Movie Magic – The Gothic Depiction of Criminal Behavior

The singular suggestion of serial behavior conjures images of "monsters" in human form. Movie magic is the clever sleight of hand that thrills our senses. Inventiveness of writers, directors and technicians compete to titillate our imagination. Talented artistic people develop creative works of fiction for the vast entertainment industry. Through the imaginative lens of techno-wizardry, films manifest a dream world of dramatic fictional invention. Great tales are told, representing large impact. We enter the movie theater or turn on the television with the intent of getting some vicarious experience. Along with that, we're expecting what we see and hear somehow approaches the truth. The same thing applies when we boot up the computer. Regardless of the medium, a vast world of electronic communication unfolds.

We're confronted by a sensory array of myth, magic and mystery. Our thinking accepts meshing between myth and material reality. An eerie kind of darkness pervades our feelings, permeates the genre we consume. Screens of computers and televisions skim the beneficial leads of human diversity and deviance. Supernatural illusions draw upon the sensory array of personal consumption. Darkness descends, the shadows move and the thoughts fall into a dreamland. In the crimson curtain real of the modern theater, demonic personalities are given life, meaning and purpose. But, it's only real insofar as the movie reel is concerned. Yet, for many of us, we see, believe and fail to perceive the minority trickery at work. The fictional magic of murder, mayhem and mystery becomes thrilling, enchanting and breathtaking. Evil captivates the thinking processes as reality slips away, replaced with another kind of realism.

Human nature is difficult to define. Real-life crime is often difficult to solve. But, movies figure everything out in less than two hours. At the same time, civil experts replace real police heroes, solving complex crimes by theory in lieu of effective detective work. Evidence becomes unnecessary since the latest fad of profiling has all the answers to the who done it. The unexplained, the hidden and darkly dangerous conjure an artifice of illusion suggesting all puzzles have solutions. Facts fold within the fusing fabric of fiction. Stories of fictitious creation seem, appear and feel as if true. Yarns, legends and fairy-tales provoke us to feel instead of thinking critically. The brain's mirror, the mind, goes numb. Apparitions of ilological conclusions find contemporary credence. Instead of human beings who kill people out of their own selfish desires, they are transformed by press agents into "serial killers", "monsters" among us.

We're seduced by the fakery that sells symbolism over substance, myth and magic instead of factual evidence. Diversion distracts our emotions into the make believe world of amusement. The "gothic mode" of thought and action stimulate fears, taboos and any of a serial nature. The melodrama of such fascinations leak over into the real world of everyday life. Unfortunately, when this happens we replace serious analysis with fantasy, false conclusion and erroneous beliefs. In time, public policy becomes affected. As a result, misnomers of one nature or another enter political arena. In law enforcement we've become "mind hunters", "hunt monsters" or "get inside the criminal mind".

Can we seriously distinguish the difference between fact and fiction as an American public? That requires rethinking our thinking. Conventional "wisdom", on the other hand, seems to suggest we should not be confused by facts. Some would say it's doubtful we can separate the truth from deception. Too many experts offer claimed talents, providing a maze of explanations. In the mean time, police work sufferers the interference of impressions left by movie magic. The indignity of misguided political correctness, due to the latest fad of fiction, forces itself on real-life police investigations. People without any practical experience or knowledge in law enforcement, are quick to get involved. They offer nebulous opinions, spurious interpretations and specious excuse for criminal behavior. Politicians quote from movies instead of the lessons of history. At the same time, good story tellers do what they're supposed to do. Entertain us, not educate us. Give us leisure time outlets, not teach us about law enforcement processes. The news media, motion picture productions and TV have all contributed to the glamorization of criminal behavior. Given time, and sufficient reporting, the villain can become the victim. Our criminal nature becomes type cast as a virus in an emotional production that spreads through the populace like the common cold.

Certain film genres fabricate the erroneous articulation of criminal behavior. Thriller narratives strive to capitalize on our gullible notions of good and evil. They can paint a gothic portrait of human nature without the defining colors of factual evidence. In depth forensic analyzes are not needed. Dark images of vampire-like characters lurk across the silver screen. The compositions of real-life criminals can be immortalized in the titling of one lurid tale after another. At the same time, we often do not heed the warnings of caution. The one that tells us the story was inspired by true life events, but is really false. Or, the statement that plainly says the tale is a work of fiction. Literary license challenges our belief systems. So, we think what we watch is reality. That's what creative story telling is all about.

Unfortunately, some of us live by the concept that seeing is believing. Questioning what we experience by the senses, or analyzing with critical insight, often escapes the notice of cerebral processes. Urban legends spread the mythology of untruths. Overall, the public enjoys a good scary movie. The success of horror films goes without question. Many people find fascination in the viewing of violence, debauchery and murder. Our mental mayhem is tantalized by the tingling sensation of "blood and guts" depictions. Very easily, we make the leap from fact to fiction upon leaving the theater, or turning off the television set. From soap operas and sitcoms, to weekly dramatic series, we relish in the chronicle of escapism. Common sense, logic and reason seem turn off when the tube is turned on. Through various media, we experience a multitude of untruths. We forget movies are about marketing, ratings and making money. As such, movie magic transforms fictional depictions of aberrant criminal behavior into a fantasy of realism. Many of us make easy assumptions about the nature of human criminality. Such notions transform and cross over into our daily lives. This is especially true when it comes to serial killers and mass murderers. Our media culture, from the internet to television, entertains us with bizarre tales of the human imagination.

The obsession with the dark side of human nature seems to know no boundaries of sensational depiction. In collusion with our mass media, we press the edge of fascination with a passion for sensual flirtations. Peeked sensitivity, in our seductive peeking, we look through hidden windows into the ghostly regions of gloomy delusions. On the surface, we oppress, regress and hide the nature of our inherent proclivities. As a hypocritical culture, it's always the other guy who's abnormal, bad or evil. Today's murder transforms into the darkness of the vampiric personification of evil. Yet, crime and deviancy rest at the heart and soul of the shortcomings of human nature. Criminality does not hide in some nebulous realm on the periphery of the external world. Nor is criminal behavior the product of social, economic or parental disadvantage. It lives and breathes inside each us. Some control their behavior, while some choose not to. At the same time, we allow ourselves to be seduced by thinking all the bad stuff in somewhere in the pixels of the television set. From the shadows of the black capes, pale skin and darkened facial makeup, we warn to cringe at our own preoccupation with horror. Life and death issues are instructed to the simplistic by celluloid composites of clever fictional imaginations.

