Network Management Components – The Basics of an Effective Management Strategy

Overview:

This article will define a network management strategy for managing the network. It is necessary to define how the equipment is going to be monitored and determine if the current management strategy is adequate or if new applications, equipment, protocols and processes must be identified. Management components are then integrated with infrastructure and security. These primary elements comprise any well-defined management strategy and should be considered when developing your strategy.

Network Management Strategy

· Network Management Groups

· SNMP Applications

· Monitored Devices and Events

Network Management Groups

· Fault

· Performance

· Device

· Security

· Change

· Configuration

· Implementation

Fault Management

This describes the pro-active monitoring of devices, circuits and servers for errors. It specifies what events are monitored and thresholds for generating alarms. Once the alarms are generated, there is an escalation process for addressing any errors. It could be a circuit problem, a router interface or a server link. Service level agreements with local loop providers and long distance IXC for circuit repair are important as is vendor equipment repair contracts. Out-of-band router management allows troubleshooting and configuration of routers with an attached modem. The support technician doesn’t rely on the primary circuit to reach the router. They will utilize a separate analog dial line with a modem connected to the auxiliary port at the router. Escalation support processes are defined that are used by the network operations center (NOC) employees for effective problem resolution. These are some typical support activities:

· Established Tier support levels with job responsibilities well defined for each Tier group

· Defined severity levels and what Tier group is responsible

· Defined response times for severity levels

· Applications for trouble tickets

· Established troubleshooting procedures for employees

· Root Cause Analysis

· Survey support groups for skill levels, identify deficiencies and plan for training programs to address that.

Performance Management

This describes the pro-active monitoring of device, circuit and server performance levels. That translates to monitoring and reporting on trends with device CPU, memory and link utilization, circuit bandwidth utilization, server CPU, memory and disk input/output rate. As well campus segments and device interfaces should be monitored for collisions, CRC errors and packet drops. Bandwidth capacity planning is an on-going process of monitoring bandwidth utilization trends for the enterprise network and consideration of business growth estimates. That information is utilized for developing a provisioning strategy addressing company bandwidth capacity needs. The dynamic nature of an enterprise network is such that new locations, employees and application deployments will increase network traffic and utilize available bandwidth. Trend monitoring tools are typically run from the network operations center and focus on enterprise traffic patterns and performance of circuits, routers and switches.

RMON is a popular protocol that is utilized for monitoring router, switch and campus segment performance with probes at various offices across the enterprise. Information can be collected at all layers of the OSI model for statistics on utilizations, packet size and errors. In addition there are specific SNMP applications designed for bandwidth capacity planning. The bandwidth provisioning strategy could involve faster campus and WAN equipment, increased bandwidth for circuits, quality of service protocols or a combination of any of those elements.

Security Management

This describes the management of device and server security that is consistent with the policies of the corporation. Typical devices are firewalls, routers, switches, TACACS servers and RADIUS servers. Security includes community strings, password assignment, change policy, dial security and Internet security.

Device Management

This describes the maintenance of a database inventory that lists all campus and WAN devices, modules, serial numbers, iOS versions, server documentation and design. It is important that companies keep information on these assets for support and warranty issues.

Configuration Management

This describes the process of configuring, and documenting devices, circuits and servers on the enterprise network. A process for configuring new equipment, modifying current equipment and maintaining TFTP servers should be established. Those scripts should be saved to TFTP servers and documented for later use with subsequent configurations. Build a directory structure with a folder for each equipment type and subdirectories for model types.

Change Management

This describes a process for approving and coordinating device configuration changes and is essential for network availability. Staff members that make unapproved changes without alerting affected departments can cause problems if the changes don’t work and are made during busier times of the day. Any changes to the production network should involve at least the network operation center and someone from the engineering group. As well it could be important to let the application developers know of network changes. Any change management process should have these components:

Review Process

· Affected departments consider impact of changes and discuss concerns

· Proof of concept and quality assurance testing

· Develop a timeline for changes approved by all departments

· Departments plan contingencies should there be network issues

· Approval process: software manages and records approvals from groups

· Pro-active monitoring of unauthorized changes

Implementation Management

This describes the process for managing new implementations such that there is no disruption to the production network and the implementation is efficient and effective. These are some network operations center (NOC) activities that should be part of any typical implementation management strategy. Consider vendor support contracts for support with configuration scripts, testing, and design since that will promote an effective implementation.

Standard Network Operations Center Activities:

1) Turn on circuits and ping all new devices to verify connectivity

2) Modify SNMP applications at network operations center for pro-active fault and performance monitoring of new devices

3) Verify devices are SNMP enabled and security is applied

4) Update the inventory database and save configuration scripts to a TFTP server

SNMP Applications

There are a myriad of SNMP applications on the market that focus on managing servers, devices and circuits. An enterprise customer will sometimes employ several applications including their own software that address each management group. The SNMP version that is implemented should be noted at each device and server. This is a list of popular commercial applications and how they could be utilized.

Monitored Devices and Events

Typical devices such as routers, switches and circuits are configured and monitored with SNMP applications. Thresholds are defined for each event that will trigger an alarm when that is exceeded. A polling interval is configured for each event, which describes the time interval between sending of status information from device to network management station. An example would be a router CPU utilization threshold of 60% and a polling interval of 10 minutes.

Treatment for Canine Diarrhea – How to Help Your Dog Get Well

Diarrhea is a very common disorder to man’s best friend. This is due to the common canine behavior of scavenging, and in cities the places for scavenging are garbage bins when the owners’ are not watching. So it is important for any dog and would-be dog owners to know the treatment for canine diarrhea.

1.  Diet Changes

Diarrhea for dogs is the same for humans; it causes dehydration. Keep your dog hydrated with drinks high in electrolytes. If the cause for diarrhea is from something eaten then you could stop feeding your dog for one day to help in clearing out the cause of the condition. After your dog’s fasting slowly feed your dog with small portion of bland cooked chicken meat every 4 hours for two days to see improvements in your dog’s condition then increase your dog’s food intake gradually until recovery.

Another diet as a treatment for canine diarrhea is brown rice mixed with hamburger. You can use white rice if the brown one is not available and because brown rice is more expensive. Normally, with this treatment, your dog should feel better within a week or less.

2. Medicine for Diarrhea

Your dog may need a treatment for canine diarrhea that involves medicine if the condition last longer than expected. There are some drugs for treating human diarrhea that are also good for dogs like the drug Loperamide. Consult a veterinarian first if the idea of giving your dog a medicine for humans is new to you.

