The Most Important Japanese Lesson Yet!

Public transportation is big in Japan. You’ll probably need to catch a bus at some point. So, you will want to ask questions such as, “is this bus bound for Tokyo?” You’ll probably also need to tell people things such as, “I need to get off the train at Nagano station.” Phrases and questions like these are the key to getting around in Japan.

This Beginner Japanese article is here to help you! You will learn how to ask and answer questions about where you are trying to go. Ask Kono basu wa Tokyo-iki desu? (“Is this bus bound for Tokyo?”) and similar questions in Japanese. This Japanese article is the key to getting where you are headed!

Vocabulary: In this article, you’ll learn the following words and phrases:

waza waza – “taking so much trouble”

agaru – “to enter, to come up” (class 1 verb)

kaeru – “to go back” (class 1 verb)

yuuhan – “evening meal”

ekimae – “in front of the station”

umai – “delicious, tasty” (-i ending adjective)

uisukii – “whiskey”

koori – “ice”

hantai – “opposite”

kansha – “thanks, gratitude”

shoojiki – “honestly, honest”

betsu – “different, another”

Grammar: In this article, you’ll learn the following words and phrases:

Useful Vocabulary and Phrases

yuuhan “supper, evening meal”

There are several words meaning “supper” in Japanese:





yumeshi (very informal and sounds masculine)

banmeshi (very informal and sounds masculine)

Please also review “breakfast” and “lunch:”




asa-meshi (very informal and sounds masculine)







hiru-meshi (very informal and sounds masculine)

hantai “opposition”

When we add -suru or o suru , it becomes a verb meaning “to oppose.” The opposite word is sansei, which means “approval.” The particle ni follows the object one opposes or agrees with.


Musume no kekkon ni hantai suru.

“I’m opposed to my daughter’s marriage.”

Today’s Target Phrase

Tokyo ni kaetta.

“She went back to Tokyo.

The verb conjugations that make the –ta form of a verb, or the plain past form of a verb, are today’s grammar point. The formation of the plain past form is quite simple: change the final sound of the –te form from –te to –ta.

-ta Form of Verbs

  1. Conjugate a verb to the –te form. SEE Beginner Series Season 4, Articles 19, 20, 21, and 22 for more details.
  2. Drop the -te and add –ta

“English” / Dictionary Form / Te Form / Ta Form

“to buy” / kau / katte / katta

“to write” / kaku / kaite / kaita

“to speak” / hanasu / hanashite / hanashita

“to wait” / matsu / matte / matta

“to die” / shinu / shinde / shinda

“to drink” / nomu / nonde / nonda

“to make” / tsukuru / tsukutte / tsukutta

“to swim” / oyogu / oyoide / oyoida

“to invite” / yobu / yonde / yonda

“to go” / iku / itte / itta

“to eat” / taberu / tabete / tabeta

“to return” / kaeru / kaette / kaetta

“to do” / suru / shite / shita

“to come” / kuru / kite / kita

Formal Speech and Informal Speech

Politeness Level / Formal Speech / Informal SpeechNon-Past Affirmative / Watashi wa Tokyo ni kaerimasu. / Watashi wa Tokyo ni kaeru.

Non-Past Negative / Watashi wa Tokyo ni kaerimasen. / Watashi wa Tokyo ni kaeranai.

Past Affirmative/ Miu wa Tokyo ni kaerimashita. / Miu wa Tokyo ni kaetta.

Past Negative / Miu wa Tokyo ni kaerimasen deshita. / Miu wa Tokyo ni kaeranakatta.


*Non-past dictionary form of a verb: See Nihongo Doojoo, “Style You and Beyond, Articles 19, 20, 21, and 22,” for more details.

*Non-polite past form of a verb: See Beginner Season 4 Article 23 for more details.

*Please note thatthe non-past plain negative form of a verb conjugates as -i ending adjectives to get the past form. Change the final -i to katta.

