Liposuction-Trends And Safety Aspects

Liposuction is a minimally invasive surgery, where subcutaneous fat is aspirated by use of a blunt canula attached to a vacuum pump. It is also called lipo-sculpture, lipoplasty or suction assisted lipectomy.

Liposuction has become the most commonly performed cosmetic surgery procedure world – wide. There is a rising trend towards larger volume liposuction. Increasing number of "over weight" people, rising awareness levels, peer pressure to look good and increase in safety profile of liposuction have contributed to the rise in number of surgeries performed and larger volumes being aspirated.

Liposuction is not mean for weight loss, the primary aim is body contouring. When large volumes of fat get aspirated, amount of weight loss also happens. Liposuction works best for spot reductions and for areas resistant to diet and exercises. The more elastic the skin, the better liposuction results.

Liposuction is not a substitute for a poor lifestyle – maintaining the results requires regular exercises and calorie restricted diet. Liposuction removes most of the fat cells on the areas treated, since the chance of putting on weight in these areas get reduced.

Volume reduction of the subcutaneous fat is followed by healing and readjustment of the skin to the new contour. However, if you have flabby skin as a result of pregnancy or sudden weight loss, the skin will become more sagging after liposuction. Such cases require a "lift tuck" procedure in addition.

Safety aspects

Liposuction can be safely performed by an experienced surgeon and anesthetist. Standard risks of anesthesia exist when the procedure is done under General Anesthesia. As liposuction removals fat under the skin only, without damage to internal organs, there are no long term health risks.

As most of the large volume liposuction are performed under General Anesthesia. Monitored anesthesia is essential. General Anesthesia offers maximum comfort to the patient as circumferential contouring of back, front and sides can be performed without subjecting patients to inconvenient positions.

Bruising, swelling and soreness are to be expected post procedure. These are temporary effects of surgery and are expected to resolve in 3-4 weeks. Major risks include pulmonary edema, hemorrhage, and toxicity from local anesthetic. These are fortunately rare. Patients who are high – risk for pulmonary embolism need appropriate preventive measures.

Large volume liposuction

Aspiration of more than five liters of fat in one sitting is termed large volume liposuction. The proportion of large volume liposuctions being performed is increasing world – wide as more and more surgeons get convinced of its safety. Up to 20 liters can be aspirated in one sitting in well – selected cases and in a hospital setting with good infrastructure. Large volume liposuction is probably better done under GA as most of there cases require circumferential liposuction.

Finer Instruments

Small diameter canulas have improved results in liposuction. There is less chance of contour irregularities and of damage to blood vessels and nerves.
Also the size of access points can be reduced with finer canula. Ultrasound assisted liposuction (UAL) and power assisted liposuction (PAL) have reduced surgeons work effort. These new techniques are advantageous on scarred areas and in secondary liposuctions.

Although newer instruments have certain advantages to them, extremely the quality of result is dependent on the skills of the surgeon.

Diabetes Risk for Men

Diabetes Risk for Men

Men with diabetes face several health concerns, including increased risk of heart attacks and strokes and impotence (not being able to have or keep an erection).

Above the age of 50, the likelihood of having difficulties with an erection occurs in approximately 50-60% of men with diabetes. In men over 70, 90% have erectile dysfunction problems (link to diabetes and ED page)

Diagnosed and controlled, diabetes can be successfully managed to minimise its impact on health and well being. You can prevent or delay diabetes complications like damage to eye sight and nerve damage to fingers and toes. However many men do not realise they suffer from the disease. Around one third of the men with diabetes are not aware of their illness.

Diabetes Signs and Symptoms

If you find yourself with any of the following symptoms, it is important you visit your doctor or health practitioner and get tested for diabetes:
• feeling tired
• frequent urination (especially at night)
• being very thirsty
• weight loss
• blurry eyesight
• recurring skin, gum, or bladder infections
• sores that heal slowly
• dry, itchy skin
• loss of feeling or tingling in your feet

Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes

There are different kinds of diabetes:
• Type 1 diabetes is usually first diagnosed in children, teenagers, or young adults.
• Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes. People can develop it at any age, but it is often diagnosed in later life and is commonly found in men who are over weight and do little exercise.

What is Diabetes?

Most of the food we eat is turned into glucose (sugar) for our bodies to use for energy. The pancreas makes insulin, which helps sugar get into the cells. When you have diabetes, your body either doesn’t make enough insulin or can’t use the insulin it does make. This causes sugar to build up in your blood. Over the years, high blood sugar leads to problems like heart disease, stroke, blindness, kidney disease, nerve problems, gum infections, and amputations.

Diabetes-Related Problems in Men

Men with diabetes suffer more from some diabetes-related health problems than women. The American Diabetes Association reports that:
• In people who develop diabetes before the age of 30, men develop retinopathy (a vision disorder that can lead to blindness) more quickly than women.
• Having the main symptoms of peripheral vascular disease (pain in the thigh, calf, or buttocks during exercise) is linked to a two- to three-fold increased risk of coronary heart disease, stroke, or cardiac failure in men with diabetes.
• Amputation rates from diabetes-related problems are 1.4 to 2.7 times higher in men than women with diabetes.

“Beer Pot” Belly Equals High Diabetes Risk

Overall obesity, measured by high body mass index (BMI) and a “beer pot” belly, measured by a large waist circumference, both accurately predict the risk of type 2 diabetes in men, but abdominal obesity appears to be the better predictor, new research shows.*
Both BMI and waist circumference are useful for assessing health but waist circumference can indicate a strong risk for diabetes whether or not a man is considered overweight or obese according to his BMI, researchers said.
As waist circumference increased, so did the risk of developing diabetes, with the risk in men with the highest waist circumference (up to 158 centimeters) increasing by 12 times.
The study findings also suggest that the currently recommended cutoff for high waist circumference of 102 cm (40 inches) for men may need to be lowered to 95 cm.
Many of the men who developed type 2 diabetes had measurements lower than the cutoff and the risk associated with the waist circumference increased at a much lower level than previously thought.

Sleeping Too Much Or Too Little Increases Diabetes Risk

Men who sleep too much or too little are at an increased risk of developing Type 2 diabetes, according to a study by the New England Research Institutes in collaboration with Yale School of Medicine researchers.
Six to eight hours of sleep was found to be most healthy.
In contrast, men who reported they slept between five and six hours per night were twice as likely to develop diabetes and men who slept more than eight hours per night were three times as likely to develop diabetes. Previous data have shown similar results in women.
The elevated risks remained after adjustment for age, hypertension, smoking status, self-rated health status and education.
Too little sleep appears to produce metabolic disturbances like decreased carbohydrate tolerance, insulin resistance, and lower levels of the hormone leptin leading to obesity. The mechanisms by which long sleep duration increase diabetes risk requires further investigation.

You Can Delay or Prevent Type 2 Diabetes

When you take steps to prevent diabetes, you also lower your risk for heart disease, stroke, kidney disease, blindness, and amputation.
Small changes in your lifestyle can make a difference.
They include:
• Getting 30 minutes of physical activity five days a week and losing 5 to 7 percent of your body weight.
• To help you lose weight, choose low-fat foods and foods high in fiber.
• Cut down on fat and cholesterol by having low-fat dairy products, lean cuts of meat, fish, poultry, fruits, and vegetables.
• Limit foods high in salt and sugar.

