Formostar Infrared Body Wrap VS Infrared Sauna: The Differences Revealed

Over the last few years I have often been asked “What is the difference between a Formostar Infrared Body Wrap and an Infrared Sauna?” Well there is quite a difference to say the least but first let me explain what Far Infrared is.

Keeping it simple, Far Infrared (FIR) light is a form of thermal energy and is invisible to the eye. It is the warmth you feel on your skin when you are outside in the sun. FIR is measured in wavelengths called microns which humans best absorb within the 3- to 50- micron range with the optimum being 9.4 microns. This is the exact wavelength the Formostar is programmed to.

The effects of FIR weaken with distance, so the closer to the source of the FIR your body is, the more impact they will have. This is where the difference between a wrap and a sauna begin!

When close to the body, FIRs can penetrate 4-5cm/2inches through skin (dermis), muscle, blood vessels, lymphatic glands, nerves and cells. Infrared also only travels in straight line and does not reflect. Sauna FIR elements are hidden behind walls and remain out of sight, so it can be guess work finding out how far away from them you might be. These elements will warm you and the air around you; however the penetration will not be as deep into the tissue layers. Due to its close proximity to the skin, 93% of the rays emitted from the Formostar are absorbed through the skin and deeper tissue. Another advantage the wrap has over a sauna is that when having a Formostar Infrared Body Wrap your head is free from heat and you can breathe clean room air, an unavoidable problem associated with a sauna.

Most Infrared Saunas only last for half an hour session. It actually takes the body 20-30 minutes to warm to a fat burning stage thus a sauna is over just as you are starting! A Formostar lasts fifty mins which gives you more than enough time to sweat up a storm and burn up to 1200 calories.

Far Infrared energy vibrates the cells helping to break down the connections between deposits such as fats and toxins. Continuous vibration of the body’s molecules increases dermis temperature, dilates blood vessels, stimulates circulation and activates metabolism in tissues and cells. With the targeted and deep effect of the Formostar wraps, the areas we have larger deposits of fat on(tummy, hips and thighs) are targeted so those cells underneath will be activated more and release more fat and toxins.

The Formostar is German made and only machine of its kind in the world to use non-allergenic high density silicone in its wraps. This is necessary in order for the wraps to be certified for use on the human body. Being silicon, the wraps are impermeable to bacteria and are also very easily cleaned of body fluids with an organic sanitiser in between clients. Whilst there have been bacterial issues with multiple users in a sauna, there are no known issues from use of the Formostar.

The Formostar has been approved as a Type 2 Medical Device in Europe, US and Australia and has been safety and compliance tested in Australasia. It is listed on the Australian Register of Therapeutic Goods and is the only Infrared device with these approvals. If products are not listed as approved therapeutic devices, companies are not legally allowed to make any claims that their products can achieve specific results especially for weight-loss and pain relief. In order to make claims that their product can actually produce these results, the companies must have their own studies. You will find that most other infrared products rely on articles published on the web and anecdotal evidence with regard to the benefits of infrared to sell their products. The Formostar has two clinical studies and a third underway.

Each Formostar client must complete a medical questionnaire prior to their wrap to ensure they have no contraindications. Other products which heat the body do not do so. All staff must undergo training and be accredited in order to use the Formostar on clients; other Infrared products do not appear have this accreditation process.

Attention Deficit Disorder (ADHD/ADD) In traditional Chinese Medicine Perspective

Attention Deficit Disorder (ADHD/ADD) also known as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a chronic disease occurs in certain age and years of a children, defined as a condition with characteristics of co-existence of attentional problems and hyperactivity. It effects about 5% of the all children in the world with boys have 3-4 times higher risk than girl. Over one third of children with ADHD will have continued symptoms existed into their adult life.

In traditional Chinese medicine perspective(66)
Although there are no condition known as ADD, in the history of Chinese medicine, but some TCM practictioners defined ADHD as result as follow
A. Predominantly hyperactive-impulsive as of result of Kidney Yin deficiency cause of hyperactivities of liver Yang
1. Symptoms
Beside the symptoms mentioned above, TCM also describes the physical appearance of the patient as follow
a. Thin body
b. Thristy
c. Desire to cold
d. night sweat
e. Red tongue with less coating
f. Etc.

2. Treatment
Qi Ju Di Huang Wan, the TCM formula with main function in nourishing the kidney and liver, improves vision used for patient with above symptoms and for deficiency of both liver Yin and kidney-Yin. Ingredients include
a. Shu Di Huang
The bitter, sweet, bitter and warm herb has been used in as diuretic agent and to enhance heart function (small doses constrict the blood vessels and large doses dilate the blood vessel), decrease blood sugar, etc., as it clears Heat and cools the Blood (Sheng) as it nourishes Yin and Blood, tonifies the Essence, strengthens the Marrow, etc., by enhancing the functions of heart, kidney, and liver channels.

b. Shan Zhu Yu
Shan Zhu Yu or Shan Yu Rou is also known as Asian Cornelian Cherry Fruit. The sour, acrid and slightly warm herb has been used in TCM to treat impotence, spermatorrhea, instant sweating, sore or week knees, chronic lower back pain, frequent urination, incontinence, etc., as it tonifies the Liver and the Kidneys, benefits the Liver and the Kidneys, etc., by enhancing the functions of kidney and liver channels.

c. Shan Yao
Shan Yao or Huai Shan is also known as Dioscorea. The sweet and neutral herb has been used in TCM as antibiotic , anti-inflammatory and anti aging agent and to lower blood sugar, improve digestive system, promote urination, etc. as it tonifies the spleen and stomach and kidney yang and yin, etc., by enhancing the functions of kidney, lung and spleen channels.

d. Ze Xie
Ze Xie is also known as Alism. The sweet, bland and cold herb has been used in TCM as anti-pyretic, diuretic, anti-bacterial, hypoglycemic, hypotensive agent and to lowers blood lipids: total cholesterol, inhibits hardening of main artery, etc., as it drains deficient kidney fire, promotes urination, drains damp-heat, etc., by enhancing the functions of kidney and bladder channels.

e. Fu Ling
Fu Ling, fu shen or fu ling pi is also known as Poria. The bland, sweet and neutral herb has been used in TCM as as diuretics and to treat urinary difficulty, diarrhea, water retention, headache, dizziness, palpitations, etc., as it eliminates Water, strengthens the Spleen, calms the Mind, etc., by enhancing the functions of heart, spleen, lung and kidney channels.

f. Mu Dan Pi
Mu Dan Pi or Dan Pi is also known as peony bark. The acrid, bitter and mildly cool has been used in TCM as anti micro organism, anti inflammatory agent and to enhance circulation, CNS as it clears heat, fire of yin deficiency, blood stasis and cools the blood, etc., by enhancing the functions of heart, liver and kidney channels.

g. Gou Qi Zi
The sweet and neutral herb has been used in TCM as anti aging and anti cancer agent and to enhance the immune system, lower blood lipids, elevate level of testosterone, protect the liver function, prevent fatty liver, simulate estrogens, etc., as it nourishes and tonifies the liver, lung and kidney, etc., by enhancing the functions of liver, lung and kidney channels.

h. Ju Hua
Ju Hua is also known as chrysanthemum flower. The nsweet, bitter and slightly cold herb has been used in TCM as anti inflammatory, antibiotic, anti Antipyretic agent and to treat liver and kidney deficiency resulting in dizziness, blurry vision, pain and weakness in lower back and knees, tears induced by wind blowing, as it disperses wind, clears heat and wind-heat, et., by enhancing the functions of liver and lung channels.

