part of the stomach may be sewn around the lower esophageal sphincter. This surgery is most often used to treat acid reflux, as it increases pressure at the lower end of the esophagus, making it difficult for acid to rise. It may be helpful for bile reflux, but some people still have symptoms after surgery.

Bile reflux does not seem to be as positively affected by lifestyle changes as acid reflux does, but since many people have both, the same recommendations apply. Some people get relief from eating smaller meals or avoiding acidic and spicy foods, but just as with treating acid reflux, these remedies don’t work for everyone. My father actually had both after a bile duct was attached to his stomach instead of his intestine during a surgery.

Quite by accident after trying just about everything you always hear recommended for acid reflux, GERD and bile reflux, he found a really simple treatment at his local grocery store that has kept him pain-free for decades. So it certainly is possible to get rid of your bile reflux without resorting to surgery and a life of drugs.

Three Japanese Dishes to Try – Cold Ramen, Okonomiyaki and Takoyaki

Sukiyaki, teriyaki, tempura, and sushi are only some of the many foods eaten in Japan. In this article, I would like to suggest three Japanese dishes for you to try. I love these dishes, but I had never heard of them before visiting Japan.

1. Cold ramen

Cold ramen is served in restaurants from May through September. Ramen is boiled and then chilled in cold water. The ramen is then poured into a bowl without any broth. Sometimes the ramen is served over ice cubes or with a few ice cubes in it. A soy-sauce based or sesame seed sauce is generally used for the cold ramen and a dash of hot Japanese mustard is on the side of the bowl to mix in with the ramen. The ramen is then covered with cold toppings. Cucumbers, eggs, and ham or pork are the most common. They are served cut in long strips, but you can also find other toppings on your cold ramen.

2. Okonomiyaki

Okonomiyaki is a giant Japanese pancake, but this unique pancake is not to be confused with the pancakes we eat for breakfast in the states. In Japanese, okonomi means what you like and yaki means grilled. Okonomiyaki has two parts: the batter and the ingredients added to it. The batter includes eggs, flour, and shredded cabbage. The ingredients added to the batter vary widely and can be one or more of the following: pork, octopus, squid, shrimp, clams, scallops, oysters, vegetables, natto, kimchi, mochi, and cheese.

While okonomiyaki is made and eaten at home, eating it in restaurants is far more common. Some restaurants serve a standard okonomiyaki. That is, the table server brings you a plate with an okonomiyaki on it, but most Japanese prefer to eat their okonomiyaki in restaurants specializing in it, restaurants where you cook it yourself. The server will bring you the batter and the ingredients. You can mix the batter and add the ingredients, cooking at your table on a hot grill in the middle of your table. You can cook, play with, and eat your okonomiyaki.

3. Takoyaki

The word takoyaki uses the same yaki as you can find in okonomiyaki and many other Japanese foods. If you look yaki up in a Japanese to English dictionary, you will find it defined as roast (for pork), broil (for fish), grill (for chicken), bake (for bread), and do (for meat, fish, and chicken) as well as a host of other definitions. Like okonomiyaki, takoyaki also uses a batter. Octopus and a few minor ingredients are mixed into the batter. The batter is then poured into a mold that cooks the batter into small balls while evenly heating them. You could think of takoyaki as miniature octopus muffins, although they are a little heavy to be muffins. Takoyaki, unlike the okonomiyaki and cold ramen, is not a meal, but a snack. You will often find it sold at festivals. Poorly cooked takoyaki is heavy, doughy, and sits in your stomach like lead. Properly cooked, the hot dumpling tastes of octopus and a bread-like dough covered with a thick soy sauce like sauce.

As Japanese food continues to disseminate around the globe, you are more likely to find these three tasty foods. I recommend that you try each of them. If you cannot find any of the three where you live, you might want to think of coming to Japan for a food trip.

A Guide on How to Perform Amazing Cunilingus – 3 Tips to Make You a Master of Oral Pleasure

Cunilingus is one of my favorite sexual moves for several reasons. Firstly, not many guys do it, and those that do are usually terrible at it. This gives me an advantage over any other guys out there, and makes sure that I stick in her mind for a while – putting me fairly high on any girl’s “black book” pretty much straight away.