Know Your Risks That Can Lead to Type 2 Diabetes

It’s important to find out early if you have type 2 diabetes or if you are at risk of developing it. To find out if you’re at risk, check off each item that applies to you.
• I am overweight or obese. (Obesity is measured with a body mass index (BMI), which shows the relationship of weight to height.)
• I have a parent, brother, or sister with diabetes.
• My family background is African American, American Indian, Asian American, Latino, Maori or Pacific Islander.
• I have high blood pressure.
• My cholesterol is not normal. My HDL or “good” cholesterol is less than 50 or my triglycerides are 250 or higher.
• I am not very active. I exercise less than three times each week.

Talk to your doctor or health care practitioner about the risks that you checked off. If you are age 45 or older, also talk about getting tested for Type 2 diabetes. If your test result is normal, you should then be tested every three years. People younger than age 45 who are overweight or obese and checked off any of the items above should also talk about getting tested for diabetes
* SOURCE: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, March 2005.

Is there a natural Answer for Diabetes-Related Erectile Dysfunction?

Many researchers and satisfied customers of potent herbal formulations like Herbal Ignite give an enthusiastic yes to this question. Products like Herbal Ignite boost natural testosterone levels without the negative feedback associated with Hormone Replacement Therapy. Herbal Ignite capsules help your body produce more testosterone, instead of adding outside testosterone from an outside source.

Herbal Ignite to enhance virility and reduce male menopause symptoms has been researched and refined by modern science so today’s men can enjoy quality controlled extracts of concentrated active ingredients.

Herbal Ignite’s special formula has helped thousands of men enjoy a better sex life and an improved sense of well being with minimal unwanted side effects

To find out more about Herbal Ignite just Google the term “Herbal Ignite”.

The Seven Symbols of God’s Word

The word of God can be described using various forms and symbols. It is powerful, infallible and carries so much potential which can be positively applied to every situation. What are the various forms which can be used to describe the undiluted word of God?


The sword is an instrument of warfare which was made famous by the Roman soldiers. It can be used as both a defensive and attacking instrument depending on the situation. It can be compared to the sword. It is not just an ordinary sword, but a doubled edged sword which can pierce even to the very marrow of the human soul.


The hammer is an instrument usually used for breaking stones and other objects during construction. It is also referred to as a hammer because it can be used to destroy every works of the enemy especially during spiritual warfare.


A seed is usually used during the planting of crops. It appears very small, but when it germinates, it can grow up to become a giant tree producing thousands of fruits. That is exactly what the word of God represents. It is like a seed which is sown in the human heart. If the heart is fertile enough, that seed will eventually blossom and produce fruits which will abide.


A mirror is an object that can be used to give a true reflection of an image. Women often spend hours looking at themselves in the mirror to ensure they are well dressed. It is a basic item which is found in every home. The word of God can also be referred to as a spiritual mirror which is used in looking into our individual hearts. When we meditate on it, we see ourselves as we truly are and make amends where necessary.


Fire is a great instrument which can be useful as well as dangerous depending on what we are using it to accomplish. When used for cooking, it can become useful, but when it gets in contact with our body, it can be devastating. The word of God is also referred to as a consuming fire. It devours any element of sin and creates a cleansing effect in the individual.


The word of God is a lamp unto our feet and a light unto our path. A lamp is extremely useful especially where there is darkness. Through this instrument, when can see hidden things in our life and become focused in whatever area we find ourselves. It illuminates and guides the believer.


When we eat physical food, it acts as nourishment to our physical body. The word of God can be compared to spiritual food which can enrich our spirit and feed the soul.

So the word of God convicts, breaks, regenerates, reveals, consumes, illuminates and nourishes the individual.

Get Best Home Remedies for Pleurisy

Pleurisy is the state in which the pleural cavity of the lungs gets inflated. This state of the pleura occurs mainly due to infections in the lungs. When the pleura get inflated the two layers of pleura rub against each other every time during inhaling and exhaling air due to which chronic chest pain occurs during breathing.

There are many reasons behind the occurrence of pleurisy such as viral infection, lung cancer, pneumonia, chest injury, blood clot in lung etc. The pain in chest in the condition of pleurisy mainly occurs during deep breathing, physical work and coughing. The state of pleurisy makes breathing very painful.

The condition of pleurisy may also occur due to pleural effusion in which fluid get accumulated between the lining of pleura and results in swelling of pleura. Pleural effusion occurs in case of mesothelioma or lung cancer. If pleural effusion is there in case of pleurisy then there is no pain as the fluid acts as lubricant but when the fluid gets deposited in the pleura in large amount, it exerts pressure on the pleura due to which there is improper functioning of the lungs which results in shortening of breadth and other symptoms.

There are certain home remedies for pleurisy which have proven to be effective. They are as follows:

1. When the first symptom of pleurisy occurs, the patient should go on complete fasting and should have only few glasses of water in a day and should increase slowly the amount of water intake day by day.

2. Every day the hot chest pack should be applied gently for 2 to 3 times which will help in relieving the pain and swelling.

3. Milk is very beneficial for the treatment of pleurisy. The intake of milk should is in large amount and should be increased every day but it should not exceed 4 liters.

4. Air bath and sun bath are very helpful methods in curing or decreasing the pain which occurs in pleurisy.

5. The patient should take proper rest and should inhale clean air. So it is advised that the patient should be kept away from the pollution prone areas.

6. Water bath should be taken from the water having temperature exactly 100 degree Fahrenheit for at least one hour. This method help in relieving the pain of chest and it also helps in reduction of the swelling of the pleura of lungs.

7. Patient should sleep in the side in which the pain is less this will help in reducing pain and swelling.

8. Using herbs like hog weed (punarnava) is helpful in reducing pain and swelling. It also heals the symptoms occurring in the lungs due to pleurisy. The powder of the root of hog weed should be taken two to three times a day and it is very in the treatment of pleurisy.

9. Linseed (alsi) can be applied in form of loose paste and it shows excellent results in the treatment.

10. Celery (Ajwain-ka-patta) is also a useful herb in the treatment of pleurisy. Seeds of celery are also useful in treating other types of infections.

eXfuze Review – Boom or Bust in Juiceland?

Last year an old pal and former business partner called me to sell a new deal. He knew I favored ground floor companies and this one called eXfuze had just pre-launched.

The story started with the master distributor, Steve Campbell. I remembered steve personally from the old days in NuSkin over 20 years ago, he was a very solid reputable guy. He started reciting other members of the founding corporate team and I smiled when I heard the name Paul Morris, he was the VP and of course they had done their homework well. Keith Halls another industry legend, who had actually been the CFO of NuSkin and helped take them public and was probably worth $50 million or so had even joined as a distributor. A distributor??I could not imagine someone that successful would even be motivated to work. I was speachless. Now most startup MLM’s are good at getting some good people but sometimes the cash reserves are shakey, but this one had a multi million dollar war chest

I was totally impressed with the whole package but then the warning bell rang! It was a dam super juice! Argggh……………..! I was sick of hearing about superjuices, I had been told about at least 3 different ones earlier that week.

