Churchill – Right or Wrong ? an Analysis

“We are shaping the world faster than we can change ourselves, and we are applying to the present the habits of the past.” (W. Churchill)

To warrant a citation as one of the most influential or the most influential man in our century, entails a convincing description of a long term devotion and impact on the direction of society and history. This author submits that in the 20th century the intractable flow of events has been towards the liberation of people, both in spiritual and material terms, and that the defining principles of some type of Liberal Democracy now hold true in many regions of the globe – many more than at the start of the century. Let us not underestimate this fact. For the first time in human history, more people have control over their own lives as a % of the population than ever before. It is too be expected that this shall continue, but of course such a trend is not certain.

There are people enough who would like to derange the liberation of the mass, and pass us back to the days of centralised or oligarchic control. However in toto there is no intellectual or economic challenger to the Liberal Democratic model at this time. One of the great new situations and driving forces of our world today is international economic interdependence. Further world-wide integration is unstoppable. There will be fits, regressions, complaining and pauses, questions, arguments, harangues, and resolutions, but always over time a forward movement towards what may be termed unshackled and fair trade and cross border integration will proceed. What needs to be addressed is how can we fairly develop the markets and the economic strength of less developed nations whilst still maintaining the economic growth and market access of more developed nations. The balancing act will be marvellous to behold. Adam Smith infused with both Galbraith and Greenpeace.

In this regard and given that the values and concepts of Liberal – Democratic society are subtle and complex, we need then to go back and ask ourselves, “How did we get here and why.” Thus the perspective of history is necessary. If we look at how this century evolved it can be determined that very few leaders have had such a imposing and sincere belief in Liberal Democracy and the accumulated spoils produced by such a society: freedom, self determination, security and a healthy standard of life, as did Churchill. He was not a corrupt politician interested in the pursuit of power for its own sake, but a statesman interested in power for its intelligent application to better the lot of the common citizen.

The program that Churchill followed in his life, and I speak here of his Liberal-Democratic program, was, with the exception of 1 occurrence (the independence of India, which will be discussed later), remarkably consistent with the theme of expanding Liberal Democratic principles. This is due in large part to his upbringing in the Liberal Aristocracy of the British Empire; due in part to his political father’s Liberal ideals and his American mother’s robust (and extremely adulterous) New World energy; and due in part to his experiences across the world as a young man, where he witnessed the power and relative success of the Liberalised (though not really democratic) British Empire, in comparison with other orders that lacked the discipline to generate and project wealth and power. As a prophet of Liberal Democracy, there could have been no better trained or indoctrinated messiah than Churchill. The man whose family history had been formed around the development of British Parliamentary, and Liberal Orthodox supremacy.

Again as with other outstanding humans he still achieved much more, than his contemporaries; many of whom were as intelligent, dedicated and immersed in the achievement of moral and political prestige as Churchill. This is where then Churchill’s story becomes interesting. What set him apart from the others ? Chance, money, dumb luck, patronage ? In human destiny all of these play a role. But to climb a pinnacle these are not enough. I would submit that Churchill provides illumination and support to many of Bennis’ leadership notions. Or how else could he have scaled the heights ? He had definite views on how a society should be structured and shaped. The love of a tempered democracy, the creation of a system to ensure proper leadership and guidance, the development of systems to allow prosperity, peace and support, occupied the mind of this man throughout his whole life. Churchill was obsessed with improving the lot of mankind and consumed by the proper use of power and leadership. And like Bennis he believed in a set of management and leadership principles that propelled him to greatness.

For those who write, think and practice true leadership, Churchill possessed radical views. Not of the immoderate, intolerable type. But those of classical, orthodox, Liberalism. Churchill believed in the need for the State to take an active part, both by legislation and finance to ensure that minimum standards of life, labour and social well-being for all citizens were maintained in an atmosphere conducive to fair trade and entrepreneurialism. Among the areas where Churchill during his varied career, took an active part were; prison reform, unemployment insurance, state-aided pensions for widows and orphans, permanent arbitration for labour disputes, state assistance for the unemployed, shorter hours of work, improved retail shop conditions, a National Health Service, wider access to education, taxation of excess profits and employee profit-sharing. Quite a list from a man who was supposedly one dimensional – the World War II embodiment of victorious unconquerable Britannia.

Other great men and women could be analysed and presented. But Churchill, one of the most complex, energetic and effective of history’s leaders, stands as an unparalleled example of leading and dealing with crisis, while defending, developing or discerning the limitations, values and concepts of political leadership and importantly freedom and democracy. He was unique. His style, mode of governance, deeply rooted and strongly held system of beliefs, and importantly his gaping weaknesses, should serve as a serious model upon which to reconstruct the training and choosing of our political leaders and governmental workers. It is not a perfect model. But certainly it is better than the ad-hoc, clandestine, shaded political leadership system we have today. Let’s then take a cursory look at Churchill’s skills according to the framework laid out in the last chapter. A fuller explanation of his skills will follow in Chapter Four when we discuss his actions during World War Two.

Character:
In reading any volume about Churchill’s life the most blinding aspect in understanding his success, is the quality, depth and strength of his character. Many other men would long have given up, or perished in their chosen professions, if they had been subject to the same trials as Churchill. In general from studying his life I can safely state that he never took the easy route. He was certainly never offered the easy spoils. Yet he never bowed his knee to opinion polls, party whips, or popular expressions that ran contrary to his own judgement and sense of purpose. In comparing Churchill with other great’s of this century there is no one that had to endure the opprobrium, distrust or number of setbacks as did Churchill. Even the witch hunt instigated against William Clinton, is pretty mild stuff compared with what the press had to say about Churchill during the first half of this century. I am always amazed that Churchill was able not only to survive through it all, but survive with a smile.

This is not to romanticise his or anyone else’s macho strength and egotism. Both in large doses are negative. However, without strength of character change is impossible, adversity cannot be overcome and good never triumphs over evil. In the dawning age of ‘Principle Parties’ as replacements for the outmoded ‘Political Parties’ trained individuals, relishing and brandishing these 3 traits will be needed to cut through the Gordian knot of the insoluble political drift we have today. We must remember the tenets of evolution and that change is not always progressive or better. To advance the human species needs change and conflicting ideas. These are necessary — not lobby groups, supine presidents and empty suits.

Upon the scarred field of politics Churchill stressed strength and magnanimity as the cornerstones of his behaviour. If impatience was his great weakness than offering magnanimity to the defeated – whether a local political opponent or Germany after World War II – casted Churchill as a strong but gallant knight and a man raised above the normal dash and din of political conflict. He fought all battles with limitless reserve and strategy. He offered friend and foe alike illimitable goodwill and respect after the conflict. His ideals imbued with history and coupled with a vision of where his country should be in the world were marked by a sense of fair play. Principles and not parties dictated his actions. For these reasons he is a man to be honoured and acclaimed as a defendant of democratic right and privilege.

To be effective statesmanship must lay on established principles and constraints rather than on emotive impulses and frayed passions. We should not forget that nations have no permanent friends, only semi-permanent interests, a covenant that often offends popular sympathy and belief. For it is these realism’s, that politics is a game of shifting fortunes, relationships and situations, that disgusts the great majority in democratic lands. Politics is like making love– natural, necessary and enjoyable– only if it is done properly. What is discernible about Churchill is his hard-headed realism and practicality in accepting such truths. Consequently he looked ahead a great deal more carefully and cautiously than many of his contemporary observers thought mutating viewpoints and re-evaluating some of his opinions. Of course some cried that he was too fluid and perhaps could not be trusted and other criticasters weary of Churchill’s rhetoric, would delight in emphasising that Churchill was a product of the late 19th century immutable and intractable. Thus from both sides – conservatives and liberals – Churchill received a drubbing, regardless of the integrity of his actions.

Churchill’s bellicosity caused much of the drubbing. One should consider the weight and purity of Churchill’s virtue and charity to all he contacted – friend or foe – even though he received the most acidic and heavily concentrated attacks of any politician in any era. Critics never tired of chopping at the tree of Churchill’s accomplishments. It began when he crossed the floor in 1904 to join the Liberals. It received a great accretion in strength during the winter of 1913-4 when Churchill was the subject of a broad protest by pacifists, economists, and social reformers who thought that as First Lord of the Admiralty he was too profligate and was promoting the arms race. At the root of the discontent and many to follow, was the fact that Churchill was not a good party man. As such the image of the war mongering pirateer was born and created by an aspersive socialist press. Churchill was not a war monger, “his thought has always been, between the wars, upon the means of making peace among the peoples.” For his critics such distractions were carefully ignored. It was during 1913-14 that the apparati to hang Churchill politically was established and raised for action.

What is inestimable is the fortitude and resilience of mind and body to withstand such brutal, crabby treatment that Churchill received at the hands of malcontents and frustrated plotters. His closest friends recognised clearly the political courage of Churchill. On November 11 1922, T.E. Lawrence (Lawrence of Arabia), wrote to a friend; “The man is as brave as six, as good-humoured, shrewd, self-confident and considerate as a statesman can be and several times I’ve seen him chuck the statesmanship course and do the honest thing instead.”

The honest thing included enacting proper change. When we view the broad balance of Churchill’s career and factor in the jealousy inherent in the political field and the degree of envy held by many of Churchill’s excessive successes we observe that many of his greatest contributions to the establishment of public welfare and governmental responsibility were initiatives driven from within, without concern to reputation, personal circumstance or fortune. Most were decidedly modern and far sighted. This is quite clear in his advancement of ‘Tory Democracy’ – economic growth with general support for the masses. Tory Democracy is another prescription for centrist governance. Often times this led him to advocate the dismemberment of party politics and the establishment of a broad nationally based governance: “Parliamentary debate has become largely meaningless. All the time the two great party machines are grinding up against each other with the utmost energy, dividing every village, every street, every town and city into busy party camps. Each party argues that it is the fault of the other. What is certain is that to prolong the process indefinitely is the loss of all…Once it can be seen that a great new situation or great new issues lie before us, an appeal should be made to the people to create some governing force which can deal with our affairs in the name and in the interest of the large majority of the nation.”

Part of Churchill’s trajectory to statesmanship can be seen in the light of time. First accumulate a reputation for outspoken principled action. Second, accumulate power via alliances, learning and public positioning. Then state a vision resplendent with clear principles, meanings and images while solving local problems. Lastly accede to great affairs and the devising of solutions in a national and international context. This trajectory needs to be buttressed by character, skills (verbal and technical), vision and power accumulation and recognition. To have these skills imbedded in action is not enough. A person must also have as a bedrock a clear and clean sense of duty and morality.

Importantly Churchill was clean. Adultery, conspiracy, or treachery were never a part of Churchill’s character. Loyalty, aggression and impulsiveness were the main exciting agents in Churchill’s life. His extreme ambition bordering at times on foolhardiness but always driven by an abnormal energy galvanised all around him. Churchill was always a contrarian thinker, and a statesman of the highest order, but he was not a Machiavellian posturer. His success rested on energy, innovation and positive thinking, all in a consistent framework employed in over 50 years of statesmanship.

Skills:
Churchill personified the well instructed and knowledgeable Leader. He was a self-developed man. As a youth he immersed himself in governing, leadership and policy. He never ceased learning and improving all of his life. He spent a great deal of time learning skills from his contemporaries such as Lloyd George, Lord Fisher, Herbert Asquith, F.E. Smith, and Max Beaverbrook amongst many others. On a political level this education led to a vision not only of strong morality but of rationality. In very few instances did Churchill compromise his personal code of morality for the sake of political gain. In this he was exemplary. But he was also a realist. He was adept at combining power and ethics in a compelling package. Very few understood the effective use of political leverage better than Churchill.

