6 Benefits to Wearing Jewelry

Silver Jewelry

Silver has numerous health properties that have been used across time and culture. It is a powerful disinfectant agent that aids in cold and flu prevention, wound healing and skin care. Silver also helps with internal heat regulation and circulation when applied in right quantity and manner, silver also provided protection against harmful electromagnetic radiation from mobile phones and other electronics.

Gold jewelry

Gold has been known to possess a warm energy that leads soothing vibrations to the body to aid in the healing process. If a person took pure gold and put it on infection or a sore spot, it was said to help heal the wound and control infection. It was considered that gold possessed an energy that brought warm, soothing variations to the body to aid healing. Colors also have an influence on health. Color is vibration, also some colors are healing. Some are emulating, and others work against the healing process.

Diamond jewelry

Wearing a diamond helps in the business and profession. After wearing diamond a person will have enriched and generous thoughts and it will remove evil and fearful thoughts making his or her personality attractive and charming. Diamond will improve native’s facial luster and gives him more confidence which in turn open many ways of success. He/she will have more peace of mind and goodness in thoughts after wearing diamond. It also helps to cure and fight many diseases like diabetes, skin problems, problem of private parts etc.

Handcrafted Jewelry

Whatever the reason for gifting green gifts are the way to go. Learning to make our shopping a bit more sustainable can reduce our consumption of fossil fuels, minerals & other resources. We don’t need machine, each piece made by hands & truly unique. The designers have love for the product that you can’t find from mass produced items. These jewelry are sustainable and ethical, by essence being ethical can be much more costly than taking the easy route. Smaller scale production is always higher quality.

Luxury Jewelry

Whenever you buy luxury jewelry, you’d feel proud to exit the shop with your branded shopping bag sand something about spending a lot of money on yourself or a loved one felt good. You feel different, you feel amazing, out of the world.

Artificial Jewelry

Artificial & Imitation jewelry is worn for beautification. This jewelry is cheap, affordable and available in variety. This jewelry is popular among the youth and aged, it increased our stunning level. Now all of us would like to wear a different type of jewelry with different type of dresses.

Learn Tuberculosis Symptoms and Treatment

It is communicable disease that may occur in any part of the body. It is caused by a non-motile, slow growing acid-fast bacillus called the Mycobacterium tuberculosis. There are two classifications of Tuberculosis, those are Pulmonary Tuberculosis and Miliary or Hematogenous Tuberculosis. Pulmonary Tuberculosis, as the name implies, mainly involves the lungs. On the other hand, Miliary or Hematogenous Tuberculosis is non pulmonary and can affect any part of the body. Transmission is usually through the inhalation of microdroplets from an infected person. The transmission of the disease usually greatly increase when there is overcrowding, where people have poor nutritional statuses making their bodies weak against infection. The worse thing about this infection is that if the primary infection is inadequately treated then this leads to a multidrug resistant organism.

There are various tests that may be performed to diagnose the disease. The history is taken and a physical exam is conducted. A chest x-ray may also be done but will not be enough to diagnose the disease. A test called the Mantoux test or PPD may be done to rule out the disease. To confirm the disease a sputum smear from the patient will be tested for acid – fast bacillus, three positive results will confirm the disease.

Signs and symptoms are usually brought about by any type of pulmonary disease but there are hallmark signs and symptoms that may also support the diagnosis of Tuberculosis. The common signs and symptoms may include difficulty in breathing, progressive fatigue due to poor oxygenation, weight loss, lack of appetite, vomiting, indigestion, body weakness, productive cough, low-grade fever and chills, night sweats, and most probably blood streaked sputum.

Treatment of Tuberculosis is usually done with a multi drug therapy regimen. This multi drug therapy will be used to kill or inhibit the growth of the bacteria. The medications usually consist of Rifampicin, Pyrazinamide, Ethambutol, Isoniazid, and Streptomycin. Side effects from taking the medications are usually treated symptomatically. A point to remember is that all the drugs used to treat the disease is hepatotoxic. This means that the patient’s liver will take a beating from the medications. This would follow that the patient needs to regulate his dietary intake.

Remedies that one could encourage the patient to take are, firstly, to follow and finish the treatment regimen which usually takes around six to twelve months. The patient’s dietary intake should be adequately managed in order to support his nutritional needs while maintaining homeostasis so as to prevent further damage to the liver. Other methods to relieve the patient’s symptoms would revolve around relieving and making it easy for the patient to breathe. These may be doing nebulizations, increasing oral fluid intake, positioning, and post nebulization physiotherapy. Also instruct the patient to cover his mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing, and to dispose the tissues used inside plastic bags. Generally, three months after completing the treatment regimen, the patient is advised to return to the hospital to get his sputum checked for positive acid – fast bacilli.

Traveling To America? New ESTA Registration Mandated January 2009

For years, visitors from certain foreign countries have been able to travel to America without first getting a formal Visa sticker placed in their passport. Implemented in 1998, the "Visa Waiver Program" (VWP) has allowed for visitors of several countries to come to America for tourism or business purposes for up to 90 days without getting a Visa put in their passport. During 2007, more than 15 million visitors from VWP countries arrived in the United States.

As of January 12, 2009 America's new ESTA program requires Visa Waiver Program visitors coming to the US for tourist or business purposes via a plane or ship to "register" online before entering the United States to see if they pose a law enforcement or security risk To the US ESTA is not required for land crossings. Officials are asking that the ESTA registration be done at least 72 hours prior to leaving, but theoretically it is possible to register at the last minute. An ESTA Travel Authorization is free, valid for 2 years, and valid for multiple entries.

Here are some Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) for ESTA Travel Authorization:

What Countries Are in the Visa Waiver Program ?

Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Liechtenstein, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Monaco, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway , Portugal, San Marino, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom.

Where Do I Apply for an ESTA Travel Authorization ?

A website, operated by the American government, is where you register for ESTA: esta.cbp.dhs.gov. The ESTA information you submit via the computer is compared with certain American law enforcement databases and then either approved or denied. Foreign travelers will not be able to submit ESTA applications at American airports after arriving or at a US Embassy in their country.

What if I Do not Have Plans to Travel to the US Yet ?

VWP travelers are not required to have specific plans to travel to the United States before they apply for an ESTA Travel Authorization. As soon as VWP travelers begin to plan a trip to visit the US, they are encouraged to apply for travel authorization through the ESTA website. Applicants are not required to update their destination addresses or itineraries if they change after their ESTA Travel Authorization has been granted.

Does the ESTA Travel Authorization Guarantee Entry to the US ?

An ESTA Travel Authorization only authorizes a traveler to board an airline or ship for travel to the US under the Visa Waiver Program. After they arrive, travelers who obtained an ESTA Travel Authorization may still be denied entry (also called "admission") at a US port of entry, such as an American airport. An approved ESTA is not a guarantee of admissibility at an American airport. In all cases, the American airport officers make the final determination whether a foreign traveler can enter the US or not. You still have to establish to the satisfaction of the inspecting officer that you are entitled to be admitted to the US under the Visa Waiver Program.

Can I Change My Travel Itinerary ?

It is possible to change an itinerary on an existing ESTA Travel Authorization; ESTA is designed so that you can update parts of it at any time. Travelers who did not get an ESTA approval may be denied boarding by the airlines, experience delayed processing, or be denied admission to the US at the American airport.

What If I Already Have a Valid B1 / B2 Visitor Visa ?

While the ESTA Travel Authorization is completed online with no interview, there are Visas that require a US Embassy interview. The Visa process has separate procedures, which generally require an appointment, travel to a US Embassy, ​​an interview with a Consular Officer, processing time, and the payment of an application fee. If a foreign national already went to the US Embassy and has a valid B1 / B2 visitor visa pasted in their passport it is not necessary to get an ESTA Travel Authorization because the traveler will be entering with a B1 / B2 Visitor Visa and not through the Visa Waiver Program. Keep in mind that an approved ESTA Travel Authorization is not a Visa.