B. Predominantly inattentive as of result of Qi and blood deficiency of Spleen and Heart causes of failing to nourish the heart Mind
1. Symptoms
Beside the symptoms mentioned above, TCM also describes the physical appearance of the patient as follow
a. Pale face and lips
b. Overactive with low energy
c.Poor memory
d. Pale tongue and weak pulse
f. Etc.

2. Treatment
Gui Pi Tang helps to strengthens the spleen and the heart, nourishes blood and Qi, calms the mind. Ingredients include
a. Fu Ling
Fu Ling, fu shen or fu ling pi is also known as Poria. The bland, sweet and neutral herb has been used in TCM as as diuretics and to treat urinary difficulty, diarrhea, water retention, headache, dizziness, palpitations, etc., as it eliminates Water, strengthens the Spleen, calms the Mind, etc., by enhancing the functions of heart, spleen, lung and kidney channels.

b. Bai Zhu
Bai Zhu is also known as Bighead atractylodes rhizome. The aromatic, slightly acrid and sweet herb has been used in TCM to treat children drooling, Meniere’s disease, constipation, chronic back painm, acute infection of intestine, dizziness, palpitation, edema, instant sweating, etc., as it tonifies the spleen, augments qi, dries dampness, atabilizes the exterior, etc., by enhancing the functions of spleen and stomach channels.

c. Suan Zao Ren
Suan Zao Ren is also known as Sour jujube seed. The sweet, sour, neutral herb has been used in TCM to treat abnormal sweating, anxiety, insomnia, excessive dream, palpitation, weak memory, dizziness, night sweating, etc., as it nourishes heart and liver, calms spirit, etc., by enhancinf the functions of gallbladder, heart, liver and spleen channels.

d. Huang Qi
Huang Qi or Bei Qi is also known as Astragalus root. The sweet herb has been used as diuretic agent and to lower blood pressure, increase blood pressure, lessens proteinuria, improve endurance, protect liver function, regulate blood sugar, etc. as it tonifies Qi, raises Yang, strengthens the Defensive-Qi and the Exterior, expels toxins, etc. by enhancing the functions of lung and spleen channels.

e. Dang Shen
Dang Shen is also known as codonopsis root. The sweet and neutral herb has been used in TCM to enhance the immune and cetral nervous systems and blood coagulation, reduce fatigue, increases red and white blood cells, white blood cells, raise blood sugar, etc., as it tonifies the Middle, strengthens Qi, promotes generation of Body Fluids, nourishes Blood, etc., by promoting the functions of lung and spleen channels.

f. Long Yan
Long Yan or Long Yan Rou is also known as Longan. The aromatic and neutral herb has been used in TCM to treat neurasthenia, forgetfulness, palpitation, insomnia, etc., as it tonifies heart and spleen, nourishes blood, calms spirit, etc., by enhancing the functions of heart and spleen channels.

g. Da Jiao
Da Jiao or Da Zao also known as black jujube. The sweet and warm herb has been used in TCM to treat improves cAMP(cyclic adenosine mono phosphate) and strength of muscles, calms the central nervous system, inhibits histamine, IgE, and 5-HT, cell mutation and cancer cells, etc., as it tonifies the Middle Burnner, strengthens Qi, nourishes Blood, calms the Mind, regulates the nature of other herbs, etc., by enhancing the functions of stomach , spleen channels.

h. Dang Gui
Dang Qui is also known as Angelica Root. The sweet, bitter, acrid and warm herb has been used in TCM to regulate the menses, lower lipids, reduce platelet coagulation and swelling, expel pus, relieve pain, etc/, as it tonifies and moves Blood, calms pain, moistens the Intestines, etc., by enhancing the function of heart, liver and spleen channels.

i. Yuan Zhi
Yuan Zhi is also known as Turkey Tails. The sweet, bland and slightly cold herb has been used in TCM as antibiotic property, anti-viral property, and anti-tumor agent and to get rid of dampness, transform phlegm, treat lung disease, insomnia, mental confusion, seizures, palpitations, anxiety, restlessness, etc., as it calms the spirit, quiets the heart, expels phlegm, clears the heart orifices, etc., by enhancing the functions of liver, spleen and lung channels.

j. Gan Cao
Gan Cao is also known as Licorice root. The sweet and neutral herb has been used in TCM as anti allergy, anti inflammation, anti ulcer, anti convulsion and to treat stomach weakness, tired and lack of strength, palpitation and short of breath, cough with abundance of phlegm, stomach and solar plexus pain, etc., as it tonifies the Spleen, benefits the Qi, moistens the Lungs, calms cough, deaf or acute pain, by enhancing all 12 channels.

k. Sheng Jiang
Sheng Jiang is also known as Fresh Ginger root. The acrid and cool herb has been use in TCM as an anti inflammation, anti coagulation of platelets, anti allergy, anti tumors, etc, and to promote flowing of bile, protect liver, stimulate cardiac function, inhibit platelet coagulation, prevent dizziness, improve auto-immune function,etc., as it promotes sweating, releases the Exterior; warms the Middle Burner and the Lungs, stops vomiting, calms cough by enhancing the functions of lung, spleen and stomach channels.

l. Mu Xiang
Nu Xiang is also known as costus root. The acrid, bitter and warm hrtb has been used in TCM to treat flatulence and pain in the abdomen, diarrhea, bronchitis, digestive tract infection: yeast infection, dysentery, and lack of appetite, etc,, as it promotes the movement of Qi, alleviates pain, regulates stagnated Qi in the intestines, strengthens the spleen and prevents stagnation, etc., by enhancing the functions of gallbladder, large intestine, spleen and stomach channels.

C. Anxiety, vexed, easily forgetful as of result of deficiency of Kidney essence causes of failing to nourish heart and Brain
1. Symptoms
a. Insomnia
b. Easily forgetful
c. Sores tongue
d. Red tongue
e. Rapid pusle
f. Etc.