Compare Churchill’s self-education program with the political elite today. How many are steeped in history, philosophy, and the rigours and tribulations of historical notables ? What percent of our esteemed political masters exhibit such a rounded appreciation of the conditions and matters that shaped and will continue to shape the human story ? As Churchill sourly commented to then Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin in 1928 concerning the ease with which World War One could have been avoided: “Think of these people, decent, educated, the story of the past laid out before them. What to avoid, what to do etc. Patriotic, loyal, clean — trying their utmost. What a ghastly muddle they made of it ! Unteachable from infancy to tomb — there is the first & main characteristic of mankind.”

In looking at his life nothing can sum up the traits and skills of Churchill in short pleasing verbiage. He was patently too many people, a definite renaissance man, engaging in politics, writing, reporting, painting, farming, hunting, polo playing, warring and investing. Besides a massive intellect and memory Churchill possessed a spirit spurred with the whips of energy. It was unrelenting. His was the creed of action and contempt for delay. Mission was founded and achieved by exploring, questioning, trying, failing and trying again. During the 1930’s when the Stanley Baldwin and Ramsay Macdonald governments neglected the build-up of British war making strength and sought the treacherous path of appeasement to satiate the Nazi beast, Churchill who had long criticised the insipidity of such a program exclaimed in 1936 the memorable words about Baldwin’s government revealing his contempt for hiding inactivity in political closets; “The government simply cannot make up their mind, or they cannot get the Prime Minister to make up his mind. So they go in strange paradox, decided only to be undecided, resolved to be irresolute, adamant for drift, solid for fluidity, all powerful to be impotent.”

Brilliant diction summing up the most hated of Churchill’s dislikes – inaction. But we have still to reach that quality in Churchill, which warrants us in calling him great. For a man may be gifted far above the ordinary, without earning the emblem of true greatness. Churchill had brilliant gifts. He was, in addition, driven by a limitless, borderless, shifting, resolute ambition. Without such magnificent ambition, men never have, and never will accede to the summit of power, prestige and greatness. “Fame is the spur that the clear spirit doth raise (that last infirmity of noble mind), To scorn delights, and live laborious days.”

But unseemly ambition is insufficient to earn the appellation of great. It has to be elevated by noble principles (‘that last infirmity of noble mind’), to allow a man to rise above the supine mass. Flaming pertinacity is dangerous without the fibre of moral strength. Credibility rests on the broad shoulders of honesty and reliability. No Leader can shrug off those characteristics of success. Genius and energy do not necessarily shape the epiphanies of leadership. They have to combined in harmony and strength with the skills and qualities that we discussed in the last chapter, and which illuminate true leadership.

Intelligence:
But character, skill and morality are not enough for leaders. Intelligence is necessary. It does us no good having a clutch of well intentioned clods fouling up the process. Intelligence can only really be measured by verbal capacity and skill. IQ measures and tests are inaccurate. Churchill owned the English language and he owned the skill of persuasion. As such he commanded the heights of leadership. He could communicate the moment, the mission, and the energy. Churchill was one of the few politicians in our century that had a beautiful, lucid communication and vocabulary. Emboldening this was his common sense, technical skill and creativity. Above all the dynamism of his verbal adroitness lied in the desire for action and not drift.

A baser form of intelligence is what can be termed ‘Political Antennae’. In most political circles this skill is usually too overdeveloped. In the case of Churchill it was surprisingly weak and poorly unused. Churchill’s rhetoric was maybe too developed and at times not flexible enough for his audience or plainly inappropriate. But this weakness is still overshadowed by his capacity at conciliation and political problem solving and more vitally by his verbal capability. Churchill engineered delicate dispute resolutions over South Africa, Ireland, and social reform in England to name but a few, quickly striding across political boundaries and ideologies and involving himself intimately with those who had the greatest grievance in order to solve the conflict. Coupled with his strong array of communication skills he achieved a political pre-eminence that darkly shadowed his companions.

His oratory and conciliatory skills were allowed to flourish due to the mastery of technical details. Churchill was one of those rare politicians that actually knew what he was talking about. This dedication to lucidity ties in with persuasion and compromise and the knowledge of details leads to flexibility because plans can be made for each situation. Churchill always had three or four contingency plans for every situation. Strategy and vision thus sprung from intelligence and from being able to see the whole picture and from the confidence that one way or another the vision would be achieved.

This vision coupled with creativity gave Churchill adequate resources to enact change and innovation. In political spheres Churchill was light years ahead of his companions in collecting, analysing, and synthesising information at the micro level and relating it to the big picture. His innovation stemmed from patient practicality and discipline and not inspired genius as romantic novels about great change would like us to believe. This vision included fair economic trade and economic liberalism, adequate welfare for the population, peace and democratic governance, classical and scientifically or technically based education, and a powerful security apparatus to combat evil and aggression.

In achieving his aims, and in using his native and educated intelligence Churchill consciously chose to be nobody’s knave. He flaunted his independence, not only in action, but also in flamboyant dress and style. Yet his romantic urges were touched by the humbleness of most people’s lives, but to those at the summit where power corrupts, contracts are broken, lies are purveyed as half-truths, the issue of spirit and mores takes on a different colour. Basically Churchill trusted his own counsel and that of a half-dozen friends. To the rest of the world he looked like a recluse. To those who knew him well, he was defending himself against the often wicked and spiteful attacks of political banditos. Hence sympathy for the mass, trust for the few.

In this regard Churchill was exceptionally callous and rough to friend and foe alike in his early years. But as time tempered and beat down the baser impulses of searing rhetoric, Churchill acquired another skill — that of informal networking and interpersonal persuasion. He became as he aged refreshingly human. However, it was not until the 1930’s when he was in his late 50s and early 60s, that strident verbal missives were shelved for moderate expositions (with some notable exceptions) of the situation at hand, and fair treatment was meted out to friend and foe alike.

As Churchill matured so did his attention to friendship. “If F.E. (Smith), was strong meat and stronger drink, then Churchill in contrast to his public reputation as a ‘domineering’, even ‘rude’, figure, had in the intimacy of personal friendship a quality which is almost feminine in its caressing charm” As F.E. wrote, Churchill had a ‘simplicity which no other public man of the highest distinction possesses.’ He also endeavoured to perform many deeds of goodwill to aid friends and family. It can be summarised by Philip Snowden a long-time Churchill opponent and liberal critic, “Your generosity to a political opponent marks you for ever in my eyes the ‘great gentleman’ I have always thought you. Had I been in trouble which I could not control myself, there is none to whom I should have felt I could come with more confidence that I should be gently treated.”

A budget of good humour, tact and some considered patience fund the other necessary resources and tools to achieve success. Alone they are unsubstantive. It is better to be dour and effective, than gay and incompetent. Allied to well-developed skills and principles, sensitivity, embedded in the formidable array of humour and tact, provides a potent and efficient tool. About Churchill it is fair to say that he was ambitious and calculating; but not cold and that saved him. As a colleague stated, “His ambition is sanguine, runs in a torrent, and the calculation is hardly more than the rocks or the stump which the torrent strikes for a second…queer, shrewd power of introspection, which tells him his gifts and character are such as will make him boom….He was born a demagogue, and he happens to know it.” Yet ambition without a defining purpose can not only corrupt, but it can also destroy.

Vision:
A crowning vision is really the linchpin that will attract followers. Most good and great individuals have displayed a pretty consistent approach to the world and a pretty stable world view. Some superficial analysis may suggest that because Churchill changed parties, challenged convention, criticised incompetence and insipidity and usurped obedience, he was a grasping, clawing, malevolent opportunist. If rigid conformity is the sign of good political standing, Churchill was indeed recklessly unpredictable and unreliable. However, the picture of Churchill as a soldier of fortune, an adventurer and a troublemaker was and is incorrect. Strong ethics, values and principles guided his actions. He had little of Lloyd George’s cunning or the well-disguised craftiness of Stanley Baldwin. His decisions might have been unpredictable, but his motives were seldom hard to fathom. Churchill rarely embroiled himself in the base pettiness of political intrigue in part from a distaste of such ignominy, combined as well with a guileless personality.

To the charge of unreliability Churchill retorted that, “To improve is to change. To be perfect is to have changed often.” In actual fact the changes were due to some effort at self improvement, but to a fidelity of what he already was. Churchill was most consistent with his own true north direction when he was the least supportive of his party’s policy. Churchill never could swallow the party line always choosing and deciding for himself. In assessing Churchill’s skill base the following is a reasonable portrait: “Far from changing his views too often, Mr Churchill has scarcely, during a long and stormy career, altered them at all. If anyone wishes to discover his views on the large and lasting issues of our time, he need only set himself to discover what Mr Churchill has said or written on the subject at any period of his long and exceptionally articulate public life, in particular during the years before the First World War: The number of instances in which his views have in later years undergone any appreciable degree of change will be astoundingly small….When biographers and historians come to describe his views…they will find that his opinions on all these topics are set in fixed patterns, set early in life and later only reinforced.”

This historical reality is evidenced when studying Churchill. What drove Churchill in his personal intellectual and political journey’s can also be said to mirror the advance of imperialism in the 19th and 20th centuries . Thus not only did he possess grand skill, he was also a student but more importantly a conscious product of history. In this regard he closely resembles (consciously no doubt) British and world history. Even in his literary works this is reflected. For instance in Churchill’s book, ‘The Story of the Malakand Field Force’, which depicts British soldiery in north-western India at the turn of the 20th century he questioned what motivated men and nations to face great hazards. The principal elements that Churchill discovered were preparation, discipline, vanity and sentiment and he remarked that sentiment was the most important of the group. Churchill believed that civilisation can only march forward if it clings to a vision – a sentiment that ennobles its occupation and galvanises its spirit. Empires fall because the sword begins to dominate the sentiment and the people lose hold of the impulse and spirit that the sentiment contained and made the use of the sword in the first instance appropriate.

This spirit and vision was evident and mature. He commiserated with the poor, the downtrodden or the straggling. Some of his mightiest missions and political forays were instigated on behalf of those who lived lives beyond his comprehension but not his beyond his compassion. Yet here lies a paradox. Within political circles and in the ring of friends and associates he could be extraordinarily blind, politically inept, insensitive and roguish. Or so it appears from a distance. Yet for the great mass of ‘Poor England’ or for the devotion of the Commonwealth nations, tears would be produced, sagas told, and emotion unleashed. The difference is dramatic but crucial.

If we examine for instance his stand on fair economic trade he was malleable to changing circumstance but rather solid in his underlying belief in market forces, with government succouring the unlucky. He left the Conservatives over Fair Trade in 1904, when they put forward a policy of protectionism, anathema to an orthodox Liberal like Churchill. He only returned to the Conservative party in 1924 when undue governmental interference in trade had been expunged from their agenda, and when the political costs of doing so were at a low threshold. Fair trade in the mind of Churchill did not preclude beneficial and justified government involvement to at times, stimulate employment and counteract nefarious foreign practice. For instance by 1908 Churchill had developed a respectable appreciation of contra-cyclical public works feeling that in useful but uncompetitive industries such as afforestation, public departments should be constructed to allow the expansion or contraction of work according to the needs of the labour market, much like the utilisation of an accordion. He was also much taken by the notion of having a governmental body dedicated to intelligence gathering on market conditions and inputting clever designs regarding the balance of trade and the proper use of employment. These concepts were never tried.

