Symbol Tables In Compiler Design

A compiler from the user’s perspective is a software that reads input source files and compiles them. The output of the compiler is usually one main executable file and some auxiliary files. The compiler should be fast and should generate optimized code.

But for the compiler designer a compiler is a beautiful balance between data structures and algorithms. Both are needed to quickly scan source files, to parse the tokens, to generate intermediate code, to optimize it and to link modules. Each compiler stage needs the data in some format. Even highly optimized algorithm would be inefficient if the data would not be stored efficiently. One of the most important data structures in every compiler is symbol table.

Symbol table is a special data structure that holds all symbols, from identifiers to internally generated nodes. Compiler symbol table must contain data structures that will hold string values for symbol names, integer values for data pointers, bit values for boolean flags and fields for special purposes. The organization of the symbol table must be such that it is possible to quickly search for a symbol, to quickly move to the next one. to easily add a new symbol at any position, to easily move data from one place to another and not to use much memory. When you try to combine all the requirements you will find that it is not so easy to decide in which form the data should be stored. One of the compromises is to use different symbol tables for different kind of data.

For example, the symbol table that stores the identifiers needs to efficiently store strings of variable length with associated attributes. One of the functions most frequently called during the scanning of the source file is to check whether the identifier is already in the symbol table. The brute force method to check all identifiers would be very inefficient. Therefore, a better method has to be found. A common approach is to use hash tables. There is a hash function that for each identifier calculates some integer value. This value should only depend on the identifier name. This value needs to be power of 2 and few bits is enough. For each hash value there is a separate linked list of identifiers. So the hash function determines in which list the identifier will be stored. This way we can minimize the search count.

Another example is symbol table that, for example, holds the nodes of program control flow. You need to be able to quickly move in both directions starting from any node. This requirement implies use of two-way linked lists.

The best way to learn about symbol tables, hash functions, linked lists and algorithms is to examine the code of some compiler. You will need some time to become familiar with the functions and the data used but then you will have an overview of the whole picture. Every compiler is a symphony of data structures and algorithms.

9 Effective Heat Stroke Prevention Tips

Heat stroke is much more serious than heat exhaustion as it can cost you your life. People with heat stroke may suffer from fever, seizures, or may also go into a coma. However, heat stroke is predictable and preventable. There are two types of heat stroke; one is classic or non-exercise-induced the other is exertional or activity-induced. Everyone is susceptible to heat stroke, from athletes to couch potatoes. And, the best defense against any heat-related illness is its prevention. If you take proper precautions and know the warning signs, you can easily prevent the risk of heat stroke. Keep a close watch on the elderly and infants, people on certain medications, athletes, and outdoor workers.

Warning signs:

  • Pale skin
  • Fatigue, weakness
  • Dizzy or nauseous
  • Sweating profusely
  • Rapid pulse
  • Fast, shallow breathing
  • Muscle weakness or cramp

In severe cases, you may observe warning signs as shown below.

Seek treatment immediately if any of these warning signs are present:

  • Skin that feels hot and dry, but not sweaty
  • Thumping headache
  • Frequent troubles of vomiting
  • Confusion or loss of consciousness
  • Shortness of breath or difficulty while breathing

Steps To Prevent Heat stroke During Hot Weather:

  1. Wear loose-fitting, lightweight clothing.
  2. Protect against sunburn. Sunburn affects your body’s ability to cool itself, so put on a wide-brimmed hat and sunglasses to protect yourself in the outdoors. Make sure you apply a broad-spectrum sunscreen that has an SPF of at least 15. Put on the sunscreen generously, and you can apply it again after every two hours or more often, particularly if you are swimming or sweating a lot.
  3. Drink plenty of fluids. Staying hydrated will help your body sweat and maintain a normal body temperature. Also, because you lose salt through sweating, you can replenish salt and water with some sports drinks.
  4. Don’t drink caffeine, sugary or alcoholic beverages to rehydrate, it can speed up dehydration.These drinks may interfere with your body’s ability to control your temperature. Also, icy cold drinks can cause stomach cramps.
  5. Open windows and use fans or turn on air conditioning.
  6. Don’t overexert yourself. Try to schedule exercise or physical labor on cooler times of the day, such as early morning or evening.
  7. Never leave anyone in a parked car, particularly when parked in the sun, the temperature in your car can rise 20 degrees F (more than 6.7 C) in 10 minutes.
  8. Take extra precautions with certain medications that can affect your body’s ability to stay hydrated and dissipate heat. For instance, some blood pressure and heart medicines, diet pills (amphetamines), laxatives, some psychological health medicines, seizure medicines, thyroid pills, and oral hypoglycaemic drugs.
  9. If you suspect heat stroke:
  • Move the victim to a cooler location,
  • Remove or avoid wearing heavy clothing,
  • Fan the body
  • Use a cool sponge or clean cloth to wet it down
  • Encourage the affected person to drink cool fluids.
  • At the hospital, the patient probably will be given fluids
  • Heatstroke treatment centers work on cooling your body to a normal temperature to prevent or reduce damage to your brain and vital organs.