It seemed like a waste of time to go further but I had promised him I would look, so I dusted off my trusty 4 step critical analysis tool and went to work. What I found shocked me, all four factors lined up pretty well, in fact very well.

I was impressed that eXfuze had not gone with the typical superjuice formulation approach, they had actually done something unique. They had gone with a combination of the top 7 well known juices (Gac, Acai, Goji, Noni, Fucoidan, Mangosteen, and Seabuckthorn), and fused them into one drink using cold process extraction, making a only one of its kind one of a kind nutritional product.

Ground Floor
Then the true test. There are many good MLM companies out there with great products and I truly know that if you learn how to market properly you can be successful with any of them. Today everyone knows there is lots of money in MLM, however, lets face it, you need to be with a company that goes small to large with a vengeance.

Final Analysis
It will be fascinating to see what actually happens with eXfuze, they are awash in a sea of super juice companies which keep popping up like there is no tomorrow, but I have an interesting feeling about this one. One other key factor you need to know that you can find in my full review along with my free 4 Step Critical Analysis Guide that you can use to grade any MLM company.

Click on the following link now for the full review and Critical Analysis guide eXfuze Review

There are many great opportunities in the MLM world today, and no matter which company you join, you will find knowing how to market is really what makes the critical difference. Far too many distributors bet everything on the belief that when they finally hit the right company , it will happen for them and then after they have beat on everyone they know, they are out of gas. If your goal is to hit a homerun with a company like eXfuze, then you need to learn how to successfully market you business and don’t leave your success to chance. For free training on successful internet marketing strategies you can use to dominate eXfuze Get my free online training.

Tips for Staying Warm in the Bleachers

Your body is designed to burn food for energy and produces heat from within. So, do not forget to eat! If your body is getting cold, it will sacrifice your feet and hands to save its life. Ever wonder why your feet and hands are the first to get cold ?! Your body loses heat in 5 ways – radiation, convection, construction, respiration and evaporation.

  1. Radiation: Just as a wood stove radiates heat into a room, your body radiates heat into the air. The more insulation you put around it, the loss of heat is reduced.
  2. Convection is moving air. Wind blowing through your sweater or around your jacket is heat lost through convection. Windproof outer layers will help prevent heat loss.
  3. Sitting on some cold bleachers at a football game, grabbing a ski pole, or just catching a cold zipper on your neck, are all heat loss by construction.
  4. Evaporation is a very efficient cooling process.

6 Tips for Staying Warm at a Sporting Event:

  • Check weather conditions before heading outside. Watch your local weekly weather forecast to make it easy to prepare in advance.
  • Dress appropriately. If you are going to be in the extreme cold, wear as many layers of warm clothing as possible. If it's mildly cold, try to dress in just a few layers and pack an extra coat or sweater in case the temperature drops.
  • Be prepared for all conditions. Keep an umbrella, poncho or warm jacket with you. Have an indoor, heated place to go … you do not want to be stuck outside if the weather conditions become extreme.
  • Wear waterproof shoes or boots with a good grip. If your feet are cold and wet, it will not matter how well the rest of your body is bundled up. You will still be miserable!
  • Wear gloves and / or mittens and long thick socks. These protect your hands and feet, which are the hardest places to keep warm blood flowing. Try wearing thinner gloves underneath heavy winter gloves for extra warmth.
  • Pack warm food. Sometimes all you need in chilly conditions is hot food or drink. Carry a thermos with hot drinks, soups, or noodles. Warm food and drink will warm you inside and keep your strength up.

Signs and Symptoms of Hypothermia: shivering, shallow breathing, confusion, exhaustion, slurred speech, loss of coordination, weak pulse, unconsciousness (in severe cases)

Treatment of Hypothermia: remove any wet clothing, protect individual against the wind, move to a warm shelter as soon as possible, rewarm the individual with extra clothing, take the person's temperature if a thermometer is available, offer warm liquids (avoid alcohol or caffeine) ).

They were raping mother africa of her human resources

Thinking back on Africa’s capture and to focus on the pain and brutality and the great physical suffering it was rampart and vicious. It was taken place among the African tribes and the contrary at more disadvantages by the same African kings and vassals. Pain, suffering, and brutality, much as they were feared and avoided, were part of the imagined possibilities of everyone, everywhere. They were trapped from above, throwing on them nests and to be sold to Englishmen or Portuguese. It was a treacherous and awful surprise from whatever point they were walking: Around the Senegal River, south and east, along the Bight of Benin, and south again below the Congo River to include a region we now call Angola. Yet whatever their real or imagined difference, great or small, the progeny of these Africans was caught up while losing all vestiges of tribal difference, giving an ironic validity to a coming nation’s slogan: the Gold of Human Flesh.


            They were transported to a special quarter, chained them and made them to walk for a stretching inland for two or three hundred miles to a warehouse but only the strongest would survive. The so-called point of no return which Oscar Handlin in his book titled Race and Nationality in American Life tells us, such facility was large and down to the coast. The Negroes were too much crowded together, and had no idea what was going on. They were Bambara, Fulani, Mandinka, Wolof from the Senegambia, and the people from Dahomey called themselves the Whydahs; there were also the Ashanti, Coromantes, Fanti, Gao, Hausa, Ibo, Yoruba, Angola—who from a short of time they were kings or vassals or enemies that, at that moment, they all gained up themselves like a substance of breaking spirit.

            Several months later, when the warehouse had been filled with Black human souls, a dreadful and awful journey had begun to an Atlantic crossing, into American slavery.

            In his remarkable book, From Slavery to Freedom, A History of African Americans, John Hope Franklin and his associates stated that the vessel or the Brook that had been built to accommodate 317 it would be filled more than 519 African natives. In the lengthwise cross the ship, the traders pushed them and forced them to lie down. A line of 290 Negroes were bodily down as others were coming. In each compartment there were hundreds of iron rings in the floor and ceiling for the only purpose of securing the Africans. While some had been piled up among the women and children, others were forced to twist themselves on a sit-position in the middle of it. In the lower deck as well as the half deck along the platform there were several rooms so far that was allowed about 12 people; but a torturous sense in physical body was now filled with more than 100 African natives whose hands were tightened up against themselves by stretching it to a hang-chained robe. Framed now by the rest of the overseers who were still pushing Africans to accommodate the last one; the atrocious but prophetic moment had come to close where the African sunlight had blocked against them. Those who were forced to make it traversed worlds of mind and spirit, leaving what they were and becoming the shadows of heartless souls.


            Several months without eat except water they arrived to a strange world. Some Negroes who did not make it were tossed overboard to the sea; but disease, frailty, brutality, and suicide had taken also a heavy toll. But those who had made, they were stretched out into a building house. It consisted of a large room where the overseers and managers began to give them life. The New African Slaves were forced to wash among themselves; then they received their food. A minute later, they were examined by a local doctor. Those who were strong as well as women and children were separated and lodged into another room. Such room displayed throughout a remarkable neatness where black overseers go about everywhere armed cow-hide as Willie Lee Rose, in his Document History of Slavery in North America, pointed out.

            A month later, they were transported to a second building or parlor where the final preparation of selling would take place. There they were admitted into a yard surrounded by fence. Here they could find the female slaves, amounting to thirty or forty. Next to it there were the men in the second yard. These, too, were well dressed, and everything about them had a neat and comfortable appearance. Besides these, they sent a considerable number of submissive bondage. Their place of destination would be Natchez, where they would be exposed for sale.