Fearful enticements of the darkly dangerous, devious and sinful lure our sensory array into the fantasies of our thoughts. We'll never know exactly, to every possible possible, all the thoughts inside a person's mental preoccupations. People will only say what we want to hear and what they want to tell us. To look inside the "criminal mind" is to see an illusion of the true darkness lurking there. Most of us would rather believe in fairy tales than know what's behind the smoke and mirrors of legend and allegory. Victims and villains, along with superheroes, capture the imagination. Murders have wide audience appeal due to the classic literary portrays of movie magic. The various "tales of suspense" seem to toy with our sense of vulnerability in the world we often do not understand.

The solution to criminality, policing and public policy, can be found in knowing the facts. Not getting confused by myth, magic and metaphor. Instead, thinking in logical, rational and reasonable ways to distinguish between illusion and certainty. Pursuing the truth by following the scientific evidence gains the momentum of finding the answers. Forensic applications pertain to adherence to provable results. Separate truth from fiction, myth from reality and applying critical analysis, define the search for viable explanations. Veracity clings to the necessity of authenticity, as opposed to fad and fashion. When public officials approach the podium, they must assert the courage of their convictions. Rather than lace sounds bytes with mixed messages of colorful imagery, figures of speech and metaphorical misguidance. The criminal justice community has to shun political correctness of public acquiescence to quick fix solutions, the rush to judgment and immediate gratification. The surreal gothic depiction of criminality must remain in the entertainment world of movie magic.

Ozone and Oxygen Therapy Through The Ages – Part One

Civil wars and bloody tribal conflicts, economic instability, increasing exploitation of natural resources, mounting population and mounting pollution. There is an epidemic of AIDS and an epidemic of cancer. Tuberculosis is rising again, and new viral infections seem to pop up
weekly, as in the native population in the southwest in recent years, and the flesh eating
staphylococcus bacteria is spreading faster than the Black Plague.

The situation seems to grow worse daily and the modern doctor has tools of little power to
combat these rising health concerns. Antibiotics are losing their effectiveness, prescription
drugs kill at least 150,000 people a year in the US, and the chemical/drug companies lobby
harder than ever to eliminate the competition–vitamins and natural herbs and the naturopaths
that prescribe them. Health care in America costs an estimated two billion dollars each and
every day, yet the population grows sicker every minute.

Into this gloomy scenario has come a breath of fresh air–an old and proven treatment that
American doctors mostly abandoned, but European doctors nurtured and developed. That
treatment is medical ozone and oxygen therapy. Both (H2O2 and H2O3) were first used over one hundred years ago and found to be of great value.

In 1896, the electrical genius Nikola Tesla patented an ozone generator and in 1900 founded
the Tesla Ozone Co. Many doctors treated patients with Tesla’s ozone and got excellent
results. However, the corrosiveness of the gas to rubber equipment made ozone treatment
unpopular with American physicians, and most had dropped it by the thirties under pressure
from the AMA. Tesla developed another type of ozone generator in the twenties, based on a
cold plasma principle, but the materials for handling it still did not exist. Also in the twenties, Tesla developed magnesium dioxide and gave it to Dr. Blass, who used it with good results, marketing it as Homozone.

In Germany, during the First World War, a Dr. A. Wolff used ozone and oxygen on a variety of health problems, from gangrene to trench foot to chlorine gas burns to influenza, with great effect. His work and results were written up in German medical journals of the time.
But it was not until the fifties, through the efforts of Dr. Hansler in Germany, that ozone came into its own. With the aid of modern materials including resistant plastics, and with the
development of modern ozone generators, it became possible to safely handle and administer
medical ozone and oxygen.

Since that time, over ten million patients have been treated with ozone, with many millions of
doses given, by more than 7,000 doctors. It has proven to be the safest medical treatment of all time, with less than ten deaths in fifty years, and with less than 1500 people found to be allergic to ozone in all that time. But you still won’t find it in common use in America.

Medical ozone and oxygen has already proven effective against over 100 diseases, and the list grows daily. Since no anaerobic bacteria, virus, protozoa or fungus can live in a high oxygen atmosphere, all diseases caused by these agents are curable with ozone/oxygen. Patients with cancer, AIDS, tuberculosis, arthritis, heart disease, stroke, etc., are cured by therapeutic applications of ozone and oxygen almost without exception, and without serious side effects.

These are the facts regarding medical ozone and oxygen use in Europe. President Reagan received ozone treatment for cancer when he was in Germany in 1986. Members of the FDA have taken their wives to Germany for treatment of breast cancer.

NATO has adopted ozone for cleaning the blood supply, and the Canadian Armed Forces are about to do the same. Ozone, because of its powerful antiviral / antibacterial / antiprotozoal abilities is the treatment of choice for the water supply in over 3000 municipalities around the world, including almost all the major cities: Paris, Brussels, Moscow, Zurich, Amsterdam, Florence, Singapore, New York, Tampa, Dallas, Los Angeles, etc. It is also employed to treat sewage to such high standards that it is often returned to the input in true recycling.

It is becoming the top option for industry to clean its waste, and in the case of pulp mills, mandatory. H2O2 and H2O3 are replacing chlorine throughout the world, as the carcinogenic dangers of organochlorides are being realized. We are not far away from a worldwide ban on the production of chlorine, which will rid us of a dangerous environmental pollutant. There are over 100 cities using ozone in the U.S. today with many more planned.

But on the medical front, the FDA fights a cynical battle against doctors who are determined
that their patients shall not die of AIDS or cancer or ALS or MS or any of the multitude of
other diseases that ozone and oxygen can cure, but which no chemical drug touches.

But no matter how hard the FDA persecutes these healers, the tide is turning and the outcome is inevitable. Medical ozone and oxygen treatments will take their rightful place as the leading therapeutic remedies.

My Recycled Greyhound

Some people believe greyhounds are working dogs that enjoy chasing a mechanical rabbit, and at the end of their exciting careers become recycled into a family pet – a nice life with the ultimate retirement. This however, is just not the way the story goes, and in the case of my repurposed greyhound, he simply beat the odds.