Pure Sleep – The Truth About Insomnia Natural Cures

If you are laying awake in bed all night and looking to get pure sleep, then read this article to learn about two insomnia natural cures. Home remedies for insomnia are getting popular because people are empowered to treat themselves. While seeing a doctor is very important for correct diagnosis and treatment advisement, being able to cure the insomnia on your own, along with the doctor will help you for the long-term.

Most common treatment of insomnia people do on their own is purchase over the counter sleep medications. I have to say, over the counter sleep medications are great for the short-term, and can help you get out of a jam of you need to get to sleep. However, these products are not for the long haul and you risk side effects and become dependent of these medications. One of the main side effects you should be aware of is you can wake up very drowsy and sluggish the next day. You’ll most likely be tired during the entire day. This makes these products counter productive.

Natural cures for insomnia may be more effective, because they deal with the root of the problem – your mind and body. One thing you can try is making changes in your diet. Eliminating heavy meals at night can help you get to sleep quicker. Also eliminating caffeine from your diet or at least in the night time can help a lot. For example, if you drink a lot of soda and coffee during the day, you may want to try the decaffeinated versions. You may want to try to reduce processed sugar from your diet as well.

Another problem for people who suffer from insomnia is obsessive thoughts. The good news is there are insomnia natural cures to get help you rid of these thoughts at night. A very effective way is to talk to your spouse or with the person you are living with in the evening before bed time. If you have no one to talk to, then writing is the way to go to get rid of obsessive thoughts. This can be as simple as taking a pen and paper and writing out your problems. Or, you may want to plan for your next day.

Lying awake at night while everyone else is sleeping is not a desirable thing anyone wants to do. However, the good news is, you can try the home remedies for insomnia discussed above on your own, such as making a few simple changes in your diet and writing to help you get some pure sleep at night. You can also expand on these to make them work for your lifestyle.

Disclaimer: This article is for informational purposes only and reflects an opinion. This article is not a substitute for professional medical advice. You should consult a physician for any and all medical advisement.

The Advent of Modern Technologies

The advent of modern technologies has undeniably brought so much comfort to the lives of people. It has supported major industries in so many ways that production has become so large scale enough to meet human needs for agricultural and industrial produces. But one drawback caused by technological advancement is overshadowed by these comforts, and that is depletion of the natural resources. Awareness has been raised regarding this condition that have lead to a revolution in the use of natural resources have been made and brought the enhancement of energy-technologies.

What are the two energy sources renewable-energy? Basically energy resource is either renewable or nonrenewable. An energy source is considered renewable resource only if it is replaced by natural processes and is replenished with the passage of time.Renewable energy on the other hand are resources with sustainable yields. Sadly,the major sources of energy that is used to manage technology are nonrenewable, meaning they can be depleted. They include gasoline, coal, natural gas, diesel, and other products derived from fossil fuels which are non-renewable. The depletion of nonrenewable energy source will be inevitable because it is not replenished. Because of this, attentions are gradually shifted to the use of renewable-energy-technologies.

Sustainable energy which is often regarded as renewable resources is the provision of energy that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. They include plant matter, solar power, wind power, wave power, geothermal power and tidal power. It usually also includes technologies that improve energy efficiency otherwise called renewable-energy-technologies.

Solar energy is a form of renewable-energy which supports technologies. Solar energy is the energy derived directly from the Sun. It is the most abundant source of energy on Earth and the fastest growing type of alternative energy. Renewable-energy-technologies through solar energy use the photovoltaic cell. It converts sunlight directly into electricity. The Sun yearly delivers more than 10,000 times the energy that humans presently consume.

Wind power is another replenishable source. It derived from uneven heating of the Earth’s surface from the Sun and the warm core. Renewable-energy-technologies supported by wind power is generated by electricity gathered via converting the rotation of turbine blades into electrical current by means of an electrical generator.

Hydropower is a very common resource used to run renewable-energy-technologies. The power is derived from the movement of water in rivers and oceans, which can be used to generate electricity using turbines, or can be used mechanically to do useful work. Another renewable source is geothermal power which is produced via directly harnessing the natural flow of heat from the ground.

Healthy Living – Don’t Take Your Health For Granted

I am going to assume you live a busy life and it is difficult to find a chance to do anything not immediately necessary. It is unlikely this assumption is wrong since most adults are occupied with work, friends, and family, or other daily matters. If you are like most, it is hard for you to find time to do anything new, never mind exercise.

What you may not know, however, is regularly working out is not just a beneficial activity: it is an essential one. Physical activity is widely neglected despite its importance, which regrettably comes at a steep cost. Don’t make this mistake.

Finding time to exercise can be difficult, but you need to be honest with yourself. Are you truly so occupied you can’t squeeze in a few weekly workouts, or are you making excuses? Going for a workout is not the most enjoyable way to spend an hour of your precious free time, but it is also not as bad as it may seem. Rarely will you ever regret a workout, not to mention there is a surge of endorphins to boost your mood after you are done with your routine? Especially if you do cardio, which is an excellent way to burn fat and strengthen your heart.