            On their arrival, while they were making of these preliminary observations, the lots of sale had not made up their appearance. In about five minutes afterwards they were ushered in, one after the other, under the charge of a mulatto, who seemed to act as principal assistant. There were no whips, chains, or any other engine of force. All the lots took their seats on two long forms near the stove; none skewed any sign of resistance. Their manner was that of perfect humanity and resignation.

            While intending purchasers were on the proceeding with personal examination, an auctioneer’s voice was heard

            “Sale is going to commerce. This way, gentlemen! Well, gentlemen here are a capital woman and her three children! All of them in good health and we sell them only for $890 dollars!”

            The next lot bought forward was one of the men. The mulatto beckoning to him with his hand, requested him to come behind a canvas screen, of two leaves, which was standing near the back-window. The man placidly rose, and having been placed behind the screen, was ordered to take off his clothes, which he did without a word. About a dozen gentlemen crowded to the spot while the poor Negro was stripping himself, and as soon as he stood on the floor, bare from top to toe, a most rigorous scrutiny of his person was instituted. The clear black skin, back and front, was viewed all over for sores from disease; and there was no part of his body left unexamined. The [black] man was told to open and shut his hands, asked if he could pick cotton, and every tooth in his mouth was scrupulously looked at. The investigation being at an end, he was ordered to dress himself; and having done so, was requested to walk to the block.

            Such were a foreseer’s experience in the slave-market of the New World. The comparatively simple annals of the African trade of the past it seemed necessary so closely interwoven as a whole gave way to a far more confused series of events.  For which it had already appeared upon the west coast of Africa that were joined by Dutch, Dane, Swede, Britain, French and Portuguese, all struggling for a share of the spot. For example the difficulties inherent in the close proximity of rival nations they were desirous of the same commodity that it was increased by the possibility of gaining native allies, and African tribes on war it would be best to suit for what one could call it dislocation process. Each territory in African tribes was on war, and above all the form and the powers of the Company leasing which carried it on, all these and many more details demanded attention in every character of rape identity as well.

            The so-called dislocation process, where the slave trade had become a method of social and economic life in Europe as well as in America, it was huge in all the varied tones of raping and uninterrupted by a wholesale proportion. It assumed so important as well as contradictory because African people were the responsible to carry it on.

            The immediate process of selling and leasing, especially by the Royal Africa Company and Portugal Firms dependent of the charter of actually formatted of power among these relations, applying as well to the proportional distribution-war among French trade of seventeenth century and English trade of eighteenth century or both in which William Bosnan, A New and Accurate Description of the Coast of Guinea, 1721, Philip D. Curtin (The Atlantic Slave Trade: A Census) and Elizabeth Donnan (Documents Illustrative of the History of the Slave Trade to America) told us in these remarkable narrative books. With the Restoration of the potential wealth in slave trade of Africa gained immediate attention, a patent was granted on December 18, 1600 as Donnan recognized; but once the patentees attempted trade it, the strength of the Dutch on the African coast was manifested, and their hostility forced a re-organization of the company. The first charter was replaced by a grant of larger powers as Donnan promptly told us. That the Rights of the patentees of 1661 were not yet legally extinguished as it had been suggested by the cautious wording of this chapter, which makes the new grant, whose term was one thousand years, contingent upon the expiration.

            Therefore was no evidence that the East India Company when it leased the Gold Coast factories intended to purchase Negroes beyond those needed as company servants. One was looking in vain for any indication that this was unusual or surprising, because in 1649 two Britain merchants, by the names of Burchet and Phillips, offered to supply to the Spanish-American plantations with 3000 Negroes a year. There could be no question but that the Company was expected to trade, and did trade in Negroes from its creation.  For the first time mentioned the trade in Negroes as part of the recognized activities of a chartered African Company, so between August 11, 1663, and November 17, 1664, according to Donnan, Zook estimated that the company had sent 3,075 Negroes to Barbados. References to trade in the correspondence passing between the islands and England support, and Donnan continued that the belief was from that early years of the company were years of considerable activity and the patent itself; however, it led no aid to either interpretation of its purpose but offers the recent interruption of orderly trade” as the reason for the establishment.

            How much these privileged groups or the independent traders who harassed them in slaves it was impossible to say. But according to Professor Curtin’s book, with a full with substantially data, including origin, destination, and number of slaves carried for about 450 of them could be enormous. Not including where the number of slaves carried was missing from the list. Or even likely, that the slave trade continued to grow heavily at the period. It’s hard to escape the conclusion that the initial French (English, Portuguese, Spanish and others) impact was not simply additive. As a result, it was only after that the economic consequences began to be felt and the levels of the slave trade rose dramatically.


Spot the Warning Signs of Aging Plumbing

Learn to identify the signs of aging plumbing by examining your water quality and being on the lookout for pinhole leaks and pipe corrosion. While it is a costly project to install new piping throughout a home, it is even more expensive to repair water damage and broken pipes.

What Type of Pipes Are In Your Home?

The age of your home will most likely determine the condition of your pipes, along with the type of piping material. Brass pipes can last 40 to 70 years, copper pipes can last more than 50 years and galvanized steel pipes can last from 20 to 50 years. It’s important to note that the time frames are completely subjective. For homes located in regions with hard water, pipes may break down much sooner than expected, as the high calcium and magnesium levels cause scale deposits to form inside pipes, and eventually cause clogs.

If your pipes are made of lead, you must completely replace each one as soon as possible. Though lead pipes have a life span of up to 100 years, the compound can poison your water supply. If your pipes are made of polybutylene, a popular piping material choice in the 1970s, your plumbing is at high risk for breakage. Polybutylene is inexpensive, but has proven unable to handle long-term contact with water treatment chemicals such as chlorine.

Observe Water Quality and Usage

Pay attention to the taste and color of your water. If you spot orange-tinted water in any bathtub or sink drain, it could signal pipe corrosion. Pipe erosion is inevitable – high-powered water flow will eventually wear down any pipe. However, pipe corrosion occurs when the water chemically reacts with the pipe’s makeup, eating away at its interior and causing premature disintegration. Corroded pipes not only give water an unpleasant taste, but could cause the water to pose a serious health hazard when ingested. Corrosion is a clear indication of outdated, unfit plumbing systems.

If you notice a recent water bill increase even though your normal routine has not changed, this could be a sign of a pipe leak. Even the smallest leak can create widespread water and mold damage, and if it goes undetected it may worsen. Experienced plumbers can use techniques to pinpoint the source, replace the leaking pipe section and search out any other weak spots in the system.

Inspect Exposed Piping Regularly

Two obstacles work against homeowners who are dedicated to keeping their plumbing functioning properly. First, new homeowners may not know if the pipes were well-maintained by the previous property owner or what previous plumbing issues, if any, existed. Second, plumbing lines are commonly hidden from view inside walls and ceilings.

Homeowners can obtain a copy of the home inspector’s report conducted before the sale of the property to discern the age and type of pipes in the home and if any plumbing concerns were noted. They can also inspect the sections of exposed piping, such as those located in a garage or crawl space, for signs of flaking metal or rust. If small leaks are popping up in the visible sections, other pipes may be experiencing the same problems. In this case, it’s time to call a plumber who can diagnose any concealed plumbing problems.