Supportive of free or at least fair trade, Churchill throughout his career could never conceal his concern for the effects of such unbridled combat upon the poor man and women. Speaking in a lecture at Oxford in June of 1930 he posited that unencumbered free trade was not at that time working: “The growth of public opinion, and still more of voting opinion, violently and instinctively rejects many features of this massive creed. No one, for instance, will agree that wages should be settled only by the higgling of the market. No one would agree that modern world-dislocation of industry…should simply be met by preaching thrift and zeal to the displaced worker. Few would agree that private enterprise is the sole agency by which fruitful economic activities can be launched or conducted.” Churchill appended to this suspicion of market forces the idea of an economic council, chosen in proportion to parliamentary representation as an agent of economic advice. This concept of an objective economic watchdog was never viably pursued.

These economic doctrines – fair trade and support for the common worker – were strictly consistent with his life long pursuit of social stability, prosperity and opportunity. In wider party politics Churchill was a radical who consistently attacked the Conservatives as a party of wealthy vested interests conspiring to exploit the poor. He had a rough belief in proper mass democracy (though part of him sympathised with the viewpoints of the controversial Nietzche who feared for mass democratisation feeling that the great features of aristocratic or privileged existence would disappear), and most of his actions were ‘de Tocquevillian’. Churchill was fundamentally concerned that there should not be governmental obstruction to the mass of the people realising the benefits that a liberalising democracy could bring into their lives. In 1908 he wrote to Asquith:

“There is a tremendous policy in social organisation. The need is urgent and the moment ripe. Germany with a harder climate and far less accumulated wealth has managed to establish tolerable basic conditions for her people. She is organised not only for war, but for peace. We are organised for nothing except party politics. The Minister who will apply to this country the successful experiences of Germany in social organisation may or may not be supported at the polls, but he will at least have a memorial which time will not deface of his administration.” If we consider the tremendous tasks in which the human race and governments; local, regional, national and hopefully international, will struggle against in the near future then social organisation and re-organisation, probably of a brutal or dislocative nature will not be completed in the current ‘pork and play’ atmosphere in today’s political systems. Politicians engaged in change will need the courage to ignore the polls and do what needs to be done.

Churchill was a master at this, usually getting the House of Commons to agree to his proposals even if he was in a subordinate or even antagonistic position. The skills used to complete such duties were varied. Very rarely did they include threats, bullying, trampling on souls, or the use of political power. Logic, parliamentary procedure, emotional colour and well-researched positions counted as more important. Churchill proposed and acquired the acceptance of the House on a number of far reaching proposals, including;
– Institution of Labour Exchanges and unemployed insurance
– National Infirmity Insurance
– Special state industries such as roads, afforestation
– Modernised poor law (law mandating that children should support their parents)
– State control of the railway
– Compulsory education until age 17

Churchill’s economic beliefs and education though broader and more profound than many politicians were attached to a series of principles. He loathed dependence and esteemed individualism. He was fully in support of laissez-faire and the doctrines of 17th, 18th and 19th century English economics. His faith in Adam Smith, John Locke and Edwardian experience compelled Churchill to espouse his support in the benedictions of unshackled economic exchange. In October of 1902, in a letter to a political colleague while still a member of the Conservative party, Churchill commented that it was necessary by an ‘evolutionary process’ to create a wing of the Conservative party which would either infuse vigour into the entire unit, or allow the formation of a central coalition. Churchill realised as he stated in the letter that his plan would become most important as an incident in or possibly as a herald of the movement, but that it would also move suspicion that he was moved only by mere restless ambition and not substantive issues. He needed a grand theme and found it in the Free Trade debate of 1903-4. Churchill was unable to countenance the stance of the Conservative party in their clamouring for protection and left joining the Liberals on May 31 1904. Allegations of opportunism, deceit and cowardice, rained down upon him as he shifted sides. In a note to a friend Churchill admitted; “(The) Free Trade issue subsides it leaves my personal ambitions naked and stranded on the beach – and they are an ugly and unsatisfactory spectacle by themselves, though nothing but an advantage when borne forward with the flood of a great outside cause.” Indeed without a great cause ambition is a rather repulsive picture.

For Churchill and others liberal ideals as exemplified by the Free Trade question meant more than simply the abolition of protective tariffs. It personifies a whole philosophy of political, social and economic organisation. John Stuart Mill in ‘Principles of Political Economy’ in 1848 developed the ‘Laissez-faire’, concept and every departure from it, unless required by some great good, is a certain evil. This commandment created the key notes of mid-Victorian liberalism: the reliance upon individualism, the establishment of self-respect, and self-reliance, and the organisation of voluntary and co-operative societies to better the plight of the weak, wounded and suffering.

Support for such mantra was rooted in an earlier period of excitable prosperity. Coinciding with the advent of Free Trade in the years 1850-1870, there was an economic boom in the UK. It can be fairly argued that the removal of tariff barriers probably had only a marginal impact on the British economy. Nevertheless, psychologically the advent of free trade was closely associated with entrepreneurial zest and commercial success. It appeared that market forces working within the social and political structure solved the question of English strength, which preoccupied the country from 1820-50.

Churchill knew his economic history well. It moulded and galvanised his political and philosophical beliefs. It shaped his political attitude and formed one of his bedrock principles – free movement of goods and services. This created in his political philosophy a paradox — Churchill was at once a radical and a traditionalist. He was a radical in changing structures and governmental organisations and arcane laws to facilitate the movement of finance and trade on a more fair and free basis. He was also a radical in his determination to raise the general standard of living, economic opportunity and chance for decent education and welfare. He was a traditionalist in his empathy that the productive capitalistic system as the only guaranteed method of sustaining society and providing a nation with the capability to ensure adequate standards of wealth and progress. It must be protected at all costs – vision must be enjoined by the means to protect its vested interests.

Power:
In assessing the use of power Churchill’s career and leadership in this regard actually represents Britain’s peculiarity as a Great Power which during its hegemony was formed in the conjunction of three factors: her naval strength, her imperial possessions, and her financial hegemony. Through two stints as First Lord of the Admiralty, Chancellor of the Exchequer and through two World Wars, Churchill devoted the lion’s share of his time and energies to upholding these interlocking causes, making it conspicuously clear in the process that he had no intention of presiding over the liquidation of the British Empire. As Chancellor of the Exchequer Churchill presented 5 budgets (1925-1929). In British history only Pitt, Walpole and Gladstone can equal that record. Though vastly entertaining as pieces of oratory and acting adroitness his budgets adhered as much as it was possible to economic orthodoxy. Many times Churchill was accused of slight of hand sophistry in the compilation of his numbers and in the collection of his tax revenue. However, this allegation has been and could be made with more convincing effect against every other Chancellor in this century. What is more important to note is that Churchill’s orthodoxy underpinned the Victorian notion of Britain’s greatness.

Churchill was a realist and understood power. Power is really to be embraced and used and is in some ways the centre piece of leadership. To ignore it is to perish. Because of his somewhat apolitical view of the world Churchill could discern very clearly the different perspectives on how nations viewed peace and how any destroyer of peace would appear in various forms to different nations. To prevent war and general international dislocation he at times called for zones and regional structures, including World-Grand Alliances. Power and strength were vital: In his words, “Appeasement from strength is magnanimous and noble and might be the surest and perhaps the only path to peace.”

Though primarily remembered as a war-hungry demagogue, Churchill on at least half a dozen occasions defiantly crusaded against the level and purpose of military spending. These personal programs were driven in part by his political position. That is only a small part of the answer. During the 1920’s Churchill felt that military expenditure was too high and should be curbed given the threat of inflation, the spectre of economic dislocation and the vital investments needed in infrastructure and social programs. These economic indicators drove Churchill to proselytise against excessive taxation and to insist on reviews of defence expenditures. It was necessary Churchill felt, to augment the Royal Air Force allotment and decrease the high administrative costs of the army and look suspiciously into the Royal Navy claims of needing more funding. The cabinet agreed with Churchill: “that the Fighting Services should proceed on the assumption that no great war is to be anticipated within the next ten years” although, “provision should be made for the possible expansion of trained units in case of an emergency arising.” Little of the war-mongerer appears in this sentiment though security was never to be imperilled.

Churchill was emphatic that the 10 year rule be reviewed each year. This 10 year dictum uttered in the mid 20’s obviously proved false since in 1936, the Germans seized the Rhineland. Beginning with the rise of Hitler and the stench of his ideology, Churchill began advocating not only a mammoth increase in armament production but also a closer relationship with Russia. Strategy had changed again. This option was proffered from a man who in the early 1920’s had supported the incursion of British soldiers into the heartland of Russia to cleanse it of Bolshevism. Churchill regarded Bolshevism as the lowliest creed and construct of mankind’s civilised history. These adjurations were consistent with his concept of maintaining a balance of power and bargaining from a position of strength, all in the name of effacing and avoiding an evil tumult. It is – and should be – one of the chief reasons for our admiration and support of Churchill that he consistently advocated peace by international understanding and if understanding were to collapse to resist any impingement of freedom by force.

But his political courtship of Russia was based on seemingly obvious and important facts. As Churchill previsioned in the early 30’s a new line of French fortifications established only along the French part of the Rhine would enable Germany to attack France through Belgium and Holland. He knew that Germany would not respect the neutrality of the Low Countries in her desire to rip and tear the French to pieces. He also warned that Poland, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Rumania, Austria and the Baltic’s, were at risk, and that Britain could not detain a German advance into these areas from her current submissive position of weakness. Churchill wanted to station a part of the British fleet in the Baltic to outnumber the German fleet. To achieve measurable, guarded security an alliance with the Bolshies was inevitable, vital and more importantly achievable.

If stronger lines had been followed in the 1930’s World War Two could have been avoided. With a ‘Churchillian’ leadership of the world and vision of power and morality we could have escaped the disgusting slaughter of 70 million people. In a 1945 speech to the combined Belgian Senate and Chamber, Churchill stressed what is still surely relevant in our world today; namely the resistance and prevention of dictator aggression: “If the United States had taken an active part in the League of Nations, and if the League of Nations had been prepared to use concerted force, even had it only been European force, to prevent the re-armament of Germany, there was no need for further serious bloodshed. If the Allies had resisted Hitler strongly in his early stages, even up to his seizure of the Rhineland in 1936, he would have been forced to recoil, and a chance would have been given to the sane elements in German life, which were very powerful especially in the High Command, to free Germany of the maniacal Government and system into the grip of which she was falling. Do no forget that twice the German people, by a majority, voted against Hitler, but the Allies and the League of Nations acted with such feebleness and lack of clairvoyance.”

After the Second World War he continued such pleas arguing in various speeches for France and Germany to bind wounds and for Russia to be a partner with the West in the greater development of a peaceful Europe. When it became obvious that the Soviets intended to challenge if not supplant the West (especially after the communist seizure of power in Czechoslovakia in 1948), than the tone of conciliation turned to a growling of an affronted bulldog as Churchill told American officials, that now is the time, promptly, to tell the Soviets that if they do not retire from Berlin and abandon Eastern Germany, withdrawing to the Polish frontier ‘we will raze their cities’. In his signal ‘Iron Curtain’ speech in Fulton Missouri in 1948 Churchill implored that the UNO must work effectively to prevent another war recognising Russia as a leading nation, remembering the gallantry of its efforts in the last war, and acknowledging its ‘Iron Curtain’ control of Eastern Europe which necessitated the banding and collation of Western strength and might.