Secondly, if you know what you’re doing, cunalingus is one of the easiest, most powerful ways to get a woman off that you could ever devise. Unfortunately, many men find cunilingus a foreign and strange animal, so to help them out I’ve written this guide in the hopes that it will allow them to give a woman amazing oral sex. So then, what exactly are the hot tips to giving a girl amazing cunilingus that will have her screaming for more every single time?

1. Be Gentle

You don’t want to know how many horror stories I’ve heard from girls who have had a gentleman try to perform cunilingus on her, only to treat the act like he’s a dog trying to lick the ketchup off a hot dog.

Guys, please, treat this act as it was intended – a slow, sensual rollercoaster ride of wonder. Remember that everything down there is quite sensitive, so there’s no need to apply extra pressure unless she asks you to. In fact, she’ll feel pretty much everything – some girls have said that they quite enjoy the subtle touches, such as a partner tracing the alphabet on her clitoris, for example. Ultimately, remember that small actions can create big differences, so be sure to treat the act appropriately.

2. Find It and Use It

Most guys who are unable to help their girlfriend achieve orgasm are making one very serious mistake – they are ignoring (or, at the very least, not paying enough attention to) the clitoris.

Don’t get me wrong here. No one’s asking you to focus all your attention on it, but please, make sure you give it a generous dose of lovin’. More importantly, when things get really hot and heavy (as in she’s getting close to climax), make sure you focus a lot of stimulation on the clitoris, as rhythmic clitoral stimulation is what is really going to get her off at the end of the day.

3. Try and Secure a Clean Workspace

If you’re not into it, she’ll know. And nothing can be a bigger deterrent for you than a vagina that is hairy and smells strongly.

Of course, bringing this kind of thing up can be very difficult, so try to ensure you are as tactful as possible about it. A good way to get around this is to suggest you both take a shower together as a form of foreplay, which will allow you to have ample opportunities of washing out her vagina under the pretense of heavy foreplay. And if you want her to trim down the hair, or shave it altogether, just ask her – though you might want to try mentioning that it will make things far more pleasurable and sensual for both of you.

If you can apply these useful tips, I promise you your experiences with cunilingus will henceforth be far more positive, and you will enjoy the act a lot more. And as a direct result of this, she will enjoy the act a lot more – and then her experiences with cunilingus will be truly awesome.

Does Your Age Affect Your Short Term Memory?

What impact does the aging process have on the brain and how it processes memories? Can anything be done to prevent the effects of aging on your recall? These are all questions that we have to face as we get older. Thankfully, there are answers.

The question of does your age affect your short term memory may seem odd, but it really is an important question to look at as we get older. Humans have long been wrestling with the aging process attempting to slow it or stop it altogether. Since our minds are central to how we think, what we know, who we are then it perhaps one of the more critical areas to study when trying to determine what impact aging has.

So how does your age affect your short term memory? The answer is varied, but there are a few main factors of aging that inhibit recall and brain function. We’ll touch on three of them here.

The first is a decrease in blood flow to the brain as we get older. As we age the circulatory system can become less efficient and blood circulation can become hindered. Also, the same issue of clogged arteries that can affect your heart also affect your brain. Plaque in the vessels can reduce cerebral blood flow and harm brain function. The brain is highly dependent on the oxygen and nutrients that blood brings to the cells. In fact the brain is roughly the largest user of oxygen among the organs of the body. Decrease in oxygen can impact your short term memory from being able to hold and process information. It decreases concentration and inhibits focus.

Therefore, our diet and exercise levels during our lifetime not only play a role in how healthy our heart stays, but also how well our brains continue to function as we age. So while age is a factor in how efficient our circulatory system operates, we do have the power to delay that process by how well we manage what we eat and how we keep our bodies in shape.

We can also turn to nutritional supplementation to augment this by using vitamin and mineral supplements to ensure we’re getting all the nutrients our bodies need. There are also some good supplements of Ginkgo Biloba and Ginseng that help increase blood flow to the brain and enhance the memory functions. These can be especially useful whether we are young yet or we are in our later years.