For experienced advice on the current state of your pipes, schedule an inspection with a trusted local plumber who can thoroughly assess if your home is showing signs of aging plumbing in need of repair or replacement.

34 Fun School Carnival Game Ideas

1. The Beauty Salon was a popular booth at our Fall Carnival. The boys and girls loved getting their hair colored, blue, green, pink!

2. Karaoke was also very popular this year!

3. About three years ago, our room moms rented an electonic bull. (I can’t think of the right name!) The line never ended! The kids and adults loved it!

4. My sons’ school has a Kissing Booth. They didn’t get actual kisses, but they did give you a Hershey’s Kiss instead. They also have a lips stamp, and they stamp your face with it! And you see TONS of kids running around their carnival with several kisses! Very cute!

5. We played “Bingo for Books” in the media center.

6. Snack Walk (like a cake walk but kids picked out bags of chips, a box of Little Debbies, bag of cookies, 2 liter bottle of soda, etc

7. We also auctioned off Janitor-, Principal- and Librarian- for-a-day. Those were very popular. (Janitor brought in the most!)

8. We have done Super Twister with dots painted on a large piece of tarp that got taped to the floor with everyone trying to touch the correct color with the correct body part. Ours is big enough that 30+ kids can play at a time.

9. A popular game at our school’s carnival was the football toss. Rings were hung from the ceiling (beginning with rings the size of a hula-hoop) and you would try to throw a football through a ring. The smaller the ring, the higher the points.

10. Hit the Teacher With a Wet Sponge. Hugely popular, even with the parents.

11. Bubble-gum Blowing Contest: Popular because gum’s usually a no-no.

12. Advanced Spelling Bee- Allowed students to take steps toward prize board if correct; end of the line if missed.

13. Dress up the Teacher: Hit garage sales and the Good Will for outrageous items to dress a teacher. Tie this in with problem solving/ academics standardized test review…use a digital camera to photo results as keep sake.

14. A few years back we had a carnival and one big seller was the “Loonie ” Jars (here in Canada we call our dollar a Loonie. ) We asked families to donate jars filled with items – such as packs of gum, small toys, marbles, pencils, – you name it, people filled them. We had over 400 donated. Then people drew a number from a basket and that was the jar they got.

15. We just had our carnival on Thursday and Friday, and I teach third grade. This year we did the toy walk (played just like the cake walk). We used small inexpensive toys ($1.00 limit) the kids brought in and also got some happy meal toys donated from McDonald’s. Another one we did was the Wii game. The kids loved it!!!

16. We do a “Great Pumpkin Obstacle Race” where the student dresses up like a great pumpkin (we use my orange hunting coat, hat, and gloves) then they go through tires, over hay bales, and weave through pumpkins. The kids love it!

17. Last year at our fall festival we had a duck race. You set up a small pool and get the little bath ducks. You also need squirt guns. The students “race” their ducks using the spray from the squirt guns to make them go. It was really fun!

18. We had a carnival many years ago and the booth that was the biggest hit, was the engraving booth. We ordered necklaces from Oriental Trading and had one of those hand held engraving machines and wrote the kids names on them. It was quick and easy.

19. A parent built a Plinko board that travels from grade to grade with his son – it’s the most popular item at the fair. We have a stage in our gym so kids stand on the stage to drop the Plinko disks.

20. The Fortune Teller booth is our most popular one.

21. Mystery boxes- boxes with holes that the kids put their hands into- had peeled grapes, cold spaghetti, jello with fruit. We gave each one a scary name.

22. Guess the weight of a big pumpkin.

23. We sold plastic gloves filled with popcorn. Each “hand” had a spider ring on the finger.

24. Musical Chairs with Stuffed Animals. Before the carnival, collect stuffed animals (kids can donate these by the arm loads). Put them in a pile in the center of the room. Place chairs in a circle around the stuffed animals. put numbers under the chairs. Play music for a minute. Have kids sit. Draw a number. Winner picks a stuffed animal.

25. What about sand art? The kids love it! You can get supplies on line, such as small plastic bottles and bracelets. Use salt dyed with food coloring for the sand.

26. Another idea is to make a box maze in your classroom. It could be a crawl through. Maybe kids could solve a puzzle along the way.

27. Guessing contests are fun. Decorate clear glass jars and fill with what ever. Lollipops, M&M’s, individual wrapped candies, pretzels, dry beans might add a soup making recipe, so that it shows on the outside of the jar. Here again have different people bring a decorated jar full of something and have them count and put on a folded paper on the underside of the jar lid the number of items in the jar. Only one prize per winner and of coarse family members can’t win their jar. The more jars the more winners. Any size jar will work – jelly jars, gallon jars, miracle whip jars and etc. Decorating is fun. Example one person completely covered the jar with wrapping paper and put 1 bag of candy in the jar, so the correct guess was one. Stick on stickers. Make a puff top on the lid. Glue on lace. Tape a pattern on the inside of the jar and use enamel paint and paint the design on the outside of the jar and maybe outline with permanent fabric paint. The outline isn’t necessary, but adds an extra nice touch. Don’t forget to remove your pattern when complete.

28. Fluky Ball: Set up an easel with a bucket below. Child must bounce a ball off the easel into the bucket to win.

29. Tin Pan Alley: child rolls a ball down a ramp. At the bottom there is a box with 2 muffin tins painted with 3 different colors. The child rolls 3 balls. If 2 colors match, you win.

30. A great carnival idea is do offer a DINO DIG! Take a baby swimming pool, fill it with sand and small plastic dinosaurs (oriental trading has them cheap) give the kids a small shovel to dig for their dino. We also do digging for diamonds! Girls love finding little rings and such in the sand.

31. Pumpkin Ring Toss. We get donations from the local nurseries for pumpkins, hay bales, corn stalks, gourds, etc. We take about ten of the larger stemed pumpkins and use them as the targets for the rong toss. I found wooden hoops at the local fabric store.

32. Gourd Bowling. I purchased a set of those plastic children pins and then used some of the gourds from the nurseries. The gourds roll funny so it makes it more fun.

33. Ping-Pong Ball Toss. We purchased ten of the plastic pumpkin trick-or-treat containers that the kids use and had them placed as the target. I had a half dozen or so orange ping-pong balls that the kids have to toss in.

34. One of my favorite games is “Chicken Chucking”. Get a few rubber chickens and set up an area that people can throw them into a pen (rubber maid bin) I place mine about 30 feet away and at 40 feet away. Its hilarious watching everyone throw it. When I did it at my church I found some real cute rubber chicken key chains to give away to the people that made it into the 40 feet away pen.

Massage Techniques – From a romantic night in to sports massage therapy

Just as there are millions of colors when it comes to flowers, there are several types of techniques when it comes to the art of giving a massage and massage therapy. Massaging is the oldest and possibly the most popular treatment for alleviating day-to-day stress, anxiety and body aches. Where many people revert to sleeping pills and painkillers to after a stressful day, many prefer dropping into a spa and receiving a soothing massage – a more natural, holistic approach.

As there are thousands of civilization and kinds of people, there are varieties of massaging techniques. Even though we can’t attend to every technique that is out there in the world, we can do discuss the most popular ones with you.

