Benefits Of Owning A Trampoline

There are numerous benefits that come with owning a trampoline. Not only does a trampoline encourage exciting bonding time with friends and family, it can also be a source of exercise to improve your health as well. Trampolines are fun for the entire family and a great way for hyperactive children to alleviate their energy.

With the rapidly increasing rate of obesity, the need for exercise is evident. Trampolines can help build stamina, strengthen your cardiovascular system, improve muscle control, and improve coordination. Children who jump on trampolines can improve their balance, agility, rhythm, and timing skills, which can aid them in other areas of their lives, such as athletics. Cardiovascular disease is the number one cause of death in the United States. Jumping on a trampoline strengthens your heart by increasing circulation, which can reduce chances of developing cardiovascular disease. Using the trampoline on a regular basis can result in improvements to your physical appearance in areas such as weight loss and toning of your muscles. Trampoline exercise also increases bone density, which can prevent osteoporosis or fragile bones from developing.

While there are long lists of health benefits that can result from trampoline use, there are also other positive effects a trampoline may have. With modern day technology, such as video games, computers, and cell phones, it is sometimes difficult to get children outside and to get them active. Trampolines make kids excited about playing outside. By playing outside children get Vitamin D from sunlight, which assists with healthy bone growth. This means that children are getting healthier through exercising and gaining Vitamin D while enjoying themselves.

There is no age limit for using these jumping machines. Whether you are 3 years old or 60 years old, a trampoline can be a good source for fun and exercise for all family members. Trampolines are especially helpful for anyone recovering from an injury or accident, which is why most physical therapy offices own at least one.

In today’s busy society it is sometimes difficult to find affordable activities for the whole family to make time for and participate in. Trampolines are the perfect solution to that problem. With a trampoline quality time can be spent with your family in your own backyard, eliminating any inconvenient travel time and expenses. Parents watching their children perform trampoline tricks or simply bounce around, will leave children with memories that will last a lifetime.

The Right Ovarian Cysts Management

Ovarian cyst management should be carried out cautiously so as to avoid any future problems. The subject of ovarian cysts has been a source of worry for women for a long time. Much of the time, cysts do not represent any danger. Once we all understand the nature of cysts, then much of the worrying is finished.

Ovarian Cysts and Their Management:

General solutions for managing ovarian cysts require a few remarks. The first one is that classical treatment and medical surveillance is enough for a woman who is not a user of oral contraceptives, whose cystic structure is less than the dimensions of plum, who is still at an age where reproduction is possible, and who does not suffer pain (pain could be a element requiring obligatory surgical intervention).

Pathologic cysts may also display septations, which is the appearance of partitions of the tissues. When this occurs several different fluid compartments can be remarked. Pathologic cysts might also generate growths in the tissue modifying the smoothness of the cyst wall. These growths may be referred to as excrescences. To understand the cyst situation and to ascertain the exact size of the cyst, most doctors would employ the technique of ultrasounds. Neither septations nor excrescences exist in physiologic cysts. Surgical intervention may be mandatory when cysts are pathologic.

Second possibility:

If there is no malignancy, conventional surgery may be possible. This is also an option that permits a patient to keep the ovary. The medical appellation for this is ovarian cystectomy. Surgical techniques should whatever the circumstances minimize any tissue damage. Also to be adhered to is the meticulous control of any bleeding and plans to use adhesion barriers. It is an unfortunate fact that surgical operations on ovaries may bring on the development of “adhesions” causing pain. They may also lead to excessive sensitivity during sexual intercourse, or even cause infertility.

Such an ovarian cystectomy may be performed laparoscopically, that is to say using small incisions, or by using classical surgical methods. The first approach avoids leaving disfiguring marks, as well as pain and also leads to faster recovery. If one of the ovaries has been badly impacted in the cystic process but the other one has stayed normal, a doctor`s advice may be to extract the impacted ovary.

Third possibility:

For a woman who already gave birth to her children, it may be possible to ascertain via endometriosis if the cyst is the result of the collection of old blood, a particularity also known as chocolate cysts or endometria. When endometriosis also occurs elsewhere in the pelvis, then this surgical operation is typically mandatory instead of optional in order to resolve the difficulty permanently.

According to the kind of disease, the age of the patient and possible other pelvic disorders, hysterectomy and ablation of the ovary may be the right decisions. Ovarian cancer is a danger that in all cases must countered by surgery. The explanation for this is the feeble rate of survival without this solution.

Needle Aspiration and Various Factors:

Ovarian cysts develop in some six percent of post-menopausal women. It is a fact that most of these cysts are benign or functional. Certain factors including age, menopausal status, and the nature and dimensions of the cyst will determine how to manage ovarian cysts. Needle aspiration of ovarian cysts is then the best choice compared to classical or laparoscopic surgical intervention when the cysts are considered to be functional. The doctor should thus act in order to stop the development of any cancer that impacts 61 out of 100,000 women aged around 68.

However many questions have arisen in the minds of those concerned on the subject of needle aspiration and its rate of success. Needle aspiration can be performed using only local anaesthetic, which already makes it advantageous compared to other forms of surgical ablation. It is not necessary to enter a hospital for this technique.


The first thing to be determined is whether the cyst is malignant or not. Detection relies on establishing the presence or absence of vegetations. The relative levels of CA 125 serum were shown to be normal in around 97 percent of women who it seems had ovarian cysts, which is the same as saying that their cysts were benign. These studies were done some years ago. In the case of malignant tumours, the relative levels of serum were found to be higher. Methods of discovery today include ultrasonography, relative levels of CA 125 serum and clinical examination.

The least satisfactory method is clinical examination, as between 30 and 65 percent of ovarian tumours are usually left unidentified. A more effective technique is vaginal ultrasonography. Benign tumours are identified in up to 96 percent of all cases.

Ovarian Cytology:

Ovarian cytology has not yet demonstrated its complete reliability. Yet it has been shown that in encountering the situations of de Brux, such as instant fixation so as to avoid uninterruptible cells and double configuration, this procedure can then be effective.

Final possibility:

Medication or surgery also has the risk of secondary effects and associated difficulties. A holistic agenda using all natural elements is the best one that you can use to entirely eradicate the problems of ovarian cysts. Following this information on how to manage ovarian cysts, it is still imperative to understand that the basic problem must be remedied for any lasting solution. This must be done or there will be no change.

The Scientific Research Behind Hope – Antidote to Human Misery Or Pipe Dream?

To what extent is hope necessary or relevant for these difficult times? The world is besieged by economic, military, educational, and healthcare problems which seem to be insurmountable. In such a world, of what possible use is hope? It feels as if Pandora opened her box only recently, allowing a wave of evils to descend upon humankind. And yet, in the Greek myth, Pandora closed the box while one thing remained inside – hope. Is hope a powerful psychological asset, an antidote to human shortcomings? Or is hope simply a pipe dream for Pollyanna-ish optimists who can not see the brutal, harsh nature of reality?

Hope Is Helpful In A Variety of Areas

Hope has been studied in psychology labs through the world for dozens of years. Research studies have shown that greater hope is associated with:

O Freedom from anxiety

O Less depression

O More positive mood

O Increased popularity among people

O Higher achievement in a number of areas (academic, athletic, military, political and professional)

O Greater quality of social relationships

O Improved physical health

O Increased accomplishment of goals

O Increased tolerance of pain

O Reduced cardiovascular risk

If hope is a pipe dream for those who do not see reality accurately, then the rose-colored pipe dream comes with a slew of physical, emotional, social and voluntary benefits. Given the broad range of positive advantages that hope confers upon its users, it might be more simply stated that hope helps. Hope is, in fact, a powerful psychological asset.

Hope Defined

Hope is a belief or wish that in the future good events and positive feelings will come more frequently than bad events and negative feelings. Rick Snyder, a researcher at Kansas University, sees hope as having three distinct parts:

1. Goals – Goals can be large or small, short- or long-term, formal or informal. Goals can be set in any area of ​​life. However, without goals, there is no future-oriented thinking, and then no hope.

2. Pathways – A workable plan to get around potential challenges to enable one to get to the goal.

3. Agency – The energy, motivation, or will to act. Agency is the degree of determination one has to achieve a goal.

Hope Is More About The Future Than The Present

To the extent that one has these three elements, one has hope. Hope comes from the excitation one feet about the future possibility of accomplishing goals. Hope is not as much about the present moment as it is about realizing future potential. Hope is a perception wheree one sees the future as filled with possibilities. Hope helps to create the future as it motivates people to strive towards creating new constructive realities.