It is a complex issue and drives to the heart of politics that so many of us view with revulsion – peace through strength and shifting alliances and geopolitical supporters. To understand such necessities today we need to understand the human animal. In scanning leadership and the great broad stretch and gesture of events, the basic construct of the human animal has to be borne in mind. Churchill constantly reminded his associates of the base fact that we really have not changed genetically in the last 100,000 years. DNA and microbiology are 1 of 2 great frontiers of human discovery in the next generation, (the other is information technology). As advances are made in understanding the human genome, advances must also be made in the way society and the leaders of society are structured and educated.

Churchill’s view of international affairs was pragmatic though not Machiavellian. He had two basic precepts of security — use history as a guide and foster a balance of power between the strongest lands, and ensure that the internal national health was seasoned and keen. Churchill frequently referred to his debt to those who had laboured before himself as he did to Katherine Asquith, on April 5 1929; “How strange it is that the past is so little understood and so quickly forgotten. We live in the most thoughtless of ages. Every day headlines and short views. I have tried to drag history up a little nearer to our own times in case it should be helpful as a guide in present difficulties.”

This enduring commitment to knowledge and of increasing the power, and not the dependency of the layman, both intellectually and politically was the central tenet of Churchill’s political genius. He could combine the new world with the old gleaning the important knowledge from the past, to help shape the institutions of the current and future. To say he was old-fashioned as some critics contend is simplistic. Churchill more than any other figure helped create the modern welfare nation state (though he would be appalled at its size and generosity today), promote peace through strength and ensure that the precarious balance of power between east and west, that was the only stability guaranteed to mankind for 44 years, was not toppled. Pure motives, unflinching devotion to good, ambition stemming from benign aspirations, all lead to quality. As one commentator explained of Pitt, so it could be ascribed to Churchill: “Pitt desired power, and he desired it, we really believe, from high and generous motives. He was, in the strict sense of the word, a patriot. He saw the national spirit sinking.” In conclusion then, we can state that Churchill matches many of those qualities and skills that define true leadership and greatness. It is these defining values that warrant the assertion that Churchill was indeed this century’s most important catalyst in propelling the world to where we are today. And I have not even discussed in detail his stand against Hitler and totalitarianism.

Thus, as a new millennium dawns I do believe that if we can revise our current system of educating ourselves and our leaders along the principles already evinced; namely, character, skills, intelligence, vision and understanding power, that we can create a proper cadre of leading men and women and that all of society will benefit from the reduction of intrigue and pettiness. Human nature can be changed, however painfully long it will take. In order to understand how we can do this it is often times necessary to understand how the ‘great’ or historically important at any rate went about it. I don’t think that in the 20th century there has been any more dedicated man who defended the Liberalised view of freedom, economic exchange and human dignity, better than Churchill. For this reason, he should be nominated as the most influential man of the past century. And for this reason his skills and weaknesses should be studied and appreciated with especial care.

Healthy Food For the Heart – 2 Fantastic Choices

As more and more Americans realize that obesity, heart disease, diabetes and high blood pressure are becoming an issue for themselves or loved ones many of them are turning towards healthy food for the heart to help either control existing medical problems, or prevent new medical issues From arising. We are beginning to see America's health problems and in particular America's relationship with food more and more distinctly as time passes. The US is now one of the most overweight countries in the world and it's hard to get through a week of news coverage without hearing about child obesity and type II diabetes issues. Luckily, food for a healthy heart can not only contribute to heart health but will also assist you in controlling your weight. Here are several different heart healthy foods that will help you live longer and happier life.

Blueberries are not only healthy food for the heart but they also offer many other benefits such as fiber, vitamin C and antioxidants. Web MD has blueberries on the top of their list for heart healthy food because of these factors and many more. Blueberries have come to be known as one of the most powerful disease fighting foods because they boost both heart health and have other beneficial effects on human anatomy. So take steps to Incorporate blueberries in your diet. Top your healthy cereal with fresh blueberries to add a delicious boost of flavor or pack your pancakes, muffins, waffles and bagels with this heart healthy fruit.

Salmon also enters our equation as another healthy food for the heart. Salmon are cold water fish that are a great source of protein and Omega-3 fatty acids. Versus using beef that can sometimes be high in fat in order to obtain the protein needed in your diet replacing those portions with salmon twice a week can actually help to reduce your risk of heart disease and heart attack. Many individuals appreciate Salmon because of how versatile and easy to prepare this healthy food for the heart can be. Salmon can be grilled, oven cooked or micro washed. Leftover portions can be thrown in with the salad, salmon cakes or mixed in and used with dips or spreads. All these reasons and more make salmon a healthy food for the heart.

Both of the items listed above is healthy food for the heart and should be utilized to if you're trying to cut your chance of heart attack, stroke, diabetes and or heart disease. By incorporating healthy food for the heart like these you are assured of living a longer more peaceful existence while reaping all the benefits that healthy living has to offer.

The Truth About Cholesterol

Nowadays everyone speaks of cholesterol, how bad it is, how you should exercise to keep your cholesterol levels down, how you should not eat fatty foods because they get your cholesterol level up, but what's really the truth about cholesterol?

Cholesterol is a sterol combined with a lipid but leaving the chemical composition of cholesterol what does it do in our body apart from apparently making us sick? Answer: A lot. The body is entirely made up by cells. Cells have a membrane. The truth is cholesterol helps keep the integrity of the cell's membrane. At high temperatures, the cell's membrane tends to get more fluid, in this case cholesterol holds it together making sure it does not split. At low temperatures, the cell's membrane tends to solidify, this must not happen because water, air and nutrients have to be able to go through it so in this case cholesterol makes it more fluid making it possible for the cell to survive.

So we can not speak of "benefits" of cholesterol since it's a part of every cell and without it our cells would die from lack of nutrients in cold situations or explode in hot temperatures.

Cholesterol is also the precursor for all steroid hormones such as cortisones, androgens (testosterone and estrogen included) and several vitamins such as A, D, E and K. When pushed to its limits our body secretes cortisones (made up from adding and removing various Components from cholesterol) designed to give the ultimate response. Many doctors when fighting off an infection give their patients cortisones; Well these cortisones can be made naturally in the body using cholesterol so why do doctors tell their patients to "watch out for bad cholesterol".

Good vs. Bad cholesterol: The body secretes a number of types of lipoproteins to deal with the regulation of cholesterol but two main ones are HDL (high density lipoproteins) and LDL (low density lipoproteins). They are both secreted by the liver. LDL is in charge of taking cholesterol to where it is needed somewhere in the body but when levels are high the liver secretes HDL which genes cholesterol from the organism and takes it to the liver to be turned into bile and excreted. What happens? When cholesterol levels in the blood get too high like after eating a big barbecue cholesterol traveling with LDL may break off from the LDL and deposit itself in the walls of arteries that could lead to clogged arteries, aneurisms or arteriosclerosis, all pathologies of the arteries . HDL can remove the cholesterol present in the arteries. Here, LDL is known as "bad" cholesterol and HDL is "good" cholesterol.

So what's the truth? Cholesterol is made by the body for the body to use. It is more than indispensable for the body's natural functions at a cellular level. However, the body is quite capable of making the cholesterol it needs, it does not need "our help" with it. Us ingesting huge amounts of cholesterol like with a fatty steak or eating some bacon gets our LDL levels up in our blood stream and could eventually bring some other complications as the body gets accustomed to the new levels of cholesterol.

How to Give Your Wife Sexual Pleasure and Bring Out Her "Little Devil"

Ready to learn how to give your wife sexual pleasure?

So many positions to chose from and so many different techniques it can be hard to give your wife the type of sexual pleasure she craves.

I want to reveal to you three tips which will not only give her roaring orgasms, but bringing out her inner animal.

1. While performing sex in the missionary position, pull her legs up around her waist. You will be able to align your threats perfectly with her g spot. This will maximize her pleasure and allow you to get deeper. Keep in mind, you do not want to use long strokes, use rhythmic short strokes.

2. This may surprise you, but giving her a 10 minute foot massage with warm oils will trigger a response in you may of never witnessed. There are so many nerve endings in her feet and when you massage them she relaxes. Once she is relaxed it will increase her chances of enjoying the sexual stimulation you're about to begin.

3. The old standby is oral sex. But most men just do not get it. They dive down there and begin focusing on her magic button before she is prepared. You need to allow her clitoris a chance to warm up and her mind to focus on what you are about to perform. Take your time down there and use her inner thighs as a prelude to cunnilingus.

How to give your wife pleasure begins with using these tips and understanding her anatomy a bit better. Remember she has thousands of nerve endings in your erogenous zones. So go slow and be more delicate.

Causes of Anxiety Attacks – What You Must Know to Beat Anxiety

There are many causes of anxiety attacks, ranging from medical issues to external mental or emotional stimuli. These causes are many and varied and if you are suffering from anxiety attacks, it is imperative that you find out what is causing them.

1 – Hereditary Causes

First off there may be your heredity blame. Anxiety attacks have been found to run in families, which leads many professionals to conclude that the trait can be found in the human genome. On the other hand, studies on geneticly identical twins have shown that sometimes one twin will experience anxiety attacks, while the other will not. Another way in which anxiety attacks can be inherited is through an overly cautious world view handed down by a patient's parents and the cumulative stress it causes.

2. Biological Causes

There are also many biological causes to anxiety attacks, such as inner ear disorders (labyrinthitis), hyperthyroidism, hyperventilation syndrome, hypoglycemia, prolapsed mitral valve (a heart disease), pheochromocytoma (an adrenal gland tumor), and Wilson's disease (a genetic disorder) ). Even a vitamin B deficiency caused by parasitic tapeworm infection or from a poor diet can also cause anxiety attacks.

3. Mental / Emotional Causes

Mental or emotional issues can also trigger anxiety attacks. These include generalized anxiety, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), phobias, post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), significant personal loss (such as loss of a romantic partner), significant life changes, "what-if" thinking, lack of assertiveness, Withheld feelings, mistrust beliefs, and avoidance of or association with anxiety-provoking situations or environs.

4 – Pharmalogical / Medicinal Causes

Pharmacological or medicinal causes include amphetamines, alcohol, marijuana, psilocybin (a hallucinogen found in some mushrooms), side effects from drugs such as Ritalin or other antidepressants (especially at the beginning or end of use), and stimulants such as caffeine or nicotine. Some anxiety attack sufferers also develop an irrational fear of certain medications, which may result in anxiety attacks if they are taken, which is a purely psychosomatic effect similar to what placebos have been shown to produce.

As anyone can see, there are many causes of anxiety attacks, most of which are completely out of your control if you are having them. The good news is that you can do something about it. The first thing you need to understand is that it is not your fault. Your anxiety attacks are nothing that you asked for and not something that you necessarily caused. If it is found that your anxiety attacks are caused by something external that is easily remedied, your problem may be solved quite easily. If it is caused by a lifestyle choice, for example marijuana or alcohol consumption, there are alternatives available. If it is something that is more ephemeral, then your mental health professional can counsel you and / or prescribe that medication that will help you deal with your anxiety attacks.

Conclusion

Do not immediately blame yourself or believe that there is simply something wrong with you if you are having anxiety attacks. If you look hard enough, you will probably be able to discover what the cause is. In many cases, the cause of anxiety attacks can be quickly discerned and dealt with via counseling, medication or self help.

What would we do without chemicals?

What WOULD we do without chemicals?