Whether you know it or not, you can find the time to exercise, even if you are the busiest you have ever been. Waking up an hour or so earlier three to four times a week may be all you need. Or, cut down your television and internet time by an hour in the evenings for some necessary physical activity. As previously mentioned, whether you realize it or not, you must include physical activity in your life if you are to maintain your health and well-being.

Don’t take your health for granted. Crippling diseases like Type 2 diabetes and the complications it brings are extremely likely in the “right” circumstances. A combination of physical inactivity and an unhealthy diet are enough for most people to develop high blood sugar levels and become overweight, which is the core recipe for one of the most debilitating diseases known to man.

Finding time to exercise can mean the difference between a healthy life and an ill one filled with regret, worry, and pain. You would desire to be healthy, even if your will to exercise isn’t wholehearted yet. You cannot know what may happen, but prevention is never unwise.

Take action now while you can to establish a buffer against common health problems, so they never become an issue in your life.

Why Do We Need Muffins?

A few days ago someone added a very interesting comment to a recipe for healthy muffins, which really got me thinking…

Do we really need muffins?

The lady asked a very valid question; after pointing out that the muffins did in fact look scrummy, she asked why we needed muffins at all, of any description; why couldn’t we just eat the dates, apples and carrots that were in them, as they come, and enjoy them?

This really did get me thinking and I thought it was well worthy of a mention!

Myself and my family do eat loads of fresh food, as do many other people, including things like apples dates and carrots, some of the straight from our garden or neighbour’s gardens. We adore fresh food and stay away from processed foods wherever possible. A diet which relies on natural ingredients, a diet which does not come from boxes with unpronounceable ingredients and which is free from refined sugar and artificial sweeteners simply has to be the way to go to improve ones health.

So, why then do I eat muffins?

The truth is, that although we adore the fresh fruits and veggies, we also like a treat, some comfort food now and again – it’s good for the soul! There’s nothing quite like that smell of freshly baked goods in the kitchen, it sets the senses alive and the anticipation of eating the spoils is marvellous!

To my mind, treats can and should be healthy too (with the odd exception to the rule), but still taste delicious. Now, as delicious as apples, carrots and dates are, they’re not really comfort food, they’re not the type of thing you could look forward to munching with a cup of fruit tea in the afternoon when you fancy a comforting treat.

The thing is, that food isn’t just about what we need, sometimes it’s about pure enjoyment and what we want, what we desire! Now, if we can get that from a muffin and still have it be packed full of nourishing goodness then I’d say that’s one heck of a result!

We do stay away from the use of refined sugar and artificial sweeteners wherever possible in cooking and baking at home. We also have to avoid the use of wheat flour as my youngest daughter is intolerant to wheat gluten. Therefore, when I bake a treat, it’s something like a healthy muffin. The kids love it and I can be happy in the knowledge that they are eating something that is nourishing them rather than robbing them of their precious health.

The point of sharing such recipes also, is to encourage other people to experiment with their baking, to attempt to get their kids to like veg through adding it to things that they associate with a comforting treat and to let people know that eating real food and eating a healthy diet doesn’t have to mean excluding comfort food and treats, including muffins!

So, why do we need muffins? We don’t!

Do we want muffins? Hell Yes!

What Everyone Ought to Know About the Coca Plant

The coca plant is one of the most misunderstood plants currently being grown and harvested. Most commonly known for being the plant which cocaine is derived from, it has the stereotype of being a dangerous plant. However, the coca plant has many valid and safe uses, which have been utilized by herbalists since the plant's discovery.

The coca plant grows in South America, Africa, Ceylon, Taiwan, Indonesia and Formosa. However, it is most commonly known for its presence in the Andes of South America, where the majority of cocaine is produced. The first known documentation of the plant was in 1783, but it was not classified until 1786, where it was given the name Erythroxylum coca. However, it is believed that the coca plant has been established as a domestic plant for over 2,000 years. There is evidence within burial sites of coca to support this belief.

Tending to the coca plant requires diligence and effort. The life of the coca plant begins as a fruit, which is collected when the drupes are almost ripe. These drupes are placed within a basket and allowed to sit where the flesh of the fruit becomes soft. Once this has occurred, the seeds are removed and the seeds are placed in the sun to dry out.

Only once this occurs, the seeds can be planed. Germination takes approximately 24 days. Once the plant has acquired 4 leaves, they are protected by a lattice covering for a year.

After the year has ended, the plants are transferred to preparation fields. This transportation can only be made during the rainy season. Three years after this transfer, some leaves may be harvested. Once the coca plant is able to be harvested, they are harvested three or four times a year. A fully established acre of coca plants can yield 1,500 to 2,000 pounds of leaf per year.

While coca plants are annual, a field will be replanted once every twenty years, as the quality of the plant diminishes over time.

As coca plants are so valuable, there are many steps taken to protect the crops from natural predators and disease. There are several varieties of insects that prey on the Coca plants, as well as fungus that can cripple or kill the stalks, branches and leaves. Weeds can also be devastating to young coca plants, as the weeds rob the soil of the nutrients that the plants need for basic survival.

The most common use of coca plants is in the popular soft drink, Coca-Cola. While this beverage no longer contains cocaine, it is still made directly from the coca leaf.

Modern medicinal uses of coca include use as a bactericide, as spinal anesthetics and as treatments for ailments such as eczema and shingles.