Hopeful People Do not Play The Blame Game

One of the appealing aspects of hope is that hopeful people do not get into blaming themselves or the world for falling short of a goal. Instead, when they fail, hope people ask 'What now?' They come up with alternative ways to achieve their goal. They excel at discovering multiple pathways to attain goals. Hope has been shown to enhance problem-solving abilities and thus makes people better at brainstorming potential solutions to challenges.

Learning To Be More Hopeful

Instead of creating New Year's resolutions that will be broken by nightfall, you may want to resolve to become more hopeful. If that's the case, here are some suggestions to help strengthen your hope.

Dare to Hope – Most are growing growing up 'Do not get your hopes up!' Hope is a human strength which makes the accomplishment of goals more likely. Be brave enough to have hope.

Set Goals That Are Personally Meaningful – There is little point to trying to fulfill goals that someone else has for you. Goals are effective when they have meaning to you.

State Your Goals in the Positive – Rather than 'I'm going to lose 10 pounds' tell yourself 'I will get healthy'. The human mind does not respond well to negative statements and goals are no exception. State your goals using positive language.

Be Mindful of Where Hope Falls Apart – Does your hope break down at the pathways stage? Perhaps you need better planning, or help in creating your plan. If your hope falters at the motivation or determination stage, share your goal with loved ones to give you extra accountability.

Check In With Your Self – Whenever you are distracted from the task you are working on, ask yourself 'What am I doing?' And 'What are my goals for this task?' These simple questions will help you to stay focused on the task at hand, remind you of your goals and perform well in the moment.

Listen to Uplifting Music – Recent research has shown that listening to music (as well as playing and composing) involves almost every neural network in the human brain. Music lights up the brain. The power of music is the power to evoke emotions. If you want to feel hope, listen to hopeful music. Some of my favorite songs that evoke hope are …

O Lovely, Love My Family by The Roots (on the Yo Gabba, Gabba album)

O Imagine by John Lennon

O Unwritten by Natasha Bedingfield

O You'll Be Blessed by Elton John

O Three Little Birds by Bob Marley

O I Do not Ever Give Up by Patty Griffin

O Joy by Mick Jagger

O The Middle by Jimmy Eats World

O Fall Back Down by Rancid

Watch an Elevating Clip On YouTube

Studies have shown that the brain is a very literal organ and does not differiate much between what is real, what is imagined and what we watch on a screen. In some meaningful way, hope can be aimed into the mind by watching clips or movies that inspire you.

One uplifting clip on YouTube is actually an ad from MBF, a health care company in Australia, featuring the song 'Accentuate the Positive'.

Or check out the short film 'Validated' with Hugh Newman in which parking garage attendant 'validates' the existence of others by offering words of kindness and encouragement (

One of my favorites on YouTube is 'Free Hugs' with music by the Sick Puppies ('All the same') at This clip has been viewed over 40 million times and won YouTube's video of the year for 2007. This social experiment, giving away free hugs, has been replicated in dozens of countries with similar hopeful results.

O There is a great video by the Dave Matthews Band called 'Everyday'. It was done back in 2001 and may be the predecessor to the 'Free Hugs' idea. It's on YouTube at It appears as if the main character in the video is asking people for spare change. See what the guy really wants by checking out the video.

When Pandora did close her infamous box, it's fortunately for us that hope was left inside. Hope is a powerful internal asset which can be used to offset many of the hardships life brings. One of the guarantees in life is that there will be ups and downs, good times and trying times. Increase your chances of success by fosting your own feelings of hope and thoughts based on realistic optimism.

Ayurvedic Herbal Treatment for Alopecia (Baldness)

Alopecia or baldness is hair loss usually noted with respect to the scalp of both men and women. While generalized hair loss is known as alopecia, small and circular bald patches are termed as alopecia areata. Noticeable hair loss and the resulting premature baldness can be psychologically very disturbing, since a luxuriant hair growth on the scalp is considered a sign of good health, grooming and personality. Premature hair loss is usually caused due to a genetic tendency, chronic diseases, medications, stress, injury or damage to the hair, and as a side-effect of strong treatments like chemotherapy and radiation therapy. While actual baldness is more apparent in men, severe hair loss and apparent thinning of hair is more common in women; however, both types of hair loss can prove to be devastating for affected individuals.

Treating baldness or hair loss constitutes a booming medical industry, and various treatments for this condition have emerged, which include allopathic and alternative medications, local scalp treatments using laser therapy, shampoos and conditioners, as well as specialized treatments like wigs and hair grafting. Medicated oils for treating hair loss are available at all chemists over-the-counter, with new medical preparations being added regularly.

Ayurvedic herbal treatment for alopecia is a systematic process of looking for the cause of the condition and giving comprehensive treatment for it. A careful history is important in order to identify and treat specific causes such as chronic diseases and the use of specific drugs or harmful treatments. It is best to avoid any known cause for the condition, if possible. Anxiety, stress, a harmful lifestyle, and improper nutrition to the hair roots are usually the commonest causes of premature hair loss in men and women.

Ayurvedic treatment can be given as a combination of oral medication and local applications. Oral medication involves the use of medicines which can treat the known causes for the condition. In addition, medicines which have a specific action on the scalp as well as the hair roots are also important in the management of this condition. These medicines improve the blood supply to the hair roots and thereby provide better nutrition to the scalp, while at the same time removing toxins and unwanted elements from this area. These medicines also provide stimulation to the hair roots so as to help regenerate new hair and prevent hair loss.

Oral medication is usually supplemented with local application in the form of medicated ointments, pastes, and oils which have to be applied regularly so as to provide good results. Local applications not only provide nutrition for hair roots but also treat skin inflammation, infection and dandruff, and thereby reduce the tendency for hair fall. Regular massage with medicated oils not only aids in hair regrowth but also relaxes the scalp and neck muscles and induces good sleep.

It is equally important to give herbal medicines to treat stress and anxiety which are important factors which continue to propagate severe hair fall. It should also be remembered that the rate of regrowth of hair should be much more than the rate of hair fall in order to prevent noticeable hair loss and baldness. Most individuals affected with this condition require regular treatment for 6-9 months in order to get significant benefit from Ayurvedic treatment.

International law questions and answers

According to international law, does Israel have a right to build a wall around an occupied people?
No, it is completely illegal. International Court of Justice ruled that the wall was illegal and ordered Israel to tear it down. The Tel Aviv newspaper Haaretz, quoting court documents, reported that by a 14-1 vote the judges found the barrier,.

According to international law, soldiers who are sent in war in other countries, they’re staying legal ?
There is a large body of international law and customary practices that govern armed conflict between nations. Under these laws, soldiers usually meet the legal requirements to be considered as ‘combatants’ and as such their actions and their actions are considered.

What type of career options are available for lawyers specializing in international law?
Also, what is the average salary. Is it an in demand field? Please include any other information you can give me about this type of law. I am about to attend law school next year. I am thinking about specializing in corporate law or international law..

Which human rights can never be derogated according to the international law?
I know the right to life is one of them, and then the right not to be tortured and held in slavery. Which are the others?.. ‘Right to life, Right to liberty, right to fair trial, freedom of speech. – I’m not familiar with the term ‘derogated’.

Would George Bush be executed if tried by The International Court?
Illegal invasion, deaths of 100,000s of thousands of innocent people, torture, etc.: all illegal under international law. Or does our power and wealth give us the right to ignore the law and the feelings of the rest of the world. No. The International Court doesn’t give the death.

Does Israeli destruction of Palestinian homes ‘violates international law??
By Donald Macintyre in Jerusalem 19 October 2004 law Israel has systematically violated international law by destroying the homes of 16,000 people in Gaza’s southernmost town regardless of military necessity, a leading New York-based human rights agency said yesterday. Human Rights Watch suggested Israel has used weapons-smuggling.

how can international law be used as a tool for conflict resolution?
The same way that Federal law is used as a tool for interstate conflict resolution. Remember that the original 13 colonies were 13 nations at first, and they agreed to give the federal government the authority to handle international disputes. Same with the EU. The member.

‘for the police in washington dc to search the embassy of foreign country would be considered’?
a legal only if the police had a warrant b.acceptable under international law c. a violation of diplomatic immunity I’ll guess C. – C and grounds for a declaration of war against the United States of America. What are you waiting for? -.

Has anyone caught onto anything suspicious lately?
Think about your rights. Think about the constitution. Think about dumb people. We have lost our 1st, 4th, 5th, and 6th amendment rights. The constitution has been replaced by the Civil Rights Act and international law. I don’t know what to think about dumb people. But 2 out 3’s not bad. -.