For Example:

  1. kaeranai becomes keranakatta
  2. minai becomes minakatta

This grammar point hasn’t been explained in the Nihongo Doojoo series yet.

Practice 1:

Fill in the blanks to complete the chart.

Class 1 Verbs

“English” / Dictionary Form / Plain Negative Form / -Te Form / -Ta Form

“to listen” / kiku / kikanai / kiite / kiita

“to lend” / —- / kasanai / kashite / —-

“to wait” / matsu / —- / —- / —-

“to read” / —- / yomanai / —- / —-

“to understand” / —- / —- / wakatte / —-

“to go” / iku / —- / itte / —-

“to say” / iku / iwanai / itte / —-

“to meet” / au / —- / —- / —-

Class 2 Verbs

“English” / Dictionary Form / Plain Negative Form / -Te Form / -Ta Form

“to sleep” / neru / nenai / nete / —-

“to look” / miru / —- / —- / —-

Class 3 Verbs

“English” / Dictionary Form / Plain Negative Form / -Te Form / -Ta Form

“to do” / —- / —- / shite / —-

“to come” / kuru / —- / kite / —-

Practice 2:

Change the formal speech to casual speech.

  1. Terebi o mimashita.
  2. Yhan o tabemashita.
  3. Nihon-go o benky shimashita.
  4. Kin Nihon ni kimashita.
  5. Wakarimashita.
  6. Mizu o nomimashita.
  7. Takush de ikimashita.  

Sinus Relief by Humming – Why it Works

Sinus symptoms are usually caused by lazy nasal cilia. Cilia are the tiny oars that move bacteria and dust out of the nose. Then the bacteria don’t remain in place long enough to multiply and cause disease.

In postnasal drip, the cilia move slowly. This allows the mucus to thicken and grow bacteria. Hence the gloppy feel and the odor, and the constant hawking.

Why do cilia slow down? Are you stuck behind a diesel bus? Smog in the air? Work where odors and dusts harm the cilia? For example, persons exposed to chromium dusts get many of these symptoms.

Allergies contribute too, but in a roundabout fashion. Initially, in allergy, the cilia speed up. Here the nose drips and there is excessive sneezing-which blows out the pollen. But, after several weeks of symptoms, the cilia are exhausted and then bacteria remain in place and multiply.

The cure? Hum! When you hum you set up a vibration in the air. That vibration does several things. It vibrates the mucus layer and breaks up the thick bonds so that the mucus is thinner and more liquid. This in itself allows better movement of the cilia.

Humming also vibrates the cilia. Know how your fingers tingle when you touch a piano at a certain note or chord? Know how soldiers marching across a wooden bridge in perfect step can set up a vibration that causes a bridge to vibrate too? That is the kind of action you can get from humming.

However you need to get the right tone. Usually the deeper into base you go, the better. If you put your fingers on your nasal tip, often that can tell you when you reach the right pitch.

This harmony tone is the principle of the kazoo that you blow into and it creates a low pitched sound for the chest cilia. That vibration helps break up thick chest mucus and get the chest cilia moving so they can remove bacteria.

Indra Devi, the Yoga Master, demonstrated to me how the yogis do it. They alternately sniff saline in and out in a rhythm that is ideal for activating the nasal cilia. This explains why she and her followers were sinus free.

The pulsatile irrigator is a mechanical way to follow the Indra Devi method. This gently sends a stream through the nose and sinuses at a pulse rate to stimulate nasal cilia. At the same time the pulse rate also removes the stale mucus and massages the nasal tissue in order to bring better circulation to the area.

For those of you athletically inclined, jumping up and down also works by shaking up the mucus and the nasal cilia. Some of my patients have been sinus free by this method.

Today, the method of taking huge doses of antibiotics at the onset of a sinus infection is contrary to the studies showing not much difference in outcome between placebo and drugs. Surgery methods that don’t restore cilia function may not succeed if the cilia movement is not restored; despite the best surgery, if cilia don’t return to normal, the symptoms may persist. This is why a trial of humming and/or Hydro Pulse Nasal/Sinus irrigation is always best before other more invasive methods are used.