2. Treatment
Kong Sheng Zhen Zhong Dan
A formula from Confucius to treat students with above symptoms and enhance education achievement by tonifying kidney, heart and benefiting the brain.
a. Shi Chang Pu
Shi Chang Pu is also known as Sweetflag Rhizome. The pungent, aromatic and warm herb has been used in TCM to treat deafness, dizziness, poor memory, dulled sensation, seizures, etc., as it opens orifices,expel phlegm, quiets spirit, -harmonize middle burner, etc., by enhancing the functions of heart ans stomach channels.

b. Yuan Zhi
Yuan Zhi is also known as Turkey Tails. The sweet, bland and slightly cold herb has been used in TCM as antibiotic property, anti-viral property, and anti-tumor agent and to get rid of dampness, transform phlegm, treat lung disease, insomnia, mental confusion, seizures, palpitations, anxiety, restlessness, etc., as it calms the spirit, quiets the heart, expels phlegm, clears the heart orifices, etc., by enhancing the functions of liver, spleen and lung channels.

c. Long gu
Long gu is also known as keel. The sweet, sour and neutral herb has been used in TCM to treat mood, palpitation, excessive dreams, irritability, seizures, dizziness, insomnia, forgetfulness, etc. as it calms spirit/heart and calms liver, anchors floating Yang, etc., by enhancing the functions of heart, liver, large intestine and kidney channels.

d. Baked Gui Ban
Gui Ban, Giu Jia or Gui Ban Jiao Is also known as Fresh Water Turtle Shell. The salty, sweet and neutral herb has been used in TCM to treat hot flashes with night sweating, chronic ache in loin and knees, spermatorrhea, chronic cough, palpitation, insomnia and forgetfulness, excesive bleeding during menses, etc., as it nourishes Yin, subdues Yang, tonifies the Kidneys and Heart, strengthens the Bones, Nourishes Blood, etc., by enhancing the functions of liver, kidney and heart channels.

Author notes: All articles written by Kyle J. Norton are for information and education only, please consult with your doctor or related field specialist before applying.

Sources can found at

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How Water Heals

Water is an essential nutrient. I imagine that most of us probably don’t think of water as a nutrient, but I would suggest that it is possibly one of the most essential nutrients we need to keep our bodies functioning optimally.

Why do I say that? Because a lack of water or chronic dehydration is one of the contributing factors of disease and the aging process.

Dr. Batmanghelidj discovered the healing properties of water by accident when he was with a person who was suffering from such intense pain in his stomach from an ulcer that he couldn’t even walk. As he had nothing on hand at that time, he instructed the man to drink two glasses of water, amazingly within 3 minutes the pains were greatly subsided and within eight minutes the pain was gone! As a result, Dr. B. did extensive studies and research into the healing and pain-relieving properties of water.

When our body isn’t hydrated enough to sufficiently distribute water to where it is needed, the affected areas are not able to properly deal with toxic waste build up and metabolism. Our cells which are plump, shrivel and the nerve endings will register this to the brain and in turn the brain will register this to us in the form of pain such as migraines, joint aches and pains, fibromyalgia pain, heartburn, etc.

Let’s look at a few diseases whose underlying cause are symptoms of dehydration according to Dr. Batmanghelidj.

High Blood Pressure

One of the functions of the blood is to transport and diffuse needed water and nutrients into the cells of our body. When our body is dehydrated, the cells become constricted, and our blood becomes more concentrated. This causes the blood to have to use more pressure to do its job, thus creating the symptoms of High Blood Pressure. Drinking more water and adding unrefined sea salt like Pink Himalayan Sea Salt with trace minerals and minerals such as Calcium, Magnesium, Potassium, Selenium and Zinc, returns the body’s cells to normal size and function and the symptoms of High Blood Pressure will disappear.

High Cholesterol

Cholesterol is a vital component in your body.

Cholesterol when operating in a balanced healthy body produces cell membranes, brain cells, nerve insulation, hormones and Vitamin D.

When signs of dehydration start occurring in the body, cholesterol will fill the gaps in some cells to protect them from water and nutrient loss.

In an emergency situation, Cholesterol acts as a bandage for abrasions and tears in the arterial walls and protects them when blood that has become acidic and concentrated is pushed through arteries and capillaries that have become constricted because of dehydration. If the cholesterol wasn’t there to cover the tears, then the blood would get under the membrane and peel it off, which would kill you.


When we become dehydrated our bronchial tubes tighten up to close the holes where water has been lost from the body, causing reduced air flow into the lungs. This symptom is what we call Asthma.

Drinking water helps to clear up these symptoms and adding unrefined sea salt helps to break up the mucus that clogs the breathing passages.

Chronic dehydration can also contribute to the following:

Fatigue: water is the bodies main energy source.

Depression: water increases endorphins, so dehydration can contribute to moodiness and depression.

Aging: chronic dehydration contributes to sagging and wrinkled skin that is no longer smooth and supple. The same constriction and loss of suppleness that happens to our cells, shows up on our skin.

Clearly, we need to drink enough water throughout the day to help our body function properly.

You can start by drinking a glass of water with an unrefined mineral salt like Himalayan pink salt for trace minerals and electrolytic properties when you get up in the morning and about 30 minutes before you go to bed at night. And make sure to stay adequately hydrated throughout the day.

Our body alerts us to the lack of nutrients like water by pain responses, allergies, an illness and symptoms of disease, but with proper hydration, a healthy diet and exercise, we can help keep our bodies functioning properly and live a healthier life.

What Does A Luxated Patella Mean To You And Your Dog?

Here’s a scenario for you to think about.  Your child is out in the back yard, running about with your 1-year old dog, when unexpectedly, you hear that dog yelp in pain.  Wasting no time, you head out the door and observe that the dog appears to have an injured hind leg, holding it aloft as it trots along on the other three.  As if by magic, the dog starts running again on all fours like normal, appearing that nothing had been wrong in the first place.

To add to this scenario, it dawns on you that you have noticed this behavior becoming more and more frequent so now you are concerned enough that you wonder if you should call your veterinarian and make an appointment.  Stop wondering and make the call.  Your cherished pooch is most likely the victim of a luxated patella, or more simply, a lipped   kneecap (or trick knee).

This discomforting malady is hereditary and causes the kneecap to move out of its normal position (dislocates), typically shifting towards the inside of the animals leg. Additionally, it normally occurs in both of the back legs but to a more severe degree in one than the other.  When the dogs kneecap is positioned normally, it sits within a deep groove where it slides down and up in a controlled manner.

As this groove gets more and more out of shape or becomes increasingly shallower, the kneecap begins to slip out of its normal position more frequently.  The leg then locks up, causing the foot to be elevated off the ground.  As a result, the dog cries out from the discomfort that results.  Typically, the condition is more common in the smaller breeds of canines than the medium-sized or larger ones.  The result of the conditions onset is immediate lameness and pain.

In less severe cases, the kneecap slides freely in and out of position voluntarily, but as the condition becomes increasingly more severe, the dislocation can become permanent requiring a vet to either pop the kneecap back into place or, in the most severe cases, correct the condition surgically.  Also, as the condition worsens, the knee capsule itself is injured and the dog appears to be bowlegged.