Hip Joint Pain Relief Treatment, Causes and Symptoms

Hip joints form the most vital ball and socket joint of our body that supports the torso and provides the maximum mobility of our body. Hip joints are involved for each and every movement of the body that involves change in position. Any disturbance or dislocation of this ball and socket joint can result in painful situations. Hip pain may be felt within and any area around the hip joint. Though a common feature of aging, youngsters too experience this problem due to a variety of reasons.


1. Extreme discomfort in sitting, standing and other movements.
2. The pain may not be localized in hips but may be felt in the groin and thighs.
3. Any pain in the back can also pass to the hips.


1. Most of the hip joint pains result from fracture due to sudden falling down.
2. People suffering from osteoporosis are prone to fractures and dislocation of hip joints.
3. Arthritis can cause hip pains that can be felt in thighs and groin area.
4. Bursitis that cause pain in the hips while getting up from chair, walking etc.
5. Muscular sprain or strain
6. Osteonecrosis in the hips
7. Tendonitis
8. Nervous irritation
9. Sciatica or low back pain.

Relief from Hip joint pains

Some do’s and don’ts in case of Hip joint pains –


1. Sitting slightly leaning backwards.
2. Equal distribution of body weight on the legs while standing.
3. Weight should be lifted and carried closer to the body.
4. Body weight should be controlled.


1. Minimize high impact activities like sports, running and jumping.
2. Avoid activities that require wide spreading of the legs.
3. Restrict repeated bending of the hips.
4. Never sleep exerting pressure on the affected hips. It is advisable to sleep lying on the back or on stomach.
5. Avoid too much stair climbing that produces lots of frictions on the hip joints. 6. Prolonged sitting can worsen hip joint pains.

Treatments and Remedies

1. Various analgesics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs like acetaminophen and ibuprofen are prescribed to provide relief from hip joint pains.

2. Hip replacement surgery is also performed especially in case of osteonecrosis and acute arthritis.

3. Herbal extracts of Cat’s claw and Boswelia Serrata are very helpful in reducing the hip pain.

4. A massage of the Rumatone Gold herbal oils with Rumatone capsules gives good results.

Various stretching and muscle toning exercises are very beneficial in treating hip joint pains. But before starting the stretching exercises, a 15 minutes heat treatment is necessary that can be done through heated bath or shower. Heat helps in preparing the tissues of the hip muscles to be ready for the exercises.

Do Your Children Have Food Allergies?

Has your child been diagnosed with food allergies? There are a few ways to determine if your child does have allergies. You can go to the doctor and have an allergy test performed, but those are not 100% reliable when it comes to food allergies.

Plus some doctors regard tests as absolute, they cover everything that could be an allergen and if there is no reaction, your child is not allergic. But “Type III” allergies cannot be found with any type of laboratory testing, only by diet modification.

Diet modification is the best way to treat Food Allergies Children. Some common allergens can be avoided by simply not buying a certain brand or type of food. Other allergies, such as an allergy to wheat or potatoes, will require a total overhaul of the diet of your child.

You might even have to give up some of your family’s favorite meals because of the allergy. However, there are many websites out there that have recipes that take food allergies into account.

Many children are against changing their diet, they find comfort in having certain foods. Many adults are the same way. There are ways to get around the stubbornness and temper tantrums that would happen if you were to do a drastic diet modification overnight.

If your child is old enough to understand, you can try explaining the basics of food allergies to your child. This works well with children who realize that they should not feel so tired or ill all the time, usually by age 8 or 9.

Another way to avoid tantrums is to do a gradual change and do not single out the diet of your children. The gradual approach only works if the Food Allergies Children are not life threatening though. A good example of a gradual change is with a dairy allergy. Many children eat cheese on their sandwiches or have a yogurt tube for a snack. Skipping the cheese and giving your child a piece of fruit for a snack are small changes that will reduce the amount of dairy in your child’s diet.

You do not want to change just the diet of your child because that can make your child resent the rest of the family who can eat junk food. Using our dairy allergy example again, you can substitute rice or almond milk in recipes and make 2 small batches of certain foods, one with cheese the other without cheese.

How to Recognize Compassion Fatigue

Nurses are particularly vulnerable to compassion fatigue in the specialty areas of intensive care, mental health, pediatrics, and oncology because they enter lives of others during times of critical illness becoming partners as opposed to observers in their patient’s health. It is essential that nurses are aware of work stressors and warning signs of compassion fatigue so that work-life balance can be maintained.

Compassion fatigue is not the same as burnout, although they are related. Compassion fatigue is the profound emotional and physical exhaustion that develops over a course of time. It is the gradual erosion of all the things that keep us connected to each other as caregivers. When compassion fatigue begins to set in, we see changes in our personal and professional lives. We can become bitter at work; we may add to the toxic work environment; we are more prone to medical errors; and we may violate client boundaries. At home, we may become short-tempered with out loved ones and feel a sense of guilt or resentment at the ongoing demands on our personal time. This is the “cost of caring”.