The common dosage is 0.5 milligrams for every 10 pounds of your dog’s total body weight and should be taken by your dog three times a day for seven days. Vets will also prescribe probiotics, a food supplement that contains good bacteria which can help fight the cause of diarrhea. Drink mix for rehydration is also recommended several times a day to keep your dog hydrated when taking the medicine.

Canine diarrhea is expected to disappear in less than a week when dogs are properly provided with enough supply of water and if the common treatment for canine diarrhea is provided immediately. Still, there are times when the condition last longer than the norm. This is the time to get your dog a check up from a veterinarian to know the true cause of your dog’s diarrhea. A change in the treatment may be needed and fast.

Benefits of Olive Oil – Homemade Skin Care and More!

Olive oil comes from the Olea Europaea tree.  This tree is found, mostly, in the Mediterranean basin, Asia and Africa.  It grows approximately twenty-six to forty-nine feet tall, has a twisted trunk, small white flowers and silvery-green, oblong shaped leaves.  It has a study and extensive root system.

Olive trees are very hardy, drought, disease and fire resistant.  They can live for a very long time.  The older an olive tree, the more gnarled or twisted their trunk appears.  Olive grown around the Mediterranean basin are said to be centuries years old!

This tree produces round to oblong shaped fruit, called olives.  Olives have a sweet fleshy layer outside and a small seed inside. They grow slowly and are harvested when they turn a greenish-purple color.  They have a, naturally, bitter taste.  Olives grow well in hot weather.  If the temperature falls below 14 degrees Fahrenheit, it may injure an olive tree.

Olive oil is pressed from olives.  It is used throughout the world.  There are different grades of olive oil:  extra virgin, virgin, pure, pomace, and lite. Their colors vary, due to processing.  Colors can vary from a darker green to a, lighter, yellowish-red.  Higher quality olive oil has a dark robust greenish color, found in the extra virgin type.  If extra virgin olive oil shows a lighter, yellowish, shade, it was probably pressed from low quality olives.

TYPES OF OLIVE OIL:

“Virgin” has no chemical treatments, “Refined” has been chemically treated and “Pomace” has been extracted by solvents and heat.

Extra Virgin Oil: Least processed, derived from the first pressing of olives, contains high amounts of nutrients and vitamins, no additives, light, delicate, texture, superior taste, oleic acidity level of less than one percent, exceeding no more than 0.8 %.  This oil is highly valued for its perfect balance of flavor, aroma, color and acidity level.    It’s used for cooking, as topping on salads, in dressings or as a dipping oil for breads.

Virgin Olive Oil: Produced from the second processing of olives, has an acidity level of less than 2 %, more intense flavor and a good taste.  Used for cooking, dressings, salads and more.

Pure Olive Oil: A blend of refined and virgin olive oil, contains small amounts of vitamin E, acidity level less than 2 %, lower nutrient content and is less expensive.  Cannot be used for dressings, but better suited for high temperature cooking.

Pomace Olive Oil: Lowest grade of olive based oils.  Produced from the residual oil left in the olive’s pomace.  Blended with varying amounts of virgin olive oil to make it acceptable for consumers.  Used for high temperature cooking.

Lite Olive Oil: Pure rectified oils containing tiny amounts of virgin oils, if any at all.  Oils are light tasting and light in color. Contains the same amounts of calories and fats as all olive oils.  Poorer quality.

Storing Olive Oil: Keep tightly sealed in a cool, dry, dark place to resist rancidity. Heat, air, light and time are the enemies of olive oil. If it’s over six months old it can lose up to 40% of its healthy, antioxidants benefits.  This oil does not improve with age, so use it within 3 months.  It can be refrigerated but there are different opinions about this.  Some claim refrigeration can harm its flavor and others claim it may need refrigeration due to its highly perishable monosaturated fat. Refrigeration will cause the oil to turn solid, but then return to a liquid form when it’s removed.  Taking olive oil in and out of the refrigerator causes it to lose its uniqueness.

Health Benefits of Olive Oil: Reduces LDL, (bad cholesterol,) promotes HDL, (good cholesterol); lowers risk of heart disease. Extra virgin and virgin oils contain high amounts of polyphenols, a powerful antioxidant, which helps prevent cancer.  Olive oil discourages clogging of arteries, is gentle on the stomach and digestive tract, acting like a mild laxative.  It’s a friend to the intestines and an enemy to ulcers and gastritis. Good quality olive oils contain the benefits of vitamins and nutrients.  It’s rich in vitamins A, B1, B2, C, D, E and K.  It, also, contains iron and is   cholesterol free!

Skin Care Benefits of Olive Oil: Renews skin cells.  Neutralizes free radicals leading to skin cancer and aging skin. Moisturizes skin, providing a light protective layer.   It’s mild and gentle, containing the benefits of vitamins, especially the benefits of vitamin E.   It contains a soothing enzyme, Oleocanthal, for relieving pain and inflammation. Olive oil is used in commercial and homemade skin care products:  soaps, lotions, creams, lip balms and more.  It’s useful for mature, sensitive, inflamed, chapped or dry flaky skin.

Hair Care Benefits of Olive Oil: Olive oil is used in commercial and homemade shampoo.  It adds shine and tames dull, dry or frizzy hair. It maintains and manages hair.

Other Uses of Olive Oil: Lubricates scratchy throat, can reduce snoring, used, (in part), to prevent corrosion, streaks, and tarnish, lubricates squeaky door hinges, can aid in relieving earaches and much more!

The olive oil benefits are many and it’s used a variety of ways!  Olive oil is used, in many countries, throughout the world!

The Pros and Cons of the Oatmeal Diet

The oatmeal diet is a weight loss program that at its most extreme has you eating nothing but oatmeal for a week and slowly introducing back other foods while still eating oatmeal to lose weight. More moderate versions use oatmeal as a replacement for things like pasta, bread and other more fatty grains. What are the pros and cons of this kind of diet?

Cons

The most extreme version of the oatmeal diet is obviously a fad, crash diet that is hard to keep up, unhealthy, and often leads to yo-yo dieting. While there is plenty of oatmeal nutrition to consider, there isn’t enough to live off of healthily for an entire week before slowly bringing back other foods. It’s best to do this diet in moderation if you’re going to tackle it.

The other major problem with the oatmeal diet is boredom. Many people don’t exactly know what to do with oatmeal and think of it as nothing more than oats and milk or water which never sounds appetizing. Many people who try to live off this weight loss breakfast end up doing it for just a few days and then backslipping. Make sure to carefully research the recipes and other things you can do with oatmeal and don’t try to eat it plain day in and day out!