What is the cisg?
Contracts for the International Sales of Goods. – CISG stands for the United Nations Convention on the International Sale of Goods. It codifies private international law with respect to the international sale of goods. The United States and most of its important trading partners have ratified the Convention. It is a binding treaty in.

How has Bush violated international law? What laws did he violate?
Numerous UN Treaties (accepted and ratified by the US) which set forth standards for treatment of prisoners (see Abu Gharib) including the Geneva Convention (which the US has said we are no longer following in the ‘war on terror’). Also, civil rights violations — numerous treaties forbid.

I am an American but I want to move to the UK and pursue law. Do you think this is a bad idea?
It’s a good idea if you intend to practice international law or stay to practice in the UK. The legal system in the UK is very different from the one in the US. Do your.

Since Mexico abandoned all their oil rigs, if I can find someone crazy enough to go there, will I be able to?
claim them as abandoned property under international law. Was just thinking if that would work. Dean is 6mph short of being a cat 5. Not many will take you up on that suicide mission. – If the.

if a nation declared war, what’s the status of a captured foreign saboteur, in international law .?
Asking NOT because of Guantanamo, but for a case coming to my attention happening in WW2. along with that.. Geneva convention. since when is it valid and did we signed it ? The Geneva convention only protects soldiers in uniform and properly.

Is a blockade considered to be an act of war under international law? I.E. Cuban Missile Crisis.?
This is a good question. Generally, I would consider a blockade to be an act of war, but I think that what is considered an act of war can be different for different countries. For example, if the UN agreed to.

is a criminal justice a lawyer that goes to court and defends people?
is like what is the diference between pre law studies, criminal justice, law, advanced legal reaserch,coparative law and international law. Haha, no – criminal justice refers to the field of study that examines crime as a social phenomenon, and traditional focuses on the agents, procedures, and.

Is it true that the United Nations must sanction a war for it to be legal? Is Bush a war criminal then?
Bush going to war violates international law but it does not constutute war crimes such as genocide. According to the Un resolution 1441: ‘The Security Council may decide what measures not involving the use of armed.

Is it true that to become a citizen of Israel one has to be Jewish? Is that legal under international law?
It is obviously discriminatory. I don’t think the U.S. should support any country that requires the citizens to be a specific religion. This concept is so un-American that it would make the writers of the Bill of.

is there an international law stating that a child or teenager must be home by 5 o’clock?
me and my mom are argueing over this she says there is but i dont think so Not international, but if that’s what your mother says, then it is her law and you still have to follow it. That doesn’t make any.

Please tell me where I am wrong with this seemingly inescapable logic on the Iraq situation?
1. If there was no WMDs then there was no immediate threat to the US 2. If there was no immediate threat to the US, then there was no justification under both international law and our own president?? statements * 3. If there.

send all illegals home!agree or disagree??
Subject: TRY THIS CRAP IN MEXICO If you are ready for the adventure of a lifetime, TRY THIS:Enter Mexico illegally. Never mind immigration quotas, visas,international law, or any of that nonsense. Once there, demand that the local government provide free medical care for you and your entire family.Demand bilingual nurses and doctors.Demand free.

Should there be some sort of international law agianst world prostitution?
I’m so so sick of how drugs get taken care of but the one very immoral subject is left untaken care of- prostitution. In Asia alone, prostituition is everywhere from Taiwan, Japan to Thailand. It’s illegal in these countries, but heck who’s going to enforce the law? The.

Should Tony Blair be prosecuted for crimes against humanity?
What ‘crime against humanity’ has he committed? I’m not a big fan of Blair, but I adhere to the use of facts, evidence, proof, logic and reason in arguments. First, what actions has he done that can be construed as violations of international law? The charges need to be.

War crimes and international law – please do survey?
1.Age? 2.Male / Female 3.Where were you born? 4.Are you or your parents immigrants to Australia? From what country? 5.What is a war crime? 6.Who do you believe was responsible for the outbreak of World War Two? 7.The Axis nations were more heavily tried and convicted of war crimes at.

Was the intervention by the int community in the first gulf war legal?
Cos based on international law i was just wondering. I mean forgetting all the political issues associated with the war it is a bit confusing. I think that the Republicans would say that it was legal, because the United Nations’ Just War Theory requires that intervention.

Was the U.S. invasion of Iraq a violation of international law?
No, and for those who think it did, please cite which ‘International Laws’ were broken. Clearly there were numerous UN resolutions that authorized the use of force against Iraq for their violations of the resolutions. – As far as I can tell, no. – don’t think so.

can countries enforce laws from other countries?
i’m doing international law andd need to know whether a piece of valid prescriptive jurisdiction say prohibiting the causing of harm to a state’s nationals anywhere in the world could be enforced by a state which didn’t actually pass the legislation. so for instance if the United Kingdom made a law making.

what is the different between aggression and self defence in the international law?
are there similarities or differences between them? what role does security council play before taking actions against countries? aggression is when you provoke a fight, a verbal assault, a battery, etc self defence is when you try to protect yourself from such aggressions. self defence has.

what is the legal status of voluntary human shields under international law?the consequences of an attack on 1
in terms of the geneva conventions and other treaties. what are the consequences of an attack on such target? In practical terms, the legal status is nothing since, for the most part, international law is more concept than practice. Sovereign law.

what should be the role of foreign and international law in the U.S. Supreme Court decisions?
Particularly those that expand civil liberties? US Supreme court decisions should be based on interpretaion of US law and foreign and international law have no place. Decisions should be based on precedence and current law. By going outside of our laws, they are.

why America pressurized the world for international laws and violate himself ?
I’ll have to assume that you are asking why the United States is pushing Iran to give up its nuclear program while we maintain one ourselves. First, the nuclear program of the United States does not violate international law. Our program follows conventions agreed to by.

why do new nation accept international law?
Not necessarily so. From my perspective international law is often a framework created to endorse political power and control. To justify otherwise unjustifiable means. Where international conventions genuinely attempt to redress social ills their transposition into a new nation relies on the legitimacy of those laws to that nations people. This.

Why not just shoot them??
If, according to international law, mercenaries are not protected by the laws of war, and could be treated as criminals, whats all the fuss with the prisoners at Abu Grab? According to international law they have no rights. Would they not be considered mercenaries? i agree kill em all. – ARE THEY NOT.

Can the states withdraw from de union according to international law?
States can theoretically vote to secede from the union, but in practice that would be very difficult to do, because few states have a viable economy on their own. They are too inter-dependent on federal programs and money. The US Supreme Court ruled that states do not.

Do citizens of an occupied nation have the right to attack the foreign invaders under international law ?
I think that if your country is attacked you do have the right to defend your homeland against foreign invaders. And once occupied you still have the right to fight for your country and try to restore it to its.

Does a surgeon diseased with hepatitis c have the right to practice operations?
i am a surgeon diseased with hepatitis c , according international law of surgeons , i have the right to practice operations or not ? No you’re not; you’re some kid trying to get us to do your homework. – This is the appropriate place for.

In international law, what status does a signed but unratified treaty have? Does it have any force in law?
What is the difference between an international treaty that has been signed and ratified (by a country’s national legislature)and one that has been merely signed but not ratified between two or more countries? If one country signs and ratifies but.

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Preventing Needlestick Injuries in Health Care Settings

More than 8 million health care workers in the United States work in hospitals and other health care settings. Precise national data are not available on the annual number of needlestick and other percutaneous injuries among health care workers; however, estimates indicate that 600,000 to 800,000 such injuries occur annually. About half of these injuries go unreported.

Data from the EPINet system suggest that at an average hospital, workers incur approximately 30 needlestick injuries per 100 beds per year. Most reported needlestick injuries involve nursing staff; but laboratory staff, physicians, housekeepers, and other health care workers are also injured. Some of these injuries expose workers to bloodborne pathogens that can cause infection.

The most important of these pathogens are HBV, HCV, and HIV. Infections with each of these pathogens are potentially life threatening and preventable.


Between 1985 and June 1999, cumulative totals of 55 documented cases and 136 possible cases of occupational HIV transmission to U.S. health care workers were reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).  Most involved  nurses and laboratory technicians. Percutaneous injury (e.g., needlestick) was associated  with 49 (89%) of the documented transmissions. Of these, 44 involved hollow-bore needles, most of which were used for blood collection or insertion of an IV catheter. 

HIV infection is a complex disease that can be associated with many symptoms. The virus attacks part of the body’s immune system, eventually leading to severe infections and other complications, a condition known as AIDS.