Can I Re-Apply for an ESTA Travel Authorization if Denied ?

Yes, but you must wait at least 10 days to reapply and your circumstances must have changed. Unless there is a change in a substantive fact, re-application will not change the result. Keep in mind that applying for an ESTA Travel Authorization with false information can cause a foreign national to be permanently barred from ever entering America. The ESTA system is designed to try to prevent individuals from changing and manipulating an ESTA entry until they receive an approval.

What If I am Denied an ESTA Travel Authorization and Have No Changed Circumstances ?

There are three types of responses to an ESTA application; Approved , pending or travel not authorized (denied). Applicants who receive a "pending" response are advised to check the website 72 hours later. Applicants who are denied will be required to go to a US Embassy to apply for a formal nonimmigrant visa, such as a B1 / B2 Visa, which may take months.

Can a Traveler Find Out the Reason Why an ESTA Application was Denied ?

The US Dept. Of Homeland Security has stated that travelers may contact the DHS Travel Redress Inquiry Program (DHS TRIP at dhs.gov) but there are no guarantees that information about a denial will be divulged. US Embassies and Consulates are not required to provide details about an ESTA denial nor resolve the issue that caused the ESTA denial.

What If I Have a Criminal Record ?

Only those qualified to travel under the VWP are eligible to pre-register through ESTA. Persons who have been arrested and / or denied are generally not eligible for VWP and probably require a formal Visa, such as a B1 / B2 Visa, to travel to America. If a foreign national has received tickets for speeding (which do not usually result in an arrest or conviction) they are probably still eligible for the VWP and ESTA. If a foreign traveler has been denied entry into or exported from the US, they require a formal Visa.

Do Any Other Countries Have a Similar Program ?

Australia has a program called the Electronic Travel Authority (ETA) that mandates travelers to submit an ETA application electronically through a website requesting permission to travel to Australia. Airlines may refuse to accept passengers who do not have either approved an ETA or Visa to enter Australia.

How Long Will the ESTA Application Data be Stored ? Who Can Access It ?

The ESTA Travel Authorization is valid for two years or until the traveler's passport expires, whichever comes first. The American government will maintain the information for at least 15 years to allow repatriation of the information for law enforcement, national security, or investigatory purposes. Information submitted through ESTA can also be shared with any US government organization.

What Information Does the Airlines Get ?

Airlines will receive confirmation of a passenger's ESTA status visa the "Advance Passenger Information System" (APIS) which shows whether the ESTA authorization has been granted for a Visa Waiver Program traveler. It is recommended that the traveler print out the ESTA application approval in order to maintain a record of their ESTA application number and to have confirmation of their ESTA status.

What About Children ?

Accompanied and unaccompanied children, regardless of age, are required to obtain an independent ESTA Travel Authorization.

What if a Mistake was Made on the ESTA Application ?

The ESTA website will ask applicants to review their application before submitting it. Also, there is an update function for certain information such as email address, telephone number, or flight information. If an applicant makes a mistake that can not be "updated," he will need to submit a new ESTA application.

What if I Only Have a Connecting Flight Through the US ?

Visa Waiver Program visitors who have a connecting flight in the US are required to either have ESTA Travel Authorization or a Visa from a US Embassy in their passport to travel through the US even for a one hour stop. If a traveler is only planning to stop in the US en route to another country, the traveler should enter the words "In Transit" and his final destination in the address lines under the heading "Address While In The United States" on the ESTA application .

What Are the Questions on the ESTA Travel Authorization Application ?

The traveler must provide (in English) biographical data including name, birth date, country of citizenship, country of residence, email address, sex, telephone number, passport information, destination address in the US, travel information (round trip airline ticket, flight Number and city where you are boarding) as well as questions regarding communicable diseases (chancroid, gonorrhea, granuloma inquinale, HIV, leprosy, lymphogranuloma venereum, syphilis [active], tuberculosis [active], and others), physical or mental disorders, drug Addiction problems, arrests, convictions, past history of visa cancellation or denial, and prior deportations from the US The traveler will also be asked whether they are seeking work in the US, have ever been transported or tried to get a visa by fraud or misrepresentation . The traveler will be asked if they have ever acquired a child of a US Citizen granted custody of the child, and if they have ever asserted immunity from prosecution.

Do I Select "Business" or Pleasure (Tourist) at the Airport Port of Entry ?

After the ESTA Travel Authorization is granted, the foreign traveler will be interviewed by government officers at the first American airport they land. The officer will ask what the foreign traveler will be doing in America and the question can take up to four hours in a specified setting called "secondary inspection." The officer may ask the traveler " what else are you doing in America?" Repeatedly to try to get "the real" answer. If the traveler is only going to be a tourist, they are not allowed to do any business, including meeting with any attorneys, applying for a bank account, meeting with real estate agents, or other business consulting activities. Even though the traveler is going to conduct just one business meeting while in America, they are required to report it and enter as a business visitor. The business visitor is allowed to participate in tourist activities, but the tourist visitor is not allowed to participate in any business activities. Therefore, if any business may be connected while in America, it is best to tell the government officers about it at the airport to avoid being accused of lying, put immediately on a plane back to your home country, and barred from America for life.

What Else Do Can the Airport Officers Make Me Prove After I Land ?

The airport officers will ask the traveler proof of a foreign residence (address on foreign driver's license), whether their intention is to depart at the end of the visit (round trip airline ticket), whether the traveler has a job (letter, paystub, Business card) and family in their home country (marriage certificate, childrens' birth certificates), and whether the traveler has the money to travel around America (bank statement or credit cards with bank letter showing credit limit). The airport officers are also required to ask where the traveler will stay in America (hotel reservations or friends / relatives' homes) and have been known to pick up the phone to verify all of the aforementioned information.

Can I Be Searched in the American Airport? Am I Entitled to Legal Representation ?

While being interviewed at the American airport, all luggage (even locked bags) can be searched, as well as the traveler's body and his / her cell phone (including text messages and phone numbers) and laptop (including hard drive). The officers may "google" a traveler's name and check out their myspace, Facebook or hyves pages. The traveler is not allowed to be represented by an attorney or even call their attorney while in "secondary inspection." Bathroom visits, water and food may be limited, so it is best to prepare for such an occasion while still on the plane before landing.

Do I Still Have to Go Through the "US-VISIT" Program at the American Airport ?

Foreign travelers arriving at American airports and seaports must still be photographed and fingerprinted every time they enter the US

Who Should I Ask For Help to Fill Out the ESTA Application ?

The information a traveler provides on the ESTA application can remain in their file with US authorities for a minimum of 15 years – probably longer. If a foreign traveler has some questions about how to answer the questions so as not to be permanently barred from America, it would be prudent to them to pay for a legal consultation with an American Immigration Attorney who is a member of the American Immigration Lawyers Association (AILA). Beware of unauthorized private websites that offer ESTA application assistance for $ 49.99 – they are usually not authorized to practice immigration law and are asking travelers to pay for a copy of the application questions, which are free on the dhs.gov website.

If I Am Denied the ESTA Travel Authorization Will it Effect My Ability to Obtain a Visa at the US Embassy ?

When the ESTA Travel Authorization is denied, the foreign traveler must make an appointment at a US Embassy in their country to apply for a formal Visa. The US Embassy is operated by the US Department of State and there are no expedited procedures for those who have been denied ESTA Travel Authorization. Because the ESTA program is so new, it is impossible to predict how badly a denial of the ESTA Travel Authorization will affect a traveler's application for a Visa at a US Embassy or impact their future travel to America in general. American Immigration Attorneys are in close contact with their foreign clients and will share the denial information with each other starting in January 2009. Currently there are no government policies regulating this area of ​​the law, or opportunities to appeal a denial.