Usually massaging is done on the skin surface, but a type of massaging exists which concentrates more on the muscles and tissues that lies below many layers of skin; this is called a deep tissue massage. To reach the tissues and muscles beneath the skins surface is not possible without the application of pressure. Pressure is usually applied using fingers, fists elbows and sometimes even feet. This technique is usually used to address muscle fatigue from sports for example.

Another kind of massage that concentrates more on the neuro-muscular regions, is called the neuro-muscular massage. This particular technique is used to concentrate on particular muscles and nerves, working to improve the blood circulation and reduce nerve pain, if any. Yet another technique utilizes the acupuncture points on the body for massaging. It’s popularly known as Shiatsu massaging technique. The Shiatsu Massage is based upon usage of finger-pressure on the acupuncture points of the body to relieve the body off the stress, pain and bring about relaxation and comfort. Usually this is performed on the recipient who is kept inclined. Shiatsu massage is known to improve lymphatic flow.

Ayurvedic Massage technique originates from Indian civilization. Ayurveda is well established and widely studied medicinal system. Ayurvedic massage therapist use various oil which are extracted from different kinds of plants which have many healing properties and also nourishment strengths. These massages are not just limited to relieving pain and stress, they go further to even curing paralysis, stroke, hair loss, diabetes and many other disorders and health conditions. Different kinds of stones can be used to rub the body for various types of massage, with oil dripped on the forehead when addressing hair loss and/or mental strain and stress.

Another common kind of massage you might have noticed in your vicinity, or that you may have received yourself is the standard sports massage. Sports massages are often given by a physiotherapist or sports massage specialist. This kind of massage is usually used to prepare the body for action. These massages gets the athlete or the sport person ready for the action as the muscles get energized after the massage, to recover from muscle strains that occur while training, or to help increase recovery time post-injury. Sports massage techniques are also used as a general cool-down technique post-activity, to improve general muscle recovery and prevent any kind of injury.

Swedish massaging techniques are usually targeted to the muscles and joints. It relieves the muscle tension and is capable of loosening the joints which are sore. There are 5 most important strokes in Swedish massage, the stroking, which is known as effleurage. Lifting the muscles after grabbing, known as petrissage. A circular motion of fingers on the body of the recipient, when done with pressure thickest parts of flesh gets massaged. This is called friction. Chopping and tapping forms the fourth one and finally vibration. The therapist creates vibration on the muscles by shaking their fingers rapidly on the recipient’s muscles.

Zombies and Syphilis – A Myth to Explain a Disease?

Zombies have long been a fascination for Americans. From Night of the Living Dead to the Walking Dead to Dawn of the Dead, to Jane Austen and Zombies to Zombie Apocalypse, the zombie subculture is “alive” and kicking it in the millennium. Zombies have infiltrated everything from films to books to video games, cocktails, cartoons, and bands. Every October, Zombie Crawls are celebrated as people dress up as zombies in order to shuffle and stagger their way from bar to bar to drink zombies. This zombie phenomenon is not limited to Halloween. This spring, a 5K charity run is scheduled in which the runners have the added incentive to cross the finish line quickly as they will be chased by-you guessed it-zombies.

Zombies are believed to have originated in the Haitian African-American culture. Fueled by macabre voodoo rituals, dark magic revived the dead to do the bidding of those who summoned them. These walking corpses shambled forward with a stilted gait. Flesh rotted away from their bodies, and their minds could no longer formulate rational thought.

What does any of this have to do with sexually transmitted diseases? Good question. The answer may surprise you.

In 1492, Europeans brought small pox, bubonic plague, venereal disease, and religion to the New World. The New World returned the favor with syphilis.

Late stage, tertiary syphilis is syphilis that has not been treated. Spirochetes are wormlike microscopic organisms. Over the course of the disease, they multiply to the millions and lodge in most of the major organs including the brain. The human body becomes stooped and rapidly ages. Symptoms of late-stage syphilis include a jerky, stumbling step, large oozing sores, loss of tissue such as the end of the nose, and moments of euphoria followed by rage. In other words, late-stage syphilitics and zombies share many of the same traits.

Zombies originated in the New World as did syphilis. Myths develop in order to explain the otherwise unexplainable. In this instance, the zombie myth developed in order to explain syphilis, an incurable and deadly disease in pre-penicillin days. While syphilis is now treatable, it took more than 450 years to find a cure.

While the zombie myth may have arose as a way to explain a sickness, modern culture has embraced zombies. Michael Jackson’s,Thriller video of dancing zombies, remains the number one best-selling album of all time in the United States. In 2010, Asbury Park, New Jersey set the Guinness’ World Record Zombie Walk with an official 4,093 participants.

Is It Necessary To Go For Spinal Surgery?

There are a number of things that might indicate that spinal surgery is the last resort available to many patients suffering from spinal problems. Although, there are several ways to deal with different kinds of back and spine problems but there are certain conditions in which surgery remains the last option.


There are two types of spine surgeries that one can consider while in Colorado for spine and disc treatment, they are open spine surgery and minimal invasive spine surgery. Although, both these surgeries are safe to treat different kinds of back problems, but minimal spinal column surgery is quite popular among the patients as it is safer and gives them quick recovery time as compared to the open Spinal Surgery.

The nerves in the spinal canal of some patients become compressed which leads to a lot of pain and numbness. Thus in order to get out of this painful situation and also to remove the pressure being exerted on their spinal nerves, the patient need to go under invasive spinal surgery.

One of the common causes of back pains these days is fractured spinal disc, which causes a lot of instability and pain in the spinal system. If someone had an accident then also their vertebrae can get fractured. Osteoporosis is also one of the many reasons that may lead to fractures in spinal discs. Bulging and herniation of discs are among other causes that may require surgical intervention to get them corrected on time. The same applies to the fractured and broken discs, so that they can be fixed before it’stoo late.

Some patients seeking treatment in Colorado for spine and disc also opt for surgical treatment when they fail to get relief from pain through other means. For example, a patient who has been taking physical therapy along with regular medication for a long time but has not seen any desired results then they can certainly opt for spinal surgery as their next best option.

However, it is always advisable to exhaust all the available options before retorting to surgery as your last option for the spinal treatment and it should only be done when rest of the methods have failed. Additionally, always look for professional, qualified and highly experienced surgeon for any such surgery so that you won’t end up taking any risks with your health and the surgery shouldn’t be the worst mistake of your life.

Great African Civilizations

There have been many misconceptions about the lives of Africans before the advent of European and American colonization. According to some historians, Africans were nothing more than savages which only contributions to the world were farming and slaves. This is not true. The history of ancient Africa is just as interesting, complex, and sophisticated as any other ancient civilization, yet almost without exception; It is only Egypt that receives any consideration at all when writing history. Because of this mentality, European and American historians have long espoused that Africa and its habitants had no culture or history of their own, except what was given to them by outside factors.

However, long before the colonization of Europeans, Africans built kingdoms and monuments that rivaled any European monarchy. Neverheless, because of racial prejudice, much of Black African history has been distorted and ignored to give justification to the enslavement of millions for financial profit. This paper will be discussing the ancient African kingdoms of Meroë, Ghana, and the Swahili and their rich contributions to the pages of history.