The real story is the life of a greyhound is not even close to nice. When housed at the race track, they spend about 20 hours of the day confined in small cages barely large enough for them to stand up or turn around. If their stats are below par, they are retired from racing. A retired female may end up as a brood, spending years on a farm breeding more potential racers. Some retirees end up in veterinary research labs because greyhounds have a universal blood type and because they are so docile, they are easy to handle. The lucky get adopted, and the remaining gets destroyed.

Over 15,000 greyhounds were registered in 2009(1). More were born but got culled as they were not suitable for racing. Many suffer broken legs or necks, spinal cord paralysis or go into cardiac arrest while racing and have to be put down. Some states do not require that records be kept on injuries or deaths, which I suppose is deemed too much information for the public. The industry does admit though to destroying thousands of greyhounds each year, which is estimated to be as many as 3,000(2).

I was shocked when I recently read that greyhounds tested positive for cocaine at a track in Birmingham. It’s hard for me to even get my head around this act of cruelty. My husband took me to our local track to see the deal firsthand. What I saw was mostly shady characters who probably consider gambling their “job” and a few semi-normal people that might have been just looking for something different to do on a Saturday night.

Thanks though to the tireless efforts of GREY2K USA, a non-profit group headed by the talented Christine Dorchak, who serves as both President and General Counsel, only 23 tracks are still operational in 7 states: Alabama has 3 tracks, Arizona one, Arkansas one, Florida has 13, Iowa has 2, Texas one, and West Virginia has 2. Gone most recently are the tracks in Colorado, Kansas, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island and Oregon.

This amazing group has been able to ban greyhound racing by working with state politicians to pass the “Greyhound Protection Act,” while defeating attempts to keep tracks alive with subsidies and tax breaks, or the back door approach where promoters lobby for a law legalizing slot machines to save the live racing. If the tracks are successful at getting slots, they remain economically viable and the dogs continue to remain disposable commodities.

Defeating dog track owners is no easy task. It has taken the hard grassroots approach of collecting thousands of signatures in order to place a measure to end dog racing before voters. People were shown state records documenting hundreds of injuries, along with actual video footage of terrible collision that are common occurrences and photographs of the endless confinement greyhounds endure. This hard proof gave the greyhounds a voice. And the numbers and force of the people proved that small groups of people really can bring about big change.

There is currently a blogger dedicated to seeing that that last remaining track in Arizona is closed http://www.endtucsongreyhoundracing.com/blog/. She discusses the issues associated with this industry in no uncertain terms. There is also something like 350 greyhound rescue groups throughout the U.S. comprised of volunteers that find ways to transport, feed, medically treat, house and market these dogs to the public. If a track closes, these groups network in an effort to place dogs across states. You can imagine the constant work involved to make even a dent in the number greyhounds needing homes in a state like Florida with a whopping 13 tracks. What does this say about my state of Florida? Gambling trumps animal welfare?

I was initially put off to hear that my local rescue group was neutral on racing, but then it occurred to me that they are dealing with ruthless people and this is their way of getting in to make the saves. I had the experience of going with members of a rescue group to pick up dogs as space had become available. We went to a kennel that was full of all these beautiful dogs in all their wonderful colors stacked in crates with their almost human eyes looking so intently at us as if to say, “please pick me.” It was heart-wrenching to leave with only two, and no one can convince me that another group came to that particular kennel to pick up the rest.

My greyhound Buddie, who raced for a short period under the name Mr. Pibb, is an amazing recycled dog. He is gentle and loving and gives standing hugs if allowed. He is an ambassador for his breed using his charm to get hugs and kisses by people everywhere he goes. Most tend to think greyhounds are full of energy, but the truth is they are used to lying around and being active for only short periods of time. Other things that people usually don’t know is that greyhounds don’t bark, they have a sweet smell and barely shed, they walk right by your side on a leash and many enjoy cats. What more could you ask for in a pet?

If you are interested in learning more about greyhounds or adopting go to http://www.grey2kusa.com.

(1) National Greyhound Association, Breeding Stats, 2009.

(2) National Greyhound Association, KABC Channel 7 ABC TV, February 20, 2009.

How is Aquamarine Formed?

Aquamarine gemstones belong to the prestigious beryl group of minerals. Beryl crystals are some of the precious gems that occur in nature.

The name -Aquamarine- has its origin in the Latin phrase ‘Water of the sea’. Yes, this pleasing to the eye gem stone has the color of ‘water of the sea’ indeed.

Indigenous rocks facilitate the growth conditions for aquamarine formation. As the pluton got cooled minerals got crystallized to form gemstones like aquamarine. The size of the crystal is a relative to the cooling rate. Big crystals are formed when the rate of cooling is very slow.

These gemstones get formed naturally under specific violent geologic conditions. Formation of naturally occurring aquamarine gemstones dates back to 35 million years ago when the mineral-rich high-pressure magma flowed below into the rock layers of mountain ranges. As it got cooled, the magma fluid got trapped in to cavities of mineral-saturated fluid that got heated to a very high 1,112° F. Minerals including aquamarines and other gemstones crystallized of these fluid pockets. Over millions of years the pressure and temperature variations caused erosion, uplift and displacement that all resulted in crystals, minerals and gems.

Aquamarine, a precious earthly gem is found in naturally occurring geological formations. These crystal formations are popularly termed pegmatite. Generally large crystals form in open vugs called pockets. These are commonly associated with crystals of feldspar, muscovite and quartz.

These gems also occur in cavities in granites and greisens. During the cooling stages of emplacement, granite rocks got displaced and eroded to form hydrothermal carbonate veins that host aquamarine in large quantities.

This clear and transparent gemstone often occurs together with well known pegmatite accessory minerals like garnet, biotite, topaz and phenakite.

Chemically stating aquamarine is a beryllium aluminium silicate mineral. It has Mohs hardness ranging from 7.5 to 8 with a specific gravity of about 2.68 to 2.74. Good hardness and good specific gravity, the prominent properties of this gem makes it available in alluvial deposits as well.

Aquamarines are largely found in Brazil, Zimbabwe, Namibia, South Africa, and United States are some other places where it is present in large quantities. In India dark blue aquamarines have been mined.

It is quite common that aquamarine roughs are available in huge masses in nature. Roughs as large as 110kilograms have been discovered at some mines. Enormous quantity of gems weighing around 2000 carats have been cut from crystal formations that occur in nature.

The pale green to pleasant blue shades of aquamarine is caused by the iron present in its crystalline structure. The trace amounts of iron present in this beautiful gemstone give them their beautiful color that ranges from pastel blue to bluish green.