After any nasal/sinus surgery, you may get post-op nasal/sinus infection syndrome (PONSIS). this is because with surgery, the nasal cilia may take a long time to recover. Using humming and other means to return cilia speed to normal can help prevent this condition.

Additional aids for sinus problems include tea, lemon and honey, probiotics, and good sleep.

Since these methods work, why not try them, hmmmm? To receive Dr Grossan’s newsletter:

Botox Vs Hyaluronic Acid-Based Fillers: What’s the Difference?

While Botox used to be the only facial injectable available, recently an array of similar treatments have been developed and approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). All of these products promise to rejuvenate the face and reduce the prominence of wrinkles and folds, but each works differently. In general, all injectables can be divided into two main groups-those based on the Botulinum toxin type A and those based on hyaluronic acid. Read on to learn about the main differences between these substances.

Botulinum Toxin-Based Products

Botox is the most popular facial injectable. It has been used by plastic surgeons for over a decade, and it consistently delivers outstanding aesthetic results. This product is based on Botulinum toxin type A, which is diluted and prepared according to strict safety guidelines to be safe for cosmetic applications. Once injected in the skin, it blocks the signals from the nerves to the facial muscles. As a result, the muscles become temporarily paralyzed, which leads to the relaxation of facial wrinkles and lines.

Dysport and Xeomin are also based on Botulinum toxin type A. Like Botox, these injectables are typically used to smooth crow’s feet, relax the lines between the eyebrows, and reduce the prominence of forehead wrinkles. The results of all three of these products usually last about six months, after which time the treatment can be repeated to maintain the youthful effect.

The main differences between the three Botulinum toxin-based products are slight modifications in the formula and different handling procedures. Thus, Xeomin does not have to be refrigerated, which might make this substance easier to transport. In addition, the three injectables vary regarding their costs. According to the American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, the Botox cost is $325 for a treatment consisting of 20 units, while the cost of Xeomin is about $400-$600 for a standard treatment. The cost of Dysport typically falls within the same range.

Hyaluronic Acid-Based Injectables

Several products exploit the hydrating and “plumping” characteristics of hyaluronic acid, a substance that is produced naturally by the human body. They can be used to augment thin lips, fill in sunken cheeks, reduce the prominence of deep lines running from the nose to the mouth (nasolabial folds), and fill in deep acne scars. Two popular fillers of this type are Juvederm and Restylane.

As with the Botulinum toxin-based products, the results of Juvederm and Restylane injections fade over time as the body slowly absorbs the injected substance. However, due to the different chemical composition of Juvederm and Restylane, the results of these injections last somewhat longer than those of Botox. Plastic surgeons typically recommend that hyaluronic acid-based filler treatments be repeated every 10 to 12 months.

While Botulinum toxin- and hyaluronic acid-based fillers have traditionally been used separately and for different purposes, a recent study by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery shows that these substances can be combined. In fact, such combination treatments, sometimes referred to as “liquid facelift,” were found to produce more prominent, longer-lasting results. If you are interested in any facial injectables, ask your plastic surgeon about the possibility of combining several injectables for the best possible outcome.

Demonology – Steps to Demon Possession

People don’t just wake up overnight and become demon possessed. There is a series of events and stages of personal spiritual decline that takes a person deeper into darkness. Here the steps toward demon possession.

1. Regression – to withdraw, to decrease, or backslide. To revert to a former level, to reverse a trend, or to shift to a lower state. (Revelation 3:16)

To understand regression, we need to take a look at the opposite word – progression. If you are not moving forward, you are probably moving backward. If you’re not progressing, you are probably regressing.

They were making spiritual progress – reading their Bible, praying, and spending time with the Lord. But one day they were too tired to study the Bible, they didn’t bother to pray the next day, and before they realized it, they were not spending any time at all with God. They soon began to lose what progress they had made. Their spiritual muscles began to atrophy and turn to flab, and they became easy pickings for demonic power.