The second issue that comes up when looking at how does your age affect your short term memory is the decline of neurotransmitter production. Neurotransmitters are the brain chemicals that allow your brain cells to communicate and perform their various functions. As we age the problem can be twofold. One is that we can produce less of these chemicals as we age and two the body’s natural process of breaking down excess neurotransmitters can begin to malfunction and work to excess causing a lack of supply for the brain.

Without proper supply of these chemicals the brain cannot perform correctly. One of the issues with Alzheimer’s for example is that aside from physical damage to nerve cells there is also a significant decrease in various neurotransmitters resulting in an inability to process things into memory or out of memory. It can also affect mood and other aspects of the mind.

Again, one of the keys in fighting this problem is in proper nutrition and diet. The body needs to have the right levels of vitamins and nutrients to support the production of neurotransmitters. Also, exercise tends to help slow down the aging process in general and helps keep the production process strong.

Also, supplementation here can be helpful. There are supplements out there that support brain function by providing compounds like huperzine A, which helps counter the destruction of neurotransmitters in the brain as well as L-Tyrosine, Acetyl L-Carnitine and Choline which help in producing brain chemicals and protecting nerve cell function. These can be useful tools in combating age related decline of these functions.

Lastly, one of the important elements in protecting the brain from decline as we get older is to continue to exercise the brain itself. Studies have shown that people who keep mentally active and challenged as they age tend to keep function longer than those who don’t. The habit is to let ourselves slow down. We retire from our jobs and we tend to stop being active and learning new things. This allows brain function to atrophy. You need to continue to push yourself and strive to learn new things. Working the brain even with simple things like word puzzles or brain teasers helps strengthen those functions. The brain physically strengthens the nerves that are used most, so it truly is a use it or loss it process.

The reasons behind how does your age affect your short term memory are varied, but the answers are simple and within the reach of most everyone. Some of the same things we need to do to stay healthy physically help us mentally. Maintaining good eating habits and regular exercise along with staying active mentally as well as possibly using natural supplements to enhance these programs will help ensure that age doesn’t play as big a role in our mental function as it could otherwise.

Inflammation: Historical background

Historical Highlights

Although clinical features of inflammation were describedin an Egyptian papyrus (dated around 3000 BC), Celsus, a Roman writer of the first century AD, first listed the fourcardinal signs of inflammation: rubor, tumor, calor, and dolor(redness, swelling, heat, and pain). These signs are typically more prominent in acute inflammation than in chronic inflammation. A fifth clinical sign, loss of function (functiolaesa), was later added by Virchow. In 1793, the Scottishsurgeon John Hunter noted what is now considered an obvious fact: that inflammation is not a disease but a nonspecific response that has a salutary effect on its host.  JuliusCohnheim (1839–1884) first used the microscope to observe inflamed blood vessels in thin, transparent membranes, such as in the mesentery and tongue of the frog. Noting the initialchanges in blood flow, the subsequent edema caused by increased vascular permeability, and the characteristic leukocyte emigration, he wrote descriptions of inflammation that can hardly be improved on.’In the 1880s, the Russian biologist Elie Metchnikoff discoveredthe process of phagocytosis by observing the ingestion of rose thorns by amebocytes of starfish larvae and of bacteriaby mammalian leukocytes. He concluded that the purpose of inflammation was to bring phagocytic cells to the injured area to engulf invading bacteria. At that time, Metchnikoff contradicted the prevailing theory that the purpose of inflammationwas to bring in factors from the serum to neutralizethe infectious agents. It soon became clear that both cells(phagocytes) and serum factors (antibodies) were critical fordefense against microorganisms, and in recognition of this,Metchnikoff and Paul Ehrlich (who developed the humoraltheory of immunity) shared the Nobel Prize in 1908.To these names must be added that of Sir Thomas Lewis,who, on the basis of simple experiments studying the inflammatory response in skin, established the concept that chemical substances, such as histamine locally induced by injury,mediate the vascular changes of inflammation. This fundamental concept underlies the important discoveries of chemical mediators of inflammation and the use of anti-inflammatory agents in clinical medicine. ( Robbins Pathology)