As we mentioned above, the condition doesn’t just happen overnight, although the initial onset of it would make the owner of the animal speculate as such. Luxated patella is an inherited condition and is most likely present when the puppy is born.  Fortunately, the condition is not crippling even in its most severe stages.  The worst case scenario is that it will have to be surgically repaired and your dog should be able to live a happy and normal life afterwards.

As a final cautionary note, assuming that this condition is inherent to the breed of dog and then neglecting to take action is a huge mistake with unpleasant consequences.  In younger dogs, not  taking care of this oftentimes results in torn ligaments or more severe damage to the knee.  In older canines, neglecting the condition has been known to lead to diseases in the bones and the joints as well as causing arthritis.  So please, don’t gamble with your dogs well-being get the condition corrected immediately.

How to Remove Wall Stickers and Wall Decals

This article is about wall stickers and wall decals that are made of vinyl. Many websites talk about how to put these on the wall, but there may be little assistance for how to remove the wall stickers.

The method for removing wall stickers and wall decals will remain the same, but it might be a little more difficult on certain surfaces and depending on the size of the wall sticker. Let’s look at some of the methods for removing.

Removing from walls

Painted walls are at the highest risk from damage when removing wall decals. This means you need to take some care and focus on avoiding this damage. It is possible to remove wall stickers from even the worst walls.

The worst walls are those that had a poor paint job to begin with. One that has multiple layers of paint and these layers have not been prepared between paint coats. Or one that has air bubbles underneath the paint.

1. Work slowly and do not rip, snatch or pull the wall sticker of the wall

2. Using a hair dryer, heat the vinyl directly at the edge you are removing

3. When the vinyl feels warm gently lift edge ( you might need to get a finger nail under)

4. As you roll or pull the vinyl away from the wall, you need to heat the next section of vinyl directly in front of the piece you lifted. Basically you are working gradually heating and lifting.

5. If you can visually see or you can feel a bubble under the paint surface you need to take care lifting over this area. If there is a second person, you can ask them to control the hair dryer while you use your second hand to press down on the bubble as you lift the vinyl off.

6. Continue until all of the vinyl is removed.

7. If there is any gum residue (not common on walls) then wipe the surface with an acetate based cleaner such as nail polish remover.

TOP TIP: Pull or roll the vinyl back against itself like it is being folded back. Do not pull the vinyl out from the wall at 90degrees as this will put more pressure on the paint.

Removing from glass and metal

When removing wall decals from glass or metal, the issue is not normally related to surface damage. It can be much harder to remove from these surfaces because the vinyl sticks so well to them. If you have a paint scraper or metal edged scraper this will be useful, otherwise it will have to be your finger nails.

1. Heat the vinyl directly in front of the area you are removing.

2. Peel/pick at the edge and pull. The vinyl is likely to tear as you do this, then you heat the next bit and remove.

3. Removing from these surfaces is more likely to leave a residue. Deal with that at the end, first remove all the solid vinyl by heating and pulling.

4. To clean the surface you will need an acetate or orange based cleaner that can lift the remaining glue. There are lots of purpose built cleaners for this, or simply use nail polish remover.

TOP TIP: If you hold the vinyl closer to the surface it is less likely to tear. For example, if you are pulling and as you pull, the piece of “free” vinyl is getting longer it is more likely to tear, simply move your hand back down closer to surface to reduce the chance of breakage.

By working patiently and not forcing the vinyl from the surface you will be able to remove the wall stickers and wall decals with no problem.

The Six Classes of Nutrients and Their Functions

Nutrients are chemicals found in foods that are essential to human growth and function. There are six classes of nutrients: carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals and water. All six have certain functions that target a different body part, and together, they ensure the state of our overall health. Some of the different functions of some nutrients are listed below in more detail:

Carbohydrates, Fats and Proteins

Carbohydrates, fats and proteins are listed in one category because they are called macro-nutrients, meaning they are needed in large amounts. This is because you get most of your energy from foods that contain carbohydrates, fats or proteins and the energy we need for basic functioning and physical activity also comes from these nutrients. Carbohydrates are the primary source of fuel for our bodies, especially for our brain and during physical activity. On the other hand, fats are an important energy source when our bodies are at rest and during low-intensity exercises. Proteins support the growth, repair and maintenance of tissues. The following are the foods that contain good sources of carbohydrates, fats and proteins:

  • Carbohydrates: vegetables, whole wheat pasta, whole grain bread
  • Fats: oils such as vegetable, canola and flaxseed
  • Proteins: fish, legumes, nuts


Vitamins are an essential nutrient because they build and maintain healthy bones and muscle tissue. They also support our immune system, maintain the health of our blood, and ensure healthy vision. Vitamins are micro-nutrients, meaning they are needed in small amounts to sustain our normal health and body functions. Some examples of common vitamins are Vitamin C and K, and the many B Vitamins.


Minerals assist in the regulation of many body functions, some of which involve regulating fluids and producing energy and health of our bones and blood. This nutrient also helps rid our body of harmful byproducts of metabolism. Some examples of well-known minerals are calcium, potassium, sodium and iron.


Water is one of the most important nutrients mainly because it is extremely important for our survival. The appropriate intake of water maintains the balance of fluids inside and outside of our cells. Water is also critical because it assists in the regulation of nerve impulses, the excretion of waste products, muscle contractions and nutrient transport. We consume water in solid forms such as fruits and vegetables as well as in liquid form such as juices and soups. Drinking eight to ten glasses of water will ensure that all the above body functions are carried out properly.

Overall, with the regular intake of the needed amounts of each of these six nutrients, you are able to maintain a desirable body weight.

Five Disorders That Can Be Cured by Barley Juice Powder

Barley is a member of the grass family and a major cereal grain. It is considered to be the first cultivated grain and is now available everywhere. It is also used as an animal feed. It has been considered as a sacred grain by the people of Greeks and it has been 20 years since its juice has been used by many people to feel better. It can also be taken as a juice powder. To prepare a juice powder of barley you need to separate the juice from the grass and then dry it.

Various tests have been conducted and it has been concluded that it contains Vitamin B-1 which is 11 times the calcium which is there in cow’s milk, six times more carotene present in spinach and contains vitamin C that is seven times more than seven oranges.

In this article I am going to describe about some of the disorders that are cured by Barley Juice Powder.


This is one of the common human skin diseases characterized by pimples, comedons (known as blackheads or whiteheads), etc. Usually this type of disorder occurs due to certain imbalance in your body. Taking barley juice powder will help in cleaning your digestive system. This powder is considered to be an antioxidant that gets rid of toxins during digestion and reduces the acne problem.


If you don’t know anything about this disease, then let me explain you. This is a disorder in joints that includes swelling of one or more joints. There are different types of Arthritis like rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, etc. These disorders are treated by Barley juice powder.


It is a chronic disease and is a combination of genetic and environmental factors. This is cured by barley juice powder.


It is an inflammation of the mucous membrane in the bronchi. There are two types of bronchitis. Acute Bronchitis which is caused by a virus or bacteria. Coughing is its main symptoms. Chronic bronchitis is defined by the productive cough that lasts for three months or for some more years. Thus, these powders are used for the treatment of this disorder.