This gem usually occurs in very large crystals that are shaped in perfect hexagons. Bi-color aquamarines are also naturally present together with other beryl minerals like morganite. Naturally occurring aquamarine rough are usually flawless devoid of any inclusions and are not very expensive.

All About Lung Cancer

Lung cancer occurs when abnormal cells begin to reproduce and attack the tissues of the lungs.

That’s the plain and simple explanation. Here’s a short expansion: in its normal life, a cell will grow, divide, proliferate and then die, all the while meeting the needs of your body. When one or more of these cells begin to reproduce on their own, without serving their original purpose within the body, they form a tumor or a cancer. This is a mutation that researchers don’t fully understand. Left unchecked, the cells will continue to reproduce and spread throughout the lung’s tissue and then into the other vital organs of the body.

In 2004, the last year in which statistics were available at the time of the writing of this article, approximately 158,000 US citizens died from lung cancer, more than breast cancer, colon cancer, and prostrate cancer combined. While the numbers continue to drop every year as new strides are made in treating the disease and educating people, this is still represents a major health problem.

The primary cause of most lung cancers is …

Yes, you guessed it … cigarette smoking. Or more precisely, the inhalation of the carcinogens contained within the smoke. If a smoker is also exposed to radon in the environment, well, that’s a ticking time bomb waiting to go off. Beyond these two contributors, there is a form of lung cancer called mesothelioma, which results from exposure to asbestos. However, cigarette smoke continues to be the major causes behind most forms of lung cancer.

Lung Cancer Symptoms

Here are few things to be looking for if you’re concerned about the potential for lung cancer:

– Fatigue
– Shortness of breath and wheezing (dyspnoea)
– A cough that doesn’t go away and gets worse over time
– Repeated problems with pneumonia or bronchitis
– Constant chest pain
– Coughing up blood (bloody sputum) (haemoptysis)
– Swelling of the neck and face
– Fever
– Loss of appetite and weight loss (anorexia)
– Hoarse voice

Other symptoms can include repeated bouts of pneumonia, changes in the shape of the fingertips, and swollen or enlarged lymph nodes (glands) in the upper chest and lower neck. Any and all of these symptoms may be caused by lung cancer or by a range of other medical conditions. That is, the presence of one or more of these symptoms does not automatically mean that you have lung cancer. Which is why you need to visit with your physician if you have any concerns at all.

Forms of Lung Cancer

The two primary forms of lung cancer are small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

Non-small cell lung cancer accounts for approximately 80% of diagnosed lung cancer cases. Within this category of lung cancer, there are three main sub-categories … squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinomas, and large cell carcinomas. Sometimes two or even all three can appear together.

Small cell lung cancer is the less common of the two, which is good, because it’s also the more deadly. Smoking is the primary cause behind this form of lung cancer. SCLC is aggressive and fast-moving. It rapidly metastasizes to other organs, and is often not discovered until the cancer is already widespread throughout the body.

The Good News

Since prevention is always better than cure, it’s highly advisable to avoid the use tobacco. The best way to increase your odds of never encountering lung cancer is to never start smoking in the first place. However, if it’s already too late for you, there’s still some good news. You can gradually decrease your risk of the disease if you quit at any early age and your lungs are given 10 to 15 years to recover from the damage already imparted upon them.

Cuba Is One Of Five Healthiest Countries in the World

"Healthy countries" is not the most popular information subject for mass media. Newspapers typically write about viruses, diseases or epidemics affecting the whole region at once. The American magazine "Foreign Policy" has published the rating of the five healthiest countries and explained its choice.

Japan

On the whole, the Japanese live longer than representatives of other nations – their average lifetime makes up 86 years. The secret of the Japanese health consists in bodily exercise and food products with a low content of cholesterol. The Japanese diet includes fish, rice and sea-weed which lower the risk of heart diseases and cancer.

Fitness clubs have come in fashion in Japan. Sound health of several generations of this nation is maintained and improved due to a special state program which provides exercising before and during the workday. This program is advanced by the Government.

The largest Japanese mobile operator already offers "Fitness Phone", a service of measuring daily physical exercise, to lovers of the advanced technologies.

Nowadays, population health is programmed by the "western" food with its traditionally high content of fat: 7 million of the Japanese are suffering from diabetes, which spreads in Asia quicker than that in other parts of the world.

France

France has the lowest rate of heart diseases which are considered the main reason of mortality. Specialists explain this fact by slow eating and daily consumption of a glass of wine. The French cuisine is traditionally rich in fats and carbohydrates, but it is ateen slowly, a little at a time and washed down with a moderate amount of wine.

It is worth mentioning that in 2002 the World Health Organization declared France the healthiest country of the European Union. Despite the fact that many of the French die of cancer and other severe diseases, the average lifetime in France makes up 75 years for men and 83 years for women, and goes on increasing.

Nowadays, obesity is declared a major problem, and a high rate of mortality caused by cancer and cardiovascular diseases is registered in France. The leadership of this country concerned the low rate of cardiovascular diseases is running the risk of becoming a negative leadership.

Iceland

Iceland has the lowest child mortality rate and the best antenatal care in the world. Figures speak for themselves: 2 deaths of children under five per one thousand of newborns. In the USA this rate makes up 7 children.

The Icelandic Government pays for a wide range of services of mother and child medical care. Beside, it assures maintenance of 80 per cent of the mother's salary during three months.

However, nowdays the Icelandic population also suffers from obesity. The country annually consumes an enormous amount of sugar per capita, mainly due to an exaggerated passion for carbonated beverages.

Sweden

Sweden may boast of the highest probability of survival in case of a cancer disease, as well as of an almost 100% rate of child immunization.

Almost 14% of the state expenses go to healthcare and make up 85% of expenses on medical care. Beside, the 9-million population is served in modern hospitals and clinics equipped with the latest medical equipment.

The Swedes believe that a comprehensive social assistance which provides everything from professional development support to street illumination lowers the population sickness rate.

There still is a problem of queuing: the Swedes have to wait for reception and operations. The attempts to transfer small medical institutions to private ownership do not result in any evident progress.

Cuba

The island of freedom may rightly be proud of a low child mortality rate and a medium lifetime. The rate of six doctors per one thousand of Cubans is the highest rate in the world.