When Is the "New" ESTA Travel Authorization Required ?

A new ESTA Travel Authorization is required during the two years if (1) the traveler is issued a new passport (2) the traveler changes his name (3) the traveler changes his or her gender (4) the traveler's country of citizenship changes or (5) the circumstances underlying the traveler's previous responses to any of the ESTA application questions requiring a "yes" or "no" response have changed (such as a new arrest).

Can an American Immigration Attorney, Travel Agent or Employer Fill Out the ESTA Application ?

A third party, such as a relative, travel agent or American Immigration Attorney, is permitted to submit an ESTA application on behalf of a VWP traveler. Be aware that the traveler is still responsible under the law for the answers submitted on his or her behalf by a third party.

Over 68,000 travelers have already voluntarily registered using the ESTA online system in the last few months. Applicants are reminded to obtain a new "e-passport" which has an integrated computer chip capable of storing biographical information from the data page, as well as other biometric information, when registering with ESTA.

Sexual Hauntings 4 – Naked and Amorous Ghosts

It is not just sex demons like the Incubus and Succubus who have been noted for showering their lustful advances on humans. There have also been numerous cases of ordinary ghosts and spirits who have behaved in a similarly erotic fashion. Many of these amorous phantoms have even appeared stark naked to those who have witnessed them.

Many nude or semi-nude apparitions have been reported from all over the world since time immemorial. Some of these sexy spirits have been friendly, but others not so. Here are just a few cases of both versions of these lustful entities.

In a certain church just on the outskirts of Ipswich, a naked phantom is reported to haunt. This spirit is said to be that of a man, with quite an unpalatable appearance, and was first experienced by a carpenter in June 1953, while he was working on some alterations in the big old property. He claims that whilst he was working on some panelling, a musty smell assailed his nostrils. Then one of his white dustsheets came through the pantry, with what looked like a head on it. Initially he assumed it was just his workmate playing some prank on him, and so he ordered him to stop larking around, whereupon the figure dropped the sheet to reveal a denuded entity with blotchy skin the colour of old parchment.

The ghost was believed to be that of a parson who’d once resided in Rattlesden and had been interred under the house instead of an ordinary grave.

James Mann, a chartered accountant working in Moray, Scotland, encountered a naked apparition in his old family home in Aberdeen. Visiting the house one summer’s day, James found all his relatives there from India. As there wasn’t a spare bedroom available for him, he had to stay in a small room on the ground floor. It had rarely been used in years, and didn’t even have any electricity or heating. Mann therefore had to read by the subdued light of an oil lamp. He soon got the strange feeling that he was not alone in the room, and he began to grow very uneasy. Then the apparition of a young girl suddenly appeared through the wall. Apart from a flimsy petticoat, she was naked to the waist, and her body was, in typical ghostly fashion, transparent. She floated over to the bed and asked him what he was doing here. Then, with a brief smile, she vanished. Mann subsequently found that other people had experienced the same semi-naked apparition in the house.

In America, in April 1989, a young Hollywood actress found herself sharing a bed with the amorous ghost of Rudolph Valentino. She reported experiencing a heavy weight pressing down on the edge of the bed, just as she was drifting off to sleep, one night in the big old apartment building, Valentino Place, which was a favourite party site for Valentino and his female conquests. As the entity appeared beside her in the bed, and started to press up to her, she plucked up the courage to open her eyes… and saw what appeared to be the ghostly face of Valentino lying on her pillow. Shocked, she fainted. When she came to, she was relieved to see that although the ghost had left the blankets and pillow in disarray, it had disappeared back into whatever spiritual realm it had come from.

In September 1979, a strange case involving a “sexy ghost” was reported to a newspaper in the UK. Two husbands complained that their wives had “walked out” on them because of a rather perturbing encounter with a lustful entity. Apparently, the wives had contacted a spirit through dabbling with an Ouija board. This entity purported to be an old German male, and when one of the wives asked it what it wanted, it spelled out the word SEX. This shocked and disturbed the woman so much that she immediately desisted from talking to this spirit ever again. The woman’s husband also claimed that, one day, he found her bent double in a strange position. She seemed to have taken on the visage of a sinister old man with gnarled hands. The husband tried to shake her out of this weird seizure, but remained impervious to this, claiming that she was “possessed”.

Despite the husbands’ insistence that it was the “sexy ghost” of the Ouija board that drove away their wives, the women pour scorn on these claims, and simply attribute their decision to leave their spouses to “boredom”.

The Growth of Cricket

Cricket is considered as a religion in many countries. However thinking about the history of cricket is a big fact and for it is played from time immemorial. The history goes back to the thirteenth century or even further. It is likely estimated that the game of cricket was first played by the children of the farmers and the metal workers in England near a small place referred to as Sussex and Kent. There was a variation in the name of cricket and this variation was discovered in a court case wherein the game was called as krekett which was being played at the English school. It was from this point of view that cricket began to grow as a game which became immensely popular. 

It was at that time that the game of cricket was being played in the form of tournaments like the so called “great cricket match” in the year 1697. During the eighteenth century the game of cricket was referred to as the official sport of England and it was one of the famous leisure activities of the elite class of people. In the late 1760’s one of the famous clubs of London known as the Hambledon club was one of center stage of the activities of cricket. It was one of the most visited places in London and there were many people who were extremely crazy about the game of cricket.

There were many cricket games which were played within the nation of England but until the year of 1859 the game of cricket was not played at the international level. It was played only when the English team traveled to North America for a match. It was only after eighteen years when the English team traveled to far Australia for playing the matches in the Melbourne and it was actually then the game gained immense popularity. The first Australian team consisted of the members from the Australian aborigines, which was considered to be a very groundbreaking event. This event was considered to be a spectacular event for both the Australian cricket community as well as the entire world’s cricket’s community.

The popularity of the game increased day by day because of the introduction of the famous one day international games introduced in the year of 1971. These days cricket has been one of the most widespread games played in the entire world. It is widely played in countries like England, Australia and even countries like Pakistan, Kenya, Sri Lanka and of course not to forget in the list India. However the game of cricket has never gained any popularity in United States of America and even does not have an official team for its country.   

However to be really very frank, in many countries the game is also played by the state as well as the national teams. However this is not considered as a very popular game for the children and the families to play as a backyard game in the different countries. Some of the different variations of the game are playing cricket with the usage of a net and the faster version of the game is played in the New Zealand which is referred to as Kiwi cricket.

Careers for Cancer the Crab

Cancer the crab definitely brings his cautious nature into his career and business arrangements. He is one to think things through before making a decision and tends to be quite reserved with money. He is practical and will not blow large amounts of money on something that is not really necessary for the business. They are highly creative and like to take charge to further their ideas. Cancer individuals are also highly intuitive and have a deep understanding of other’s emotions and motives and therefore can be very useful to the company he works for because he is able to understand exactly what is going on with incredible accuracy. He can be kind, but he is certainly not naive.

When it comes to working for someone, the crab enjoys a position where he is both useful and secure. Job security is very important and he will search far and wide for a career that he can maintain for a long period of time. In return, the Cancer sign is very dependable, punctual and willing to work long and hard. Cancer individuals are generally great with words (even though most do not enjoy public speaking), and are able to convey their thoughts and opinions professionally. As they work for a while at a job, they will expect a raise, but will work harder as a result to prove that giving him a raise is a good idea. Cancers are great with the big picture of the business and will strive to constantly improve it as long as they are shown appreciation and respect in return. The crab is a highly sensitive creature so harsh criticism (especially about their work ethic) is strongly advised against.