Health care workers who were investigated and (1) had no identifiable behavioral or  transfusion risks, (2) reported having had percutaneous or mucocutaneous occupational  exposures to blood or body fluids or to laboratory solutions containing HIV, but (3) had no  documented HIV seroconversion resulting from a specific occupational exposure.


Information from national hepatitis surveillance is used to estimate the number of HBV infections in health care workers. In 1995, an estimated 800 health care workers became infected with HBV [CDC unpublished data]. This figure represented a 95% decline from the 17,000 new infections estimated in 1983. The decline was largely due to the widespread immunization of health care workers with the hepatitisB vaccine and the use of universal precautions and other measures required by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) bloodborne pathogens standard. About one-third to one-half of persons with acute HBV infection develop symptoms of hepatitis such as jaundice, fever, nausea, and abdominal pain. Most acute infections resolve, but 5% to 10% of patients develop chronic infection with HBV that carries an estimated 20% lifetime risk of dying from cirrhosis and 6% risk of dying from liver cancer.


Hepatitis C virus infection is the most common chronic bloodborne infection in the United States, affecting approximately 4 million people. Although the prevalence of HCV infection among health care workers is similar to that in the general population (1% to 2%), health care workers clearly have an increased occupational risk for HCV infection.

In a study that evaluated risk factors for infection, a history of unintentional needlestick injury was independently associated with HCV infection. The number of health care  workers who have acquired HCV occupationally is not known. However, of the total acute HCV infections that have occurred annually (ranging from 100,000 in 1991 to 36,000 in 1996), 2% to 4% have been in health care workers exposed to blood in the workplace.

HCV infection often occurs with no symptoms or only mild symptoms. But unlike HBV, chronic infection develops in 75% to 85% of patients, with active liver disease developing in 70%. Of the patients with active liver disease, 10% to 20% develop cirrhosis, and 1% to 5% develop liver cancer.


After a needlestick exposure to an infected patient, a health care worker’s risk of infection depends on the pathogen involved, the immune status of the worker, the severity of the needlestick injury, and the availability and use of appropriate post exposure prophylaxis.


To estimate the rate of HIV transmission, data were combined from more than 20 worldwide prospective studies of health care workers exposed to HIV-infected blood through a percutaneous injury. In all, 21 infections followed 6,498 exposures for an average transmission rate of 0.3% per injury. A retrospective case-control study of health care workers who had percutaneous exposures to HIV found that the risk of HIV transmission was increased when the worker was exposed to a larger quantity of blood from the patient, as indicated by (1) a visibly bloody device, (2) a procedure that involved placing a needle in a patient’s vein or artery, or (3) a deep injury. Preliminary data suggest that such high-risk needlestick injuries may have a substantially greater risk of disease transmission per injury.

Post-exposure prophylaxis for HIV is recommended for health care workers occupationally exposed to HIV under certain circumstances. Limited data suggest that such prophylaxis may  considerably reduce the chance of becoming infected with HIV. However, the drugs used for HIV post exposure prophylaxis have many adverse side effects. Currently no vaccine exists to prevent HIV infection, and no treatment exists to cure it.


The rate of HBV transmission to susceptible health care workers ranges from 6% to 30% after a single needlestick exposure to an HBV-infected patient. However, such exposures are a risk only for health care workers who are not immune to HBV. Health care workers who have antibodies to HBV either from preexposure vaccination or prior infection are not at risk. In addition, if a susceptible worker is exposed to HBV, post-exposure prophylaxis with hepatitis B immune globulin and initiation of hepatitis B vaccine is more than 90% effective in preventing HBV infection.


Prospective studies of health care workers exposed to HCV through a needlestick or other percutaneous injury have found that the incidence of anti-HCV seroconversion (indicating infection) averages 1.8% (range, 0% to 7%) per injury. Currently no vaccine exists to prevent HCV infection, and neither immunoglobulin nor antiviral therapy is recommended as post-exposure prophylaxis. However, recommendations for treatment of early infections are  rapidly evolving. Health care workers with known exposure should be monitored for  seroconversion and referred for medical follow up if seroconversion occurs.


Although exposure to HBV poses a high risk for infection, administration of preexposure vaccination or post-exposure prophylaxis to workers can dramatically reduce this risk. Such is not the case with HCV and HIV. Preventing the needlestick injury is the best approach to preventing these diseases in health care workers, and it is an important part of any bloodborne pathogen prevention program in the workplace.


Devices Associated with Needlestick Injuries

Of nearly 5,000 percutaneous injuries reported by hospitals between June 1995 and July 1999, 62%  were associated with hollow-bore needles, primarily hypodermic needles attached to  disposable syringes (29%) and winged-steel (butterfly-type) needles (13%). Data from hospitals participating in EPINet show a similar distribution of injuries by device type.

Activities Associated with Needlestick Injuries

Whenever a needle or other sharp device is exposed, injuries can occur. Approximately 38% of percutaneous injuries occur during use and 42% occur after use and before disposal. The circumstances leading to a needlestick injury depend partly on the type and design of the device used. For example, needle devices that must be taken apart or manipulated after use (e.g., prefilled cartridge syringes and phlebotomy needle/ vacuum tube assemblies) are an obvious hazard and have been associated with increased injury rates. In addition, needles attached to a length of flexible tubing (e.g., winged-steel  needles and needles attached to IV tubing) are sometimes difficult to place in sharps containers and thus present another injury hazard. Injuries involving needles attached to IV tubing may occur when a health care worker inserts or withdraws a needle from an IV port or tries to temporarily remove the needlestick hazard by inserting the needle into a drip chamber, IV port or bag, or even bedding.

In addition to risks related to device characteristics, needlestick injuries have been related to certain work practices such as:

  • recapping,
  • transferring a body fluid between containers, and
  • failing to properly dispose of used needles in puncture-resistant sharps containers.

Past studies of needlestick injuries have shown that 10% to 25% occurred when recapping a used needle. Although recapping by hand has been discouraged for some time and is prohibited under the OSHA bloodborne pathogens standard unless no alternative exists, 5% of needlestick injuries in NaSH hospitals are still related to this practice. Injury may occur when a health care worker attempts to transfer blood or other body fluids from a syringe to a specimen container (such as a vacuum tube) and misses the target. Also, if used needles or other sharps are left in the work area or are discarded in a sharps container that is not puncture resistant, a needlestick injury may result.



The current Federal standard for addressing needlestick injuries among health care workers is the OSHA bloodborne pathogens standard, which has been in effect since  1992. The standard applies to all occupational exposures to blood or other potentially  infectious materials. Notable elements of this standard require the following:

  • A written exposure control plan designed to eliminate or minimize worker

exposure to bloodborne pathogens

  • Compliance with universal precautions (an infection control principle

that treats all human blood and other potentially infectious materials as infectious)

  • Engineering controls and work practices to eliminate or minimize worker exposure
  • Personal protective equipment (if engineering controls and work practices do not eliminate occupational exposures)
  • Prohibition of bending, recapping, or removing contaminated needles and other sharps unless such an act is required by a specific procedure or has no feasible alternative
  • Prohibition of shearing or breaking contaminated needles (OSHA defines contaminated as the presence or the reasonably anticipated presence of blood or other potentially infectious materials on an item or surface)
  • Free hepatitis B vaccinations offered to workers with occupational exposure to bloodborne pathogens.
  • Worker training in appropriate engineering controls and work practices
  • Post-exposure evaluation and follow up, including post-exposure prophylaxis when appropriate

OSHA also intends to act to reduce the number of injuries that health care workers receive from needles and other sharp medical objects. First, the agency has revised the  compliance directive accompanying its 1992 bloodborne pathogens standard to reflect newer and safer technologies now available and to increase the employer’s responsibility to evaluate and use effective, safer technologies. Second, the agency has proposed a requirement in the revised recordkeeping rule that all injuries resulting from contaminated needles and sharps be  recorded on OSHA logs used by employers to record injuries and illnesses. Finally, OSHA will  take steps to amend its bloodborne pathogens standard by placing needlestick and sharps injuries on its regulatory agenda.


Under the regulations of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) application clearance process, the manufacturers of medical devices (including needles used in patient care) must  meet requirements for appropriate registration and for listing, labeling, and good  manufacturing practices for design and production. The process for receiving clearance or  approval to market a device requires device manufacturers to (1) demonstrate that a new  device is substantially equivalent to a legally marketed device or (2) document the safety and effectiveness of the new device for patient care through a more involved premarket  approval process. FDA has also released two advisories pertaining to sharps and the risk of  bloodborne pathogen transmission in the health care setting.