Positives

If done properly, the oatmeal diet can be a great way to lose weight while still keeping on top of your nutrition and diet plans. Oatmeal is very filling and easy to make, so it can be eaten quickly and keeps you full all day. Oatmeal is also a lot cheaper than the full breakfasts many people eat, so you’ll save a great deal of money as well as time and effort. Finally, this weight loss breakfast food is extremely versatile; you can add fruits, nuts, spices and a bit of sugar if you like to make a real breakfast treat that is packed with nutrients for your day! Remember, breakfast is the most important meal of the day and should not be taken lightly. The oatmeal diet ensures that you get your day off to the right start.

As with any diet, this one works best when you keep your nutrition and diet overall in mind and don’t try to crash diet it. A weight loss breakfast of oatmeal will really help you shed the pounds while still giving you enough energy to get through the morning. The oatmeal nutrition includes the always hard to find fibre which is necessary for weight loss and you can all whatever you like to it to make it truly your own. An oatmeal diet can be a highly effective method to lose weight so long as you play it smart!

Fit and Fat?

When you see an overweight person, do you automatically assume they couldn’t possibly be fit? While carrying too many pounds can be a signal of current or future health problems, it isn’t necessarily that way for everyone who is overweight.

Health professionals define overweight as a body-mass index (BMI) between 25 and 29.9, and obesity as a BMI of 30 or higher. But BMI alone is not sufficient to predict one’s health and risk of death. BMI measurements rely solely on height and weight. It doesn’t take into account how much fat or muscle a person has. You have seen 300 plus pound football players that would be classed as obese using just BMI, but who have very low body fat. You have also probably known someone who is thin but not very muscular.

So can you be fat and fit? This is a complicated question with no black and white answer. As a group, overweight, but not obese, people tend to live the longest. This was the conclusion of a four decade long study of 100,000 people, published in the Journal of the American Medical Association in 2016. The study found that the healthiest BMI was 27, even though this is considered overweight. Being overweight is believed to lend some protection to patients with medical problems including pneumonia, burns, stroke, cancer, hypertension, and heart disease, partly due to the fat reserves they have to fall back on when a major illness takes over their body. Overweight hospital patients typically have shorter recovery times, a stronger immune system, and less risk of arthritis or dementia.

Where your fat is located is important, however. Abdominal fat, or an apple shaped body, is considered to be worse than a pear shaped body where fat is deposited around the hip, thighs, or butt area. Abdominal fat tends to go deep into your abdominal cavity and can surround and even compromise your internal organs.

Some people call this the obesity paradox. Others call it metabolically healthy obesity. What is known is that weight is not a reliable indicator of overall health. One thing everyone can agree on is this: to be healthy, you need to meet the following requirements, regardless of BMI:

· Waist measurement of no more than 40 inches for a man; 35 for a woman

· Normal blood pressure (<120/80)

· Normal lipid levels: cholesterol less than 200, triglycerides less than 150

· Normal sensitivity to insulin

· Normal fasting blood sugar (<100)

· Good physical fitness level

In a perfect world, we would all be lean, fit, and metabolically healthy. But that is far from the case in the U.S, where nearly 3 out of 4 people are classed as overweight or obese. While being overweight is still considered a health condition that should be treated, focusing on restricted dieting and weight cycling is not good for your health either. Eating disorders, muscle mass loss, and a slowed metabolism are all potential side effects of trying to lose weight. Perhaps a better approach is to focus on healthy behaviors, regardless of what the scale says. The benefits of exercise go far beyond burning calories. Being physically active helps prevent heart disease, type 2 diabetes, depression, some cancers, and osteoporosis. Exercise can improve your mood, reduce anxiety, and help manage stress.

Good nutrition is beneficial in so many ways. A diet high in fiber, fruits, vegetables, and lean meat and low in sodium, sugar, and unhealthy fats has been shown time and time again to be preventative against heart disease, stroke, cancer, diabetes, and numerous other diseases. It is impossible to obtain all the various vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, and phytochemicals that are required for our body to function at its best by relying on heavily processed foods, vitamin supplements, or additives.

So if those last few pounds just won’t budge, don’t worry so much about it. Keep active, eat right and be healthy.

First Aid for a Heart Attack (Myocardial Infarction)

According to the World Health Organisation, Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. Heart attacks make up a significant proportion of these deaths. Being able to quickly recognise the signs and symptoms of a heart attack is incredibly important, as early medical treatment significantly improves the prognosis.

What is a heart attack?

The heart is a muscle which pumps blood around the body. Like every other muscle in the body, it requires a good blood supply to ensure enough oxygen & nutrients are delivered and waste metabolic products (such as Carbon Dioxide) are removed.

The heart receives its blood supply from the coronary arteries which branch off from the aorta (the main artery in your body).

If a coronary artery becomes blocked (e.g: due to a clot), then the heart muscle beyond the point of the blockage will not receive an adequate blood supply. This will result in death of the heart muscle.

The medical term for a heart attack is ‘myocardial infarction’ (myocardium means heart muscle, infarction is tissue death due to lack of oxygen)

How do I recognise a heart attack?

Common signs & symptoms include:

> Central chest pain, which may spread to the arms/jaw/back/abdomen. Does not ease or go away.
> Shortness of breath
> Casualty becomes pale and sweaty
> Fear and anxiety
> Irregular or weak pulse

Not all of these symptoms may be present. In fact, some heart attacks can be ‘silent’ with very little pain which is often mistaken for indigestion. There has been some research which suggests these ‘silent’ attacks are more common amongst women and diabetic patients.

If you have any reason to suspect a heart attack, you should treat for one. It is always better to be safe than sorry.

First aid treatment for a heart attack/myocardial infarction

Step 1: Call an ambulance/emergency medical help, say that you suspect someone is having a heart attack.

Step 2: Make the person comfortable, if possible ask them to sit on the floor. The best position is known as the “W” position, this involves the person sitting up with something under their knees to raise them. This reduces the strain on the heart.

Step 3: If you are able to, ask the casualty to chew on a 300mg (big) aspirin. If they have any other medication for their heart (a spray etc.) which a doctor has told them to use, then let the casualty use it.

The casualty may loose consciousness before the ambulance arrives. Try to be reassuring and calm, the casualty will be incredibly frightened and anxious which could aggravate their condition.

No two attacks are the same. Different people may suffer different symptoms, there isn’t always the ‘classic’ presentation described above.

Dry Weather Conditions Increases Risk of Beaches Becoming Contaminated

Historically, when the weather got hot in American cities, the well-to-do would decamp for their beach homes where they hoped to get respite from the heat. Cool breezes and pristine beaches lured them from their affluent city dwellings. Today there are still people who can afford to have summer homes; however, public beaches have made them a destination for people of every class. There’s just something about the sea that enchants us, and on hot summer days, beaches are packed with those wishing to get away from it all for a little fun in the sun. Unfortunately, our beaches have become contaminated to the point where many of them may no longer be safe.