It is a metabolic disease in which a person’s blood sugar level increases because either of the two reasons that is insulin production is inadequate or the body cells do not respond to the insulin. There are three types of diabetes, Type 1, Type 2 and Gastrointestinal Diabetes. Type 1 diabetes results in the autoimmune destruction of insulin producing beta cells of the pancreas. Type 2 is characterized by high blood glucose. In gastrointestinal diabetes, during pregnancy the blood glucose level increases.

Psychiatrist Vs Psychologist: What's The Difference?

A Boca Raton psychiatrist provides different mental health services than a psychologist.

There are many different options for individuals seeking the services of a mental health professional. People feeling depressed, anxious, or simply not themselves may call upon the services of a relationship or school counselor, a social worker, a nurse, or the family doctor before deciding that they need psychiatric or psychological counseling. While the words sound quite similar – and the patient base is nearly the same – these two professions are distinct and it's important to know their roles and functions before beginning treatment.

A psychiatrist is a medical doctor who specializes in the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental illnesses and disorders. Like any medical doctor, a psychiatrist must complete four years of medical school followed by a year-long internship; The psychiatrist must then complete at least three years of psychiatric residency training. A psychiatrist can prescribe medication and will often monitor the person's mental health status in relation to other diseases.

A psychologist may have a doctor degree in psychology, but is not a medical doctor. A psychologist must earn a master's or PhD in psychology, studying the way the brain and the mind work. Psychologists may choose different fields of work, such as research or even professional fields like business, but clinical psychologists are the psychologists who see patients. A clinical psychologist is licensed to perform psychotherapy and counseling, but can not prescribe medication for psychological illnesses.

The doctor at her clinic provides psychotherapy in a comforting, welcoming atmosphere – and with a very careful eye on medications and how they affect her patients. Having quality mental health care depends heavily on the therapist and the kind of treatment, and understanding your needs can help ease the recovery process.

Causes of Various Chest Rashes

Considering how many different explanations there are for a chest rash, it is important to consider what some of the possibilities are. Knowing how to identify these various rashes is important, especially if you have small children. Heat rash is certainly one of the more common causes for the skin on the chest to become irritated and red. Sometimes called “prickly heat”, this condition is not inherently serious but it can become worse without proper treatment. Heat rashes are commonly mistaken for allergic reactions, although they have nothing to do with allergies at all. The severity of a heat rash as well as the location depends on the person; it can be very mild or extremely serious.

The most common symptoms of heat rash are red splotches on the skin that become itchy and irritated over a short period of time. Usually a heat rash gets worse if it is not treated, but eventually it will go away on its own. Because the symptoms of heat rash can easily be mistaken for other things such as allergies or even poison ivy, it is important to seek proper medical treatment in order to effectively treat it. Your doctor will be able to diagnose the condition based on various criteria, including a history of your own health.

Contact dermatitis can be another explanation for why you or someone in your family might have a rash on their chest. Typically the most common symptoms of this condition are inflammation, itching, redness, and blisters on the affected area. The fact is that contact dermatitis is a very common condition and is also referred to as allergic contact dermatitis. Having direct contact with something which can spark such a reaction is enough to instigate these symptoms almost immediately.

Another explanation as to why there might be a rash on your chest is chicken pox. Although this is a condition that people tend to think of children having, it can occur in adults. The reason why parents are recommended to purposely expose their children to chickenpox at an early age is because it can become dangerous in adulthood. Adults do not deal with it as well as children do and it can even sometimes be fatal is immediate treatment is not provided. It causes the same symptoms as many other conditions, including red bumps on the skin, specifically around the chest area and should be treated soon after these symptoms begin to appear.

Nocturnal Enuresis (Bed-Wetting) – Ayurvedic Herbal Treatment

Nocturnal Enuresis is defined as bed-wetting which occurs in children aged 5 years or more, with at least 1-2 episodes per week over at least a three month period. Nocturnal enuresis may be primary or secondary. Most children with bed-wetting who are 7 years or younger, usually outgrow this condition and hence, do not require any treatment. Children more than 8 years of age who have nocturnal enuresis may require treatment, since it can prove to be embarrassing to the child and his / her parents, and may affect the child's academic performance and social relations with others.

Nocturnal enuresis is termed as "Shayya Mootra" in Ayurveda. Most Ayurvedic doctors
Treat this condition according to the associated conditions or causes. Those with a tendency to constipation are given Arogyavardhini and Chandraprabha vati. Krumimudgar ras or Krumikuthar ras are given when there is a history of, or signs of worms. For generalized weakness, Shatavari (Asparagus racemosus) kalpa or Shatavari Ghruta is used orally and Mahanarayan oil is used for massaging the body. Children having a history of loss of appetite, indigestion and loose motions are given Sanjeevani vati (containing mainly Semicarpus anacardium) and Pippalyadi decoction (containing primarily Piper longum). Turmeric (Curcuma longa), Ajvayan (Hyoscyamus niger), Amalaki (Emblica officinalis), Garlic, Ginger, Jeera (Cuminum cyminum), Pudina (Mentha spicata) and Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) are regularly used in the daily diet. Urinary tract infection is treated with drugs like Gokshuradi Guggulu. Herbal medicines like Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri), Jatamansi (Nardostachys jatamansi) and Shankapushpi (Consecora decussata) are used to reduce stress.

Several herbal combinations are available which improve the neuro-muscular tone and strength and thus increase the retention capacity of the urinary bladder. Normally, with these medicines, most children get cured within 3 – 4 months of treatment. A selected few may require one or two additional courses of shorter duration.

It is advisable to have an early dinner, and to stop liquid take from two hours before going to bed. The child should be encouraged to empty the bladder at frequent intervals before sleeping. The child should also be encouraged to be free from stress and anxiety. Timely treatment should be given for any underlying disease, if found present.

How To Prevent Snoring – Causes, Problems, Cures, Remedies and Natural Solutions

They say about 1 out of 5 people today snores, so there’s a strong possibility that someone you know has a problem with snoring. It’s a problem that can lead to health problems for the snorer and believe it or not also the people around them.

The Causes

Snoring occurs when the tissue in your throat relaxes and vibrates against the back of the throat when breathing. The narrower the passage for air to travel through, the louder the snoring will be.

There are many, many possible causes of the snoring. Below is a list of the more common causes:

• Allergies

• A cold or the flu

• Alcohol

• Sleeping pills

• Overweight

• Smoking

• Naturally thick tissue in the throat

• Incorrect sleeping posture

• Low muscle tone in the throat muscles

• Sleep apnea

The Problems

Snoring can lead to more serious problems like high blood pressure, sleeping disorders, diabetes, strokes and even heart attacks. Snoring may also be an indicator of sleep apnea.

Snoring is something that is usally only taken seriously when the snorer’s family can’t take it anymore, but treating it before it gets to that point is better for the snorer and everyone within hearing distance.