The kingdom of Meroë started around 1000 BC when Nubian rulers built up a politically independent state known to the Egyptians as Kush. Occasionally, the rulers of Kush would move to Nubia and establish the kingdom of Meroë (Davis & Gates, p. 30). These rulers established their capital at Meroë around 300 BC, and the kingdom lasted there for more than nine centuries.
However, some historians feel that because Meroitic culture imitated the Egyptian culture so closely, the Meroitës brought no culture of their own to the pages of history. This is not true According to archaeological evidence discovered in North Sudan that is over 2,500 years old, there was an old civilization along the Nile River at lower and Upper Nubia (modern day Sudan) that was older than the civilizations in the North (Egypt) . Also, there is evidence that proves that the known Old Egyptian Civilization was an advanced stage of an even older civilization located in the Sudan (Davis & Gates, p. 35).

This evidence proves that Meroë had a culture and history that was even older than the Egyptians. If anything, Egypt was a carbon copy of Meroë. This kingdom also had its own language. Most historians, however, attributed their language and alphabet system to the Egyptians. It was a common belief that ancient Black Africans could not and did not develop a written language. However, inscriptions in a distinct indigenous alphabet appear in Meroë as early as the 2nd century BC, providing that these assumptions are not true (Davis & Gates, p. 110).
This written Meroitic language was used into the 5th century, when Old Nubian suddenly replaced it. Widespread use of Meroitic on monuments indicates that a significant percentage of the population was able to read it. However, the meanings of these inscriptions remain unknown, as this hieroglyphic-derived script is as yet untranslatable.

Another little know fact about the Meroitës is that they had a unusually high number of
Queens who ruled without male intervention. One queen, Queen Amanirenus led her army against a Roman invasion in 24 BC. She won the first battle, and despite losing a second battle, the Romans had enough, agreed to a truce and went back to Rome. Rome never did conquer Meroë, and this kingdom continued to thrive for another 200 years. Actually "queendom" would be more accurate, since the leader of Meroë was usually a warrior queen, called a "kandake" which means "queen mother" or more simply "gore" meaning "ruler" (Fairservis. P.60).

In terms of economics, Meroë was blamed for its massive iron production, the first large-scale industry of its kind in the Nile Valley and had extensive trade with Greece and Rome. Because of the production of iron, the arms had better weapons to use during battle and the farmers had better axes and hoes to work their lands. Meroitë traders exported ivory, leopard skins, ostrich feathers, ebony, and gold and soon gained direct access to the expanding trade of the Red Sea (Shillington, p. 40).

The kingdom of Meroë ever went into decline. Causes for the decline of the Meroitic Kingdom are still large unknown. The Meroitic kingdom faced formidable competition because of the expansion of Axum, a powerful Abyssinian state in modern Ethiopia to the east. About AD 350, an Axumite army captured and destroyed Meroe city, ending the kingdom's independent existence.
The West African Empire of Ghana is another kingdom whose history was downplayed and attributed to outside factors. Although the Berbers originally founded Ghana in the fifth century, it was built on the southern edge of Berber populations. In time, the land became dominated by the Soninke, a Mande speaking people who lived in the region bordering the Sahara (McKissack & McKissack, p. 112). They built their capital city, Kumbi Saleh, right on the edge of the Sahara and the city quickly became the center of the Trans-Saharan trade routes.

Ghana accrued great wealth because of the Trans-Saharan trade routes. This wealth made it possible for Ghana to conquer local chieftains and demand tribute from these subordinate states. This tribute, however, paled next to the wealth generated by the commerce of goods that passed from western Africa east to Egypt and the Middle East. This trade primarily involved gold, salt, and copper (Koslow, p. 70).

A hereditary king called the Ghana ruled Ghana. The kingship was matrilineal (as were all Sahelian monarchies to follow); The king's sister provided the heir to the Throne (McKissack & McKissack, p. 115). In addition to military power, the king appears to have been the supreme judge of the kingdom.

Although northern African had been dominated by the religion of Islam since the eighth century, the kingdom of Ghana never converted (McKissack & McKissack, p. 120). The Ghanaian court, however, allowed Muslims to settle in the cities and even encouraged Muslim professionals to help the royal court administrator the government and advice on legal matters.

The original founders of Ghana extremely proved to be its demise. Unlike the Ghanaians, the Berbers, now calling themselves Almoravids, fervently converted to Islam and in 1075, declared a holy war, or jihad, against the kingdom of Ghana. Little is known about what exactly happened but nonetheless, Ghana ceased to be a commercial or military power after 1100. The Almoravid revolution ultimately ended the reign of Ghana.

Europeans and Arabs alike have portrayed the history of the Swahili kingdom as one of Muslim-Arab domination, with the African people and its rulers playing a passive role in the process. However, recent archaeological evidence found that the Swahili people are descendants of the Bantu speaking people who settled along the East African coast in the first millennium (Horton & Middleton, p. 70). Although both Arabs and Persians intermarried with the Swahili, none of these cultures had anything to do with the establishment of Swahili civilization. These cultures became absorbed into an already flourishing African civilization founded by ancient Bantu Africans.

The eastern coast of Africa changed greatly around the close of the first millennium AD. During this time, Bantu-speaking Africans from the interior migrated and settled along the coast from Kenya to South Africa. Next, merchants and traders from the Muslim world realized the strategic importance of the east coast of Africa for commercial traffic and began to settle there (Horton & Middleton, p. 72). Marriage between the Bantu women and men of the Middle East created and cemented a rich Swahili culture, fusing religion, agricultural architecture, textiles, food, as well as purchasing power. From 900 AD, the east coast of Africa saw an influx of Shirazi Arabs from the Persian Gulf and even small settlements of Indians. The Arabs called this region al-Zanj, "The Blacks," and the coastal areas slowly came under the control of Muslim merchants from Arabia and Persia (Horton & Middleton, p. 75). By the 1300's, the major east African ports from Mombaza in the north to Sofala in the south had become sufficiently Islamic cities and cultural centers.

The language that grows out of this civilization is one of the most common and widespread of the lingua franca: a lingua franca is a secondary language that is a combination of two or more languages. Swahili or Kiswahili comes from the Arabic word sawahil, which means, "coast." Swahili belongs to the Sabaki subgroup of the Northeastern coast Bantu languages. It is closely related to the Miji Kenda group of languages, Pokomo and Ngazija (Horton & Middleton, p.110). Over at least a thousand years of intense and varied interaction with the Middle East has given Swahili a rich infusion of loanwords from a wide assortment of languages. Even with the substantial number of Arabic loanwords present in Swahili, the language is in fact, Bantu.

The Swahili civilization expanded southwards until they reached Kilwa in Zanzibar (from the Arabic word al-Zan). Later, its inmates carved out a small territory even further south around Sofala in Zimbabwe (Horton & Middleton, p. 140). While the northern cities remained localized and had little influence on African culture inland from the coast, the Sofalans actively went inland and spread Islam and Islamic culture deep in African territory (Horton & Middleton, p. 150).
The major Swahili city-states were Mogadishu, Barawa, Mombasa (Kenya), Gedi, Pate, Malindi, Zanzibar, Kilwa, and Sofala in the far south (Horton & Middleton, p. 155). Kilwa was the most famous of these city-states and was particularly wealthy because it controlled the southern port of Sofala, which had access to the gold, produced in the interior (near "Great Zimbabwe"), and its location as the farthest point south At which ships from India could hope to sail and return in a single monsoon season.