The problem during 2012 has been the dry conditions and infrequent rains. During dry periods, there is a build-up of contaminants, such as animal wastes and oil on roads. When a heavy rainstorm occurs, it washes the ground of all of these polluting elements which are then swept into local water sources, ultimately ending up in major rivers and the Gulf of Mexico. With this contamination comes high levels of bacteria that have necessitated swimming advisories being issued. Pretty much, it’s swim at your own risk.

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has a standard that’s used to test the amount of enterococci in bodies of water. These bacteria can cause infections, including diverticulitis, meningitis, bacteremia, bacterial endocarditis, and those of the urinary tract. The standard rates the quality of the water based on the amount of this bacteria per 100 milliliters of water, and then the water is rated good, moderate, or poor. High levels of 105 or more can cause people who swim in the water to experience gastrointestinal illnesses, mild diarrhea, skin rashes, and skin infections. This risk is greatest for small children, seniors, and those who have immune systems which have been compromised.

It is possible to install storm water separators to help reduce pollutants, but even this type of equipment cannot protect all of the water at every possible contact point, so there’s no way to keep all of our fresh water safe. Although people are free to swim at will on public beaches, they need to use caution to make sure they aren’t exposing themselves and their families to dangerous bacteria, because these bacteria are one of the unpleasant facts of modern life. Although experts will tell you that otherwise healthy people shouldn’t be affected by excessive amounts of bacteria, you still need to make wise decisions about the areas in which you swim.

Food Poisoning and Specific Ways to Handle It

Food poisoning occurs when a person takes in food contaminated simply by bacteria, parasites or even virus. It may also happen whenever one eats meals that are not really ready, prepared or foods that are usually not handled properly during the process of preparing them.

Symptoms of food poisoning

After a person consumes poisoned foods, they start displaying several symptoms. Depending on what kind of poison they have consumed, this may occur immediately or within a couple of hours right after consuming the food. The observable symptoms consist of:

– Vomiting

– Diarrhea

– Belly ache

– Suffering from fever

– Exhaustion

The particular elder people, children, men and women along with immune system problems and pregnant females are usually more likely to display strong signs and symptoms associated with toxic foods.

Essential Poisoning Associated with Food

Sometimes food poisoning is not necessarily dangerous and may end in a brief period of time. However, every time an individual encounters the following indications and symptoms, the person should get medical attention as quickly as possible:

– High level of dizziness

– Increased breathing rate or heartbeat

– Disorientation

– Visual disruptions

– Experiencing difficulty to speak

– Paralyzed muscle tissues

These symptoms show that the person is suffering from extreme food poisoning and must be treated within the shortest period of time, otherwise the condition can be worsened and even trigger loss of life.

Remedies to Diseased Foods

It is important know how to manage the condition connected with food poisoning. Some remedies to food poisoning are given below:

– Let him/her relax. Eating diseased food can cause weakness, therefore it’s essential for the particular person to be able to have enough rest.

– Lime Juice. Lime juice kills bacterias associated with food poisoning.

– Bananas. Provide the individual bananas as their particular potassium energy assists within recuperating. However, the person is not supposed to have more than 2 bananas particularly if the person is having diarrhea.

– Ginger juice. Mix it with a tablespoon of honey; it will assist treating gastrointestinal system difficulties.

– Try getting water, coconut water, or even Gatorade in a lot but in small sips to prevent dehydration.

Prevent getting any medication without doctor’s authorization.

Summary

Meals contaminated with poison may cost us our health, even lead to death. We need to be careful each and every time when we eat or drink. Always take foods that are usually purified. Avoid consuming foods from roadside. This is our duty to keep your body fit and prevent any toxic food issues.

It very important to eat safe foods. Always make sure that the food items are very well prepared. Ensure that good hygiene is maintained while preparing the food so your health is safe.

Some Infant Formulas Contain Omega 3

Are you aware that Omega 3 DHA is being added in the infant foods? Top experts recommend the addition of both, omega 3 DHA as well as omega 6 AA in the infant foods. This recommendation came from a group representing 11 different countries. Although breast feeding is considered to be the best, but if due to any reason, it is not possible, then supplements containing omega 3 DHA and omega 6 AA are the best options.

Omega 3, DHA falls in the polyunsaturated fatty acid group. It is considered to be a good fat. Omega 3 fatty acid in the diet is very important for the proper development of a child’s brain. Did you know that DHA constitutes 97% of the omega 3 fats in the brain which is 60% fat?

The infant food should contain between.2 to.5% of the omega 3, DHA fatty acids and it should also contain AA at an equal percentage to the DHA level. Omega 3 is also present as an additional ingredient in baby food.

Getting enough omega 3 in the baby’s diet is not only important for the development of its brain, it is also important for the baby’s eyes and nervous system. An expecting mother should consume sufficient omega 3 in the form of supplements or otherwise while she is pregnant. Third trimester is the right time to do so. That is when the baby’s brain is developing the most.

AA, or arachidonic acid is relatively easy to consume. It is readily available in our daily diet. AA can be got from meat, eggs and milk. it is relatively easy for a pregnant woman to get sufficient AA in her diet, but getting enough DHA omega 3 is much more difficult. DHA is found in oily cold water fish. Most of the people in the US don’t really like fish so there is a lack of getting enough in their diet.

A lactating mother can pass on these vital nutrients to her breast fed baby, if she eats a proper diet. In case the baby is bottle fed, then these nutrients have to be added externally. Adding omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids to a baby’s formula has made it a lot closer to being just like breast milk.

Researches have shown that babies getting enough omega 3 in their diet performed better in the cognitive tests, they also slept better and weren’t nearly as restless as babies fed formula without omega 3.

As soon as you find out that you are going to have a baby, be sure to add cold water oily fish to your diet. If you are unable to eat fish, then you can take fish oil supplements, or flax seed oil. Make sure your flax seed oil supplements are in a dark coloured bottle to keep them away from light.

If you are pregnant, getting enough omega 3 could reduce your chances of premature birth.You will also know that you are doing what you think is best for your new baby. Getting them started out in life the best you can.

Causes of Anxiety Attacks – What You Must Know to Beat Anxiety

There are many causes of anxiety attacks, ranging from medical issues to external mental or emotional stimuli. These causes are many and varied and if you are suffering from anxiety attacks, it is imperative that you find out what is causing them.

1 – Hereditary Causes

First off there may be your heredity blame. Anxiety attacks have been found to run in families, which leads many professionals to conclude that the trait can be found in the human genome. On the other hand, studies on geneticly identical twins have shown that sometimes one twin will experience anxiety attacks, while the other will not. Another way in which anxiety attacks can be inherited is through an overly cautious world view handed down by a patient's parents and the cumulative stress it causes.