Well, we wouldn’t be here, for starters!  Neither we, nor anything else on this planet, would be alive.  Chemicals are what we are – because the basis of all living things, as well as rocks and soil and sky and sea – is chemistry. As one scientist has put it, “a chemical is an identifiable constituent of every organic compound”.

So to talk about spraying – or not spraying – “chemicals” in our garden is a bit of a misnomer.

When practitioners of “organic” gardening talk about not controlling pests and weeds with chemicals they are generally talking about manufactured synthetic chemicals which have been proved harmful to other organisms. 

DDT is a good example of this.  Once thought of as the saviour of Humankind, at least in terms of pest-free food production, it proved to have such damaging effects on other life forms, such as reproduction in birds, that it was withdrawn from common use.  Other manufactured chemicals have proved similarly harmful to humans, birds, mammals, reptiles and fish.  Once ingested via the food chain they can play havoc with our health in all sorts of horrible ways.  Cancer, genetic disorders, organ destruction and damage to the nervous system are just some of the horrors we associate with chemical toxicity. 

Today, in countries with high health standards, chemical products that have been proven harmful to human health are not licensed for use in agriculture, commercial horticulture or the home garden.  Those products that ARE readily available to us through hardware stores and garden centres are deemed harmless to humans (unless ingested or applied directory to the skin). However this does not mean that these products cannot harm other life forms in the environment, particularly if used carelessly or to excess.

It’s important to know the difference between the chemicals used for control of pests and weeds in gardens.  In brief, “natural” chemicals are those that occur naturally in the environment.  Synthetic chemicals are those that don’t appear naturally in the environment and of these the most environmentally damaging are the organophosphorus pesticides because they kill (rather horribly) by irreversibly inactivating a vital enzyme.  By contrast, the carbamate insecticides, derived from the organic compound carbamic acid, reversibly inactivate the same enzyme and are thus less drastic. Old-generation garden insecticides did their deadly work by, put simply, covering the plant (usually the leaves) in an adhesive contact poison that killed pretty well whatever ate it or even landed on it.  New-generation systemic insecticides, by comparison, are absorbed by the plant through the leaves or roots and kill only those insects that actually devour the leaves, such as caterpillars and hoppers.

In line with the GardenEzi philosophy of making all aspects of gardening easier, let’s look at the most common garden-use chemicals – synthetic and natural – to see what effects they have around the garden.

Confidor – otherwise marketed as Bayer Complete Tree, Shrub and Garden Insect Control.  The active chemical is imidacloprid, a systemic chemical.  This is a very effective pesticide against a range of otherwise hard-to-kill insects and though it has (so far) proved remarkably benign in the environment, it DOES kill bees, other pollinators, and “beneficial” predators that eat other insects.  Thus this product should NEVER be used on (or near, if you are a careless sprayer) plants that are in flower.             

Glyphosate – a weak organic acid compounded of glycine and phosphonomethyl,  usually marketed under the brand name Round-Up. This product kills weeds, not insects, and is therefore, like most weedicides, much safer to use in the garden. It breaks down fast in the environment but can contaminate water run-off in the short term with sufficient toxicity to kill or adversely affect the health of fish and other aquatic life. 

Diazinon – a synthetic organophosphate marketed under names such as Gardentox, Knoxout and Dazzel.  Used as a general garden insecticide.  It breaks down quickly in the environment – usually within a few hours and no longer than two weeks – and is not considered carcinogenic or a major risk to humans and other mammals (unless directly ingested). Nonetheless it’s now banned in the United Sates (as a garden product) and is such a nasty toxin, with such a drastic effect on many insects, that it’s hard to believe that it wouldn’t have an equally severe effect on birds, mammals and pondlife.

Carbaryl – a carbamic insecticide marketed most commonly as Sevin.  It’s very toxic to insects …including bees – but not found dangerous to humans or the general environment (unless you swallow it!).  Even so, it has been banned in the United Kingdom and several other countries.

Dimethoate – a synthetic organophosphate that kills insects rather horribly and is also highly toxic to fish and other wildlife if directly exposed.  Marketed under names such as Rogor.  As it  breaks down quickly in the environment it is not considered

Meltadehyde – a molluscicide (slug and snail killer) marketed under names such as Blitzem.  This is a very savage stomach poison and though it is combined with a bitter-tasting chemical agent to deter children and pets from eating it, it’s still a risk to wildlife – mainly because while they might not eat the pellets they can still ingest the slug or snail.  The effects of meltadehyde would appear to be very specific to molluscs, but if the chemical is considered risky for children and pets then wouldn’t it be dangerous to other life forms too?  I feel this product should only be used in city gardens which are not visited by small wild things, and should be covered so that birds can’t reach the pellets.  Organic gardeners use natural things such as coffee grounds and sawdust  to repel slugs and snails, and this is a safer remedy. Metaldehyde degrades into carbon dioxide and water so has no residual effect in the soil.   

Fenthion – sold under brand names such as Lebaycid and Baycid.  A seriously horrible nerve poison that kills by contact and through penetration.  Effective against a wide range of insects including aphids, thrips, bugs, caterpillars, crickets, moths and spiders – a real super killer because it is fairly toxic to mammals and is also used to poison nuisance birds. Its use in the home garden is restricted to ornamentals (NOT fruit and veg!) but even so, I wouldn’t use it in mine!

Pyrethrum – insecticides made from this member of the chrysanthemum family fall somewhere between “natural” and “unnatural” chemicals. The active ingredients – pyrethrins – are highly toxic to most insects through contact or ingested, and have a very fast knockdown effect.  Pyrethrum is formulated as a spray, dusting powder or fumigant.  For garden use it is often combined with the chemical piperonyl butoxide which maintains the toxicity level and increases effectiveness.  A Buddhist wouldn’t use pyrethrum in the garden because it kills insects by paralysis – not a very kindly death!  What’s more, it targets beneficial insects as well as pests.  It doesn’t harm other wildlife though (except for aquatic life) and is therefore considered a comparatively benign pesticide. 

Synthetic pyrethrum – this has long been available and appears to have much the same properties as the natural product, but using it DOES mean putting a synthetic chemical into the natural environment. One such product is Mavrik, the pyrethroid TAU-fluvalinate, which is formulated to kill chewing and sucking insects such as cabbage white butterfly, and also controls mites, aphids, dimpling bug and thrips. Mavrik is said to be low toxic, even to bees, and appears to have little adverse effect on the environment, especially as it is easily broken down by rain, sunlight and bacteria.

 Neem oil – marketed under several brand names, usually with the name “neem” included. The active ingredient, azadaractin, affects the hormonal system of chewing and sucking insects and inhibits most processes, including reproduction.  The end result is eventual localised population decline in the affected pest, especially insects with a metamorphic cycle such as caterpillars/moths. Neem is said to be systemic to a degree, but the plant’s ability to actually absorb it into the system is pretty well limited to the roots; thus applying neem to the soil is likely to be more effective than spraying the leaves.  The problem with most neem-based products is that they contain so small a percentage of the chemical that they are not all that effective, especially in cooler climates.  What’s more, re-application is needed after heavy rain.  In my experience a formulation that contains less than 3% neem is not much use. Nowadays there are stronger formulations – up to 90% strength – that are supposed to affect a wider range of insects such as mealybugs – basically by smothering them.  The question is, won’t such products also harm beneficial insects?  Can a “natural” chemical still be termed “organic” if it acts as a broad spectrum remedy that, whatever its methods, disrupts the natural processes of the insects it destroys?  I still prefer neem to synthetic organoposphate-type solutions because it doesn’t harm other life forms and breaks down very fast in the environment.  But it does need to be used with knowledge and caution. 

Insecticidal soap – this is made from salts derived from fatty acids, obtained from animal fats and/or plant oils. Some types (the most effective) are made from petroleum oil.  The soap works by smothering insects to death and works mainly on soft-bodied types like two-spotted mite, aphids, thrips and mealybugs.  It works well if thoroughly applied and is very good for washing away sooty mold and other deposits on plant stems and leaves.  It does not inhibit reinfestation, though, and has to be applied every time a new infestation occurs.  Certainly one of the more environmentally-friendly garden remedies. 

Something else that needs to be considered when dealing with garden chemicals is that the main “killing” ingredient is often blended with a polymer, or adhesive, or wetting agent or some other substance to render the product more usable and efficacious.  These add-ons, while subject to the same watchdog scrutiny as the actual toxin, may themselves still be mildly toxic.  When it comes to environmental harm from applied chemicals, it’s often the accumulation of toxicity rather than individual and specific applications, that are the problem.  The more we use, the worse it gets.

What we have to remember above all is that “safety” rating with garden chemicals is mainly concerned with human health.  The wider environmental impacts are not always either well-understood, well-researched or well-considered.  Also, we are keen to approve chemicals that kill insects dangerous to humans, such as mosquitoes and flies – even though this generally means death to bees, other pollinators, and beneficial insects that prey on the very pest insects that prey on us – and our plants too.   In a chemical world there are tough choices to make!

So, is all this a blanket condemnation of all pesticide use in the home garden?

No, it is not.  It’s a plea to understand the difference between synthetic chemicals and those that occur naturally in the environment.  To know which chemicals are harmful and which are comparatively benign, and use only the latter in your garden.  It’s a plea that you read the label before you buy. 

Above all it’s a plea to use deterrents rather than killer toxins.  To repel pesky insects rather than poison them outright and put that poison into the food chain.  This is where the organic remedies come in; herbal products, garlic spray, chilli, pesticidal oils made from natural instead of synthetic chemical substances can all be used for this purpose.  True, they are not nearly as fast-acting or effective as synthetic chemical solutions and in severe cases, where precious plants are under threat, gardeners are going to want something that really works.

When that time comes, make sure the products you use are as target-specific and environmentally benign as possible.  Avoid products that kill a whole range of insects because a healthy garden depends on a vital interaction between many different insects, plants, birds and other organisms. 

Remember Joni Mitchell’s appeal to farmers in her song Big Yellow Taxi? Give me spots on my apples and give me the birds and the bees?   We can’t do without chemicals because Chemicals R Us – but we can certainly do without those that damage the delicate web of life.

You’ll find plenty more good gardening information at www.gardenezi.com.

Always Have Boogers? Main Causes and Reasons Why!

Boogers are a fact of life; they come into the world with you and typically show up from time to time. For some people that time to time is more like hour to hour. To understand what you can do about boogers you have to understand what causes them and what they are.

What is a Booger?

A booger is the hardened mucus that coats your nose and throat. The point of mucus is to protect you from the dust, dirt and debris that are breathed in. The mucus traps all the debris that you breathe in through your nose and surrounds it so it does not get into your nose. The mucus hardens around the debris and it becomes a booger.

What Causes Excessive Boogers

If you always have boogers than it is very likely that you are breathing in something that you are allergic to. The mucus looks at the speck of whatever it is that you are breathing as a potential health liability, more mucus is formed by your body to protect from the intruder. When you always have boogers than your body is doing its job, if you are an allergy sufferer.

Colds and Infections

You will also produce a large number of boogers when you have a cold or any kind of infection in your sinuses. You will always have boogers if you do not get rid of your sinus infection or are exposed to allergens regularly.

Dehydration

Mucus needs fluids to function properly, if you do not hydrate yourself regularly than you will always have boogers. The mucus in your nose will dry up and leave you feeling crusty.

If you always have boogers and can not figure out the cause you may want to consider allergy tests.