If you live alone you may not know that you snore, but if you always wake up tired no matter how much sleep you get it may be because your snoring is preventing you from getting a solid night’s sleep.

Excessive snoring may also mean you have a more serious problem like sleep apnea.

If you wake up with a headache, are extremely tired during the day, don’t feel refreshed when you wake up, have trouble concentrating or a very low attention span, or wake up during the night choking and gasping for breath you should probably see a doctor.

The Natural Cures and Remedies

Here are some of those non-invasive tips to stop the snoring:

• Sleep on your side – there’s a higher chance of snoring if you lie on your back, and sleeping on your stomach will kill your neck.

• Keep a regular sleep schedule – and make sure you get enough sleep, many people snore only when they are overly tired

• Elevate your head when sleeping – you can increase the angle of your bed by raising the head of the bed or use pillows to your upper body, don’t just raise your head that’ll put more pressure on your air way and have the opposite effect.

• Avoid alcohol and tranquillizers – they basically cause the muscles of your jaw and throat to relax, increasing your changes of snoring.

• Treat your allergies – if your nose is stuffy it may force you to breathe through your mouth when sleeping. If your nose is stuffed I recommend using a neti pot, the are incredibly effective, natural and pretty cheap to. If you have allergies and are taking allergy medication, make sure your allergy medication is antihistamine free.

• Buy a mouth guard – mouth guards will keep your jaw muscles from relaxing too much, and prevent snoring. It may not be too attractive to your significant other but it’ll help you both get some sleep! 🙂

• Lose weight – when you’re heavier the extra weight puts pressure on your airway, causing snoring.

• Avoid large meals right before bed

• If you smoke try to stop – smoking damages your respiratory system, nasal congestion and inflames the air passages, which doesn’t help in the snoring department

• Start doing exercises for your throat – this will increase the strength of the muscles in your throat and prevent them from relaxing to the point where you snore

Mild snoring that isn’t related to sleep apnea responds well to home remedies. Finding a cure for your snoring problem can result in an improved quality of life for you and your loved ones.

An effective and pretty simple solution is doing throat exercises, here’s a website with interesting information on the snoring exercises:

Watch Out for the Heart Attack Signs

More often than not, you tend to take the occasional chest clutches seriously because as per the societal notion, you think it may further lead to a cardiac arrest. And this is where you get yourself wrong. Not all the heart problems happen in your chest, there can be other alarming symptoms in other parts of your body too, that are directly related to your heart, especially if you are overweight, a diabetic, have high cholesterol, or high blood pressure. This article enlists four problems you should watch out for to keep heart-related issues at bay. Read on!

Upset Stomach, Nausea and Indigestion

If you have been feeling sick in your stomach for a longer period of time, and having heartburns periodically, the symptoms call for a doctor’s attention immediately! Belching, vomiting, and persistent discomfort in your belly can ultimately lead to a heart attack as well. These are the less typical heart attack symptoms, and women are more likely to report such cases. A stabbing pain in the upper or middle of the abdomen for more than a few minutes can lead to a heart attack without even giving you chance to guess what it’s like to be struck by a chronic ailment.


Feeling dizzy and lightheaded is another disturbing symptom related to heart problems. What about feeling faint? Usually, such instances occur when the blood supply to your brain has dropped to the lowest possible level. But little do you care to know that it has happened because your heart rate is abnormal, that your heart can’t pump the blood adequately maybe due to the narrowing of a valve, or a rapid yet temporary drop in the blood pressure. A feeling of uneasiness, or dizziness while standing up too fast, all indicates that your heart is on the verge of a failure and you need to consult a cardiologist soon.

Unexplained Weakness

Do you get tired easily in doing simple chores of the day? Does your body give up even while engaging in activities that you loved to attend to before? All of this calls for the attention of a cardiologist immediately! Having difficulty in performing everyday chores such as climbing stairs, walking, carrying groceries indicates a heart failure. An increasing fatigue is a result of weak muscles and tissues that are unable to function well because the blood pumping ability of the heart has reduced.

Cough Producing White or Pink Mucus

A long-lasting cough producing pink or white colored mucus is downright related to the heart problems. Coughing up foamy mucus indicates you are falling short of life as your heart is worsening quickly. However, this happens in the case of sudden heart failures causing the fluid to build up in lungs eventually leading to shortness of breath, fast heartbeat, and coughing every now and then. Most of the patients die because of congestive heart attacks due to ignorance. It is therefore, very important to contact a cardiologist immediately after coughing up pink mucus.

Wrapping Up

If you have noticed some unusual changes in your body, feel choked, or find yourself in an uncomfortable state, it’s time to contact a specialist. If diagnosed with a heart failure which isn’t very easy to fix, you can only make some simple lifestyle changes to reduce the risks in future.

Migraines – THE Headache of All Headaches

Your chances of suffering from migraines are big if you have been suffering from very painful headaches since you were young, which are often also experienced by other members of your family.

Usually, only one side of the head is affected when you experience migraine.  Extreme pain is experienced and can last anywhere from 4-72 hours if not treated, and renders you to bed.  An attack is unbearable and usually makes the sufferers feel crippled and exhausted after the head pain has passed.

We still don’t know why there can be such long periods without a headache for some people and not others.  Other symptoms are usually suffered too, like light sensitivity and chills, along with a feeling of lightheadedness.

People who suffer from migraine attacks are those between the ages of 10 to 40.  No one really knows why this is so, but when someone reaches the age of fifty, attacks almost never occur.

Members of the same family are often cursed with migraines and there is believed to be a hereditary link; however, science has not yet proved that there is, in fact, a genetic factor at work.

There is a condition that causes an inflammation of blood vessels in the brain and it’s possible that people who suffer have sensitivity in this area. Science can’t yet explain why this condition affects women than men but women have a three times greater chance of having the condition; men only have an eight percent chance of ever suffering with the problem.

A distinct warning called an aura usually happens before the migraine attack by 10-30 minutes.  Signs that you are experiencing the aura mostly involve the senses and can include:


Problems with vision

Reduction in the sensations of taste

Difficulty with verbal skills

This is only a short list, and other symptoms can and do happen.  Migraines can also attack even without the aura, and builds up to an extreme intensity which is provoked more by continuous motion, light and noise, and often results in nausea and vomiting.

Some medical experts believe it is the contracting blood vessels that are responsible for the migraine with aura effect. It might be that it is the expansion of the blood vessels afterwards that causes the headache; those who are afflicted say the headache is often so intense that it impedes their regular routine, disrupting daily activity and often keeping them awake at night. You may experience one or more triggers with each attack. The most common complaints are bad weather, particular foods and beverages, being at great height, bright lights, insomnia and stress.

I have such compassion for those who suffer with migraines that I created a program to help eliminate them. The Migraine and Headache Relief program is a simple to use plan with astonishing results in reducing or completely eliminating the sharp pain of headaches.