According to the experts, a big number of doctors can not guarantee the population health, however, in Cuba it contributes to efficiency of measures on disease prevention. Thousand of Cuban doctors annually go abroad on study tours. Due to professionalism and the state support of healthcare Cuba achieves results even Europe may be envious of.

On the other hand, the focus on prevention and early diagnosis leads to the lack of drugs in the country. Beside, it is expected that openness of the Cuban society and increase in purchasing capacity of big layers of population will stimulate the "import" of European and American diseases connected with dieting and food.

It is also worth mentioning that according to the Public Organization "March of Dimes" the healthiest countries from the genetic point of view are France, Austria, Australia, Switzerland and Russia.

8 million children with severe genetic defects are born every year. It makes up 6% of the total number of newborns. The number of newborns with severe genetic effects in the most developed countries makes up from 397 to 425 per 10.000 children.

The Russian rate makes up 429 per 10.000 newborns. The USA with its rate of 478 per 10.000 children occupations the 20th place, right after Cuba. The list is enclosed by Benin, Saudi Arabia and Sudan (from 779 to 820 per 10,000 newborns respectively). Among the post-Soviet countries the worst indicators are registered in Tajikistan (752), Kyrgyzstan (735) and Azerbaijan (631).

We should remember that our health is affected not only by environment, the level of medical and genetic consulting and the healthcare level on the whole. A great deal depends on every one of us: his / her culture, education and lifestyle.

Why Entrepreneurship Is the Ideal Career Choice for Millennials

If you have ever taken a second to look at the founders and creators of your favorite businesses and brands, you will find that many are under the age of 34. Even in my local community, the entrepreneurial landscape is thriving with twenty and thirty-somethings all out to create a future for themselves. I plan to join the ranks of being an entrepreneur. When asked why I wish to do so, I have realized it was never really a choice for me, but a notion that was always there, a trait that was embedded within in somehow long before I knew it was there. This, then, begs the question; why are so many Millennials flocking to entrepreneurship as a career choice?

What is a Millennial?

To answer why Millennials are choosing a life in entrepreneurship, you first have to know what a Millennial is. There aren’t set start and end years for this generation, but the consensus typically places this group at being born in the 1980’s and 1990’s, coming to early adulthood in the early 2000’s. Business dictionary defines Millennials (or Generation Y) as such, adding that it consists of the offspring of the Baby boomers (Generation X, and that having access to technology at an early age has not only forced businesses to incorporate use and updates of technology at a faster rate, but also to update hiring strategies. So, how Millennials view the workplace and a career?

Millennials Behavior Towards Careers

Needy, entitled, arrogant, overly relaxed, are many of the terms you’ll find used to describe the Millennial generation, and in all fairness, they can be true, but what I think the more seasoned workforce veterans perceive as negative attributes could be a misunderstanding of what each generation is looking for in their lives and a career.

Jeff Fromm, Forbes contributor and author of “Millennials in the Workplace: They do not Need Trophies, but They Want Reinforcement” learned the average tenure for Millennials was only two years, while the average for Baby Boomers was seven, with Generation X decreasing that to about five years. In the same article, Fromm explains the cause for this low retention rate to Millennials putting the focus on growth. If growth does not seem evident to a Millennial, they have no problems changing jobs to get it.

Why Millennials Rather Forge Their Own Path

Fromm shares that Millennials growing up in an era where resources are virtually infinite, have gained and embraced an entrepreneurial mindset that allows them to always be on the hunt for opportunities. MindTickle, exploring the “10 Millennial Personality Traits HR Managers Can’t Ignore”, listed number one on their list millennials’ need to find a job or career that has “meaning”, with a Fast Company article uncovering that to include: having the ability to share their gifts, making an impact on other’s lives, and living a life they desire. Millennials have also had the privilege of growing up with role models who are entrepreneurs, allowing the idea of starting a business the expected logical thing to do, rather than an exception. ( http://www.entrepreneur.com/article/269995 ).

Millennials Traits

So, what traits do Millennials have that makes entrepreneurship an appealing career choice and a successful one?

For starters Millennials are an open and collaborative bunch. I believe this is primarily from growth into adulthood with social media. Being willing to share and receive feedback from peers allows Millennials to naturally transition into a transformational leadership style that is key to successful innovation, a skill needed for corporations and entrepreneurs alike to thrive.

Jim Moffat, Chairman and CEO of Deloitte Consulting, in his article “The Seven Positive Qualities of Millennials That Can Help You Improve Your Business” found Millennials to be motivated, natural leaders and innovators, thinking of innovation as a science, while also noting our inherited entrepreneurial spirit aiding in our ability to build a business.

Will Millennials be the Best Entrepreneurs Yet?

It is hard to determine, but the tools and mindset of a Millennial might make it possible. With the focus being placed on growth and opportunity, and business role models fashioned after entrepreneurs the likes of Mark Zuckerberg, and Steve Jobs. Big ideas coupled with the impatience of a career to reach them is what drives a Millennial and what makes a career in entrepreneurship a perfect choice.

Natural Cure For Wrinkles Skin Creases

Looking for a natural cure for wrinkles? You just came to the right place. You can find some good ingredients in your pantry and even in your refrigerator’s vegetable compartment. These methods should put the life back on your facial skin in no time.

Honey

This ingredient as a way to bring back your skin’s youthful glow is an old method even used by ancient people. This is because it contains quite a lot of proteins that can help facilitate the proper regrowth of skin collagen and elastin.

Just put on honey on your face and leave it there for a few minutes, say for about 30 minutes and then wash it off. In addition to its youth-promoting efficacy, it can also help soften skin and get rid of crustiness and dryness.

Milk

Milk is a good skin softener and one that promotes younger-looking skin. It also helps improve your complexion and brightens your face up as it removes dead skin cells that populate the surface of the dermis.

Get cotton balls and soak them in water and wipe your face with the cotton ball. You can also get Vitamin E capsules, prick them and mix the liquid with milk and apply it on your face.

Egg White

This helps improve skin elasticity. Many people do not like the smell of raw egg so you might want to add a few squirts of lemon juice to get rid of the smell. Separate the egg white from the yolk first before doing this. Apply it on your face and leave it there for about 30 minutes.

Because eggs contain proteins, they can help supply proteins that will improve the production of collagen and elastin.

After doing any of these natural methods, you should follow it up with a good, hydrating moisturizer. Pick one that contains natural ingredients such as Manuka honey, grape seed extract and CynergyTK.