Nail Fungi

The group of fungi sometimes generally referred to as nail fungi are actually various fungal species that fall into two groups. The most common are the dermatophytes, species that are actually adapted to live on skin, hair, nails, and horn, and cause infections in humans and animals in those sites. The second group includes environmental species, fungal species that do sometimes infect nails but usually grow on other food sources in nature.

Published facts about fungi often suggest that fungal nail infections are passed directly from person to person. Fungi produce "conidia," spores that are resistant to environmental conditions and that can remain viable in clothing (like socks), shoes, towels, and places where there is constant moisture such as swimming pool decks and shower stalls. For the dermatophytes, spores in shared shoes and linens and in public places where people go barefoot are significant modes of transmission. For the others, exposure to soil or decaying organic matter is probably more significant. All nail fungi are opportunists: they exploit opportunities presented by exposure to many people, and by the susceptibility of individuals.

One of the interesting facts about fungi that infect hair and nails is that they do not live on living tissue. Hair, nails, and the outer layer of skin cells on our skin are not alive. These parts of our bodies have no nerve endings or blood supply. Nails are formed of skin-like cells piled densely together layer upon layer continuously and pushes out onto the tips of fingers and toes to form a protective layer. Nail fungi grow and spread between these cells, drawing nutrients from the non-living cells. This is also one of the things that make fungal nail infections difficult to treat: topical treatments often fail to penetrate the hard nail, and oral drugs delivered to the site in the blood do not reach the fungal growth.

Although infections caused by nail fungi often appear with little warning, there are things we can do to decrease the chances of acquiring them. First, do not share footwear or buy second hand shoes, and launder socks, towels and other linens frequently. Keep your shoes clean and dry and try not to wear the same pair day after day so that they have lots of time to dry out. Allow as much air circulation around fingers and toes as possible. Keep nails trimmed and clean, and attend to even minor injuries promptly: another of the well documented facts about fungi is that they can gain entry through breaks in the skin and nail injuries. Finally, wear some kind of footwear around swimming pools and in public showers and dressing rooms.

If signs of a fungal infection do appear, see a doctor promptly as these infections are much easier to clear up before they are too advanced.

Nail Fungi

The group of fungi sometimes generally referred to as nail fungi are actually various fungal species that fall into two groups. The most common are the dermatophytes, species that are actually adapted to live on skin, hair, nails, and horn, and cause infections in humans and animals in those sites. The second group includes environmental species, fungal species that do sometimes infect nails but usually grow on other food sources in nature.

Published facts about fungi often suggest that fungal nail infections are passed directly from person to person. Fungi produce "conidia," spores that are resistant to environmental conditions and that can remain viable in clothing (like socks), shoes, towels, and places where there is constant moisture such as swimming pool decks and shower stalls. For the dermatophytes, spores in shared shoes and linens and in public places where people go barefoot are significant modes of transmission. For the others, exposure to soil or decaying organic matter is probably more significant. All nail fungi are opportunists: they exploit opportunities presented by exposure to many people, and by the susceptibility of individuals.

One of the interesting facts about fungi that infect hair and nails is that they do not live on living tissue. Hair, nails, and the outer layer of skin cells on our skin are not alive. These parts of our bodies have no nerve endings or blood supply. Nails are formed of skin-like cells piled densely together layer upon layer continuously and pushes out onto the tips of fingers and toes to form a protective layer. Nail fungi grow and spread between these cells, drawing nutrients from the non-living cells. This is also one of the things that make fungal nail infections difficult to treat: topical treatments often fail to penetrate the hard nail, and oral drugs delivered to the site in the blood do not reach the fungal growth.

Although infections caused by nail fungi often appear with little warning, there are things we can do to decrease the chances of acquiring them. First, do not share footwear or buy second hand shoes, and launder socks, towels and other linens frequently. Keep your shoes clean and dry and try not to wear the same pair day after day so that they have lots of time to dry out. Allow as much air circulation around fingers and toes as possible. Keep nails trimmed and clean, and attend to even minor injuries promptly: another of the well documented facts about fungi is that they can gain entry through breaks in the skin and nail injuries. Finally, wear some kind of footwear around swimming pools and in public showers and dressing rooms.

If signs of a fungal infection do appear, see a doctor promptly as these infections are much easier to clear up before they are too advanced.

Class action Lawsuits The New Medical malpractice

Below is a list of the current class action lawsuits.  This list is offered to the public in an easy to read organized manner.

Povigil and Modafinil
Manufactured by Cephalon, Provigil is used to treat sleep disorders, such as narcolepsy. Unfortunately, some physicians prescribed Provigil for off-label uses, putting more patients at risk for serious side effects.

Actonel
Women taking Actonel may be at risk for developing dead jaw, which occurs when bone tissue in the jaw does not heal after minor trauma.

Accutane
Prescribed to millions with acne, Accutane causes serious side effects, including Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis.

Adderall
Used to treat children with ADHD, Adderall has been linked to life-threatening side effects including heart attack and sudden death.

Advair and Serevent
Advair and Serevent are prescribed to minimize the occurrence of asthma attacks in patients. While these drugs decrease the number of attacks, patients taking Advair or Serevent may experience a severe asthma attack that can lead to death or hospitalization.

Boniva Side Effects
Used to treat osteoporosis, Boniva has been linked to osteonecrosis or dead jaw in users.

Chantix
Over 6 million Americans have tried to quit smoking by taking the prescription drug Chantix. Unfortunately, Chantix has reportedly been linked to suicide and mood changes in users.

Digitek Recall
Digitek was prescribed for congestive heart failure or cardiac arrest caused by tachycardia. However, in April 2008, Digitek was recalled from the market due to a manufacturing defect that may have exposed patients to a double dose of Digitek.

Fentora
Fentora, a popular painkiller used in cancer patients, may have been used for off-label use. This may have placed patients at a high risk for serious side effects, including death.

Fosamax
Fosamax is used to treat osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Unfortunately, Fosamax has been linked to femur fractures, as well as dead jaw, which can lead to infections, rotting and fractures.

Heparin Recall
A rapid blood thinner, Heparin is used in dialysis and surgery to prevent blood clots. Unfortunately, in Jan. 2008, a tainted batch of Heparin caused serious allergic reactions in patients. 

Levaquin and Cipro
Used to treat bacterial infections, Levaquin and Cipro have been linked to serious tendon injuries, including Achilles tendon ruptures.

Paxil
Paxil is an anti-depressant used in patients with depression and anxiety disorders. Unfortunately, some young patients taking Paxil have developed suicidal tendencies, while mothers on the anti-depressant have delivered infants with birth defects.     

Renu Moisture Loc
ReNu Moisture Loc contact lens solution has been pinned as the cause of an outbreak of eye fungus known as fungal keratitis. Fungal keratitis is a severe infection of the cornea.

Seroquel
Seroquel is a drug used to treat schizophrenic and bipolar patients. However, medical evidence has shown that many patients taking Seroquel have developed diabetes.

Trasylol
Trasylol, a drug administered during bypass surgery to prevent excessive blood loss, has been linked to many life threatening side effects. Studies have shown that risk of death was significantly higher in patients injected with Trasylol.

Transvaginal Mesh also called the Vaginal Sling, Vaginal Mesh,Vaginal mesh Patch,Avaulta Vaginal Mesh is a surgical implant made of synthetic fibers. The mesh is used for Uterine prolapse and incontinence. The mesh is causing servere complications in women

National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program
The Vaccine Injury Compensation Program (VICP) provides compensation to individuals who have suffered an acute adverse reaction to a vaccine resulting in permanent injury.

Zelnorm
Zelnorm, a drug used to treat patients with constipation from irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), has been linked to heart attack, stroke, and other serious side effects.

Zicam
Zicam Cold Remedy products have been recalled by the manufacturer after the FDA received 130 reports of anosmia, or loss of sense of smell, from Zicam users.

Yaz/Yasmin
Yaz and Yasmin are birth control pills that contain a new type of hormone, drospirenone. This hormone can increase users’ potassium levels and put them at risk for heart attacks and other serious side effects.

Bextra
Bextra is a pain-relieving drug that is manufactured by Pfizer. Studies have shown that Bextra puts users at risk Stevens Johnson Syndrome and other serious skin conditions, as well as heart attacks and strokes.

Zyprexa
Zyprexa is used to treat a variety of psychiatric conditions and became manufacturer Eli Lilly’s best selling drug. Unfortunately, it has been linked to numerous dangerous side effects, including diabetes.

Vioxx
Vioxx (Rofecoxib) is a prescription medication that was used primarily to treat osteoarthritis, menstrual cramps, and rheumatoid arthritis. This drug was recalled in 2004 after a study found that it caused users to suffer a higher rate of heart attacks and strokes.

Avandia
Avandia (Rosiglitazone) is prescribed to Type 2 Diabetes patients and works by lowering blood sugar. Medical studies have shown that serious side effects can affect diabetes patients who take Avandia, including heart attack, stroke, and liver damage.

Byetta
Used to treat Type 2 diabetes, Byetta will receive a black box warning to highlight the dangers of kidney problems.

Reglan
Reglan (generic: metoclopramide) received a black box warning from the FDA to alert consumers of the risk of tardive dyskinesia, a neurological disorder that causes involuntary movements.

Zocor
Patients taking the cholesterol-lowering drug Zocor (80mg) may be at risk for rhabdomyolysis, a life-threatening form of muscle damage.

Meridia
A Meridia recall has been issued, after a study showed a 16% increase in the risk of heart attack, stroke, resuscitated cardiac arrest and death among patients taking the prescription weight loss drug.

Darvon and Darvocet
Prescription pain medications Darvon, Darvocet, and propoxyphene have been taken off the market due to the risk of potentially fatal heart rhythm abnormalities.

Metanx Substitutes
Reportedly, pharmacies have been substituting Metanx with Folast, Neurpath-B or Duleek-Met, which may not be adequate substitutions, and patients who have been dispensed these products as a Metanx substitute may be entitled to compensation.

Topamax
Women taking Topamax or the generic topiramate during pregnancy have an increased risk of delivering a child with a cleft palate, cleft lip or other oral birth defect.

Medical Food Generics
Allegedly, pharmacies have been dispensing nonequivalent medical food generics for prescription products, such as Deplin, Neevo Metanx and Cerefolin.
Environmental Hazards

Stevens-Johnson Syndrome
Many over-the-counter drugs, including Advil Liquid-Gels and Children’s Motrin Chewable tablets, have been linked to Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS). This serious medical condition affects the skin and mucous membranes and can lead to long-term injury or death.

Food Poisoning
While most healthy people can recover from food poisoning in a few days, children, elders and those with compromised immune systems can develop serious long-term complications including Guillain-Barre Syndrome.

Asbestos-Related Illnesses
During the 1900s, many asbestos companies knew the dangers of the mineral, but neglected to inform their employees or the public. Decades later, former asbestos company workers are developing deadly diseases, such as mesothelioma.

Ground Water Contamination
When gasoline, chemicals or oil enter the groundwater, individuals drinking or bathing in the water are at-risk for serious side effects. Contaminated groundwater can lead to a variety of health problems including liver conditions, heart problems, cancer and learning disabilities.

Benzene Exposure
Benzene is one of the most widely used chemicals in the United States, found in everything from plastics to detergents. While most people have little exposure to benzene, chemical plant and oil refinery workers with long-term exposure to the chemical have a higher risk of developing leukemia, anemia and excessive bleeding.    
Lead Poisoning
More than 1 million children under the age of six have lead levels of 10 micrograms per deciliter. This elevated lead level can lead to brain damage, learning disabilities and behavior problems in children.

Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill Lawsuits
As a result of the Gulf of Mexico oil spill, businesses along the U.S. Gulf Coast are expected to suffer a loss of profits. Those suffering financial losses as a result of the oil spill may be able to seek compensation under the Oil Pollution Act of 1990.
Product Liability

Yamaha Rhino ATV
The Yamaha Rhino All Terrain Vehicle (ATV) is a popular vehicle for off-road riding and racing. However, its unsafe design, which includes a high center of gravity, small tires and an extremely narrow track width, make the vehicle susceptible to rollover accidents.

Apple iPhone 3G
Users of the iPhone 3G, a multimedia smartphone manufactured by Apple, have complained of several defects with the product. These issues include hairline cracks occurring during normal use and operating problems with the 3G network.

Chinese Drywall
Thousands of homes throughout the country were built with defective Chinese drywall between 2004 and 2007. Signs of Chinese drywall include rotten egg odors, corrosion of copper wiring, and failure of air conditioning units.

Denture Cream
Users of popular denture cream brands, including Poligrip, Super Poligrip and Fixodent, may be at risk for zinc poisoning, copper deficiency, and a neurological condition known as neuropathy.

LASIK
LASIK has helped millions of Americans live without contacts or glasses. Unfortunately, patients are now reporting serious complications including blindness.

Toyota Recall
Several serious accidents have been attributed to problems with the floor mats and gas pedals in Toyota cars. Toyota has recalled millions of vehicles in order to address issues of the gas pedal getting caught on the floor mat or sticking in a depressed position, causing unintentional acceleration.

CertainTeed Fiber Cement Siding
CertainTeed fiber cement siding has been linked to a number of problems, including shrinking and cracking of the siding boards, and the company has allegedly failed to honor its product warranties.

Uponor Pex Plumbing Fittings
Uponor Inc. has allegedly sold defective plumbing fittings which can fail prematurely, causing extensive water damage.

GM SUV and Truck Recall
General Motors has expanded its Dec. 2010 recall to include more than 26,500 Cadillac, Chevrolet and GMC trucks and SUVs due to a problem which could cause the cars’ rear axles to lock.

Consumer Fraud

Overtime Pay
Most employees are eligible for overtime pay. If an eligible employee does not receive time-and-a-half pay for hours worked over 40, they may qualify for a lawsuit to recover unpaid wages.

Employee Misclassification
Some employers intentionally misclassify workers to avoid paying overtime. When an employee is wrongfully placed into an exempt category, they become ineligible for overtime. Intentionally misclassifying employees is illegal and unethical.

Age Discrimination
The Federal Age Discrimination in Employment Act prohibits workers over 40 from discrimination based on age. Those discriminated because of age in firing, hiring, pay or promotion may be eligible for compensation through an age discrimination lawsuit.

WARN Act
The WARN Act requires employers to give a 60-day advance notice of plant layoffs or closings to protect workers and their families.

Unfair Overdraft Protection Fees
Many of the country’s largest banks, including Bank of America, Citibank, and Wachovia are allegedly subjecting their customers to unfair and deceptive overdraft protection charges.

Page Plus Cellular Unlimited Talk and Text Plan
Page Plus Cellular, a prepaid cell phone provider, offers an unlimited talk and text plan for $39.95 per month. However, customers have reported that their plans have been unfairly terminated for alleged abuse of the service.

Unlawful Nevada Car Rental Fees
Leading rental car suppliers Avis, Budget Group, Alamo and National allegedly charged unlawful fees to customers at the Reno and Las Vegas airports in Nevada.

Escrow Officers and Closers Unpaid Overtime Claims
Most escrow closers and escrow officers are entitled to overtime pay when working more than 40 hours in a single week. However, some employers in the title insurance industry have allegedly adopted a practice of misclassifying these employees as “exempt” to avoid paying overtime to these workers.

Debts of Deceased Relatives
A new trend in the debt collection industry, debt collectors are contacting surviving family members to collect deceased relative’s debts. However, surviving relatives are generally not obligated to pay the debts of family members who have passed away.

California Use It Or Lose It Vacation Policy
California labor law prohibits employers from taking away earned but unused vacation days, therefore making use-it-or-lose-it vacation policies illegal.
Debt Validation Period
Debt collectors cannot make payment demands after the receipt of a debt validation letter and before the mailing of the requested information.

High IOS Telecom Phone Call Charges
Consumers who were overcharged for domestic, international, or collect calls made from pay phones and hotel room phones may be able to collect compensation for these high phone call fees.    
Power Balance Bracelets
Power Balance has admitted that its wristbands, which claim to improve balance and agility, are not backed by scientific evidence.

Phiten Necklaces and Bracelets
A Phiten class action lawsuit has been filed, accusing the company of using false and misleading advertising in the promotion of its bracelets and necklaces, which are marketed as having the ability to counteract fatigue and alleviate discomfort.

Lights of America LED Lamps
Statements regarding the Lights of America LED lamps allegedly exaggerate the product’s life expectancy and light output, and consumers who purchased the LED light bulbs based on these claims may be entitled to financial compensation.

Your Baby Can Read
A class action lawsuit claims that the Your Baby Can Read Early Language Development Systems are ineffective and have been falsely misrepresented in advertisements. As a result, consumers may be able to take legal action to recover the cost of the system, which sell for nearly $200.

TaxMasters
A TaxMasters class action lawsuit claims that the tax relief firm engaged in unfair business practices and deceptive advertising.

Bankrupt Companies and Retirement Plans
When a business which offers company stock as an investment option for 401(k) and retirement plans files for bankruptcy, they have certain obligations under ERISA to protect their employees’ plans.

Dangerous Medical Devices
Shoulder Pain Pump
Shoulder pain pumps help patients manage post-surgery pain without the help of narcotics. Unfortunately, shoulder pain pumps can cause serious long-term shoulder damage.

Medtronic Sprint Fidelis Lead
The Sprint Fidelis lead wire in Medtronic defibrillators has been recalled after research showed that the wire can break and cause a harmful shock to the user.

Composix Kugel Hernia Mesh Patch
Used to repair incisional hernias, the Composix Kugel Hernia Mesh Patch was recalled due to a defect in its memory recoil ring. Unfortunately, many patients had already experience bowel obstructions, sepsis and other serious side effects before the patch was deemed defective.

Duragesic Patch Recall
Duragesic patches, also known as fentanyl patches, are used to treat chronic pain, most commonly in cancer patients. However, Duragesic patches have received a warning by the FDA because of possible leaks from the patches, which can lead to death.

Gadolinium Injection Risk
Gadolinium-containing contrast agents allow doctors to spot abnormalities during MRIs and MRAs. However, gadolinium contrast agents have been linked to a potentially life-threatening condition known as nephrogenic systemic fibrosis in kidney patients.

NuvaRing
NuvaRing is a contraceptive ring that is placed near the cervix and releases hormones to prevent pregnancy. Serious health risks associated with NuvaRing include heart attacks, strokes, and pulmonary embolism, among other dangerous side effects.

Zimmer Durom Cup Hip Socket Implant
Patients implanted with the Durom Cup Hip Socket experience severe pain after surgery, often leaving them more immobile than before the procedure.
Transvaginal Mesh
The transvaginal mesh helps treat women with urinary stress incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse. However, over three years, nine manufacturers of the surgical mesh received more than 1000 reports of complications including infection and bowel perforation.

Ortho Evra Birth Control Patch
The Ortho Evra contraceptive patch was introduced as an alternative to oral contraceptives. However, the higher amount of hormones released by the patch puts women at a greater risk for serious side effects, such as heart attack, stroke, and pulmonary embolism.

Ti Synex II Vertebral Body Replacement Recall
All lots of the Ti Synex II Vertebral Body Replacement have been recalled after patients complained of increased pain, spinal compression fracture and neural injury.

DePuy ASR Hip Implant
Two DePuy hip replacement products, the ASR Hip Resurfacing System and the ASR XL Acetabular System, were recalled after new data showed that one in eight patients needed corrective surgery.

Avaulta Transvaginal Mesh
Designed to treat pelvic organ prolapse, the Avaulta transvaginal mesh has been linked to a number of surgical mesh complications, including pelvic pain, vaginal scarring, inflammation and infection.

Zimmer STRYKER Knee Replacement
The Zimmer NexGen CR-Flex Knee Replacement has been linked to an early failure rate. As a result, surgeons have requested a Zimmer knee implant recall.

DePuy Pinnacle Acetabular Cup System( DEPUY ASR AND PINNACLE HIP REPLACEMENTS)
Although a DePuy Pinnacle hip recall has not been issued, patients have reported a number of DePuy Pinnacle problems, including hip pain and hip implant failure.

How To Be More Inclusive In Your Business and Why It Matters

“No, it’s OK. I don’t need to meet her.”

This was in response to an offer I made to connect one of my acquaintances with an influential person, someone who could prove to be a valuable ally.

I was struck silent by his response. Wha?!

When this kind of thing happens, I’m always shocked.

I get it on one level. All some people want is to be at their jobs for the required number of hours and then go home. But that is not you.

You’re not just putting in time. You want to have an impact. You want to make a difference.

To do that, you have to open your heart and mind beyond what is familiar, and be curious about what is different.

The bigger issue with my acquaintance was lack of vision. If you only look at what is immediately useful, at how something fits into your existing world, you’ll always be limited. And your impact will be limited too.

As an entrepreneur, one of your biggest advantages is your ability to see beyond the obvious, beyond the immediate, to a larger vision.

This goes beyond just networking. It’s about what you do within your business too.

Are you being inclusive about the people you hire and choose to do business with? Are you making choices that look beyond gender, race, disability, religion, and sexual orientation? Are you bringing in diversity of experiences and views?

The truth is, your business will do better if you do!

Let’s look at the facts. Research on over 20,000 publicly trade companies in 92 countries shows that companies with women in top management have higher profits. Pretty illuminating when you consider that over half of all the companies surveyed had no women in executive positions. None. Close to 60% of the companies in the survey had no female board members and fewer than 5% had female CEOs.

Another study showed that companies with more women on the board significantly outperform their peers over a long period of time.

Even outside of boards and senior management, teams that are inclusive in all ways outperform their peers by 80% in team-based assessments. These teams were able to capitalize on the individuality of the diverse people on the team.

More fun facts: in a study of more than 450 global companies, small companies who were inclusive had 13 times higher cash flow. Regardless of size, a company was almost twice as likely to be change-ready and be innovation leaders in their market if they chose to be inclusive and value diversity.

What this study found was that inclusion and diversity has to be embedded in the business top to bottom. This isn’t something you dust off when you write a job ad. It’s an integral part of your business’ value system.

All the evidence shows that embracing diversity and inclusion in all aspects of business results in significantly better performance.

So what is up? Why aren’t we being more inclusive and embracing diversity with open arms?

Economics are not the issue. So what is?

For one thing, it’s a hard thing to do. We tend to gravitate to people like us. It helps you like and identify with each other. It’s human to be cautious of what is different.

At the very least, it’s deeply uncomfortable to allow for a variety of perspectives when you aren’t used to it. For some, it’s downright fearful, especially when the actions of a few have come to signify and label an entire group.

Not everyone is willing to go through the discomfort. Even entrepreneurs, who are often on the edge of discomfort, can be unwilling.

Also, subtle and not-so-subtle biases persist and lead to exclusion. Some of us are just not aware of our biases and how they play out.