2. Biological Causes

There are also many biological causes to anxiety attacks, such as inner ear disorders (labyrinthitis), hyperthyroidism, hyperventilation syndrome, hypoglycemia, prolapsed mitral valve (a heart disease), pheochromocytoma (an adrenal gland tumor), and Wilson's disease (a genetic disorder) ). Even a vitamin B deficiency caused by parasitic tapeworm infection or from a poor diet can also cause anxiety attacks.

3. Mental / Emotional Causes

Mental or emotional issues can also trigger anxiety attacks. These include generalized anxiety, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), phobias, post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), significant personal loss (such as loss of a romantic partner), significant life changes, "what-if" thinking, lack of assertiveness, Withheld feelings, mistrust beliefs, and avoidance of or association with anxiety-provoking situations or environs.

4 – Pharmalogical / Medicinal Causes

Pharmacological or medicinal causes include amphetamines, alcohol, marijuana, psilocybin (a hallucinogen found in some mushrooms), side effects from drugs such as Ritalin or other antidepressants (especially at the beginning or end of use), and stimulants such as caffeine or nicotine. Some anxiety attack sufferers also develop an irrational fear of certain medications, which may result in anxiety attacks if they are taken, which is a purely psychosomatic effect similar to what placebos have been shown to produce.

As anyone can see, there are many causes of anxiety attacks, most of which are completely out of your control if you are having them. The good news is that you can do something about it. The first thing you need to understand is that it is not your fault. Your anxiety attacks are nothing that you asked for and not something that you necessarily caused. If it is found that your anxiety attacks are caused by something external that is easily remedied, your problem may be solved quite easily. If it is caused by a lifestyle choice, for example marijuana or alcohol consumption, there are alternatives available. If it is something that is more ephemeral, then your mental health professional can counsel you and / or prescribe that medication that will help you deal with your anxiety attacks.

Conclusion

Do not immediately blame yourself or believe that there is simply something wrong with you if you are having anxiety attacks. If you look hard enough, you will probably be able to discover what the cause is. In many cases, the cause of anxiety attacks can be quickly discerned and dealt with via counseling, medication or self help.

Being Free From Anxiety Disorder

Curing anxiety disorders can be very challenging. So challenging in fact that curing anxiety disorders need nothing less than the patient's full intention and commitment as well as a good cognitive therapy program.

For curing anxiety disorders, the cognitive therapy should also be supplemented by self help from the patient. Curing anxiety disorders will be impossible without the true integration of healing in the patient's agenda.

The opportunity for curing anxiety disorders does not lie with the therapist or with the treatment or the medication. The opportunity for curing anxiety disorders should come from the individual who suffers from the anxiety disorder. Wanting to get better and recoverive one's life and quality of living should be initiated and committed to by the patient so that true curing of anxiety disorders can really happen.

Even if one gets the best medications, therapy and treatment for the ailment, if the person is unwilling to re-examine and rethink past conditioning, he or she will be unable to grow and heal from the anxiety disorder. Understandably, intent and commitment towards curing anxiety disorders from an individual who suffers from it can be very difficult to achieve. It can be very difficult to put one's whole life in the spotlight and question its truth and relevance. However, while the cause of fear can be more frightful than the anxiety disorder itself, a willingness to heal and recovery is needed.

This principle is actually true of any type of anxiety disorder, be it generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, social anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and all sorts of phobias. The path towards healing coming from the intention within. It is only natural for this to be so because all thoughts, fears, emotions and feelings are also all internal factors that are projected outwardly to produce personal reality.

Pleurisy Symptoms

Pleurisy is an infection of the pleura, the delicate membranes separating the lungs from the chest wall. It is usually the result of a virus infection, but it can also be caused by pneumonia, a chest injury, inflammation of the pericardial heart lining, a blood clot of the lung, and, rarely, lung cancer.

Pleurisy root was one of the most important Menomini medicines. They used the roots as wound dressings and for many other remedies, often mixing the roots with other botanicals in particular formulas. Penobscot Indians used them as cold medicines and as a dressing for sores. The Omaha Indians used this plant as one of their sacred medicines in the Shell Society.

Pleurisy symptoms typically include a cough, fever, a sharp sticking pain and shallow breathing. The pain is normally worse for any movement, such as breathing in. It can be a complication after you have had pneumonia or some other lung related condition, and your treatment didn’t make things any better.

You only get disease, any disease if your immune system is compromised. If this is in good order, your body will be able to prevent any disease from occurring. A slightly less that perfectly healthy immunity might not be able to prevent disease, but it would be mild, with minor symptoms.

If you are getting more intense bouts, and they are coming more frequently, then ask yourself another question. Are you going towards cure or away from it? If they are getting worse or more intense, then maybe your current treatment is not doing you a lot of good.

With most people multi tasking, the emphasis on doing more not less seems the way to be. And yet, doing less can make you more productive. Don’t get caught in the vicious circle of work, work, work. Make sure you have time to relax. That makes you more productive.

So how can you improve your immunity? Firstly, by taking medication and vaccines, you are knocking your immune system. Homeopathy, on the other hand, works by improving your immune system. So if you can make a start there, you’re likely to see some good results.

So instead of asking, is pleurisy serious, ask yourself instead, am I looking after myself or am I looking for outside health resolution? If you expect every ailment to be fixed by a pill or shot, you’re going to be sadly disappointed. You have to take responsibility for your health.

Fever and common cold-Holy basil tea made by boiling 4 ounces of milk with ginger, whole black pepper, 1-2 tablespoon sugar, and fresh basil leaves is said to cure headache, cold, malaria, and bronchitis. The juice of basil leaves can be used to bring down fever. The extract in fresh water should be given every 2 to 3 hours.

Before I begin, let me make sure you know that you should consult your doctor for *any* chest pain, to rule out a serious health problem. However, there are other things that can cause pain in that region. Some are minor and some may be as life threatening as heart disease.

If Influenza treatment is started at the onset, it may be overcome in 24 hours. Stop eating and go to bed right away, do not eat for 24 hours, you wont die from not eating, you may cause yourself to get sicker if you continue to eat. Drink a Tea by steeping a teaspoon of each herb together in a pint of boiling water for 20 minutes. Yarrow – Pleurisy Root – 1/4 tsp. of Cayenne.

Inflammation of the Pleura is called Pleurisy. In dry Pleurisy, the pleural surfaces are inflamed without fluid in between them. In many cases pleurisy is associated with effusion. Both dry pleurisy and pleural effusion may develop at different stages of the same disease process.