As coworkers, the crab is a very kind hearted individual and will be there if you need a shoulder to cry on. He lives to nurture and is generally kind to everyone he comes across (unless they give him reason not to be). Cancer the crab hates confrontation and therefore will try his best to get along with everyone; you can be sure that if conflict arises in the workplace, the crab did not start it. He also has the memory of an elephant and can be very useful remembering past events, deals or conversations which many other people have long forgotten. He is generally very serious as well and likes to get his job done. He does not come to work to socialize; he comes to get his work done.

If Cancer stars his own business, the most compatible partner is either a Taurus or a Virgo for they have the power to make Cancer’s ideas a reality and are responsible enough to stay on track. The best jobs for the crab are along the lines of anything in the medical/pharmaceutical field, nutritional field (including chef), or anything to do with real estate or farming. He will thrive anywhere he has a secure job and feels needed.

Getting VA Disability Compensation As a Drilling Reservist-Your Responsibilities

You’re a drilling reservist that has a VA compensation packet in the system. You’re waiting on the VA to give you a decision. While you’re waiting, some questions come to your mind. Will I get over 30%? How much over 30% will I get? Once I receive my compensation or pension, do I have to give up my reserve pay? Or, will I tell the VA that I could do without the VA compensation for the days the reserves pay me?

Finally, you get your VA packet in the mail. The VA’s decision has arrived. You’re getting a monthly compensation. Now you’re one of the reservists that receives both, VA disability compensation and reserve pay.

But, if you do nothing else, you’re going to get your full VA compensation, and your reserve paycheck. The longer you wait for the VA to find out about your reserve pay, the more money you’ll have to pay the VA back in the future.

You have to send your intentions to the VA at the end of each fiscal year.

At the end of each fiscal year, you’re going to complete a VA Form 21-8951-2. This is the “Notice of Waiver of VA Compensation or Pension to Receive Military Pay and Allowances,” form. This form is a declaration form, where you declare which pay you’re going to forfeit for the days you received training pay.

You could get this form from the VA, or you could search for it on the Internet and download it. Once you have the form, completely fill it out.

It’ll ask for your VA regional office address. This is the address that you’re going to send your form to. Put your VA regional office address in the “VA Regional Office” box.

Next, it’ll ask for the name and address of the veteran. Put your name and home address in this box.

The form will ask you for the following: VA file number, social security number, daytime phone number, and evening phone number. You’ll find your VA file number on the packet that the VA sends you — announcing your disability rate or compensation.

Next, you’re going to see a box for fiscal year and another box for training days. A fiscal year runs from October 1 to September 30. List the fiscal year that you did your training days under the fiscal year box. Under the training days, type in the number of days the reserves pays you for.

How do you know what days you got paid for?

Many reserve units list numbers, on their training schedules, right next to each scheduled weekend drill (Battle Assembly). Many reserve units list “4” right next to a two day training weekend. A three day training weekend will have a “6” right next to it. These units typically pay you for two training days in one day.

Let’s say you’re getting paid two training days for each drill day that you complete. Check with your unit, and find out how many training days you’re getting paid for each drill day in order to get an accurate number.

Your drill days are also known as inactive duty training periods, or IDT. You also have active duty periods; you get paid one training day for each day of active duty that you do. In the reserves, you have Active Training (AT), Active Duty for Training (ADT), and mobilization days.

Total your IDT points (2 per training day) and your AT points (1 per training day), that you did during the fiscal year. Place the total number of training days in the “training days” box.

Next, you’re going to let the VA know which of your pays you’re going to waive.

The first option allows you to waive your VA benefits for the days that you received training pay. The second option allows you to waive your military pay and allowances for the days that you received training pay. The third option allows you to inform the VA if you didn’t receive any military training during the last fiscal year.

Here’s how each option works.

Let’s say you chose to waive your VA benefits for the days you received training. Remember, each IDT day counts as two days of training. If all you did, for the month, was 2 IDT days, then the VA will take back a prorated amount of VA for that month.

Simply divide your monthly VA compensation rate by 30 days, then multiply it by the number of days you received training pay. Depending on your rank, and the amount of your disability compensation, your prorated amount could be lesser than your training pay.

In most cases, waiving your VA benefits for the days you received training pay results in keeping more of your money after the deductions are made.

Now, let’s say that you choose to waive your military pay and allowances for the days that you received training pay. This amount is usually bigger, per day, than a prorated amount of VA pay. After all the deductions are made to recoup that money, you’re going to end up with less money.

So, do your math, and compare what your daily prorated VA compensation is compared to the training pay you receive. In most cases, you’ll keep more of your money if you chose to waive your VA benefits for the days you received training pay.

The third option is for those in the Individual Ready Reserves (IRR), Standby Reserves drilling for retirement points, or other reservists drilling for retirement points only. You simply inform the VA that you didn’t get paid that fiscal year. This is the easiest option, as it doesn’t require recouping pay for that fiscal year.

After you complete that section, sign and date the form in the applicable sections. Go to the bottom of the form, and fill in your unit’s name and mailing address. Type/write in the unit telephone number section. You should have access to your online records, which should list the number of training days that you have. Print this out to help aid your unit administrator.

Take this form to your unit, and have the unit administrator verify and sign it. After you get it signed, make copies and mail a completed form to your regional office. This is something you’ll have to do, after each fiscal year, every year you receive VA compensation while in the reserves.

Here’s a couple of helpful tips.

Contact your regional VA office, and ask them if they’ll take this form early, despite your not having your decision yet. If they say yes, send your form in at the end of each fiscal year. Coordinate with them when you do this. This way, what you owe can be taken out of your lump sum initial payment should you get a favorable decision.

Contact your regional VA office, or your reserve unit administrator, for questions and details related to this article. The procedures on the form that you use take precedence over this article if there’s a difference in information.

Barriers To Communication: Excerpt From Coping With The Emotional Impact Of Cancer

The inability to talk about your problems and feelings is a most serious obstacle to having a good relationship. Every relationship has its problems, but if you can talk about them you have a better chance of living through them, together. It makes sense, especially during times of serious illness, to be aware of barriers to open communications. In my work with cancer-stricken families I have seen two major barriers to communication: a conspiracy of silence and premature mourning.

A Conspiracy of Silence

With any serious illness and emotional topic, there is the danger of avoiding mentioning it for fear of saying the wrong thing and evoking strong feelings. This can lead to a conspiracy of silence in which the patient and the family avoid the topic in an attempt to protect each other, all the while creating feelings of alienation, misunderstanding, and barriers to direct and open communication.

Out of a sense of duty and a desire to protect a loved one, a vicious cycle of silence, misinterpretation, guesswork, and isolation gets started. Phrases like, “I don’t want to say anything because I’m afraid she’ll get upset,” or “They haven’t brought it up so I assume they just don’t want to talk about it,” are signs that a conspiracy of silence is taking place.

While you want to respect another’s timing, this doesn’t mean that you must sit silently with your own feelings and try to interpret clues as to when it’s okay to speak. You can still invite a conversation with phrases such as, “I don’t know what to say but I want you to know that I’d be glad to talk whenever you wish,” or “Please let me know when you’d like to talk about what you’ve been through.”

We cannot protect others from reality; they usually have some idea of what’s going on and often are imagining the worst. Even though our intentions are good, the desire to protect someone from hurt usually comes with an attempt to protect ourselves from our own upset. It generally makes sense to say something about what is troubling you, even if you choose to keep the details vague. For example, “I’ve been avoiding talking to you because I’ve been afraid I’d break down and cry. If you don’t mind me crying, I’d be glad to talk with you.” Let them know that you can handle your own emotions and that you don’t need protection from their feelings. If the two of you are going to cry, at least you can cry together.