State Regulations

Currently, multiple states have adopted and more are considering legislation to require additional regulatory actions addressing bloodborne pathogen exposures to health  care workers. The California standard has several requirements that go beyond those currently  required by OSHA.  These requirements include stronger language for the use of needleless  systems for certain procedures or (where needleless systems are not available) the use of needles with engineered sharps injury protection for certain procedures.


Comprehensive Programs to Prevent Needlestick Injuries

Safety and health issues can best be addressed in the setting of a comprehensive prevention program that considers all aspects of the work environment and that has employee involvement as well as management commitment. Implementing the use of improved engineering controls is one component of such a comprehensive program. Since many devices with needlestick prevention features are new, this section primarily addresses their use, including desirable characteristics, examples, and data supporting their effectiveness.

Desirable Characteristics of Devices with Safety Features

Improved engineering controls are often among the most effective approaches to reducing occupational hazards and therefore are an important element of a needlestick prevention program. Such controls include eliminating the unnecessary use of needles and implementing devices with safety features. These characteristics include the following:

  • The device is needleless.
  • The safety feature is an integral part of the device.
  • The device preferably works passively (i.e., it requires no activation by the user). If user

activation is necessary, the safety feature can be engaged with a single-handed technique and allows the worker’s hands to remain behind the exposed sharp.

  • The user can easily tell whether the safety feature is activated.
  • The safety feature cannot be deactivated and remains protective through disposal.
  • The device performs reliably.
  • The device is easy to use and practical.
  • The device is safe and effective for patient care.

Although each of these characteristics is desirable, some are not feasible, applicable or available for certain health care situations. For example, needles will always be necessary where alternatives for skin penetration are not available. Also, a safety feature that requires activation by the user might be preferable to one that is passive in some cases. Each device must be considered on its own merit and ultimately on its ability to reduce workplace injuries. The desirable characteristics listed here should  thus serve only as a guideline for device design and selection.

Contaminated Sharps Discarding and Containment.

Contaminated sharps shall be discarded immediately or as soon as feasible in containers that are:

  • Closable;
  • Puncture resistant;
  • Leak-proof on sides and bottom; and
  • Labeled or color-coded.

During use, containers for contaminated sharps shall be:

Easily accessible to personnel and located as close as is feasible to the immediate area where sharps are used or can be reasonably anticipated to be found (e.g., laundries);

Maintained upright throughout use; and

Replaced routinely and not be allowed to overfill.

When moving containers of contaminated sharps from the area of use, the containers shall be:

Closed immediately prior to removal or replacement to prevent spillage or protrusion of contents during handling, storage, transport, or shipping;

Placed in a secondary container if leakage is possible. The second container shall be:

  • Closable;
  • Constructed to contain all contents and prevent leakage during handling, storage, transport, or shipping; and
  • Labeled or color-coded.

Reusable containers shall not be opened, emptied, or cleaned manually or in any other manner which would expose employees to the risk of percutaneous injury.


Contaminated laundry shall be handled as little as possible with a minimum of agitation.

Contaminated laundry shall be bagged or containerized at the location where it was used and shall not be sorted or rinsed in the location of use.

Contaminated laundry shall be placed and transported in bags or containers labeled or color-coded. When a facility utilizes Universal Precautions in the handling of all soiled laundry, alternative labeling or color-coding is sufficient if it permits all employees to recognize the containers as requiring compliance with Universal Precautions.

Whenever contaminated laundry is wet and presents a reasonable likelihood of soak-through of or leakage from the bag or container, the laundry shall be placed and transported in bags or containers which prevent soak-through and/or leakage of fluids to the exterior.

The employer shall ensure that employees who have contact with contaminated laundry wear protective gloves and other appropriate personal protective equipment.

When a facility ships contaminated laundry off-site to a second facility which does not utilize Universal Precautions in the handling of all laundry, the facility generating the contaminated laundry must place such laundry in bags or containers which are labeled or color-coded.

Communication of Hazards to Employees —

Labels and Signs —

Warning labels shall be affixed to containers of regulated waste, refrigerators and freezers containing blood or other potentially infectious material; and other containers used to store, transport or ship blood or other potentially infectious materials.

These labels shall be fluorescent orange or orange-red or predominantly so, with lettering and symbols in a contrasting color.

Labels shall be affixed as close as feasible to the container by string, wire, adhesive, or other method that prevents their loss or unintentional removal.

Red bags or red containers may be substituted for labels.

Individual containers of blood or other potentially infectious materials that are placed in a labeled container during storage, transport, shipment or disposal are exempted from the labeling requirement.

Labels required for contaminated equipment shall be in accordance with this paragraph and shall also state which portions of the equipment remain contaminated.

Regulated waste that has been decontaminated need not be labeled or color-coded.


Needlestick injuries are an important and continuing cause of exposure to serious  and fatal diseases among health care workers. Greater collaborative efforts by all stakeholders are needed to prevent needlestick injuries and the tragic consequences that can result. Such efforts are best accomplished through a comprehensive program that addresses institutional, behavioral, and device-related factors that contribute to the occurrence of needlestick injuries in health care workers. Critical to this effort are the elimination of needle bearing devices where safe and effective alternatives are available and the development, evaluation, and use of needle devices with safety features.

radiology ceu

How to Please a Man With Your Hands – The Touch That He Is Craving the Most Revealed Today

Did you know that your hands alone can offer your man so much pleasure? Just the touch of your fingers, nails and palms on his skin can easily make him achieve an orgasm that is out of this world. Now is the time that you learned how to hone in on those skills and that you learned how to please a man with your hands.

In order to please a man with your hands, you need to learn what kind of a touch he is craving and there is one that he is craving the most. This is the touch that all men are dying to have and you are going to give it to him tonight.

The touch that your man wants the most is a rough, hard touch. During foreplay, your man isn’t going to get turned on if you are lightly caressing his skin. He is going to get turned on when you dig your nails deep into his back and make your touch linger on his skin. The skin on a man’s body is much thicker and tougher than the skin that us women have, so therefore, you need to be a bit rougher. Plus, men are more responsive to a more dominating touch. He will be more into you touching him in a rough fashion and he will get more pleasure and arousal out of it.

To please him with your hands in the form of stimulation down south, he still wants a rough touch. Remember that the tip of his penis is very sensitive, so you should use a lighter touch on that particular spot. However, the shaft is a different story as it is stronger and tougher. On this part of his body, you can squeeze him tight and really stroke him hard.

There is a very special technique to pleasing your man with your hands and you are about to learn just what that consists of. The touch that will truly blow his mind is called “the twist”. This move involves both of your hands stacked up on his penis, one on top of the other. With both hands on him, you are then going to twist your hands in opposite directions. This sensation will make him feel like two women are touching him and this is a common fantasy that so many men share. If you really want to please him with your hands tonight and to have him completely speechless and satisfied, then you must use that tip.

Atherosclerosis – Symptoms, Causes, prevention and Treatment

By atherosclerosis the inside of the arteries are thickened, hardened and stiffened, causing the space for blood flow to be narrowed or closed. This will decrease the oxygen supply to local or distant tissues.

The primary symptom of this is pain, poor organ function and bad general condition. The further consequences are tissue damage, sometimes acute damage because by stop of blood flow caused by a sudden blood clot formed in the narrowed areas.


The inner walls of the arteries consist of an innermost layer of endothelial cells (surface cells) and under these a layer of smooth muscle cells. The changes by atherosclerosis take place under the endothelial cells and in this muscle layer. The changes consist of: A certain degree of cell proliferation or tumour, gathering of cholesterol and fat. Deposition of calcium salts. Deposition of blood elements like fibrin.

The deposits are called atherosclerotic plaque or atheroma. Atherosclerosis is one of several types of artery thickening and hardening. Generally thickening and hardening of arteries is called arteriosclerosis. Often atherosclerosis is also called arteriosclerosis.

The development of atherosclerosis probably begins by a damage in the endothelium. This damage causes cholesterol and fat to penetrate into the vessel walls and deposit there. This also induces cells to proliferate. Later also calcium salts are deposited.

Factors that cause endothelial damage and thus atherosclerosis are:
-High content of cholesterol in the blood.
-High content of blood fat and especially saturated fat.
-Inflammation in the blood vessels. A sign of such inflammation is the presence of a substance called c-reactive protein.
-High amount of oxidation agents in the blood.
-High blood pressure.
-High content of low density lipoprotein (LDL) in the blood serum, and low content of high density lipoprotein (HDL) in the blood. Lipoprotein is a combination of a protein molecule and fat or cholesterol. Lipoproteins carry cholesterol or fat from place to place.
-High age.
-Men have a somewhat higher chance of getting this condition than women.
-High content of the amino acid homocystein in the blood serum.