Food Poisoning and Specific Ways to Handle It

Food poisoning occurs when a person takes in food contaminated simply by bacteria, parasites or even virus. It may also happen whenever one eats meals that are not really ready, prepared or foods that are usually not handled properly during the process of preparing them.

Symptoms of food poisoning

After a person consumes poisoned foods, they start displaying several symptoms. Depending on what kind of poison they have consumed, this may occur immediately or within a couple of hours right after consuming the food. The observable symptoms consist of:

– Vomiting

– Diarrhea

– Belly ache

– Suffering from fever

– Exhaustion

The particular elder people, children, men and women along with immune system problems and pregnant females are usually more likely to display strong signs and symptoms associated with toxic foods.

Essential Poisoning Associated with Food

Sometimes food poisoning is not necessarily dangerous and may end in a brief period of time. However, every time an individual encounters the following indications and symptoms, the person should get medical attention as quickly as possible:

– High level of dizziness

– Increased breathing rate or heartbeat

– Disorientation

– Visual disruptions

– Experiencing difficulty to speak

– Paralyzed muscle tissues

These symptoms show that the person is suffering from extreme food poisoning and must be treated within the shortest period of time, otherwise the condition can be worsened and even trigger loss of life.

Remedies to Diseased Foods

It is important know how to manage the condition connected with food poisoning. Some remedies to food poisoning are given below:

– Let him/her relax. Eating diseased food can cause weakness, therefore it’s essential for the particular person to be able to have enough rest.

– Lime Juice. Lime juice kills bacterias associated with food poisoning.

– Bananas. Provide the individual bananas as their particular potassium energy assists within recuperating. However, the person is not supposed to have more than 2 bananas particularly if the person is having diarrhea.

– Ginger juice. Mix it with a tablespoon of honey; it will assist treating gastrointestinal system difficulties.

– Try getting water, coconut water, or even Gatorade in a lot but in small sips to prevent dehydration.

Prevent getting any medication without doctor’s authorization.

Summary

Meals contaminated with poison may cost us our health, even lead to death. We need to be careful each and every time when we eat or drink. Always take foods that are usually purified. Avoid consuming foods from roadside. This is our duty to keep your body fit and prevent any toxic food issues.

It very important to eat safe foods. Always make sure that the food items are very well prepared. Ensure that good hygiene is maintained while preparing the food so your health is safe.

Chapter 1 of Jerry's Riot: the True Story of Montana's 1959 Prison Disturbance

Chapter 1 of Jerry’s Riot: The True Story of Montana’s 1959 Prison Disturbance

A GHOST’S WHISPER

A board falling flat to the floor is thunder to the heart. And so it was that when prison guard Clyde Sollars heard a hard clap, he stiffened in fear. For a few seconds he listened, breathless. Sollars looked at his wristwatch, an anniversary gift from his wife. The hands showed almost four o’clock. He reached into the canvas bag he had carried into the prison from the main office across the street. Inside the tiny mailroom that was nothing more than a cubbyhole with shelves, wedged at the end of a short hallway, he sorted the day’s last letters. That noise, sharp and urgent, echoed in his head. The convict carpenters working with hammers and saws near the deputy warden’s office must have dropped a board. The day suddenly felt used and cold, like frost on a flower. Feeling a chill that he couldn’t understand, he worked faster.

An hour earlier, Sollars waited outside the prison’s rock walls, across the street, while his wife Helen censored the last letters. She was the new matron in the Women’s Unit, a small stockade behind the main prison. They told her that if she worked with the mail superintendent for a few weeks she would know the prison better.  Every morning she and another matron marched eleven of the thirteen female prisoners from their quarters to their jobs in prison offices outside the walls. Clyde felt lucky to see her during working hours. He was one of two mail and transportation officers, alternating with another guard on road trips to return parole violators to Deer Lodge. The most recent assignment had been to North Dakota. The other guard asked for it, hoping to visit relatives along the way.

On this Thursday, April 16, 1959, Clyde Sollars might have been driving hundreds of miles to the east, free as a bird on the perpetual plains of eastern Montana. Instead he stacked mail into a bag, looked at his watch, and decided that before he ended his shift he would walk one more time into Montana State Prison. “See you at home, Mom,” he had said to his wife. That was what he called Helen sometimes. They had two daughters, grown and gone, and it felt good to speak to his wife as if the children were still at home.

He had come to the prison in 1957. Like many of the guards before him, who found their way to Deer Lodge from the sawmills and the mines and the timber crews, he arrived at the prison with dirt on his heels. After leaving the Army after World War II he went to work in the grain elevators in Charlo, Ronan, Polson, Pablo and Paradise, all towns in northwestern Montana. Sollars was an ordinary blue-collar worker, as unadorned as the other guards who filed in and out of those imposing sandstone and granite walls. He was about to find out how plain men take on new worth in a crisis.

He swung the canvas sack onto his shoulder and walked forty paces across Main Street and into the lengthening shadows of two mighty cell houses. The fortresses stood four stories high. Castle-ike turrets clawed at the pale sky from each of the eight corners.  One cell house had been built before the turn of the century, the other, during Teddy Roosevelt’s presidency. They made an awe-inspiring sight to travelers who drove into town on Highway 10, a two-lane ribbon of asphalt, and stopped and pointed their Brownies to snap pictures. The forbidding prison, by some accounts one of the worst in the country, made for interesting vacation snapshots next to the more pastoral elements of Montana, like steaming geyser spray from Old Faithful in Yellowstone National Park.

Like most prison guards, Sollars saw little romance in the rugged architecture of the cell houses. He thought them ugly and wretched because he knew of the misery that they hid. He felt them staring at him with their troubled swollen eyes. The prison had eyes everywhere. The hundreds of prisoners watched and remembered all they saw, as did the guards if they knew what was good for them. The seven wall towers watched what was inside, and everything inside stared back. Eyes watched from everywhere. It was said that the prison’s ears heard all, even a ghost’s whisper.