Burnout is the physical and emotional exhaustion that you experience when you have low job satisfaction and feel powerless and overwhelmed at work. Burnout does not mean that our view of the world has been damaged or that we have lost the ability to feel compassion for others. Individuals who are non-helping professionals experience work-related burnout. Burnout can be easily resolved by changing jobs that provides immediate relief. This is not the case for compassion fatigue.

To develop your warning scale, you must increase your awareness of your own symptoms of compassion fatigue. Do you have any of the following symptoms?

Physical Signs of Compassion Fatigue

  • Physical exhaustion – feeling depleted not just tired
  • Insomnia or hypersomnia
  • Headaches and migraines
  • Increased susceptibility to illness
  • Somatization and hypochondria

Behavioral Signs and Symptoms

  • Increased use of alcohol and drugs
  • Other addictions (shopping, workaholic, compulsive eating)
  • Absenteeism from work
  • Anger and irritability (two key symptoms of compassion fatigue)
  • Exaggerated sense of responsibility
  • Avoidance of clients (not responding timely)
  • Impaired ability to make decisions
  • Forgetfulness
  • Problems in personal relationships
  • Attrition (quitting or taking extended time off)
  • Compromised care for clients

Psychological Signs and Symptoms

  • Emotional exhaustion (the hallmark of compassion fatigue)
  • Distancing; avoiding friends and family
  • Negative self-image
  • Depression
  • Reduced ability to feel sympathy and empathy
  • Cynicism and embitterment (not supporting new ideas; eye-rolling at a new nurse)
  • Resentment
  • Dread of working with certain clients
  • Feeling professional helplessness
  • Diminished sense of enjoyment/career
  • Depersonalization
  • Heightened anxiety or irrational fears
  • Increased sense of personal vulnerability
  • Inability to tolerate strong feelings
  • Problems with intimacy
  • Hypervigilance
  • Hypersensitivity (crying over simple things)
  • Insensitive to emotional content
  • Loss of hope
  • Difficulty separating personal and professional lives
  • Failure to nurture and develop non-work-related aspects of life

Make it Personal – What are YOUR warning signs? Take some time to answer the following questions.

  1. What S/S stand out most for me?
  2. What S/S do I bring home with me most often?
  3. What S/S do I experience at work?
  4. What do I have to lose if I don’t deal with the effects of this “occupational hazard”?
  5. What do I stand to gain if I move toward improved self-care?
  6. Who will be the biggest supporters of my self-care?

Eli Johnson, Why Do These Women Keep Choosing Their Men Over Their Children?

Eli Johnson lived with his mom Tye N. Shafer Johnson and her boyfriend Eddie E. Valdez. Eli’s mom knew abuse was going on in the home but never did anything to prevent it. After all, if she tried to stop her man he might leave right? If he left who would keep her bed warm or pay the bills?

Perhaps I shouldn’t be so hard on mama, she did after all say that they had “talked” about how “rough” he was and told him she didn’t really like it much.

Before I go into the exact event that killed little Eli on that September day in 2009 I want to mention one of the departments that I’ve found to be involved in this family’s life. Oklahoma Department of Human Services. They came into contact with Tye and her children for the first time on November 6, 2008. 9 months before Eli was tortured and beaten to death, and maybe sexually abused. Those charges were never founded or admitted but how else do you explain pubic hair in a 3-year-olds underwear and on his genitals? I only found that mentioned in one document and it was never spoke of again.

When OKDHS received their first referral the complainant said Eli had multiple bruises on his bottom while in the care of his mother Tye. The person calling said the biological father took Eli to the hospital and the doctor told him to make a police report. The report was filed and pictures were taken.

It took 5 days for OKDHS to reach Tye and the kids because they were delaying contact with the agency. OKDHS interviewed Tye, the children’s father, the paternal grandmother and 3 witnesses and also observed the kids.

Eli had bruises that were nearly gone by this time on his behind, upper back and around his eye. They also stated in their report that the doctor noted seeing “what appears to be finger length projections extending onto the right buttock and another separate small yellow bruise over the right SI area” and a “small superficial laceration over the lateral left eyelid.”

After OKDHS finished their observation of the Johnson children they offered “Confirm-Services” and Tye agreed to accept help.

On December 11, 2008 OKDHS noted in their files that they had not received a referral to provide those services.

On January 7, 2009 there was a note that the caseworker was working with Tye on anger-management for the last 3 weeks and the 8th was the last contact they had with Tye until after Eli was dead.

That note from the 8th stated that they recommended the father not to allow the kids to go back to the mother until she complete preventive services. OKDHS told her that she would have supervised visitation until she completed some of the preventative services, after that she would regain her regular custody schedule. Tye agreed and signed the voluntary services agreement.

On December 11th there was another note in OKDHS files that stated there was communications with the district attorney’s office, the current safety plan needed to be amended to comply with the court order granting visitation between Tye and the kids. The note also said Tye hadn’t started any preventative services to regain normal custody.

The amended saftey plan allowed Eli and Candra to be with their mom during the day if an adult was in their presence, at night they went to their father’s. The kids mother and biological father agreed to the mother’s boyfriend, Eddie or his sister supervising the mother’s visits.

Tye told OKDHS she abused Eli, not Eddie.