Many of these factors are ultimately caused by a bad diet and lack of daily exercise.


Since atherosclerosis can affect all body parts, the symptoms will vary. Symptoms from the affected body parts are:
-Decreased performance, easy to tire out.
-Pain by physical activity, so called anoxic pain.
-By severe impairment of blood flow, tissue damage or sores can occur.

When the heart is affected, the symptoms will be:
-General bad condition.
-Anoxic pain from the heart by physical activity called angina pectoris.
-Feeling of not getting enough air, or breathing problems.

Atherosclerosis can cause blood clots that close the blood flow. There are several ways this can occur:

-The atherosclerotic plaque can rupture, making a sore in the inner wall of the vessel. At such a sore blood can coagulate, making a blood clot.
-The atherosclerotic plaque itself can grow to close a blood vessel.
-Blood coagulated at an affected area can tear loose, float with the blood stream to another place and prop a blood vessel at the new place.
-A portion of the plaque itself can tear itself loose and clog another blood vessel.

When the heart is stricken by a blood clot, heart tissue is suddenly destroyed, a condition called heart infarction, causing sudden heart failure or death.

When a blood clot strikes the brain, brain tissue is destroyed or impaired, causing paralysis, decreased consciousness, coma or other sudden functional impairments.


Atherosclerosis can be prevented and to some extend be cured by these measures, of which most are lifestyle adjustments:

-Eating just a little or moderate amount of fat.
-Eating just a moderate amount of sugar.
-The fat eaten should be a blending of different types of unsaturated fat from sources like: Olive oil, rape oil, sunflower oil, soy oil, walnut oil and fish. Then you will get enough of mono-unsaturated fat, omega-3-unsaturated fat, and omega-6-poly-unsaturated fat, but not too much of any of them.
-Eating much fish and just a little red meat.
-Eating a good amount of fruit and vegetables each day.
-Supply of enough vitamins, minerals and anti-oxidants.
-Only consuming moderate amount of salt.
-Stop smoking.
-Getting high blood pressure treated if lifestyle measures do not bring blood pressure down.
-Daily exercise fitted for one’s own condition.
-Eliminate stress in the daily life and at the job.
-Stressing sown and getting enough rest.

By high cholesterol levels that do not react properly to lifestyle measures, cholesterol lowering medication can be used, such as HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors.

By serious local narrowing of an artery, surgery to clean out or widen the artery is sometimes performed. Sometimes the artery is replaced by a graft taken from another body part or by an artificial vessel. When this is done in the heart, it is denoted as bypass surgery.

Alternative treatment to clean out the arteries is an option. There is for example a treatment consisting of using the substance EDTA to carry constituents of plaque away from the arteries. The molecules of this substance have the ability to grip around other molecules, for example cholesterol molecules, and carry them away. There is however a controversy about the effectiveness of this treatment, called chelating therapy.

Fasting Your Way to Better Health and Fitness

When I was younger, I used to sing a great deal in public and earn from it. A bad cold, therefore, meant harmed voice, equals no income. In those days, I believed a great deal in the curative powers of medicines and so every time a cold attacks, I did the usual “stuff a cold and starve a fever”. What was worse was that it usually took me too long to recover from a single attack that left me unable to perform and earn a living. There was this very important concert then that I had to perform in along with others. I was so excited because this was no small-time concert. All forms of advertisements were exhausted for the event and the venue had been long prepared. Suddenly, three days before the anticipated performance, I caught an awful cold.

I went to the manager of the affair and reported my sad predicament. Fortunately, the manager was a doctor who was not overly convinced by the curative powers of medicines. And he was the one who introduced me to the “fasting cure” which he, himself practices when he’s afflicted with one. I was advised to starve and eat nothing but I can drink all the water I can until my pulse and body temperature returned to normal. I was also advised to rest in bed for about three days and he promised me I’d be as good as new after that. I was told not to listen to my family, relatives and doctor if they tell me to eat to gain my strength back. He assured me that I would not grow weak for lack of nourishment in a three-day fasting. I also learned about not being able to digest food well if the person has a fever, so it is advisable, really to fast.

I took his advice and the results were exactly as he had stated. After the end of the three-day fast, I was able to join a last rehearsal in the afternoon of the big event. And that night, I sang my numbers without a trace of the bad cold! In three days I was able to recover fully well from a bout of cold through fasting, which would have normally taken me much longer if I had succumbed to purely medical solutions.

Digestive disorders are caused by many factors. Eating a lot and eating more than what is required is quite a common cause. Other factors include hurried and improper eating. These two alone cause about 80% of digestive disorders. Then there’s the tobacco or after-meal cigar, “treats” and the business-first-before-meal attitude.

I have a very good appetite or digestion though some things could cause it to falter once in a while. In those cases, I eventually resort to fasting to give my stomach a few days’ rest. For my fever, catarrhal problems and bad cold and glandular disorders, fasting never fails to restore me up. Fasting can help clean the digestive system. It can be done through the supervision of a capable nurse without inducing any other commercial medicine. Under these conditions a satisfactory cure is almost certain.

My summary of the matter is, as I have stated, that the difference between starving and fasting lies in the mental attitude. The beneficial effect of fasting is that it gives the stomach needed rest from any digestive disorders. While in “bad colds” the clogging rubbish or surplus matter is burned up or eliminated from the body and glandular structures very much in the same way that this end is accomplished by prolonged systematic exercise.

The only danger in the fasting system, if not of too long duration, seems to lie at its termination. Taper off gently and don’t gorge yourself. Do this and no harm will result. At the end of the four days’ fasts I have taken, I ate in moderation; grape juice, well-boiled rice, green peas and carrots. The next day I ate anything I liked, provided I chewed it properly and slowly.

Why Do I Feel Light Headed – The #1 Reason Why!

Do you often experience dizziness and wonder why do I feel light headed? If so the real reason could surprise you! Find out now the 3 most common reasons for constantly feeling light headed and what you can do about correcting this aggravating and life altering condition.

3 Reasons Why you’re light headed!

Low Blood Pressure – Quite often the feeling of light headedness and seeing stars or feeling dizzy is a direct result of a lack of oxygen or blood flow to the brain. Now low blood pressure is often not the actual cause in of itself but just another symptom. You will have to dig deeper to root out the real reason your body is experiencing low blood pressure.

Undiagnosed Allergy – This is a very common situation where a person eats a specific type of food regularly such as wheat or dairy and is in a constant state of reacting at all times. The only real true solution for this scenario is to eliminate the aggravating food itself from the body. A good start is to go on an elimination diet and remove all the common allergens such as dairy, wheat, corn, eggs, soy etc.

Adrenal Fatigue – This is in fact the core problem for an individual who suffers from light headedness. You see when your adrenals are burnt out through a variety of causes such as stress, ongoing allergies and poor sleep/diet habits your adrenals will begin to go into a state of weakness where it can be very difficult for them to recover from.

The most common symptoms an individual will experience who has adrenal fatigue is exhaustion even when they wake up, low blood pressure, weakness, shortness of breath, increased incidence of allergies and brain fog where concentration is severely impaired.

I would suggest doing some research and getting an accurate diagnosis for what’s really causing your symptoms. The ideal method is to use something called EDS testing or electro dermal screening, it’s a very popular way of testing for various conditions, specifically allergies, however you will need to check with a naturopath or alternative practitioner as conventional doctors are not familiar with them. Alternatively naturopaths will often use a detailed questionnaire to determine the most likely cause of your current health symptoms.

Medical Symptoms Diagnosis For Atelectasis

Atelectasis is a partial or total collapse of a lung that causes sudden chest pain, difficult and rapid breathing, and a cough. There is no doubt this condition can be scary, it’s not usually life threatening in an adult due to the fact that the remaining area of the lung can take over for the collapsed part . In a baby or small child or a person with a concurrent lung disorder, atelectasis can become a life threatening medical condition requiring immediate medical attention.

This article tells how to recognize the signs and symptoms of atelectasis, what leads to the issue and offered therapy options.

Atelectasis is caused by an obstruction (i.e. foreign item or mucus) in the airways (i.e. bronchus or bronchioles) that lead to the lung area. Other causes can involve a compression of the airways by a tumor or enlarged lymph node, or a complication following abdominal surgery. Atelectasis may be present in a newborn child if the bronchi fails to develop at birth.

Signs and symptoms involve trouble breathing, chest pain and there’s typically a cough affiliated with the lung collapse. Some other less common signs incorporate dizziness, fever, and possibly shock.