Manuka honey is a good choice as it contains more nutrients than regular honey. It also contains ingredients that can get rid of skin irritation and improve the immune functions of dermis.

Grape seed extract and CynergyTK both improve skin elasticity. CynergyTK works better as it helps facilitate the production of collagen and elastin.

Knee Pain – Treatment for Knee Pain

Knee pain can be related to overuse where small stresses are placed a large number of times on knee without allowing adequate recovery, for example running too much too soon, or excessive jumping. Or knee pain can be acute where the injury is caused by an impact or twisting of the knee such as an anterior cruciate ligament injury. An overuse injury can also be considered to be acute if it is painful or inflammed.

Knee pain is a common reason that people visit their doctors’ offices or the emergency room. Often, knee pain is the result of an injury, such as a ruptured ligament or torn cartilage. But some medical conditions can also bring you to your knees, including arthritis, gout and infections.
The knee joint is surrounded by a joint capsule with ligaments strapping the inside and outside of the joint (collateral ligaments) as well as crossing within the joint (circulate ligaments). These ligaments provide stability and strength to the knee joint.

Symptoms of Knee Pain

Loose body: Sometimes injury or degeneration of bone or cartilage can cause a piece of bone or cartilage to break off and float in the joint space. This may not create any problems unless the loose body interferes with knee joint movement — the effect is something like a pencil caught in a door hinge — leading to pain and a locked joint.
Septic arthritis: Sometimes your knee joint can become infected, leading to swelling, pain and redness. Septic arthritis often occurs with a fever.

Bursitis: The most common bursa affected around the joint is just above the kneecap. This is most common in people who kneel for work, such as gardeners or carpetlayers.

Swelling of the knee is common with several different knee problems. When there is swelling immediately after an injury (within an hour), the most common causes are an injury to the anterior cruciate ligament or a fracture of the top of the shin bone. When swelling develops gradually over hours to days, the injury is more likely a tear of the meniscus or a ligament sprain.

Treatment for Knee Pain

Rest: The first treatment for most common conditions that cause knee pain is to rest the joint, and allow the acute inflammation to subside. Often this is the only step needed to relieve knee pain. If the symptoms are severe, crutches may be helpful as well.

Protection: The best way to protect your knee from further damage depends on the type and severity of your injury. For most minor injuries, a compression wrap is usually sufficient. More serious injuries, such as a torn ACL or high-grade collateral ligament sprain usually require crutches and sometimes also a brace to help stabilize the joint with weight bearing.
Exercises considered better for the knees include small (not deep) knee bends and straightening motions – done while in supination with most weight on the outside of the foot.

Most knee conditions respond to a combination of non-invasive treatments such as applying heat or cold, temporarily restraining from activities that aggravate pain, and medications that target pain and inflammation. Exercises to strengthen the muscles that support the knee help reduce stress on the knee joint and prevent re-injury.
Knee joint replacement: The knee is a complex joint, which is made up of the distal end of the femur (the femoral condyles), and the proximal end of the tibia (the tibial plateau). The femoral condyles usually glide smoothly on the tibial plateau, allowing for smooth, painless motion of the lower leg. (Illustrated).

Recurrent Yeast Infections – Can Natural Remedies Cure Them?

Yeast infection can definitely make your life miserable. Imagine not being able to have intimate time with your partner during the infection outbreak. Imagine the foul odor that your private part emits and the itchiness you have to bear almost everyday.

It can become a chronic infection when left untreated for a prolonged time after which it's not something that you can still control with, with the typical creams or pills. Here is where natural remedies step in because natural remedies are capable of neutralizing the conditions to stop the growth of the Candida fungus which was the root cause of yeast infection.

Now the symptoms of a chronic infection are no different than that of a minor one. They are, in fact, the same symptoms but the conditions will be more severed and intensified. The main difference between the two is on the treatment part; Chronic infection will take longer time to heal and is not possible to be treated with the normal pills and creams that you can get over the counter.

Here are some of the symptoms that you may notice:

Penis Yeast Infection

– Itchiness on the private part and the surrounding area.

– Burning sensation when urinating and pain during sexual intervention

– Red rashes or white patches around the groin area or on the penis

Female Yeast Infection

– Itchiness on the private part and the surrounding area.

– Foul Odor

– Cottage-cheese-like discharges

– Burning sensation when urinating and pain during sexual intervention

– Vulva Redness

Do not take the problem lightly. Start treatment as soon as possible because leaving it untreated will only make the conditions worse. Anyways, the good news is, natural remedies have recorded remarkable success as a permanent cure to yeast infections as they not only eliminate the symptoms but also uproot the cause of the infection. In addition to that, it is safe, economic and effective.

Why You Might Prefer a Natural Allergy Relief Remedy

Most people will suffer the bad experience of Hives maybe once or twice in their own life. Hives are the itchy red patches of skin that form on different parts of the body, or in some cases, cover the whole body. But some people are not so fortunate. They suffer from a condition called Chronic Urticaria. This condition is affecting more people everyday and is expected to keep rising in the future.

For people who rarely suffer from Hives doctor prescribed medications are effective and usually with little or no side effects. People who suffer from Chronic Urticaria, traditional medicines can pose a problem. Medication based on Antihistamines or steroids can only give short term relief. The Urticaria returns after the medication has run its course. These people can end up in a never ending circle of injections, ointments, or pills. There is evidence that states that using traditional medications over time can aggravate a persons condition and set off an allergic reaction which can produce Chronic Urticaria. Traditional medicines alleviate the symptoms of Hives, but do nothing to eliminate the root of the problem. This is fine for people who rarely experience Hives, but can be very frustrating for people with Chronic Urticaria.

Many people who suffer from Chronic Urticaria have found a longer long lasting relief from using a natural allergy remedy that is based on the root causes of the problem. Natural allergy remedies have been found to be effective with very little or no side effects. They are found to be long lasting and, in some cases, permanent relief.

Is There a Hike in Divorce Rate Due to Snoring?

Snoring is one of the most important health hazards, just as any other vital health issues, that are growing larger in numbers year after year. Snoring used to be something to laugh at and tease about but now it has been linked to a large number of life threatening problems that can not be ignored. In general, snoring can vary greatly from person to person, but there is no mistake as to how much damage a long term snoring habit does to the snorer and the family.