Premature Mourning

Learning that a loved one has cancer often causes family members to start a painful premature mourning process and to be less available to support the patient’s ongoing treatments. Anticipating that you’ll have to repeat the mourning process in the future can lead to avoidance of the patient, thereby depriving the patient of real, human contact. Patients and their families and friends have different timetables for grieving and adapting to how cancer has affected them.

Even when we know that many forms of cancer are curable, there remains the fear that a cancer diagnosis is a death sentence. This fear can lead us to mourn the loss of a loved one even though he or she may recover from cancer, may live with it for years, or may want to enhance the quality of the last months of life with frequent visits and support from family and friends.

Of course, the patient can be the one who’s doing the premature mourning, isolating himself from the family and depriving them of an opportunity to share feelings and to express their concern and desire to help.

Please remember that being diagnosed with cancer, having cancer, and dying of cancer are separate and different states, each requiring its own emotions and adjustments, each in its own time. Eventually, the premature mourner must cope with the present moment rather than the imagined future. The patient may want to tell the premature mourner what I told a friend:

Stop avoiding me and treating me as if I’m already dead. I’m still here. I’m still alive! I need you to be with me, now. Help me to make the most of whatever time is left. There’ll be plenty of time for grieving after I’m gone. But don’t be so sure I’m going that fast. In fact, I may hang around so long that you may be saying, “How can I miss you if you won’t go away?”

You most likely will find that, as you become more comfortable with these difficult feelings, you’ll worry less and will enjoy more fully the valuable time that you still have with each other.

Myanmar: Major Travel Destinations And Guide

Myanmar, formerly known as Burma, is a land of faith, traditional practices and centuries-old stupas. The republic in South-East Asia is bounded by India, China, Bangladesh, Laos and Cambodia and covers an area of 676,578 square kilometers. Myanmar has a recorded population of 51 million (as of 2014).

Despite lying at the crossroads of 2 of the world’s greatest civilizations, India and China, Myanmar’s culture isn’t directly influenced much by either of them and is a pleasant orchestration of both, weaved into Myanmar’s native characteristics.

Known for their hospitality and benevolence, the folks and the life in Myanmar are largely influenced by Buddhism, and have been content and enthusiastic even in the face of many adversities.

How to prepare for a trip to Myanmar?

1. Visa: Anyone with a passport from Cambodia, Laos, Philippines, Brunei and Vietnam can enter the country for at most 14 days. If that’s not the case, you need to apply for a Myanmar tourist visa.

2. Currency: Known as Kyat, it’s fairly easy to exchange foreign currency at airports, hotels, Forex and banks. Also, foreign currencies above 2000 USD must be declared to the customs at the airport in place of which the government issues Foreign Exchange Certificates, which are accepted by restaurants, travel agents, taxis, hotels, airlines, etc.

3. Vaccinations: Myanmar’s Center for Disease Control and Prevention recommends everyone arriving at the country to get vaccinated for chickenpox, measles-mumps-rubella, tetanus-diphtheria-pertussis, flu and typhoid.

4. Choose a season: The period between February and May is warm with little to no rainfall. The country transforms to a lush land between the months of May and October with rains pouring through afternoons and evenings. October to February is the festive season and also the best time to visit the country.

Top Destinations

With whimsical mountains to exotic, white-sand beaches, and with lush landscapes dotted with pagodas and a thriving nightlife, Myanmar has everything a traveller needs.

Yangon

Yangon served as the capital of Myanmar until 2006. It’s one of the most important cities with most tourists beginning or ending their journey to Myanmar here.

Major attractions in the city are:

  • Shwedagon Pagoda
  • Bogyoke Aung Market
  • Kandawgyi Lake
  • City’s walking tour

Bagan and Central Myanmar

It’s an ancient temple-city, which once was a site painted with more than 10,000 temples, monasteries and pagodas, of which only over 2,200 remains.

Major attractions in the city are:

  • Hot-air balloon ride
  • Boat cruise at Irrawaddy river
  • Lacquerware workshops
  • Shwesandaw and Shwegugyi Temples
  • Mount Popa

Beach escapes

Almost around one third of Myanmar’s perimeter forms an uninterrupted coastline of almost 2,000 kilometers running along Andaman Sea and Bay of Bengal. Myanmar is home to one of the most spectacular beaches in the world.

Major beaches in the country:

  • Ngapali Beach in Rakhine state
  • Chaung Thar in Irrawaddy region
  • Myeik North and Myeik South
  • Ngwe Saung (4 hour drive from Yangon)

Natural Treatment For Clostridium Difficile Infection

Nowadays antibiotics are a number one cause of Clostridium difficile infection; moreover they are a standard treatment for it. This fact is not easy to comprehend. What can we expect from fighting with the dangerous pandemic of this superbug? Who will win this battle?

For now, the bacteria have the advantage. Incidence of Clostridium difficile infection rises, severe antibiotic resistant cases are becoming more common, and incidence of Clostridium difficile related deaths in the United States goes up every year. For instance, only in North America, there is a fivefold increase of this infection for the entire population and an eightfold increase in elderly.

Clostridium difficile, is a bacterial intestinal infection that causes mild to very severe diarrhea and colon inflammation. Other medical names of this infection are antibiotic-associated colitis; necrotizing colitis; colitis – pseudomembranous.

Some researchers call Clostridium difficile a superbug, and it deserves this title. If you are reading this article, the chances are, you know about this superbug. From the medical investigations, it is known that:

1. 5-10% of people have Clostridium difficile in their intestines without noticeable symptoms

2. Clostridium difficile usually targets persons after the course of antibiotics

3. People with low immunity suffer most often

4. Conventional treatment with powerful antibiotics cannot prevent from relapses

Can natural, non-drug methods be useful in case of Clostridium difficile infection? Yes, if we put in to account the fact that healthy people, even when they have this bacteria in their guts, do not show any symptoms. Their natural defenses control this infection.

Healthy humans have defense mechanisms that prevent the harmful bacteria, including Clostridium difficile, from going into and multiplying inside our intestines. How do these natural defense mechanisms work?

First, stomach acids destroy harmful bacteria and parasites. Second is antibacterial action of the pancreatic juice and bile. Besides foods, pancreatic juice and bile digest microorganisms too. That is why, the first part of the small intestine in the healthy individual is almost sterile. Decreasing production of the hydrochloric acid with age, gastritis-stomach inflammation, and aggressively suppressing gastric acidity with drugs, opens this gate for dangerous invaders to go in. These antibacterial actions depended upon normal body’s acid-base balance.

Bile and pancreatic juice are alkaline solutions; therefore, digestive pancreatic enzymes can work and kill the dangerous invaders only in the alkaline environment. Unfortunately, constant body acidity causes acidic changes in the pancreatic juice; thus, this gate also opens.

Can you imagine gastrointestinal tract as a rough river that washes everything and does not give microbes the ability to attach to the intestinal walls? Normally, 8-9 quarts of the mixture of saliva, gastric juice, bile, pancreatic juice, and intestinal secretions washes away almost all microorganisms from intestines. Regrettably, hidden and obvious dehydration is very common, and it may suppress this defense mechanism.

Next one is the proper function of the muscle valves and motility of the intestines. For instance, poor function of the ileocecal valve between large and small intestine can carry microbes inside our guts, where they can grow.

One of the vital mechanisms that keep our intestines healthy is the immune system. No wonder, Clostridium difficile targets people with low immune system the most. Elderly, persons after chemotherapy, using steroids, antibiotics, and immunosuppressant drugs are more vulnerable to Clostridium difficile infection. It is also the concern of alcoholics and drug addicts. It is known that lack of some essential nutrients such as vitamins, minerals and stress may weaken the immune system.