You will be given easy to do exercises in my Migraine and Headache Relief Program, and it will only take you a few minutes a day to do.  By doing the exercises, you won’t have to live with the constant threat of migraines.

Lazarus in Crime and Punishment’s Epilogue

The greatest obstacle in literary criticism is the inability of the reader to know with certainty the mind of the author. For all we know, the author’s intentions could have been completely opposite the general analysis. For that reason, conflicting opinions abound, and controversy rages over issues that the author most likely never intended as such. In his Crime and Punishment, Fyodor Dostoevsky added an epilogue to conclude the novel. In the previous chapter, Raskolnikov, the protagonist, confesses and the police arrest him for murder. Many critics believe that this is an adequate ending and that the epilogue is entirely unnecessary, while others contend that the epilogue is very necessary, as it hints at Raskolnikov’s redemption and resurrection. Crime and Punishment is a Christian novel, with religious overtones and undertones throughout, such as Sonya’s reading of the story of Lazarus, which parallels Raskolnikov’s own story. However, the novel also loosely follows the structure and content of the Greek tragedy, and this coexistence of the Christian redemption and resurrection themes and the tragic Oedipus Rex themes creates a complex work that cannot be considered from only one perspective. The epilogue is extremely necessary to the conclusion of Crime and Punishment, as it allows for the further development of Raskolnikov’s character and giving him another dimension. He is not just the insane, crazed ax murderer whose guilt and depravity eat at him until he confesses. It seems that way at the end of the final chapter. But with the addition of the epilogue, Rodion Raskolnikov starts down the path of resurrection, which he hadn’t seemed inclined towards earlier in the novel. Without the epilogue, Raskolnikov would remain a less complex character, incapable of repentance.

Many critics reject the epilogue because they cannot accept the moral regeneration that it promises. According to Lev Shestov, Raskolnikov’s only crime was to believe that he was incapable of breaking the law, and that his tragedy was not his guilt and insanity but rather the “impossibility of beginning a new and different life” (71-72). The entire novel moves toward a conversion or resurrection, most notably and obviously by the appearance of the biblical story of Lazarus, read by the prostitute Sonya, who is based on Mary Magdalene. Dostoevsky did not choose Lazarus at random. He chose Lazarus because the story is a subtle reminder of Raskolnikov’s chance at redemption, to be reborn after repenting his sins. This theme of resurrection is prominent throughout the novel, and to ignore this theme is to ignore an enormous part of Dostoevsky’s meaning. Yes, this is a novel about the inner psyche of a sociopath and an exploration of guilt, but it is also about realizing one’s sins and repentance for them.

Edward Wasiolek raises a more valid argument in that he believes that Dostoevsky has failed to provide his readers with any evidence that Raskolnikov has enough spiritual awareness to contradict his theories put forth in his essay “On Crime” or to follow Sonya’s spiritual direction. This is a valid point, and it would be correct, if not for the abundance of examples of Raskolnikov starting the conversion. He is not reborn spontaneously, as Wasiolek would have you believe, but rather after a wealth of experiences that have influenced him to this end. For example, every time Raskolnikov helps the Marmelodovs, he does so because of a brief, but real, compassion. True, he regrets his charity almost instantly, but that thoughtless compassion suggests he does not feel the self-professed superiority in his heart. That resides only in his mind. As such, his consequent interactions with Sonya further this trend towards recognizing himself as a man on the same plane of existence as those he once considered lesser. Raskolnikov slowly progresses, allowing compassion to infiltrate his mind at times, beginning his conversion, his resurrection. As he realizes his own humanity, he becomes more conscious of his guilt. This indicates that he is not completely gone, that he can recover from the insanity that possessed him. Robert Louis Jackson notes that Raskolnikov’s behavior passes through two distinct phases-first showing great sympathy and compassion for those who need it and immediately, unthinkingly, takes measures to alleviate their suffering, and afterward feels disgust at having betrayed his intellectual principles, which don’t allow for sympathy towards such lesser, unworthy beings. However, that first, natural inclination to help those in need betrays Raskolnikov’s humanity. His sense of compassion “endows his actions with a magnanimity that runs counter to the malevolence of his scheme and the cruelty of his crime” (Matual, 28).

Furthermore, Raskolnikov never was a cold-blooded killer. His mind was convinced of his superiority, but in contemplating the murder, he was disgusted, repelled. He sought any excuse to forgo the task, but when what he perceived as a sign from the universe indicated that he must kill Alyona Ivanovna, he was filled with repugnance at the prospect of taking someone’s life. He never lost his doubts, nor his repugnance of the act, and it continued to eat away at him until he confessed at the end of the novel. Raskolnikov’s compassion for the poor and oppressed, his revulsion at the murder, and his memories of childhood innocence and piety provide a basis for his resurrection in the epilogue. The acts of compassion “represent only the potential for rebirth,” and “something more powerful is required to arose him from his spiritual lethargy and lead him toward the events of the epilogue” (Matual, 30). To end the novel after the confession is to leave Raskolnikov without finishing his story. His transformation was only just beginning, and only through his experiences at the Siberian prison can he continue the conversion. Only after a long spell of defiance at the prison, Raskolnikov gives in to his human side and responds to Sonya’s love. He pulls the bible out from under his pillow and reads once again of Lazarus, he who is reborn, just like him. Here Raskolnikov finally accepts his stint at the prison as his catharsis, be redeemed, and proceed to a new life. Raskolnikov is not just an evil, heartless person. His repugnance at his crime, his compassion for others, and his confession all hinted at a possible redemption. With the confession, he is only just starting down the path of conversion, and the epilogue is entirely necessary to see whether he will accept the consequences of his actions and be reborn or if he will reject them and withdraw into insanity and depravity once more.

In addition, the novel’s many facets and interlocking stories all point directly to the epilogue. Numerical motifs are prevalent, and they are left unfinished at the end of the novel, but with the inclusion of the epilogue, they are masterfully concluded. For example, the number nine recurs throughout the novel with regard to time. Crime and Punishment covers three nine-month periods: “1) from the genesis of the crime to its perpetration, 2) from the confession to the trial and the journey to Siberia, and 3) from the beginning of Raskolnikov’s exile to the moment when he embraces Sonia and a new life begins for him [… ] It takes nine months for the crime to be ‘hatched,’ nine months for the punishment to begin, and another nine months for Raskolnikov to be reborn in the epilogue” (Matual 32). Clearly, Dostoevsky was thinking of the period of birth, as each nine-month segment results in something being born. First, Raskolnikov’s terrible plot is carried out, carried to term and born, if you will. Second, Raskolnikov confesses and his transformation begins, which results in his deliverance to Siberia, where his final cycle begins. After nine months, he is reborn, allowing Sonya into his life and repenting his sins, feeling genuine regret for the atrocities he committed. Raskolnikov’s mind is born first, resulting in the murders. His body is born second, upon his deliverance to Siberia. His heart and soul are born last, reuniting his body, mind, and soul, and concluding his resurrection. Had Crime and Punishment ended with Raskolnikov’s confession, there would be a complete and utter lack of closure. Uncertainty would remain concerning his conversion and the consequences of his actions. Sometimes leaving the reader with doubt at the end of a novel is a useful and pleasing conclusion, but not with doubt as to the driving questions of the novel. Dostoevsky masterfully concluded Crime and Punishment in such a way as to answer all those questions, and yet still leaves the reader wondering what form Raskolnikov’s new life with Sonya would take.