Others aren’t willing to overcome their prejudices and beliefs.

What our cerebral cortex allows us to do, though, is to overcome that inherent reluctance, learn more about the unknown, let go of biases, and choose to embrace what those who are unfamiliar have to offer.

Let me pick up on that important point. Choice. Remember: you always have a choice. The choice to learn and get to know people. Or the choice to remain closed off. As a leader, your choices influence others.

What further confuses things is that the people considered to be in the minority try to conform, as a way of fitting in and doing well in the predominant system. What can you do? Curiosity, asking authentic question like, “What’s it like being the only Black person in this company?” and then listening to the responses and not reacting negatively if you don’t like what you hear.

Diversity takes some unexpected turns. I recently had a conversation with the mother of an autistic child. When I offered a resource of a mom who had worked with her own autistic child to “cure” him, Mom #1 educated me on her perspective. Her own son did not have a disease to be cured. There’s nothing wrong with him. He just has a different perspective on things. It’s the world that labels him as faulty.

Temple Grandin, an autistic woman and animal science professor, author, and speaker, said as much in her TED talk. (I obviously didn’t fully take that in the first time!) It may be startling to notice that people with what are considered significant disabilities also have something to offer in the workplace.

At the heart of inclusivity is acceptance. Acceptance of differences. And further, recognition that each of us has something to offer.

Embracing diversity is not about adding anything. It’s a fundamental choice to value inclusivity and diversity for the good of your business.

So what can you do in your own company to give everyone a sense of belonging? Be a good listener and an open communicator.

When your company, your brand, becomes associated with inclusivity and diversity, you inspire others to do the same. You have influence.

Consider too: inclusivity and diversity aren’t just about business performance. You’ll be enriched by it.

For you to have the impact you want to have, you’ll have to grow as a person. You’ll have to grow into the person who can have that kind and level of impact. That person lies on the other side of embracing diversity in all its forms, whether it’s a new person to meet or someone of a different color, background, or lifestyle to hire.

Once you do that, you’ll have more impact.

Must-Know Computer Optimization Tips

Computer rental service providers also offer services that are useful to its clients without additional fees. One of the services that they offer is giving tips on troubleshooting a computer. Other tips also include maintenance and optimization. This article elaborates more on the computer optimization tips that they provide to their customers.

To keep the computer running smoothly and efficiently, computer maintenance must always be performed regularly. You should check your hard drive memory if there is enough free space. The more files loaded in the memory, the slower it runs. It is said that 20-25% free space availability of hard disk memory is the limit to maximize running speed and to have it work properly. You should not forget to perform memory checking at least once every month. This way, you would be able to know if it's time to delete unnecessary files stored in your hard disk.

One of the reasons why the performance of the computer gets bad is the virus. It makes the machine speed slower and worse, damages your PC in the long run if taken for granted. It is recommended to install antivirus software to keep your PC safe. Viruses are great hard disk destroyer, as much as worms. Worms do not directly damage your PC; However, they are duplicating the files, the file name and the file size. As a result, your memory gets crowded, causing your PC to perform badly. Before everything turns bad, install antivirus software that is proven effective right away after buying your computer and running it for the first time. You can choose from AVG, Bitfender, Avira or other infamous antivirus software brands. Antivirus software applications do not only protect your computer from viruses and worms, but also from various forms of spy wares. Scan your computer for viruses, ideally, twice a month.

Spyware applications are sometimes undetectable by spyware blocker being installed together with antivirus program. Installing a separate spyware app may be of help to keep your computer safe from bad people who want to gain remote access of your computer.

You should also check your computer registry. The errors in Windows registry also can damage your machine if not given attention and not fixed immediately. Running a registry repair software is a big help. Through them, the errors in the computer registry are fixed thoroughly, making your machine run smoothly and efficiently once again.

Defragmenting the hard disk may not be needed. However, performing it once a month can boost PC performance. Files that are scattered in the hard disk are organized through task. If the files are organized in the hard disk, computers can access the data easily. This avoids wears on the reader heads of the hard disks; Wears can actually damage the hard disk as time goes by.

If the tips being stated here are followed and done in a convenient frequency, you will see that your computer performance get better.

The main causes of respiratory illness in humans

Our lives and health depend on the contribution of respiratory breathing air quality and prevention of risk factors and their effects.

Respiratory system is to bring oxygen into the body from the air and remove unneeded gases from the body. It consists of the nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi and lung alveoli.

Causes for respiratory illness

The respiratory system can install different pathogens, causing a number of diseases that are threatening and disturbing respiratory function and general health. Among these, the most common are: hay fever, tonsillitis, laryngitis, bronchitis, pneumonia, cough, convulsions, measles, pulmonary tuberculosis, etc.

– Often, contamination of the air is by inhaling germs spread through coughing, sneezing, talking, etc.

– The researchers concluded that dental bacteria (especially in the cavities) affect lungs. So pay attention to your teeth and gums. During epidemics, eat plenty of onions, garlic, radish, raw egg yolk (rich in amino acids), apiculture products, whey, which are antimicrobial, anti-infective and energizing, strengthening the immunity.

– The most important cause of respiratory illness is infection. Inhale through the nose, germs can breed in airway mucosa generating a situation that can turn into disease.

– The most frequent respiratory disease germs are transmitted by coughing, speaking, sneezing. In outbreaks, the number of disease greatly increases.

– Autumn and winter occur most colds, and flu action is favored by cold and damp on the body, especially the respiratory mucosa.

– The most common disease of the lining of the nose is rhinitis. Causes of rhinitis are surprisingly in legs. When they are exposed to cold and damp have the effect of contracting blood vessels in the nose and hence malfunction of the heating system.

– Nasopharyngitis is the first symptom of not functioning nose. In this case the nose does not warm the air and microbes easily pass through it and inflame the lining of the nose and throat. Hence appear nasopharyngitis which has symptoms like sore throat.

– The next phase of cold is laryngitis, the congestion of the larynx. Laryngitis symptoms are dry cough and hoarseness that may lead to temporary suppression of speech.

Among the reasons that cause respiratory illness also include nasal defects (characterized by deviations of the septum, hypertrophy of cornet), chronic infectious outbreaks of upper respiratory tract (rhinitis, pharyngitis, tonsillitis, sinusitis, and dental infections), and recurrent respiratory efforts.

Natural treatment

Natural treatment aims to adopt a healthy lifestyle to prevent disease occurrence on the principle; it is much easier to prevent than to treat. Folk medicine recommends a number of remedies to treat various diseases occurring in the respiratory system:

– Herbal and fruit teas; drink about 3 cups a day (or more, depending on each)

– Tinctures or essences used in small amounts, of internal and external use

– Syrups, essential oils; take 1-2 teaspoons before meals

– Medicinal wine is taken before meals, no more than 50 grams per day

– Cataplasms on chest or around the neck with vegetables, herbs, essences, tinctures, alcohol, vinegar

– Inhalation with herbal tea concentrates, essences, essential oils etc.

The old remedies are invaluable. Used properly can turn into miracles.

Calivita herbal supplements that prevent and alleviate lung problems

– Natural herbal supplements that help the immune system function, as VirAgo, are useful in preventing lung problems, as it prevents the appearance of virus diseases, infection and respiratory problems that may affect this level.

– OxyMax has in composition stabilized oxygen that serves to strengthen immune function, preventing infections and respiratory problems, improves circulation and metabolism and contributes to a better absorption of nutrients at the cellular level.

– Oregano Oil, with natural antibiotic properties, helps eliminate bronchial spasms, streamlines lung mucus and act effectively against viral and bacterial infections that can affect respiratory function.

– Prolonged consumption of Vitamin C Plus help to the improvement of immune function in fighting colds, influenzas and virus diseases and improve physical performance. It also stimulates cell respiration and red blood cells and has anti-stress effect.

Exercises and Workouts – Three Benefits Of Using Pull-Up Assist Bands

One exercise you will want to consider adding to your workout routine is the pull-up. Pull-ups are a fantastic back training that will help to strengthen the entire back region as well as working the biceps.

The drawback? They are tough. So tough in fact many people cannot even perform a single pull-up at the start. If this is the case, you may be feeling quite frustrated and not sure how you can progress along when it seems like you cannot get started.

This is where pull-up assist bands come into play. These bands are going to help you execute the full pull-up by taking some of the weight off the lower body. The result is you can complete a pull-up – albeit a modified one, getting you closer to your end goal of doing a full pull-up straight. So this all said, what other benefits can you receive from using pull-up assist bands?

Let’s go over a few points to keep in mind…

1. Direct Transfer Over To The Exercise In Question. First, you are going to get excellent transfer over benefits to the full pull-up training. Alternatively, you could just perform a standard pull-down, but this is not going to be exactly like a pull-up. It will be similar, but you would not be making the same movement pattern. Thus, the transfer over benefit is not as high.

By using the pull-up bands and doing a standard pull-up, this ensures you are going to be best able to move into the full pull-up with ease.

2. Improved Core Strength. These pull-up bands are also an excellent way to improve your overall core strength. When using them, you are going to be contracting your abs hard, resisting momentum from coming into the picture. The result is you are keeping your core nice and tight, building up better overall muscular endurance.

Overall muscular endurance can then not only make the pull-ups easier but provide excellent transfer over benefits to other exercises as well.

3. Perfect For Home Workouts. Finally, the last super benefit pull-up assist bands have to offer is they are ideal for those who are doing home workouts. While at a gym you do have the option of using the lat pull-down machine, at home, chances are you do not have this choice. Therefore, using the pull-up bands provides an excellent alternative.

So consider pull-up bands for your next workout. Don’t get discouraged you cannot perform the full pull-up. Just work your way up to it by using this piece of equipment instead.

Autism And Diet – How Glutton and Casein Affect Autism

Among the best ways to control the symptoms of autism is by studying the dietary patterns of an autistic child; caregivers need to monitor and report any significant changes in their child’s behavior when diet is modified or contains either glutton and casein.

Many commonly found food products contain Glutton such as wheat, oats and rye while Casein is found in dairy products like milk and cheese; these substance have been researched and it has been found that the excessive consumption of foods such as bread and cheese containing them may cause difficulties in controlling children with autism, should they consume too much of it. This is because both substances are difficult to digest since they contain peptides, which if not broken down, tend to be absorbed into the child’s blood stream causing disruptions to major brain and adversely affecting autism condition.

Cutting back on food with glutton and casein in an autistic child’s diet will benefit the child’s body by aiding in metabolic breakdown of the substances, digestion will become easier and it will be simpler to control the child’s disorder. A simple urine test can help determine whether peptides are breaking down properly in the child’s body or there is a high absorption rate of these – consult a doctor for this.

Even a nutritionist can guide parents about making necessary food item changes in the child’s diet to help control the ill-effects of autism and circumvent developmental dysfunctions or limitations to the child’s normal growth. However, it is important to do this step by step as any sudden change in the diet can result in adverse withdrawal symptoms in the autistic child, which may be unhealthy for the kid.

The sensible approach to making dietary changes for an autistic child is to slowly cut back on the child’s consumption of breads, grains and milk products till he or she is allright with eating none of these items. A medical expert can help provide a full list of food items that contain glutton and casein – so don’t hesistate to consult one today. After all, it is a question of your child’s mental and physical wellbeing and once you have understood which are the essential nutrients for your child’s daily diet, planning for including ones contained in glutton and casein products can be done differently, through dietary supplements and enforcing healthy eating habits.