Wind swept the scent of spring snow off the mountains that loomed like a painted backdrop behind the prison. The scent stung his nose but felt fresh and clean. Only when Sollars arrived at the looming stone entrance did he shiver. Instinctively he zipped his blue uniform jacket. He tilted the bill on his police-style cap to shut out the sun, which already was fading behind the prison. Then he looked up. On the wall outside the tower, known as Tower 7 or the main gate, a guard stood with a loop of clothesline rope. He uncoiled it and let it drop twenty feet or so to Sollars, who unclipped from it a brass key that filled his hand. At the front of the tower, standing almost on Main Street where the cars rolled past, Sollars unlocked an ornate black grill door to enter the base of the two-story tower. Here, the easy innocence of small-town Deer Lodge dissolved into a dark cave of sandstone rock. A naked bulb cast dull yellow light that didn’t penetrate the corners. The room was cold and drafty. Sollars felt a change in him as he always did when he went inside.  He locked the grill door behind him. This time, the rope dangled through a round opening in the ceiling. The guard who had stood on the wall a minute earlier was now inside the tower, up in the eagle’s nest where he could see the guts of the prison through its broad windows. Sollars attached the key, tugged on the rope, and the guard above pulled it back. Seconds later the rope returned. A new key rattled inside the tin tube. Sollars used it to unlock a wooden door, as thick as his hand was wide, on the opposite side of the tower. He swung open the door, stepped into the prison yard, and locked it again. The other guard, standing outside on the wall again and facing the prison now, dropped the rope. Sollars surrendered the key.

He crossed a short courtyard to ten steps that led upward to another barred door. Behind it was Inside Administration, where guards brought their prisoner counts. Convicts came for medicine, or to get their teeth pulled in the dental office, or to shine the guards’ black leather shoes. In the photo office, they took pictures of the “fish,” the new men who arrived through the main gate and wrote descriptions of their scars and tattoos in case of escape. The visiting room was here, too. Inside Administration was the business district of this town of criminals.

The cell houses, like big brothers, pressed against the chalk-white Inside Administration on either side, dwarfing it. On the south end, to Sollars’ left, was the 1896 version. This cell house had buckets for toilets. Despite all the technological inventions before its construction, it more resembled a Civil War-era fortress with its galleys of wood and its cell doors that had to be locked individually.  It was made of dark brick, the color of dried blood. Its round turrets had roofs that came to a point, where in the early days big flags flew. To the north, the 1912 cell house was much the same in its rectangular construction, although its brick looked more orange by contrast and its square turrets flared at the top. Even forty-seven years after it was built, guards called this building the “new” cell house because it had plumbing and interlocking cell doors. None of the guards would doubt that this was Floyd Powell’s prison. The new warden from Wisconsin State Prison, a champion of reform, had proclaimed at his arrival eight months earlier that he would change this reputed hellhole into a model institution that would be the envy of every prison in America. Not everyone shared his enthusiasm. Some residents of Deer Lodge greeted his presence with skepticism, others with disdain. The town wasn’t accustomed to a warden of such outward determination, and the prospect of an improved prison was a new idea. In Wisconsin he had a reputation as a bit of a daredevil because he was willing to go into prison cells to talk inmates out of knives or other weapons. From childhood he lived a hard life and was determined to overcome it. As a boy, and the oldest son, he took over the family farm when his father became disabled in a car accident. He also hired out as a laborer to bring extra money home. He was a driven, determined self-made man.

The new warden arrived in Deer Lodge to repair decades of decay and mismanagement at the only prison in Montana’s vast landscape. It was an outpost of sorts, planted in a town of fewer than 4,000 residents in a tall empty county – Powell County, coincidentally – where Hereford cattle outnumbered people. The prison had stood at that spot along the Clark Fork River since Montana was a territory, when sluice miners crawled the snow-fed creeks and road agents fleeced them of their gold nuggets. It had been a familiar face to three generations of Deer Lodge folk who worked there. The old prison was a tolerated place, if not tolerable, a dark ripple in the stream of a good life. In a wide lonesome valley that felt like cupped hands beneath the heavens, the prison’s purpose was a spoiling, a footprint of humanity’s inevitable sorrowful deeds.  Montanans liked their prison kept quiet, much like ignoring a sleeping dog for fear of its bite. With Floyd Powell’s arrival, that was about to change. There, between folds of the Rocky Mountain Front that wore some of the best forests in Montana on its flowing cape, his agenda for reform took shape.

As summer waned, Powell charged ahead with uncommon energy, trying to change everything at once. He recruited Ted Rothe, his friend and ally, from Wisconsin State Prison. To make the prison safer, he hired more guards. To know the troublemakers, he started classifying prisoners by crimes and behavior. He even fired the “con bosses” who had supervised their peers in the industries and shops. Powell was a whirling dervish. In his quest to bring the prison into modern times, he was upsetting the balance of power inside of it.

Clyde Sollars felt a haunting at the prison. The prison felt dead and ugly. Knowing the men held inside was like ripping open a psychological veil. Behind it were the inmates’ victims and their personal agonies. Civilization built prisons to hide what they didn’t want to see. Sollars and all the other guards discovered that in the midst of convicted men they met hell, exposed and raw and full of pain. Guards coped with two evils: real dangers and apparitions. They sensed in Floyd Powell’s vision a change in wind direction. It felt like a storm building on the mountain. To many Montanans, prison reform was worse than a futile gesture. It was a violation of faith.

If anything, a guard’s life was a fertile field for conversation. On the outside, off shift, guards cracked their foaming Great Falls Selects and smoked their unfiltered Camels and ranted of how it was, how it really was, and lamented Powell’s policies and the joint and the torment of their working lives. At the top of the steps at the barred door into Inside Administration, Sollars pushed a button that sounded a buzzer.  Officer James “Little” Jones, the second-shift turnkey, appeared at the door. He was as short as his nickname implied, but a muscled, wiry man, and his hair was thick and black. “Last trip for today?” he asked Sollars. He opened the door for Sollars to pass and then swung it shut. Metal crashed against metal. He turned the big key until the lock slid closed with a thunk. Jones made small talk before Sollars entered a little hallway to his right. He had been sorting the mail for fewer than ten minutes before he heard the noise that scared him.

Jones worked two grill doors that day. On the west side of the building, opposite from where Sollars had entered, two grill doors spaced twelve feet apart created a vestibule, where on most days one door would be locked before the other was opened. Those doors admitted convicts from the yard. Usually a second turnkey guard worked between the doors and had to work them with care to avoid being trapped with both sets of keys. Today Jones was working alone. On such days when the afternoon shift was short a man, the outside grill door was left open. Convicts who had business to do came up the steps from the yard on the west side of Inside Administration and walked right up to the second grill door in the vestibule. As a matter of policy, Jones would order them to step back before he unlocked the door. Standing now inside his claustrophobic mailroom, Sollars was thinking again about the noise that bothered him. Like other guards he had become accustomed to listening beyond clanging doors and crude language for true and ominous signals of trouble. This noise had ricocheted around the jungle of concrete rooms like a clap of thunder. Had he heard a board falling flat to the floor, blasting the air away? Or had he heard something else? His suspicion grew.  For a few moments only silence came to his ears, and in prison, silence deafens. Here, a dictionary of sounds lay open in Clyde Sollars’ mind, as it did for every guard, ready for quick reference. In this prison of a thousand eyes, danger usually came first to the ears.  Sounds that fill the prison alarm new guards. As months pass those sounds become a pattern of routine. The prison at its safest was a numbing routine and a guard was soon to learn that he should listen close when the routine changes. From somewhere in the maze of rooms came an urgency of shoes on tile. They weren’t squeaks of new shoes but the warnings of a struggle. Sollars felt curious and then afraid. He crept into the lobby. Here in this gloomy room, where convicted men had tromped a trail in the linoleum, he saw no carpenters, nor did he see anyone else. Where was Jones, the turnkey guard? And why were both barred doors to the yard standing open? That very second, as Sollars comprehended a guard’s greatest fear, a squat and sweating convict rumbled into the lobby from Deputy Warden Ted Rothe’s office. His big fist clutched a thin ugly knife, red with blood.