When forming a analysis of this condition the aforementioned indications are commonly first noticed by the person. An analysis of the individual by a md should be necessary to confirm the presence of atelectasis and this evaluation may involve a physical examination, bronchoscopy,upper body x-rays or CT scan, or blood tests.

Remedy differs depending on the cause and severity of the atelectasis. The ailment may resolve spontaneously when an obstruction is removed. Surgical treatment may be essential if a tumor or enlarged lymph node is compressing the airway. Pain relievers (i.e. acetominophen) may be used to minimize discomfort.

A patient who develops atelectasis should be watched for the onset of pneumonia, which can generate rapidly after a lung area collapse.

Analysis of the Chorus in "Murder at the Cathedral"

T.S. Eliot’s Murder in the Cathedral tells the story of Thomas Beckett, a man who reigned as Archbishop of Canterbury during the 12th century in England until his death in 1170. In order to tell Beckett’s story, Eliot creates a series of equally interesting characters that each play a crucial role thought the play. The most unique role found within the play is the Women of Canterbury, or the Chorus. Throughout the piece, the Chorus delivers seven choral odes. These choral odes, when looked at as a collective work tell a story. They begin with brief foreshadowing of events that will occur later in the play, but then quickly jump into necessary storyline; one which summarizes the events of the pasts, and then immerses the audience into the common man’s view of the events in the present.

The first choral ode begins with heavy foreshadowing. The Women of Canterbury are drawn towards the Cathedral, but they do not know why. At first, there is confusion. They question, “Are we drawn by danger? Is it the knowledge of safety that that draws our feet towards the Cathedral?” As they reach the cathedral however, they come upon a realization. “There is not danger for us, and there is no safety in the cathedral. Some presage of an act, which our eyes are compelled to witness, has forced our feet towards the cathedral.” They recognize that it is not their own personal danger that draws them closer to the cathedral, but instead the foreshadowing of a horrifying act in which they will be forced to bear witness. It will be an act so terrible, that safety can not even be found within the hallowed halls of the cathedral.

After the period of foreshadowing, the mood of the first choral ode drastically shifts away from the dark and mysterious presage of an act to a description of the concrete past. The remainder of the choral ode serves as a way to bring the audience up to speed on the last seven years of Canterbury’s history. While they convey the events of the past, the women of Canterbury express a constant lurking fear for the safety of their Archbishop. A perfect example of this common theme found within the first choral ode is in the following stanza, in which the Chorus states:

“Seven years and the summer is over,

Seven years since the Archbishop left us,

He who was always so kind to his people.

But it would not be well if should return.”

These lines are typical of the first choral ode, for not only do they explain to the audience that the Archbishop Thomas Beckett has been gone for seven years now, but they fear for his well being and for the well being of Canterbury if he were to return. As the choral ode draws to a close, the Women of Canterbury give off a sense of unavoidable waiting. They say:

“Come happy December, who shall observe you, who shall preserve you?

Shall the Son of Man be born again in the litter of scorn?

For us, the poor, there is no action,

But only to wait and to witness”

They welcome the month of December, but then question how it could possibly be a joyous time. Who would be able to celebrate the Christmas and Advent season with the terrible events that are about to occur? Could Jesus be reborn into such scorn? The Women of Canterbury know that there is little they can do at this time. They must wait, and then witness the act that they fear.

With the commencement of the second choral ode, the general mood shifts from confusion and waiting to fear. The Women of Canterbury have been informed that Beckett is returning to Canterbury. Such an announcement stirs great anxiety amongst them. They fear that their way of life will be disrupted and endangered. They plea to a Thomas who has not yet arrived to:

“Return. Quickly. Quietly. Leave us to perish in quiet.

You come with applause, you come with rejoicing, but

You come bringing death into Canterbury:

A doom on the house, a doom on yourself, a doom on the world.”

The women say that though they will be rejoicing on the outside, their deep insides will be dominated by fear, for they believe that his coming will come hand in hand with his own death. The idea of fear is the general theme in the second choral ode, as it constantly recurs throughout the lines. Later in the choral ode, the women say, “We are afraid in a fear which we cannot know, which we cannot face, which none understands.” This illustrates the depth and complexity of the fear which they are facing, for they know not how to neither combat it nor completely comprehend it. All the people know is that with Thomas comes death upon their home of Canterbury, so the beg him to “leave us, leave us, leave us sullen Dover, and set sail for France.”

The fear of the second choral ode becomes a reality in the third. The Women of Canterbury know what decision Beckett has made. They tell him, “We have not been happy, my Lord, we have not been too happy. We are not ignorant women, we know what we must expect and not expect.” By saying this, the Women of Canterbury mean that they understand the consequences that Thomas has chosen by staying in Canterbury. They know that he will perish if he stays. Then the women begin to despair. They cry, “God gave us always some reason, some hope; but now a new terror has soiled us, which none can avert,” and, “God is leaving us, God is leaving us, more pang, more pain than birth or death.” The Women of Canterbury, who always took faith in the idea the God was protecting their Archbishop, believe that Thomas has turned away from the Lord’s protection by deciding to remain at Canterbury, for not even God could protect him from the wrath of what was yet to come.

The fourth choral ode that opens up the second act heads in a completely different direction than the intense despair of the third choral ode. Instead, this choral ode is more accepting, for the chorus knows that the death of Beckett is coming. Nature is used throughout this choral ode to foreshadow his death. At one point the Women of Canterbury say, “The starved crow sits in the field, attentive; and in the wood the owl rehearses the hallow note of death.” The starved crow that they speak of symbolizes the Four Knights, who arrive in Canterbury shortly after the choral ode is delivered. The owl symbolizes the result of their visit to Canterbury: a death, a death that they fear will be brought upon Thomas. Though they have accepted the situation, the Women of Canterbury feel helpless, for all they can do between that moment and Thomas’s death is wait. As there is nothing they can do, they say, “We wait, and the time is short, but the waiting is long.”

As the fifth choral ode begins, the helplessness from the fourth choral ode carries over, but this time it is coupled with an air of guilt. The Women of Canterbury are stuck in an in between zone. They grieve:

“Now is too late for action, too soon for contrition.

Nothing is possible but the shamed swoon

Of those consenting to the last humiliation.

I have consented, Lord Archbishop, have consented.”

The women realize that the wheel is turning and the eternal action leading to Beckett’s doom is in motion. They are in despair, for it is too late for them to try and aid their Archbishop, but too soon for them to seek forgiveness for allowing Beckett to be killed. The murder of their Archbishop is a matter that they are taking personal responsibility for, and they view it as a humiliation to them all. Their final cry of “I have consented, Lord Archbishop” truly isolates and illustrates the immense guilt that they have brought upon themselves. The Women of Canterbury believe that by standing aside and allowing the Knights to threaten Thomas, they have consented to his murder. All they have left is helplessness, guilt, and like always, waiting.

The sixth choral ode is met with a shift from helplessness to intense distress. Archbishop Thomas Beckett has just been murdered, and the Women of Canterbury feel as if they, along with all of Canterbury, have been stained with their Archbishop’s blood. The chorus screams:

“Clear the air! Clean the sky! Wash the wind! Take the

Stone from the stone, take the skin from the arm,

Take the muscle from the bone, and wash them.

Wash the stone, wash the bone, wash the brain,

Wash the soul, wash them wash them!”

As shown, the Women of Canterbury become obsessed with trying to wash themselves clean of Beckett’s blood. Such words confirm that the Women of Canterbury see not only the Four Knights as Thomas Beckett’s killer, but themselves as well. They feel severe regret, proclaiming:

“We did not wish anything to happen

We understood the private catastrophe,

The personal loss, the general misery,

Living and partly living”

These lines show that, though they believe that they were a part of the murder, they were unintentionally involved. They did not mean for any ill will to come upon their Archbishop, but through their lack of action, their living and partly living, they allowed Beckett to face a tragedy, a tragedy that they were completely aware of, alone. The Women of Canterbury abandoned their Lord, and they do not know how to deal with their despair

The final choral ode begins not with despair, but instead with grateful praise to an all powerful God. The entire choral ode reads like one long prayer of praise, thanks, and then contrition to a merciful God. At points, the Women of Canterbury even go as far as to compare their deceased Archbishop to Jesus Christ. In it’s beginning, they say, “We praise Thee, O God, for Thy glory displayed in all the creatures” The Women of Canterbury then go on to on to show their gratitude to God by respectfully praying, “We thank Thee for Thy mercies of blood, for Thy redemption by blood. For the blood of Thy martyrs and saints.” By these words, the Women of Canterbury are thanking God for redeeming their souls with the blood of Thomas, their Archbishop. Through these lines, Eliot is comparing the murder of Thomas Beckett to the death of Jesus Christ on the cross, saying that both died to save the souls of those around them. Finally, the Woman of Canterbury seek contrition, pleading, “Forgive us, O Lord, we acknowledge ourselves as type of the common man, of the men and women who shut the door and sit by the fire.” On one level, they ask forgiveness for standing by and doing nothing to prevent Beckett’s death, for they are just common men. If read more deeply however, they return to the Christ like image of Beckett. The common men ask for forgiveness, for like Peter, they “sat by the fire” and denied their Lord. Just as Peter allowed Christ to die, so the Women of Canterbury allowed Thomas Beckett to die.