However, the most critical is the healthy balance of the friendly intestinal flora. Researchers and medical doctors are unanimous that Clostridium difficile typically appears after taking broad-spectrum antibiotics, which eradicate friendly intestinal flora. Friendly intestinal flora is the best defense from dangerous invaders, such as bacteria, Candida-yeast, and parasites.

Disease causing microorganisms damage the gut’s wall and make it vulnerable to multiplying (colonization) of the Clostridium difficile. Typically, these bacteria are not acting alone. A number of other species of opportunistic infection such as Klebsiella, Staphylococcus, Candida-yeast, parasites also can be blamed for symptoms of antibiotic-associated diarrhea.

Restoration of defense mechanisms is vital, but it is a difficult task. There is no magic bullet in the treatment of the Clostridium difficile infection. When you just focus on the “find and destroy” approach with the broad-spectrum antibiotics or any other antimicrobial agents, without enhancing natural defense mechanisms, it will lead to chronic forms of this infection. Antibiotics lose the battle with Clostridium difficile because of forming antibiotic-resistant strains.

Searching in the jungle of the internet for the miracle home-remedies is a useless idea. Moreover, it is difficult to restore the friendly intestinal flora when Clostridium difficile are colonized in the large intestine by taking low quality probiotics or “consuming yogurt”.

There is evidence based on the clinical researches of experienced doctors all over the globe, and by my personal, everyday experience, natural, non-drug methods can be highly beneficial for Clostridium difficile infection because it works not against the body, but enhances the body’s natural defense mechanisms.

Doctors all over the world have used safe, effective, non-drug, alternative methods to treat chronic diarrhea for hundreds of years. Using these methods can alleviate diarrhea, bloody stool, bowels urgency, pain, abdominal cramps, bloating, nausea, and other symptoms. Lab tests also can demonstrate positive changes.

Some of these natural, holistic alternative methods are healing diet, acupuncture, cleansing with colon hydrotherapy, restoration of friendly intestinal flora, herbs, nutritional supplementation, drinking Karlovy Vary healing mineral water.

European doctors have recommended Karlovy Vary water for various digestive disorders including chronic diarrhea for 500 years.

Thanks to its thermal spring mineral water, small town Karlovy Vary in the Czech Republic is a famous healing mineral spa. Thousands of Europeans spend there their “healthy vacations”. For those who may not visit this resort, the water evaporates to form a salt. Healing mineral water prepared from genuine Karlovy Vary thermal spring salt gives the possibility for treatment at home.

Researchers’ and medical doctors proved that Karlovy Vary healing mineral water restores normal acid-alkaline balance, enhances functions of liver, pancreas, gallbladder, and colon, promotes growth of the friendly intestinal flora, decreases inflammation, and normalizes stool.

People who recognize that acupuncture is suitable for lower back pain can be surprised that billions of people in the world can use this ancient method for various digestive disorders including chronic diarrhea. Using healing enema has a long history for treating chronic diarrhea. Now, by using modern equipment, colon hydrotherapy is getting its popularity as safe and effective cleansing process.

It is clear that there is no particular remedy by itself, to stop Clostridium difficile diarrhea overnight and forever. No matter how effective it is. The matter is to get knowledgeable, licensed medical practitioner or practitioners, who can perform safe and effective healing program for antibiotic-induced chronic diarrhea. The actual result can be reached by cooperation between the doctor, patient, his or her relatives or friends, and alternative medicine practitioner.

The information contained here is presented for educational, informational purposes only. It is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease. This information is not to be used to replace the services or instructions of a physician or qualified health care practitioner.

Bitter Melon: The Source of the Next Promising Anti-HIV Drug?

Back in the 1980s almost anything big is cool. Large and outrageously baggy clothes. Humungous, bizarre hair styles. Monstrous cassette players with booming speakers blaring out loud Hip Hop bass. It was the perfect time to come into age for most teens.

Yet there was one particular big thing that was not cool for some children of the 80s: HIV.

Back then HIV was seen as some new kind of devastating plague. Getting HIV in the 1980s meant outright condemnation and unnecessary abhorrence from society. There were times during the early part of the 80s where medical technicians clad in space suit-like protective gears to take patients suffering from severe opportunistic infections out of their houses. And the worst part was that there was virtually no HIV/AIDS treatment then.

One can just imagine the severe physical, mental, and social anguish an HIV positive person go through back in the 80s. Fortunately, years of scientific research have paid off and many drugs were developed to treat HIV. One of these drugs is the antiretrovirals or ARVs. Introduced back in 1996, ARVs are perhaps the most common anti-HIV drug today. ARVs have really helped in improving the quality of life of HIV infected people.

But there’s one throwback: ARVs are costly. Some HIV positive patients, particularly those living in impoverished nations, are not able to procure ARVs and still suffer greatly from the onslaught of AIDS. So scientists and patients alike have been embarking on a quest to discover a less expensive treatment for HIV/AIDS. One of the most promising alternative treatments for HIV/AIDS is the exotic tropical vegetable bitter melon.

Bitter melon (Momordica charantia) is a vine native to tropical Asia. For centuries, Asians have been using its fruits, leaves and seeds to relieve a variety of illnesses, such as constipation, dyspepsia, malaria and diabetes. When the HIV/AIDS epidemic spread to Asia in the 80s, many infected people turned to bitter melon to reverse the tide of regressing immune functions.

The potential of Momordica charantia as HIV treatment received a popular boost when Filipino-American Stanley Rebultan’s case appeared widely in the press. Rebultan was diagnosed as HIV positive back in 1987. Yet he did not take any meds for several months since his T-cell counts were normal. After some time, Rebultan was alarmed that his T-cell levels were drastically dropping. He asked his doctor if he can take AZT, which was the hottest anti-HIV drug that time, but his doctor was not familiar with the drug and told him not to take it.

At this point, Rebultan visited his family in the Philippines and was told by a friend that bitter melon, a well-known local vegetable, is effective in treating leukemia. He toyed with the naïve theory that bitter melon may work with HIV since he thought that is also a disease of the blood like leukemia. So he started taking bitter melon liquid regularly and was stunned that his T-cell levels increased dramatically.

After Rebultan’s miracle-like story came out, Dr. Quincai Zhange, a Chinese scientist, released a study stating that HIV positive patients who took bitter melon for a period of four months above have significantly normalized T-cell ratios. In Zhang’s study, it was found out that something in bitter melon has the ability to inhibit HIV. Later studies have discovered that these HIV-inhibitor compounds in bitter melon are proteins AP 30 and momorcharain.

Further experiments are still being conducted in order to clinically validate the effectiveness of the HIV inhibitor compounds in Momordica charantia. But the potential of bitter melon to treat HIV still remains immense.

Klinefelter Syndrome or XXY Syndrome

Klinefelter syndrome, 46/47, XXY or XXY syndrome is a disorder where the human males bear an extra X chromosome. In general females are characterized by the presence of two X chromosomes and males bear on X and one Y chromosome but in the individuals suffering from this syndrome the males bear two X chromosomes and one Y chromosome. Due to the presence of extra chromosome the individuals are generally known as XXY Males or 47, XXY Males. Among humans Klinefelter syndrome is one of the most common sex disorder known in males and is the second most common condition caused by the presence of extra chromosomes. The incidence of occurrence of this syndrome is 1 in 650 males. One in every 500 males has an extra chromosome but may not show the symptoms of the syndrome. Apart from humans other mammals have also shown the karyotype XXY as found in mice. The most common warning signs of Klinefelter syndrome are hypogonadism and reduced fertility. Physical problems and behavioral difficulties are other additional symptoms and their severity may vary among individuals. Only a very rare of affected individuals shows easily detectable symptoms. The syndrome is named after Dr. Harry Klinefelter who first identified the syndrome in 1942.