Another point to consider is the structure of Crime and Punishment. It parallels the Greek tragedy, and it also parallels the story of Lazarus. The concept of fate, which has a pagan connotation, and the concept of God’s will are, strangely, not at odds with each other. They coexist, leaving the reader to interpret the happenings as they will, perhaps considering divine intervention, perhaps considering coincidences. Depending on the view the reader takes, interpretations can vary. For instance, considering Christianity and the story of Lazarus, the novel is quite unfinished without the inclusion of the epilogue. Raskolnikov’s true transformation would remain in doubt, and the parallels between Lazarus and Raskolnikov would end abruptly. Dostoevsky included Lazarus for a reason, and so would never leave the conclusion to Raskolnikov’s story incomplete. He planned for the epilogue to conclude this storyline, and merged Lazarus’s and Raskolnikov’s fates. The pagan fate is similar to the belief in predestination, as God already knows what will happen. Even from a pagan perspective, the epilogue is necessary to provide for the knowledge of Raskolnikov’s transformation and new life, and ultimately his fate.

Although Crime and Punishment’s epilogue strikes many critics as heavy-handed and unnecessary, it is an important component and essential conclusion to the novel. The objections raised are without a solid basis, as Raskolnikov did not spontaneously reach repentance and redemption, but rather had the potential to do so all his life. In actuality, the presence of good and compassion within him provides his character with depth and another level of complexity, making every decision that much harder. Because his mind and his heart are at odds with each other, each surface at different points of the novel, expressing disgust, revulsion, or contempt at the other. This drives him mad, and eventually his compassion beats out his superiority and drives him to confess. The epilogue provides Raskolnikov with another dimension, his capacity for good, as he repents his sins and becomes a new man. The epilogue is unavoidable, the accumulation of all the preceding events that culminate in Raskolnikov’s transformation.

Works Cited

Dostoevsky, Fyodor. Crime and Punishment. New York: Bantam Dell, A division of Random House, Inc., 1866.

Jackson, Robert Louis. “Philosophical Pro and Contra in Part One of Crime and Punishment,” Twentieth Century Interpretations of Crime and Punishment. Eaglewood Cliffs: Prentice- Hall, 1974. p. 27.

Matual, David. “In Defense of the Epilogue of Crime and Punishment.” EBSCO Publishing, 2002. 26-34.

Shestov, Lev. Dostoevsky I Nitshe. Berlin: Skify, 1923. 71-72.

Wasiolek, Edward. “On the Structure of Crime and Punishment.” PMLA 74, 1959: 135.

The Hidden Disaster in the Small Intestine

The small intestine of course is where the food makes its most important part of the digestion trip. The vast majority of the assimilation takes place here so the preparation that took place in the mouth, esophagus, stomach and duodenum must be as complete as possible. As you know, if you read my previous articles on the digestion process, most Americans and probably a vast portion of the world’s population eat for entertainment and not to feed their body properly. You only have to look around you to see the problems of obesity, and disease to know that there is something very wrong in the United States, the world’s most advanced nation.

The small intestine is really a tube in three parts that starts at the pyloric sphincter (controls the amount of food that moves into the small intestine from the stomach), the duodenum (which we discussed in my article The Influence of the Duodenum on Health), the jejunum, and ileum. The food is pushed through the small intestine by a process of muscular-wavelike contractions called peristalsis. The inside walls of the jejunum and ileum are covered in wrinkles or folds called plicae circulares; they are considered a permanent feature. Another feature is the rugae which are considered non-permanent or temporary, allowing for distention and contraction. Extending from the plicae circulares are microscopic hair-like pieces of tissue called villi (Latin for “shaggy hair”.

The small intestine is also lined with simple finger or columnar like projections called epithelial. The epithelial cells also have hair-like projections known as microvilli. The function of these three, the plicae circulares, the villi and the microvilli is to increase the amount of inner surface area of the intestine estimated to be 250 sq meters or about the surface size of a tennis court. The reason for this large surface area is for secretion of enzymes and absorption of nutrients.

I could go into a great deal more detail here such as where the different nutrients are absorbed, why there is a layer of water on the surface cells on the microvilli, and how proteolytic enzymes cleave proteins; this area of the body is fascinating. But I just want to give you enough basic anatomy and function here so you can understand what a disaster is occurring in this most important area of your body.

As the chime enters the small intestine, sensors there on the wall of duodenum (the first nine inch section of the small intestine) can tell how much of this meal was actually digested in your stomach. As I discussed in the previous chapter your digestion is highly subject to the amount of plant enzymes present. Plant enzymes are only found in raw foods or plant enzyme supplements. They are not found in cooked, refined or irradiated foods that destroy enzymes. Plant enzymes in the food do the real digesting of your meal right down to the molecule level. If there were not enough enzymes, which is the reality of the American diet, then the meal was not digested completely and is dangerous.

There is a safeguard here; it is the functions of duodenum and the jejunum to continue digesting food from the stomach. But this function is really for fine tuning a properly digested meal from the stomach not to save an undigested meal every time you eat. An undigested meal cannot be allowed to travel into the ileum as this is life threatening.

Enzymes from your mouth, plants and pancreas continue digestion in the jejunum to fine tune the meal as I said above. But now we have an undigested meal here with one big problem the carbohydrates in the meal. The carbohydrates should have been digested in the predigestive stomach by the enzymes that should have been in the meal. So the carbohydrates undigested are moving into the jejunum. In the jejunum those carbohydrates can only be broken down into disaccharides by the enzymes there and disaccharides are dangerous to the body.

To be useful to the body those carbohydrates have to be broken down to monosaccharides (takes place in predigestion with the proper enzymes) which are single molecule. So we end up with a lot of undigested carbohydrates in the small intestine. Well there is a safe guard here at the ileum which is yeast and fungus that live in the small intestine; they will digest this sugar which saves the blood stream. But as I just said this is a safe guard not to be abused as it is abused in America. Where every meal is missing those vital enzymes in the predigestion and undigested carbohydrates are moving into the ileum.

What needs to be saved in the blood stream is of the utmost importance. It is the immune system that needs to be protected from this sugar. Because if this sugar escapes out into the blood stream it wrecks havoc with the immune system and you will have an autoimmune disaster. The autoimmune system through aggregated lymphatic follicles, nutrophils, lymphocytes and other white blood cells will work to clean this sugar up, this should not be happening. Too many of these particles in the bloodstream will drive your immune system crazy. If this is allowed to happen too often you will find yourself with an immune system that attacks you and you will have one of the many autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis as the end result.