The non-snorer can move out of the shared bedroom so they can have the solid amount of sleep that all our bodies and minds need to stay healthy. However, this can have undesirable effects as it increases tensions between a husband and a wife unnecessarily. It has been proven recently, that those that need to sleep in separate rooms because of sleep disturbing snoring, are also putting their marriage in jeopardy. The shared bedroom is one of the few private places for a marriage to grow and nurture but when the spouses sleep in different bedrooms it is as good as living under just one roof as strangers.

Apart from the ill effects in a marriage, there are health concerns that crop up due to snoring. According to innumerable researchers done on sleep and related issues, it has now been laboratory proven that snoring is a leading cause for hypertension, diabetes issues, strokes, and cardio problems.

So, if you have become tired of using home remedies with no change in your snoring patterns, try hundreds of anti-snoring remedies on the market that have been proven to be affective in ending the awful sound of snoring for good. You or your spouse can try and use a remedy from a wide variety of anti-snoring treatments available. It is not necessary to resort to surgery which is not only cumbersome but also expensive. Most over the counter remedies are not expensive and you may find relief from cheap anti snoring remedy.

There can be nothing but relief after you have found the best anti-snoring remedy for your self, from the well known anti-snoring nasal spray and strips to the new anti-snoring jaw alignment trays and devices. Not only will the person who snores be able to finally sleep without making noises but the refreshed sleep will bring on mental and physical alertness. Intimacy increases as libido increases which can be a factor in keeping the married nurtured while less snoring will let your spouse get up bright and rested.

The world wide affliction can actually make any marriage feel strained but with cheap snoring remedies, not only can you save your marriage but give your family more attention and care. When a person snores, the depleted oxygen supply hits sleep, increases irritability and Declines good family life. With better stop snoring treatment , you feel more rested and give your best both at home and at work making your life more fulfilling.

Is Your Sunscreen Causing Cancer and Vitamin D Deficiency?

Did you know that even if you live in a warm, tropical, sunny region, you could be vitamin D deficient? This is becoming more and more common as various cancer associations have scared people into thinking that the least bit of sun exposure will cause skin cancer. What they do not tell you is that sunscreens are full of chemicals and toxins, and many now believe that the rise in skin cancer has to do with the rise in sunscreen use versus actual sun exposure .

Granted, there are people who generally put themselves at risk for skin cancer regardless. I am talking about the people who feel the need to bake themselves on the beach for hours like doomed lobsters. This article is for those who have a bit more awareness than that.

So we know why we care about cancer, it is a disease that elicits a lot of fear and visions of looming death. But, why should we care about Vitamin D deficiency ? It is linked to:

  • Depression and neurological disorders
  • Muscle and chronic pain
  • Weakened bones
  • Thyroid disease as well as autoimmune disorders
  • Cancer
  • Insulin resistance

Think you will just go get a vitamin? Think again.

Before you jump on the supplement bandwagon, keep these things in mind.

1. One needs to have a healthy gut in order to properly absorb vitamins. Therefore, if you already have some kind of condition such as thyroid problems, depression and / or anxiety, fatigue, Diabetes, PCOS, or whatever your diagnosis is, you are just spending your money and effort trying to choke down the horse pill.

2. Cholesterol is needed to properly convert Vitamin D from sunlight exposure for body use. If you have high levels of stress, your stress hormones are sucking up all of your cholesterol. If you are obsessed with low cholesterol, and are taking drugs to keep your levels low, you are preventing the availability of cholesterol to do its many jobs. (By the way, cholesterol does not cause heart disease, in case you are worried.)

3. Vitamin D is fat soluble, so if you are still on the low fat, no fat craze, and / or take this with something like water or juice, you are again, wasting your money and efforts.

4. Many popular antacid, steroid, statin, and hormone replacement drugs prevent vitamin D absorption.

5. Most vitamins are full of filler junk anyway, and synthetic forms of vitamin D are just not a substitute for the real thing. If you are eating gummy vitamins, just eat gummy worms instead. They probably taste better.

So what should you do?

Get some sun! Just 10 minutes a day, somewhere between 10:30 am and 2 pm. On un-sunscreened skin.

If you are heading to the beach or going to be exposed for a long time, cover up with protective clothing. I love long sleeve surfing rash guards, as when they are wet, they keep you cool.

Or, if you must wear sunscreen, at least check out the least toxic brands recommended by the Environmental Working Group. Http://www.ewg.org

If you live in a dark, cold region, do your best to fill up on sun during the summer months, eat vitamin D rich foods such as oysters, wild salmon, herring and sardines, wild tuna, organic milk, and egg yolks, and If you have to supplement, do your research well and find a reputable brand with the least amount of additives possible.

Finally, start healing your gut if you are having health problems. Healing begins from the inside out! And you need a healthy gut to reap all the vitamin and mineral benefits not just from the sun, but also from the food you eat.

Monophobia: Fighting the Fear of Being Alone

Monophobia, also known as autophobia, can be devastating. What starts as slight discomfort when alone or in an unfamiliar place can quickly turn into uncontrollable panic attacks, vomiting, physical and verbal outbursts and other severe symptoms. Catching monophobia while it is developing can make treatment much easier. However, due to the nature of the disorder, many people do not realize they have it until they are in the middle of a panic attack or experiencing unexplainable anxiousness.

Your choices for treatment are varied. While this can cause confusion on the best methods to use, this does provide a level of flexibility and affordability in improving or curing your condition. In many cases, experiences results is as simple as learning proper techniques to manage stress, anxiety and fear while making a few lifestyle changes. Diet and exercise are an important aspect of managing any anxiety disorder.

One of the key things to realize when attempting to manage an anxiety disorder on your own is that while your fear is involuntary, you do have control of your actions. Learning to notice the symptoms of an oncoming panic attack is a great place to start. For many, symptoms of an anxiety attack include nervousness, restlessness, shortness of breath, increased perspiration, variance in body temperature and mood swings. By recognizing the symptoms of your panic attacks, you can attempt to reduce their effects and prevent their escalation.

Common ways of reducing anxiety include meditation, deep breathing and creating a journal. Sometimes, just recognizing the symptoms alone can be enough to improve your response as you are prepared when the feeling strikes. As you gain control over your disorder, you can then work on exposing yourself to known triggers of anxiety and gauging your response. This is known as exposure therapy. While it is possible to do this on your own, having a friend or professional accompany and monitoring you during your progress can increase your personal safety and maximize results.