To understand regression, we need to take a look at the opposite word – progression. If you are not moving forward, you are probably moving backward. If you’re not progressing, you are probably regressing.

2. Repression – lessened and quenched expression…joyless, lifeless, pathetic.

Repression is the outward sign that regression is taking place on the inside.

Some people have a problem with repression because they were raised in a home where they were never allowed to show their feelings. They might even be the type of people who wait to see what everyone else thinks before they let you know what they think about something. It’s important for us not only to understand repression when we see it in ourselves, but when we see it in others as well.

Sometimes all it takes to change things is to go to that sad person, give them a hug, and tell them that you appreciate or love them. Maybe all they need is someone to talk to. Just having a friend can make such a difference in someone’s life, and it can stop them from falling into demonic oppression and possession. If you don’t express your feelings, the feelings will eventually begin to go away.

3. Suppression – to squeeze down abnormally, to conceal, as to suppress information, feelings, and desires.

Repression is primarily something we do to ourselves for various reasons. Suppression, on the other hand, is something that comes from outside of us. It is the beginning of demonic inroads being made into a person’s life, and it needs to be broken by the power of God. Suppression cannot be defeated through will-power or by trying harder. It can only be defeated and broken by direct action – taking authority over it in the name of Jesus and then in faith obeying what God has put in your heart to do.

4. Depression – a psychotic or neurotic condition characterized by an inability to concentrate, insomnia, and feelings of extreme sadness, dejection, and hopelessness.

Depression is a broken spirit. A person who is depressed has been pressed down to the point where their spirit is crushed. Depression may be triggered by other forms of loss or trouble.

5. Oppression – like depression carried to the nth degree. To oppress someone means to weigh them down with a load they’re not capable of carrying. The dictionary describes it as keeping one down by severe and unjust use of force or authority.

Some people are being oppressed today by demons who condemn them, load them up with false quilt, and whisper to them, “You’re no good.” If you are weighed down by your past sins and failures, you are being oppressed. People who have a serious, long-term illness are often extremely oppressed.

6. Obsession – Obsession is not always bad. Some people are obsessed with the things of God, and that’s a good thing. The evil form of obsession, however, can be a terrible and cruel taskmaster. A person who is obsessed is one who is preoccupied with an idea, feeling, or emotion that cannot be broken by natural means. It is a persistent, inescapable, compulsive preoccupation.

Obsession can begin when you believe a lie. One improper step can be followed by another until you have strayed far from the proper path. Don’t be taken in by any of the devil’s lies. Instead, look to the Holy Spirit to guide you in every situation. Obsession can begin when you give in to jealousy. Hatred can open the door to obsession.

Obsession can come through being involved in some type of sin. This means indulging in something you know is wrong to the point where your willpower is totally gone. An old Chinese proverb says, “A journey of 1,000 miles begins with one step.” That is true of any journey, including the journey into the bondage of obsession. If you want to maintain your freedom, don’t ever take that first small step away from what you know is right.

7. Possession – in which the devil captures the immortal soul, to be under absolute and total control of the devil. Your willpower is owned by the spirit that lives in you.

There are demon possessed people all over the world, but most people who are bothered by devils are in one of the six other categories discussed. In some of the other cases discussed, demons may have been involved in the mind and the body, but not in the spirit. The person who is possessed has a demon or demons living within their spirit.

To get free from demons, repent of and forsake your sins, pray and invite Jesus by the power of the Holy Spirit into your heart, worship God regularly, and read your Bible daily.

Pray with me now to consecrate your life and be freed from demonic influences:

“Dear Jesus, I give you my life. Forgive me for my willful sin and rebellion. Cleanse me by your holy blood shed on the cross for me. Thank You for dying for me Jesus. Please come into my heart by the power of Your Holy Spirit that rose you from the dead. Come blessed Holy Spirit and live big in me! Drive out every demon so I can be free. Have your way in me and make my life what it ought to be so I can glorify Thee. In Jesus’ Name I pray. Amen.”