Sollars recognized him at once. He didn’t know the man well, in fact couldn’t recall a conversation with him, but in an instant Sollars sensed the man’s frightful confidence. Like a mad bull, Jerry Myles snorted through a flattened nose that listed to the left. Rivers of purple and red ran across his flushed face. His bully scowl, accentuated with heavy eyelids and full pouting lips, promised trouble. His high forehead, where only a tongue of wavy salt-and-pepper hair remained, shined with sweat. He tilted his head backward a bit, daring Sollars to defy him. Sollars had heard this man was nicknamed “Shorty” and could see why. Myles stood only a shade over five feet, and despite thick arms and a chest as round as a rain barrel, his feet were dainty like a woman’s. His shoes seemed too petite for a man who propelled his stout body with such authority. He was a bull on tiny feet.  Although a common burglar, Myles had a reputation among the guards as a jocker, meaning he stalked young men for sex. They also called him “Little Hitler,” alluding to his remorseless and domineering behavior in the cell house. He courted violations of the rules in an effort to draw attention to himself, and when he was caught, tried to make amends in pitiful ways. At 125, his IQ was far higher than most of his fellow convicts.  He wrote poetry, enjoyed the strategic challenges of chess, and had learned to play the violin. Had he not been a psychopath, he might have been a scholar. Little good had come from his intellect. Other than occasional regret over his troubled loveless life, he reserved most of his thinking for petty hates and distorted illusions.  Sollars thought he saw a flicker of compassion in the eyes of this mad bull before him. When Myles spoke, his voice came softer than Sollars had expected. “This is a riot and if you want to live, Cap, do what I say,” Myles advised him.

At first Sollars didn’t understand that Myles was even more dangerous than he appeared. Prison was his home. Now forty-four years old, he had spent most of the past twenty-five years at Alcatraz Island and five other federal and state prisons. Mutinies came to him as second nature. He thought he knew prison life better than anyone who had guarded him. Myles was determined to impress on his captors that because of his long history of confinement he deserved special privileges. It soon would become clear to everyone in Montana that he desired to run the prison.  Myles stepped toward Sollars. He guided the knife in front of his short bulk like he was trying to clear a path with it. Sollars didn’t doubt that Myles would kill him. He raised his hands in surrender.

Sollars had been to war and seen a few fights at the grain elevators but knew nothing about confronting armed convicts. Behind Myles came Lee Smart, the kid with eyes of ice. Sollars knew him as the teenage murderer. He was skinny and had a girl’s countenance but everyone knew he was a psychopath and gave him room. Smart had a sassy defiant way about him. He walked around the prison with his trousers drooping. Between Myles and Smart stood Sergeant Bill Cox. Blood soaked the shirtsleeve on his left arm from shoulder to wrist. He had a jaw of rock that made him look fierce but now his strength was gone and his face white and dazed. Cox worked in the captain’s office between the lobby and Ted Rothe’s office. As Sollars tried to understand what he was seeing, he wondered for an instant why the scene didn’t include Deputy Warden Rothe. Then he looked closer at the boy. Smart pointed a lever-action rifle at Sollars. He gripped the barrel not as a hunter would with a thumb on one side and fingers on the other for a clear view, but with his fingers wrapped all the way around. The ominous opening at the barrel’s tip looked larger than life. Sollars smelled gunpowder. He saw Smart’s other hand at the trigger, coaxing it. Sollars felt a violation of the basic order of life. He blinked hard behind his glasses. He wouldn’t forget Lee Smart’s blank cold face.

Further information about Jerry’s Riot is available at http://www.skybluewaterspress.com

How to Grow Mushrooms From Old Mushroom Stem Butts

Usually when it comes to growing mushrooms, the most important thing that you will need to begin with is the mushroom spawn itself – this is what the mushrooms grow from, so it is an essential ingredient. Without it, it would be like trying to grow an apple tree without the apple pip – its never going to work. Usually the mushroom spawn will be especially created by a mycologist, and will normally consist of some kind of grain that has been impregnated with mushroom mycelium (mycelium is what the mushrooms come from).

You can create your own mushroom spawn several ways, but what most people don’t realise is that you can actually grow your own mushrooms from old stem butts, enabling you to re-use old mushrooms and start your own cycle of mushroom cultivation.

All that you need to do is to cut off a small section of the mushroom stem butt, no bigger then an inch long. It is important to try and use the bottom of the stem, with the bulbous part of the stem intact (this part is usually removed prior to preparing the mushroom for cooking and for packaging before being sold in stores). However if you have already grown some of your own mushrooms from some kind of spawn then you will have no problem getting hold of the healthiest variety of stem butts. You can still try using the stem from shop-brought mushrooms, but you may not have as much success.

It is important stating that not all mushrooms have this stem growth capability, and there are only a few varieties that are known to be able to re-spawn from their stems. These include Oyster mushrooms (Pleutrous Ostreatus), Parasol mushrooms, Morels, Prince, and many more.

All you need to do is remove a section of the stem butts, and get some corrugated cardboard. Soak the cardboard and then try to peel it in half, so that the paper is as thin as possible. Next, lay the carboard on a surface and place some of the stem butts on top. Try and leave around 6 inches of cardboard per stem butt. Cover the stems with the rest of the corrugated cardboard and then re-soak for a few minutes. Place the folded pieces of cardboard into an old box – cardboard, wood, or anything else that will keep the box moist, and then place it in a shady position in your garden before covering it with leaves.

What will happen is that the mycelium will start to grow through the pieces of cardboard, from the stem butts, using the materials in the cardboard as a food (mushrooms naturally grow on wood and so cardboard is ideal to use and is easier to break down). After a few months you will have your own cardboard spawn, and you can either use this to grow mushrooms on more cardboard, or you can mix this cardboard spawn with straw, creating an outdoor bed or mushroom patch, or you can try and transfer the spawn to other substrates.