Medical methods of treating the fear of being alone also include cognitive behavioral therapy. In these sessions, a professional will help you to determine the root of your fears and create a program to help you confront these fears. While this is one of the more expensive methods for reducing the effects of monophobia, it is highly effective for many patients. However, this method can take months or even years to remove all symptoms of monophobia.

Fibromyalgia, Chronic Pain, Anxiety, ADD and Your Brain

If you are suffering with fibromyalgia, chronic pain, anxiety, or ADD; Science shows us you can find help, naturally, without drugs. Let me explain how.

When you have a weak muscle, you can exercise it to make it stronger, as long as the muscle is not permanently damaged. Of course you have know specifically what muscle you want to target with exercise and how you perform the exercise. For example if your right bicep muscle is weak, you would not perform abdominal crunches because the abdominal muscles have nothing to do with your biceps.

Similarly when an area of ​​the brain is not working correctly, it also can be "exercised" via various forms of Brain-Based Therapy.

"Your brain is composed of parts. There is the Cerebellum in the back of the brain and the Frontal Lobe located behind your forehead. Between those two parts there is the Parietal Lobe, an Occipital Lobe, and a Temporal Lobe working on either side of The brain. Let's think of them as appliances in your kitchen. Just as each appliance has a very specific job to do, so do the parts of your brain.

Sometimes these appliances break down. If you open up your refrigerator and find that your milk has spoiled and that your ice cream has melted, then you know your refrigerator needs some tending to. Similarly, when a part of the brain malfunctions, the associated body area or function that the brain controls will not work the way it is supposedly to. You may begin to notice that you have severe headaches or problems with balance, vision changes, or trouble getting your words out while speaking to someone. If you are unaware of what part of the brain controls these abilities then you will not know where the weak link in your brain is located or what to do about it.

Brain-Based Therapy is a series of natural procedures used to identify, exercise, and strengthen weak parts of the brain by using sensory stimulation. It begins with a functional neurological examination of the brain to find out where any weak links are located. When you come to see me there are certain things you may do or feel that let me know your brain is breaking down in particular areas. Once I know where the weakness is I am able to use natural procedures to stimulate very specific areas of your brain in order to restore function.

The human brain can be damaged just like the skin of our bodies can. If we get a scrape on our arm it is called a lesion. The brain can also get lesions. When this happens it is because an area of ​​tissue has been damaged through disease or injury. There are many types of brain lesions, some reliably harmless and some very dangerous. There are soft lesions and there are hard lesions.

Typically hard brain lesions are cared for medically. When you have a hard lesion, such as a stroke, you obviously know you have a problem and probably already saw a medical doctor for evaluation and treatment. Soft or functional lesions occur when the brain is not receiving enough stimulation and in turn not getting enough activity. Soft lesions can not be visualized with typical imaging methods such as MRI or Cat Scans. A functional assessment must be used to evaluate a soft lesion – we call this type of assessment a functional neurological examination. Think of it this way: take a photograph of a fully functioning, partially open door in your home. Next take a picture of a door that sticks when you close it, but photograph it in the partially opened position, like you did with the normally operating door. Now look at the pictures. You can not tell them apart. You would have to put each door through all its actions (opening, closing, locking, etc.) while video taping the activity to qualify as a functional test for the doors. That is why an MRI of a brain that has a soft lesion looks normal – it is not a functional test.

We must exercise our brains just like we need to exercise our bodies or the brain will deteriorate. Brain Based Therapy seeks to reverse these soft lesions through stimulating your senses and training your brain to be active and healthy again. This ability for the brain to change, adding new connections is called neuroplasticity.

Let's take a moment to understand the great importance of your central nervous system. The central nervous system is comprised of your brain and spinal cord and it is the MASTER CONTROL CENTER and information distribution system of your body. It needs both fuel and activation to survive, thrive, and recover from damage. Sometimes it does not get an adequate dose of these two very important elements and that is when degeneration begins to occur.

Brain-Based Therapy takes into account that the nervous system is a sensory driven system. Each one of your senses is an input to your brain. Your brain receives signals from your senses and responses based on the information it receives. Without input there will be no output. Without stimulating the brain loses its ability to control very important functions and it is these malfunctions that produce many of the symptoms in chronic illnesses, such as fibromyalgia, chronic pain, anxiety and ADD.

The brain depends upon critical inputs to maintain healthy functioning and that is why Brain-Based Therapy is so important and effective. In my office I use sight, sound, touch, movement, vibration, heat, cold, light, and other natural tools to interrupt abnormal patterns within your brain and bringing them back into balance. By using Brain-Based Therapy we are able to strengthen the brain and effectively restore its many pathways and connections.

Many doctors, such as myself, use specialized tests to measure if you are receiving enough fuel and activation to your central nervous system. If you are not receiving an adequate amount of activation we are able to improve the health of your brain by using specific exercises and stimulizations that target these weak areas. This is what Brain-Based Therapy is all about! We also thoroughly check your body chemistry with lab tests for any factors that would interfere with good fuel delivery to your central nervous system and then go about correcting these factors.

The combination of Brain-Based Therapy and functional metabolic testing and treatment is called Neuro-Metabolic Therapy (NMT). NMT is what allows clinician like me to help patients with chronic health conditions when others have given up or failed to dig deep enough to get to the root of a patient's chronic condition nightmare. There is hope with these specific rehabilitation therapies! "1

Many years of research have been conducted on one form of Brain-Based Therapy called neurofeedback. As one of my mentors and colleauge recently stated, "I am working with a boy right now." He is twelve, on six medications about 6 months ago, he is very angry, has full-blown ADHD and is very impulsive. After six months of a gluten-free diet, neurofeedback and cerebellar exercises and the kid is almost unrecognizable. "He is now well-mannered, well-behaved, and down to one. This morning telling me how thankful he is for what I do. What a difference we make in the lives of these people. "

In summary, many cases of fibromyalgia, chronic pain, anxiety and ADD respond well to functional neurology and even better with functional neurology, diet changes, specific supplementation and neurofeedback.

The best part; These cutting-edge treatment methods are drug-free and effective. Tell someone you know who is suffering needlessly to check out Brain-Based Therapy

References:

1. Johnson, Karl ROS, DC. "WHAT IS JOHNSON BRAIN-BASED THERAPY?" Reclaim Your Life; Your Guide To Revealing Your Body's Life-Changing Secrets For Renewed Health. Charelston: CreateSpace, 2012. 13-17. Print.