The severity of appearance of symptoms among the males varies widely and the symptoms may or may not be identified easily. Appearance of symptoms depends upon the total number of XXY cells present in a male followed by testosterone levels and age of the individual when the syndrome was diagnosed. XXY condition generally affects three major areas of development namely physical, social and language. As babies the males with XXY karyotype generally have weak muscles and reduced strength. Such babies sit up, crawl and walk later than the normal infants. These infants attain enormous height at the age of four that results in loss of muscle control and coordination as compared to the boys of same age group. When these males enter puberty they often do not produce enough amount of testosterone as produced by the normal males of same age group. This results in taller but less muscular body, less facial and body hair, broader hips, larger breasts, weaker bones and lower energy level than normal individuals.

The males with XXY karyotype resemble normal individuals but are taller as compared to them. They are at the risk of a number of health problems like autoimmune disorders, breast cancer, vein diseases, osteoporosis, osteopenia, diabetes mellitus, leg ulcers and tooth decay and in later cases the risk of mortality also increases. These males have normal sex lives but may produce little or no sperm. About 95-99% of males suffering from Klinefelter syndrome are infertile as they do not produce enough amounts of sperms required for normal sex life. About 25-85% of males with XXY karyotype suffer from some characteristic language problems for example, they talk late, face problem in expressing their feelings and emotions, reading problems and trouble in processing whatever they hear. They also feel difficulty in reading and writing but often enjoy their jobs successfully. During their childhood, the babies with XXY karyotype tend to remain quiet and undemanding and as they grow older they become quieter, less self-confident, less active but more helpful and obedient as compared to the normal boys of same age. In their teens they are quiet and shy and may struggle in school and sports as they find it difficult to mix with other children in the school. They maintain good family and social relationships.

The X chromosome bears a number of genes that actively participate in carrying out many vital body functions for example, testis function, brain growth and development. Presence of an extra X or Y chromosome in a male individual is generally responsible for appearance of physical and cognitive impairments. Mental retardation in an individual is directly related to the number of supernumerary X chromosomes. As the number of X chromosomes increases the normal somatic and cognitive functions undergo alterations. Skeletal and cardiovascular abnormalities become more intense as the number of X chromosomes increases. Gonadal development is also affect and results in seminiferous dysgenesis and infertility as well as hypoplastic and malformed genitalia in polysome X males. Mental capacity also undergoes fluctuations as the number of X chromosomes increases. The intelligence quotient (IQ) score reduces by 15 points for every supernumerary X chromosome as found so the decisions must be made very carefully. All the major areas of development especially the expressive and receptive language and coordination are affected by the presence of extra X chromosome.

Occurrence of error or non-disjunction that crops up during parental gametogenesis also results in production of extra X chromosome. This error is responsible for causing hypogonadism, gynecomastia and psychosocial problems. Truly speaking Klinefelter syndrome is actually a form of primary testicular failure. Testicular failure is responsible for enormous rise of the gonadotropin levels as feedback inhibition by the pituitary gland is deactivated. Androgen deficiency results in eunuchoid body proportions. Facial, axillary, pubic or body hair are absent. The muscle mass and muscle strength also declines. Other additional symptoms include feminine distribution of adipose tissue, small testis and penis, diminished libido, decreased physical endurance and osteoporosis. The total number of functional seminiferous tubules and Sertoli cells also gets reduced which in turn results in marked declination of the inhibin B levels. Inhibin B is actually the hormone regulator of the follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). The hypothalamic-gonadal-pituitary axis is also altered in the mature individuals with Klinefelter syndrome. The individuals suffering from this disorder have low serum testosterone levels but the levels of luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone are relatively high. Evn the levels of estradiol are also high but since testosterone levels are low so the males with XXY karyotype suffer from hypogonadism.

In 1959 Klinefelter syndrome was identified to be caused by the presence of an extra X chromosome in the male individual. The 47, XXY karyotype of this syndrome arises at random when the paired X chromosomes fail to separate especially during the oogenesis or spermatogenesis that results in non-disjunction in stage I or II of meiotic division. Both maternal and paternal meiotic non-disjunction account for appearance of Klinefelter syndrome and the chances are 50%. 75% of the maternal non-disjunction errors occur during the meiotic I division and they are strongly related with maternal age. Increased paternal age also increases the risk of this syndrome. Post-fertilization non-disjunction is responsible for mosaicism and it accounts for 10% cases of Klinefelter syndrome. The androgen receptor (AR) gene encodes for the androgen receptor which is located on the X chromosome. The AR gene bears a highly polymorphic trinucleotide (CAG) repeat sequence in exon 1. The length of this CAG repeat sequence is inversely correlated with the functional response of the androgen receptor to androgens. We can say that a short AR CAG repeat sequence has a very marked effect on androgens. In individuals with this syndrome generally the shortest AR CAG repeat sequence becomes inactivated and the condition is termed as skewed or non-random X chromosome inactivation.

Individuals with short AR CAG repeats have shown to respond to the androgen therapy very effectively. Long AR CAG repeats in general are associated with increased body height and arm span, decreased bone density, decreased testicular volume and gynecomastia. Non-random X chromosome inactivation may result in hypogonadal phenotype. In males with XXY karyotype, the paternal origin of supernumerary X chromosome is associated with late onset of puberty as they have long AR CAG repeats. Different variants of Klinefelter syndrome are known for example, 48, XXYY where the patients are characterized by mild mental retardation, tall stature, eunuchoid body habitus, sparse body hair, gynecomastia, long, thin legs, hypergonadotropic hypogonadism and small testes. The 48, XXXY variant is identified by mild to moderate mental retardation, speech delay, slow motor development, poor coordination, immature behavior, tall or normal stature, abnormal face, hypoplastic penis, infertility, clinodactyly and radioulnar synostosis that can be treated with testosterone therapy. Variant 49, XXXYY is characterized by mild to severe mental retardation, passive but aggressive behavior, tall stature, dysmorphic facial features, hypogonadism and gynecomastia. Individuals with 49, XXXXY variants are mild to moderate mentally retarded. They suffer from radioulnar synostosis and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. Other clinical features include impaired language, behavioral problems, low birthweight, short stature, abnormal face, short or broad neck and cryptorchidism.

Diagnosis of Klinefelter syndrome can be done by a karyotypic test. In this test a small amount of blood sample is taken out and the white blood cells are separated from the sample. Then the sample is mixed with tissue culture medium, incubated and then checked for chromosomal abnormalities for example presence of extra X chromosome can be made clear. Prenatal diagnosis of this syndrome can be done by amniocentesis or by chorionic villus sampling where the fetal tissue is extracted and then the fetal DNA is examined for chromosomal abnormalities. A report in 2002 specifies that about 58% of the pregnancies underwent abortion as the fetuses were diagnosed with Klinefelter syndrome. The XXY chromosome pattern in the patient with this syndrome cannot be changed but a number of treatments are available to treat the remarkable symptoms of this disease. Children with this syndrome can be educated properly by the teachers so that they can perform their daily activities well. A variety of therapists like physical, speech, occupational, behavioral, mental health and family therapists can help to overcome some of the problems like low muscle tone, language problems or low self-confidence associated with this syndrome. Testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) can help the affected individuals to maintain normal levels of testosterone. Normal testosterone levels can help to develop bigger muscles, deepen the voice and grow facial and body hair. This therapy can also help such individuals to become father of children. A study carried out in 2010 has indicated that 100 successful pregnancies have been achieved by the in-vitro fertilization (IVF) technology where the sperms were collected from the patients of Klinefelter syndrome.