Evelyn Johnson, the kids great-granddaughter told reporters that OKDHS gave the kids back to Tye after she took anger-management classes.

The next OKDHS complaint came after Eli was already dead.

Eli was 3-years-old on September 16, 2009 when he was brought into Itegris Southwest Medical Center. Baby Eli was covered in bruises on his arms, legs, upper stomach, face, forehead, and genitals and he had cuts and sores on his lips. Eli was pronounced dead within 20 minutes.

Eddie and Tye both were taken to the police station were Eddie told investigators that he beat Eli after becoming “enraged” at him for pottying in his pants and because Eli would not listen to him. He continuously punched Eli in the stomach with full force.

After punching Eli in the stomach he lost all control and began attacking him all over his body. He then sat him on the toilet and told him he’d better use the bathroom. Eddie then left the bathroom for a little bit leaving Eli to sit there, to let him think about his hideous behavior. 3-year-olds should not be having accidents and Eddie expected Eli to get that through his head.

When Eddie returned he was furious, little Eli was on the bathroom floor “playing”, not sitting on the toilet where he’d commanded him earlier. Eddie saw red and lost control again. In a police report he told an investigator that he “blacked out” and no longer had control over himself. He has no idea how many times he hit 3-year-old Eli Johnson. Eddie says he did not “come to” until he saw Eli’s head in the toilet.

Afterwards, Eddie imposed a time-out on Eli by forcing him to stand on his toes with his hands behind his back but Eli could not do this because he was too weak from his beatings so Eddie put him on a kitchen table and made him do it there. Eddie must have thought he would have more leverage there.

Eli’s choice was to stand on his toes, hands behind his back or fall on his face 4 feet to the ground. Eli fell, numerous times. This infuriated Eddie more, Eli was faking and Eddie wasn’t in the mood for a 3-year-olds games, Eddie picked him up by his arms, held him out and dropped him at least twice but it could have been more.

During Tye’s interview with investigators she says that she heard her man giving her baby boy a “spanking” for having an accident in his pants but she had taken a Lortab (prescription pain pill) and was chillin’ on the couch while her son was, in her words, “screaming and crying more than usual.” She then decided she would go and see what was up and that’s when she saw bumps, lumps and bruises all over Eli, especially his little head. She told Eddie that he was going to far. Tye said she loved Eddie and thought he would change.

They resumed their day as a loving couple. Eddie’s brother Robert Valdez was there the whole time, he chose to go about his routine to. There were other kids in the home to.

Eli began throwing up everywhere and wasn’t being his happy, normal self. This went on for 5 hours, Eli was becoming weaker, couldn’t walk, couldn’t eat, he wasn’t Eli anymore but Eddie and Tye both admittedly say they didn’t think to take him to the hospital or call 911. That would have been to much trouble and they couldn’t have that.

Finally, Eli collapses and Eddie and Tye realized they had no choice so they drove him to Integris Southwest Medical Center around 5:40PM. We know what happened next.

Eli’s younger sister Candra (Kandra depending on where you see it) Johnson was 2-years-old at the time. Eddie said on September 15, 2009 Candra was being a terror and not minding him. Eddie has a hard time getting toddlers to mind and controlling his temper. The officers found Candra and she was also covered in bruises, she was alive though, thank God.

Eddie admitted to having an “anger problem” and to causing the murder of Eli and abusing Candra. What a great guy for accepting responsibility. I can see why Tye loves him so much.

Previous to this incident Eddie beat Eli’s feet with a plastic baseball bat so bad that they were swollen and black because he had another potty-training accident. Tye took him to the hospital several days later and left Eddie for a very short period of time but went crawling back to him.

Tye was sentenced to life in prison by a Oklahoma county jury in May after being found guilty of first-degree murder, child neglect and enabling child abuse.

Eli’s maternal grandmother said Eddie had “mental control” over her and she should not be charged with Tye’s murder. “I do think that she needs to do time because she failed to protect him,” Kimberly Shepard explained.

Tye gave birth while in prison to a baby girl, she was placed for adoption and is with her new family.

Candra was placed in protective custody, allegedly with a family member and Tye’s parental rights have been terminated.

The OKDHS’s last statement was;

“The OKDHS overall finding was Confirm-Court Intervention Requested, with a determination of shocking and heinous, which included a recommendation by the OKDHS for termination of the biological mother’s parental rights to the younger sibling.”

Too little, to late.

There were 7 other children removed from the home that same day, they belonged to Eddie and his brother Robert Valdez. Robert Valdez took a plea deal for neglect and was sentenced to 1 year in jail, he had to testify against Eddie and Tye.

Eddie Valdez pleaded guilty in March to first-degree murder and 2 counts of child abuse. He agreed to serve a life term without the possibility of parole.