The seven choral odes in T.S. Eliot’s Murder in the Cathedral tell the story of the common man’s view of the events that occurred during that fateful December of 1170 in Canterbury. Through foreshadowing and interesting use of language, T.S. Eliot crafts the Chorus to be one of, if not the most fascinating character found within the whole play. Their unique perspective on Thomas Beckett’s murder truly makes Murder in the Cathedral one of the greatest plays of the 20th Century.

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Herbal Anti Inflammatory Oil to Reduce Joint Pain and Inflammation

Joint pain and inflammation is one among the commonly found health disorders affecting daily life activities of person. Occurrence of arthritis, painful muscles and bursitis are some major causes contributing for the formation of joint pain and inflammation. Health issues play a significant role in forming this disorder. Severe joint pain, weight loss, chills, headaches, loss of appetite and fever are some among the main symptoms shown by a person suffering from this health disorder. At present there are several remedial measures for preventing pain and inflammations. Use of herbal oils is one safe treatment for reducing pain and inflammation of joints. Let’s see how herbal anti inflammatory oil works to reduce joint pain and inflammation.

Eucalyptus oil is one among the effective herbal oils used for treating pain and inflammation. Leaves of the plant are mainly used for the preparation of eucalyptus. This herbal oil is well known for anti bacterial, anti fungal, anti rheumatic and anti aging functions. Topical application of eucalyptus oil rejuvenates body cells and improves the flexibility of joints. Pleasing aroma coming from fresh eucalyptus calms down nerve cells and helps in improving both physical and emotional well being of person. Apart from reducing joint pain and inflammation, topical application of eucalyptus also helps in preventing other health disorders like migraines, ulcers, bronchitis and acne.

Fennel seed anti inflammatory oil is found to be very effective for reducing joint pain and inflammation. It is one among the widely used essential oils in aromatherapy. You can use this medicinal oil both externally and internally. Compositions of fennel seed oil like anti oxidants, fiber, minerals and vitamins rejuvenates body cells and makes you young and healthy. Nutrients present in essential oil are easily absorbed by skin cells of body. Apart from relieving body ache and inflammations, use of fennel seed oil also helps in aiding digestion, curing cough, reducing flatulence and lowering LDL cholesterol level.

Peppermint oil is a safe anti inflammatory oil that works best to reduce joint pain and inflammation. You can directly apply this herbal oil on joint areas. For attaining best results, it is advised to apply a mixture of peppermint oil and carrier oil on affected areas. Peppermint oil is also well known for its antimicrobial and anti viral properties. Patients suffering from inflammations of mouth and pharynx are advised to gargle a mixture of peppermint oil and water daily. Lemongrass oil is another herbal remedy joint pain and inflammations.

For attaining faster relief from arthritis trouble, you can apply a mixture of lemongrass oil, turmeric powder, cayenne pepper powder and coconut oil on affected areas of inflammations. It is found to be very beneficial for treating health disorders like sprains, arthritis and gout. Thorough body massaging with lemongrass oil also helps in relieving nervous disorders like stress and depression. Other effective herbal anti inflammatory oils which work best to reduce joint pain and inflammations naturally without any side effects include nutmeg oil, oregano oil, cinnamon bark oil, rose oil, thyme and bergamot oil.

Traumatic dislocation of the permanent anterior teeth

Permanent anterior teeth due to trauma may lead to partial or complete dislocation. Dislocation by the external impact is the most common cause of tooth, teeth previously more common. Part of post-traumatic prolapse teeth tooth socket, clear stretch, known as the tooth part of the prolapse. It is as follows: tooth displacement, deviation from the long axis of the original tooth, teeth may stretch, with the teeth with occlusal trauma, loose teeth, or loose is not obvious. Periodontal Dental Instruments ligament, pulp and alveolar bone may be associated with injury, such as periodontal ligament tear, rupture of blood vessels and nerves, often accompanied by incomplete enamel broken. Dental alveolar bone by the external force as the teeth fully complete prolapse prolapse. This dislocation is common in single young permanent teeth. The main reason is: the young root development of permanent teeth has not been completed, the periodontal ligament flexibility, the horizontal force easily lead to tooth complete prolapse.

Dislocation can occur after dental complications:

(1) pulp hemorrhage: traumatic dental pulp can cause varying degrees of bleeding, can usually return to normal, younger patients recover faster.

(2) pulp necrosis: incidence of pulp necrosis accounted for 52% of tooth dislocation, than the development of mature teeth more susceptible to immature young permanent pulp necrosis.

(3) outside the root absorption: the most common in embedded dislocation, about 2% of patients with teeth in absorption.

(4) canal narrowing or disappearance: dislocation of the complications accounted for 20% of teeth to 50%, crown color darkens, unresponsive or lost pulp vitality.

(5) alveolar absorption edge: with obvious dislocation, the occurrence of marginal alveolar absorption probability. If not reset, periodontal tissue damage will increase.

Post-traumatic dislocation of the tooth, should What is the overdenture be neutered as soon as possible to the hospital or the implementation of a fixed tooth replantation. Replanted within one hour after injury, the higher the survival rate of teeth. Teeth fixed, you can restore occlusion, but also to reduce the displacement of teeth, dental bleeding, and pain and is conducive to the restoration of tooth trauma. Trauma dental bite through the transfer of fixed, may reduce the incidence of pulp necrosis, followed by the prevention of tooth discoloration and maintain the beauty of the teeth, which is very important for young permanent teeth.

How to stop divorce. 3 Ways To Keep Your Marriage Out Of Court

It would be wonderful if all marriages would end up with the fairy tale ending, “And they lived happily ever after.” But, sadly, it doesn’t always end up like Snow White and her prince dreamed about. Many times it ends in a bad way with separation and divorce. If your marriage is going through tough times and and you DON’T want to go through a divorce then read on and learn 3 powerful ways how to stop divorce.

1. Stop unceasingly dreaming of the future. If you find you are in a marriage that has started to go bad, it can be a difficult time. If you are constantly dreaming about better times, though, instead of living in the present, this can make the situation even worse. Nothing compares to a fantasy that you may have created or envisioned in your head.

By dreaming of the future and what could be, you are making what you do have of no value at all. For compared to your dream place “somewhere over the rainbow” whatever you have today isn’t going to be good.

And in addition to this, living in dream world is simply a sedative, it makes you momentarily feel good but it doesn’t help you fix any problems.

2. If at first you don’t succeed then try try again. After that do something new. Although you may feel that you have tried everything to improve your marriage, such as gave more space, spent more time together, or gave more presents, do not give up. Keep on trying. I know of lots of people who I truly thought that they really had “tried everything” to no avail. However, one of the spouses was determined to make it work today they are happily married. Find a way to remind your partner of why you two fell in love and what your dreams and goals were together. Many people believe in the old saying “Where there’s a WILL there’s a WAY”.

3. Analysis paralysis. If you are looking for the PERFCET way to save your marriage and to stop your divorce you probably won’t find an answer by just thinking about it and planning. There are a 3 things wrong about not doing anything while looking for that ideal solution to your marital problems.

(1) Things could get worse and worse until you things have completely fallen apart and there is not fixing up at all.

(2) You could get so overwhelmed with the possible solutions and in choosing the right one that you could end up getting discouraged and not implement any of them.

(3) Theoretical learning isn’t as good as practical hands on learning. In order to implement what you have come up with for help, you need to do something and not just theorize.

Sadly, a lot of marriages end up in court and not “they lived happily after”. If you want to know how to stop a divorce then follow the rules above; don’t over analyze. If one of your ideas don’t work then try something else. There are those that say that the only time you really fail, is when you stop trying altogether. If you want to stay married and work things out, you need to keep trying at it until you do. Be more focused on the present and not off in dream land and I’m sure that you will be able to stay married and be happy