Klinefelter syndrome is one of the most commonly known genetic forms of male hypogonadism. In the United States about 3,000 individuals are born with this syndrome every year. Mental retardation and hypogonadism are more frequent in the 49, XXXXY and 48, XXXY variants. The mortality rate is significantly not higher as compared to the normal individuals. This syndrome affects people of all races. Since this syndrome is caused by the presence of extra X chromosome on XY background it affects male individuals only.

How to Reset the Filter Indicator Light on Your American Style Side-By-Side Fridge

One of the most important things when it comes to an American style side-by side fridge is to change the water filter cartridge on a regular basis. After changing the fridge water filter, you should reset the filter indicator light on your fridge display to monitor when it’s time to change your fridge filter again.

Unfortunately, you have probably lost your manual by now. Not to worry, continue reading.

Each manufacture of side-by-side refrigerators provides their own instructions for resetting the indicator light. So here the list of more than 30 fridge manufacture on how to reset the light after replacing the fridge water filters:

Amana: press and hold the Lock and Auto light (or Water) buttons on the dispenser (at the same time) for 4 seconds until the filter status indicator begins to flash, and then release the buttons.

LG / Atag / Fagor / Liebherr: press and hold the Light/Filter button for 3 seconds.

Bauknecht: press and hold the Filter Reset button for 3 seconds until the light changes to green.

Baumatic: press the Ice Maker Lock button for 3 seconds or more. The LED will then change to NORMAL.

Beko / Teka: press and hold the Auto Eco button for 5 seconds.

Bosch / Siemens / Neff / Balay / Miele: press and hold the Water Filter Reset button for 5 seconds. Newer models: press the Options button until “filter change” is selected, press selection buttons +/- until the “filter change” display goes out.

Caple: press the Reset button until the light will change to green.

Daewoo / Nardi / Pelgrim / Steel: press the Ice Maker Lock button for 3 seconds or more; while holding the lock button, the light will change to green.

De Dietrich: press and hold the Reset Filter button for 5 seconds.

Gaggenau: press and hold the Filter Reset button for 3 seconds until the yellow/red light goes out.

GE: press and hold the Reset Water Filter button on the dispenser for 3 seconds.

Haier: press Reset button.

KitchenAid: press and hold Filter Reset button for 3 seconds until the Order or Replace light turns off.

Maytag: Press Options, then Water Filter, then Reset, and then Yes. The status light will change from red to green when the system is reset. Or press and hold the Filter Reset button for 3 seconds.

Samsung: press the Ice type and Child lock (or Moisture Control) buttons simultaneously for 3 seconds. Note: Hold the buttons for only 3 seconds. If you press these 2 buttons simultaneously for 5 seconds, the reset function ceases. Release the buttons and repeat the same step one more time. The water filter indicator light should turn green.

Smeg: press and hold the OK button until the three dashes reappear on the display. Or, press and hold the Reset Water Filter button for 5 seconds.

Sub-Zero: press and hold the Filter Reset control for 5 seconds.

Whirlpool / Hotpoint- Ariston / Kppersbusch: press the Filter Reset button until the icon becomes blue (or green). The Filter Reset button will not work if the filter icon is already blue (or green). Or, press the Light switch 5 times within 10 seconds.

Aged Paper Thin Skin – Fix it Now

You may be finding out that as you become older you can get aged paper thin skin not just on your face, but on your arms and legs as well. It certainly can shake your self confidence and make you want to give up on looking and feeling young ever again. Here’ the good part. It doesn’t have to be that way.

Yes, a lot of people are trying to solve the problem of aged paper thin skin by having their own fat sucked out of places where they don’t need it, and having it injected into all the places that could use more fat. What an ordeal, is all I can say. What an expense, and what risk. There have been reports of blood clots from liposuction.

If you look around you you’ll notice that some people age better than others. There’s a reason for it and once you understand it you, too, can look much, much better no matter now old you are. There are complicated things going on in our bodies but it can be explained pretty simply.

Everything we do causes free radicals. Good things and bad. Go out in the sun, exercise, breathe and you get free radicals. Smoking, drinking, drugs, everything gives you free radicals. And what are they? Little things swimming around in our bodies causing oxidation, or rust. It’s nature’s way of making us age and die off. The more we rust, the less our bodies work properly. We end up getting diseases. And this is how they affects the way we look:

Our bodies produce less and less collagen and elastin, which are badly needed in order to keep skin plumped up. Bottom line, the free radicals have to go. The enemy of free radicals is… antioxidants. An antioxidant diet with plenty of colorful fruits and vegetables helps. People who eat right look better. But there’s more you can do to avoid aged paper thin skin.

Get antioxidants in through your skin so they can kill off free radicals. Trouble is, most creams don’t contain antioxidants that are tiny enough to penetrate through all our layers. Even if they call themselves an antioxidant cream you must check the ingredients.

Only very few companies are using a new technological breakthrough that reduces the size of antioxidants so they can penetrate. Look for Cynergy TK as one of the ingredients you need. Then you’ll know you’ve found a good product.

Use your proper cream morning and night. It will destroy all the free radicals. The result? Your body will produce more and more collagen and elastin once it’s free of rust. Your wrinkles and sags will disappear and your aged paper thin skin will look young again. Quite remarkable, and so easy and inexpensive.

How I Saved My Gallbladder From Surgery With Diet

One morning I woke up and I had a ton of pain. It was very sharp and got me really scared. I went to the doctor and he did an ultrasound and found I had some gallstones and sludge that had accumulated in my gallbladder. He said I had experienced a gallbladder attack and that the pain may go away and then return. His suggestion was to have my gallbladder removed with surgery. I am not the kind of person who likes having organs removed without exhausting all other options first. I said thank you, left and then decided to look into diet as an alternative. Here is what I did…

First, I discovered that diet does play a huge and direct role in gallbladder symptoms. The most important cause of gallbladder pain and sludge is cholesterol. What I learned is that cholesterol is actually produced by the body naturally and you do not need or want it from your diet. When you eat too much cholesterol, it overloads the gallbladder as it tries to digest and process them. But, as I said, it gets overworked and cannot process all of it. So, those cholesterol deposits turn into sludge and gallstones. As it continues to get worse, your gallbladder can get inflamed and start causing you a lot of pain.

So, the first and most important thing I learned is that you have to cut cholesterol out of your diet. That means any kind of animal food (red meat, chicken, fish, turkey and dairy – cheese, milk, butter, ice cream, etc…) That may seem radical to you, but I can promise you that when you are in pain, you will do anything to get out of it as quickly as possible. So, I switched to a diet that focused on salads, fruits, vegetables, beans, etc… I also started taking a very high quality and organic herbal formula for the gallbladder. And within a few days, my pain was gone and never came back. That made me feel like I was definitely on the right track.

I continued eating healthy and taking the supplement and within a month I felt better than I had in years. I lost ten pounds and had a lot more energy than I had in years. I went back to the doctor and had another ultrasound and the gallstones were dramatically smaller and the sludge was gone! The doctor asked me what I did and I told him, but he didn’t seem very interested. I was amazed. Here I was telling him how I specifically avoided surgery for removing an organ with absolutely NO side affects and he didn’t really seem to care. He just told me to keep doing it and walked out.

All I can tell you is that if you have gallbladder pain and are considering surgery, try this first. It is natural and very well may save your from gallbladder surgery. Look into a vegan diet, because there are tons of delicious recipes and I am hooked for life. I feel confident that it saved my life. It definitely saved my gallbladder!

Click below for the link to the organic herbal supplement I used to get out of pain and save my gallbladder:

Organic Herbal Gallbladder Formula

Good luck!!