This link goes to the Oklahoma OSCN case summary site

The Evolution Of Agoraphobia

This is how the debilitating condition known as Agoraphobia, commonly known as the fear of open spaces, develops. It starts with a person who is already struggling with generalized anxiety. The anxiety sufferer will ultimately develop an additional fear over the course of their disorder if it is left unchecked. They will begin to associate the places and situations they may have had a panic attack with the panic itself. If they had a panic attack at the grocery store, they will be likely to avoid grocery stores to keep the panic away. This leaves them trapped at the only place they feel comfortable and secure, which is their own home. Because of the potential of another panic attack occurring outside of their home, they eventually will stop trusting the outside world altogether. This affects all aspects of the life of the anxiety sufferer, who is now a bona fide agoraphobic. The unfortunate part is that the sufferer rarely talks about the fears they are living with, so even the closest people in their lives will be unaware of what is happening even though they may have a hunch that something is wrong.

In my life, being an agoraphobic was much scarier than my social anxiety. I was able to communicate with people at a respectable rate but I was constantly being misunderstood by others. The word would eventually get around to me that people thought I was a snob or that I was too shy, for example, and I realized that people were treating me differently depending on the label they had put on me. The person who thought I was a snob would keep conversations with me very short and would have little to do with me; the person who thought I was too shy he or she would try and force me to open up to them. It was strange, to say the least, and I wished that I just had the guts to tell people how it really was. Unfortunately I was scared of being thought of as crazy or weird, and I worried that people would not want to have anything to do with me.

I have since learned that people are a lot more caring and understanding than I thought. Most people want what is best for you, so opening up about your fears and what is holding you back is a great option. I didn’t start to open up to people about what was going on with me until I was stuck in the rut of being housebound for 31 days and realized I had to confront my fears or die alone. I was in my safe zone at that time, away from anything that would set off my unbearable physical sensations of anxiety, but I knew that I had to start finding a way to step up and take my life back.

My 31 days of Agoraphobia came to an end towards the end of that summer. I had no choice because my time off work was coming to an end. I forced myself to stop avoiding things and start facing the public places I feared the most. Although I still avoided family and friends in order to hide my condition, the overwhelming feelings of intense panic slowly started to subside as I put effort into reconditioning a new mindset about the places I feared. I also worked on making the lifestyle changes that were necessary for my recovery from GAD and panic.

Even famous people, such as actors and actresses, can suffer from Agoraphobia. Kim Basinger once said, “When I came to Hollywood, I could wear a bikini, but I was in misery because people were looking at me. So I wore baggy clothes and watched other girls get the big parts and awards. I used to go home and play piano and scream at night to let out my frustrations. And this led to my Agoraphobia”. This makes you realize that everyone, no matter how seemingly happy and successful, can be dealing with something that makes them not want to leave their house. I have felt this way; many of you reading this have felt this way too. The best thing you can do for yourself is to go out and face your fears in a systematic way, and you will see that what has been holding you back is a figment of your imagination. You can control your fear and panic; you just have to believe that you can.

The STRESS Process – How We Create Anxiety and Stress

The S.T.R.E.S.S process is a chain reaction that starts with a stimulus and ends in the symptoms we commonly refer to as ‘stress’. The process comprises the following stages:

S = Stimulus

The STRESS process is initiated by a stimulus or trigger either from the environment around us (a person, thing, situation) or from within us (a sensation, feeling or thought). The stimulus is relayed to the thalamus, an area in the fore-brain, which acts like a switchboard sending the data simultaneously to the amygdala (located in limbic system – the emotional centre of the brain) and the neocortex (the thinking brain).

T= Threat

The stimulus arrives at the amygdala before it reaches the thinking brain. Our emotional brain checks to see whether the stimulus represents an immediate or imminent danger. If the answer is yes, step 3 in the process is skipped because our survival may well depend on us “acting now and thinking later.”

R = Reality creation

Our brain is a virtual reality generator. We don’t experience the world objectively, only through our own subjective perception of it. Within our brain is the perceptual framework within which our entire experience of the world is constructed. We are not passive experiencers of the world; rather we are the creators of the world we experience.

A moment after reaching the amygdala the stimulus arrives at the thinking brain. Our thinking brain sets about interpreting what the stimulus means. Was the emotional brain correct and we’re facing a real danger or did it overreact or make the wrong assessment? Based on our thinking brain’s perception of the stimuli, it could confirm the stimuli as a threat or either tone down or switch off the emotional brain’s alarm.

E = Emotion

The fourth step in the S.T.R.E.S.S. Process is emotional arousal. The two emotions that can be aroused by real or perceived danger are fear and anxiety.

Fear is believed to be the oldest and strongest of emotions. It has ensured our survival as a species.

Anxiety is aroused in response to a perceived future danger. It causes us to behave with caution when approaching potentially dangerous situations or situations with uncertain outcomes. We respond with apprehension, nervousness or dread and react by preparing, planning and practicing so we can mitigate the risk inherent in the potentially dangerous situation.

S = Stress Response

In response to fear or anxiety the stress response is automatically activated. During the stress response hormones and neurotransmitters, like adrenalin and cortisol are released. These hormones and neurotransmitters prepare our body for physical action – to combat (fight) or escape from (flight) the real or perceived threat. As a result, our heart pounds, our muscles tense, and we are suddenly on high alert.