These city-states were very cosmopolitan for their time and they were all politically independent of one another. In fact, they were more like competitive companies or corporations, each vying for the lion's share of African trade. The chief export was ivory, sandalwood, ebony, and gold. Textiles from India and porcelain from China were also welcomed by Arab traders (Horton & Middleton, p. 175). While the Arabs and Persians played a role in the growth of the Swahili civilization, the nobility was of African descent and they ran the city-states (Horton & Middleton p.195). However, the nobility were Muslims and it was the Muslims who controlled the wealth. Below the nobility were the commoners and the resident foreigners who made up a large part of the citizenry.

However, Islam itself penetrated very little into the interior among the hunters, pastoralists, and farmers. Even the areas of the coast near the trading towns remained relatively unaffected (Horton & Middleton p.198). In the towns, the mud and that houses of the non-Muslim common people surrounded the stone and coral buildings of the Muslim elite, and it seems that most followers of Islam were wealthy, not poor.

Still, a culture developed for the Swahili that fused African and Islamic elements. Family lineage, for example, was traced both through the maternal line, which controlled property, an African practice, and through the paternal line, which was the Muslim tradition. Swahili culture had a strong Islamic influence but retained many of its African origins.

These city-states began to decline in the sixteenth century; The advent of Portuguese trade disrupted the old trade routes and made the Swahili commercial centers obsolete. The Portuguese wanted native Africans to have no share in African trade and busily set about conquering the Islamic city-states along the eastern coast (Horton & Middleton, p.225). In the late seventeenth century, the imam (religious leader) of Oman drve the Portuguese from the coast, and gradually established his authority over the coast.

The existence of these ancient Black African civilizations proves once and for all that Africa had a culture and a history of its own other than Egyptian that endured for centuries before the advent of outside factors. The kingdom of Meroë ruled for centuries before the Egyptians and describes its rightful place as one of the premier ancient civilizations of the world. The kingdom of Ghana proved that Africans were capable of managing their own affairs without the intervention of Europeans. The Swahili and their language were around for centuries before Arabs and others "discovered" them.

These civilizations had their own culture, language and commerce before the advent of Europeans and Muslims in Africa and for the most part, the world does not know anything about them. That is a major crime against the study of history and hopefully, through more archaeological studies and writings, the rich and interesting history of these magnificent civilizations will be told and treasured for future generations.

The Bill W Plant

If you are in recovery, you may have heard of, or seen a certain little green plant making its way around the rooms of your twelve step program. Maybe you have seen a little plant being given as a gift at a sobriety anniversary. Maybe your sponsor has one, or your sponsor’s sponsor. Maybe you even have one, and have shared it with your sponsors.

When I arrived in the community thirteen years ago, I didn’t notice or see any of these plants. Six years ago I first saw one given away at a 12 Step social function. This little plant then began to show up, in my awareness, here and there, being passed from member to member, or given as a gift to celebrate an anniversary cake. When I met my husband, he had a small struggling plant that his sponsor had given him.

I assumed the care of this little plant with delight, and began propagating it. Over the next couple of years, I had nurtured 10 healthy plants. These plants love and thrive on attention, just like most people in recovery! My intention was to have this little green plant in each of the 8 private bedrooms of A Home Away Retreat. Below is a copy of the card placed beside each flourishing symbol of recovery.

The Bill W. Plant

Also known as Swedish Ivy, the plant in your bedroom comes with a great story to share. That is what recovery is all about, one alcoholic sharing with another.

Bill W. passed away on January 24, 1971 in Miami, Florida. When his wife, Lois, returned to their home in New York, now known as Stepping Stones, she brought home the plant that had been in Bill’s Florida hospital room. Lois cared for the plant until the mid 1980’s, when she passed it on to Harriet Sevarino, beloved cook and companion of Bill and Lois for 35 years. Harriet passed the plant on to Michael M., a member of AA from Atlanta, Georgia. Lois asked Michael to pass it on to members of AA in Bill’s memory. Michael did just that, sharing cuttings and offshoots of this plant with AA members all around the world.

The plant in your room comes from a slender shoot that John D. brought from Ontario, a descendent of the original. The plant was passed on to John by Dave P. in 2005. Through tender care and propagation of cuttings, this plant is here today for you to care for and enjoy. It loves sun, and likes to dry out completely between waterings.

If you like, please take a small cutting home with you, share it with your new friends in recovery, and pass it on too. Cuttings root easily in water. Like the fellowship, when a piece of the plant is passed on, the plant grows stronger, and with care, and sharing, it spreads to homes and communities around the world.

I hope that one day every member who wants a plant shall have one.

The Memory Foam Mattress – Technology's Answer to a Good Night's Sleep

A memory foam mattress is not like your ordinary mattress. Originally designed for astronauts' comfort while traveling at incredible speeds to escape the earth's atmosphere, its unique contribution to the sleeping experience is that it shapes itself to the contours of your body. It relieves pressure points while you're sleeping and can result in much more restful sleep.

What Price For A Good Night's Sleep

Memory foam mattresses can cost from $ 800 to $ 3000 each. Top well known brands are the Swedish made Tempur-Pedic, Isotonic, Isoform, Sensus and Novaform. The first challenge for window shoppers like us however is to decide whether we really need one. Let us understand what it is, how it works and identify its advantages and disadvantages.

Just like the regular mattress and other pieces of furniture around the modern home, this model is made of polyurethane. The difference however is that while the regular variety is made of cells that are tightly squeezed together, the memory foam mattress is made up of cells which have tiny holes in them, allowing more give and less push-back when pressure is applied.

How Does It Work?

A memory foam mattress will tend to shape itself the pressure that that has been applied to it, as well as soften to the heat of body temperature. So for example normal sleeping pressure points such as shoulders, neck and hips will be accommodated and will not result in pain or discomfort to the sleeping person.

Because of this pressure relieving character, it has been said to help with sleeping problems such as insomnia and apnea, discomfort from spinal curvature pressure points, as well as painful conditions such as back pain, hip, knee and joint pain.

This special type of foam responds to body temperature; Softens when the weather is warmer and hardens when the weather is colder. Because the memory foam mattress distributes weight more often and does not tend to break-up even for overweight people, it can take 3 to 6 years before it shows any signs of sagging. This is in comparison to the sagging and lumps that may appear in your regular spring model in only one or two years.

Getting Used To It

Because it is denser, the memory foam mattress is heavier and would not be as portable as the regular ones. The good news however is that it does not need turning over to the other side. It will absorb moisture but will not dry out very quickly so covering it with waterproof sheets is recommended. This covering can also be useful for avoiding stains and odors which normally can not be easily removed.

As with all synthetic-based products, the memory foam might emit smells when new. It is there recommended that the room be frequently aired in the first few weeks of acquiring the new mattress. You may even need to break it in by walking on it after it has been delivered to your home.

You will need a firm flat wooden foundation for your new purchase. After getting used to the memory foam mattress you can enjoy its benefits for 10 to 20 years compared to 2 to 5 years for a regular spring model.