Stress = Stress Symptoms

The final step in the stress process is Stress. ‘Stress’ is the label we commonly use to describe the cocktail of brain – mind – body changes we experience as a result of activating the stress response. This cocktail comprises the following changes:

– cognitive (the way think),

– emotional (the way we feel and our moods),

– physiological (the way our body changes)

– behavioural (the way we behave)

The way we mix our stress cocktail is unique to each of us, and as a result, we all experience stress differently. However, our stress cocktail comes in two broad flavours:

1. Acute stress – the stress that we experience in response to a real and present danger. Once the danger has passed the stress response is switched off and our body returns to it’s normal balanced state.

2. Chronic stress – the name given to the prolonged and on-going activation of the stress response. Chronic stress can disrupt almost all our body’s processes. Research suggests that chronic stress underlies many of the illnesses and diseases that are overwhelming our health system and destroying the quality of middle and late life.

Knowledge is Power

I trust you’ve found this explanation of how our brain – mind – body performs the S.T.R.E.S.S process useful. I’ve found that gaining this understanding provides people with more choices about how they can change their experience of stress. For example someone who has only been focusing on easing their stress symptoms could choose to take action to avoid or change the stimuli that have been triggering their stress process.

Colon and colon cancer in women

Summary: Colon Health is the Key to a Long, Happy, and Disease-Free Life

Colon health is becoming exceedingly important; colon related diseases are some of the most prevalent diseases among Americans today. Colon health is dependent on the maintenance of beneficial intestinal bacteria and proper elimination. Colon therapy is a form of healthcare that in theory restores the function of the colon. Colon therapy refers to flushing water through the entire length of the colon or large intestine.


Conventional diets comprised of refined, processed foods, high in saturated fats, and low in fiber contribute to many problems associated with the large intestine. When the colon is packed with accumulated, hardened feces due to a poor diet, constipation, or some other gastrointestinal problem, waste can build up.

Most conventional doctors do agree, however, that avoiding red meat and other fatty foods, and eating a healthy, high-fiber diet, is the best way to keep the colon healthy.


Colon therapy offers many health benefits including detoxification, cleansing of the bloodstream and the stimulation of internal organs.

Controlling Your Weight

Difficulties controlling weight may be due to the excess garbage piled up in the colon.

Dietary Fiber

Fiber will increase the volume of stools, thereby increasing the frequency of evacuation. Aside from the benefits that fiber provides for your colon, it may also promote cholesterol health. Colon health is important and diet, fat consumption and fiber content can all impact the health of the colon.


Colon health is important and diet, fat consumption and fiber content can all impact the health of the colon. Good colon health is as much a function of the quality of food we eat, as it is our elimination status. It is believed that colon therapy can relieve a score of symptoms from gas, bloating, and constipation to depression, insomnia, and headaches. In practice, the herbal colon therapy has proved to be almost a specific for spastic colitis.

Summary: Colon Cancer and Colon Cancer Symptoms

Cancer of the colon cancer is the third leading cause of cancer deaths in America. Cancer of the colon is believed to be preventable, by specialists, if regular colon cleansing is performed. Development of cancer stimulating polyps is promoted by toxins that are present, and amass within the colon wall, according to experts.

Body detox and colon cleansing can bring many health advantages. If recognized quickly, colon cancer can be avoided even though it is one of the most familiar forms of cancer in the world. Nevertheless, it is normal for a colon cancer patient not to feel manifestations during the early phases. With an average diagnosed age of 64, about 90 percent of cancer of the colon examples is from individuals over 50. Cancer of the colon as well as many other forms of cancer and disease have been linked with smoking as a contributing factor. When you smoke, you can worsen the risk since the inhaled tobacco can transmit cancer-causing agents to the colon and can increase the size of the cancer polyp.

Foodstuffs that are rich in cholesterol and fat are likely to raise the risk of colon cancer. 

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How Water Can Help You Sleep

If you are having a difficult time sleeping at night, you might be surprised to find out that a lack of water in your system is to blame. The human body is a well over 90% water and is not only including the cells in our body, it also includes the cells in our brain. In order for our body to be in total balance, we need to make sure that it is properly hydrated. This will not only help us to feel better overall, it will help us to sleep and to sleep well.

The easiest way for us to hydrate ourselves and to make sure that we are getting a good night sleep is to drink plenty of clear, clean water. The true formula for making sure that your body is hydrated is to drink one half of your body weight in ounces of water on a daily basis. For example, if you are a 200 pound man, you will want to drink 100 ounces of water every day. This can present a little bit of a challenge for many of us but if we break it up into five or six different drinks, it really does not seem all that bad.

Another thing that you want to make sure that you are doing is getting sufficient salt in your diet. If you are drinking extra water, your body is going to need extra salt. Just as salt without water is bad for your body, water without salt is equally bad. Take a pinch of salt with every glass of water that you drink. If you find that your body is swelling a little bit, cut back on the amount of salt that you are taking. If you find that your body is cramping, however, that is usually a sign that you need additional salt in your diet.

The most common complaint about drinking extra water for insomnia is that you are going to be getting up more often during the night in order to go to the bathroom. Although this may be a problem initially, your body will eventually adjust and you will actually get up less frequently once your body is fully hydrated. Try drinking this amount of water for one week. Not only will you achieve an overall sense of well-being and more vibrant health, you may just find that you are sleeping better every night.