Tourist Activities And Tips For The Nile River

The name Nile results from a Greek word Neilos meaning valley, the river Nile is he longest river in the world whose source is known to Jinja Uganda. It is a great river of Northeast Africa that begins its journey in well watered regions near the equator and then flow north word across the dreadful Sahara desert before emptying in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. The river is 6695 km (4184 miles) long. The river flows through a total of nine countries although it is most associated to Uganda and Egypt. The other countries include Ethiopia, Zaire, Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda, Burundi and Sudan.

This longest river consists of mainly two principle branches that is the white and blue Nile which then joins in Khartoum to form the Main Nile that consists of the Egyptian Nile and the Cataract Nile. The longest segment the White Nile further divides into three 1) The Central Sudan region; 2) The Sudd; and 3) the Lake Plateau region.

The Nile has played a large role in the civilization life and history of some of these countries especially Egypt and Uganda. The Nile is a source of energy to the Ugandans, as the countries major electricity damn is built on the Nile. It has also provided water for human life and its banks are so fertile that despite the fact that Egypt is a dry land, it has enabled the Egyptians sustain their lives throught irrigation and the fertile soils at the banks. The Nile has also provided water to animals like the crocodiles that live at the banks of the river in Egypt. The Nile crocodiles in Egypt are about 4 metres in length although some have been reported as longer.

The Nile as a river has a lot to offer to tourists ranging from boat trips to the source, to activities like rafting, kayaking, Fishing on the Victoria Nile and bungee jumping in Uganda. For Egypt it’s a whole new story as there are lots of things to see on the Nile bank including the historical sites. Individuals interested in experiencing the Nile up close and personal can journey along the famous river aboard riverboat cruises that depart from numerous cities along the bank. On any of your trip to Africa, the Nile- the natural wonder is one of the historical sites places that you shouldn’t Miss.

Colorado Medicaid Vision Care Benefits – 6 Things You Need to Know About Your Eyecare

Your Colorado optometrist may participate in Medicaid and provide eye exams and glasses for your children at no cost to you. Almost 1 of every 4 children in Colorado is insured through Medicaid. Because so many children are covered under Medicaid there are six points you need to understand.

  1. Medicaid coverage for vision varies state by state so don’t presume you will have the same benefits when moving to Colorado from another state. There are different types of vision care coverage for children and adults. Changes in eye care benefits have occurred in the last few years, and will continue to change with health care reform. Expansion or cut backs in benefits may occur at any time. Medicaid is a state run program run in cunjunction with the Federal Governement. States can vary the coverage policies to some degree. The state of Colorado has it’s own plan. One example of the differences is adult coverage. Adults have a $2.00 co-pay for eye exams and limited benfits for eyeglasses. Many states have full coverage for adults.
  2. For Medicaid vision coverage in Colorado, children’s vision insurance coverage is defined by age 20 and under. When reaching age 21, Colorado Medicaid considers you an adult and the benefits change. Children are eligible for an eye exam by their optometrist as needed with no co-pay.
  3. Contact lens fitting fees entail additional charges above the regular eye examination. These are not covered unless there is an eye disease that warps the cornea. Contact lenses may be the only way to provide acceptable visual acuity. The actual contact lenses are also not covered unless their is an applicable medical diagnosis. This is not a area where a patient can plead their case. If there are specific medical conditions requiring contact lenses your eye doctor has to file a form to have your case considered. The review process can take several weeks to several months. It is normally approved if contact lenses are the only way to correct your vision due to a corneal eye disease. Your optometrist may have to submit a form for prior authorization more than once to communicate the need for special consideration, so you will need to have some patience.
  4. A standard eyeglass frame and lenses are covered with no co pay. A standard frame means frames are limited to inexpensive frames. That does not mean they are necessarily low quality. Your optometrist is only allowed a limited reimbursement for the eyeglass frame. Repairs for broken frames or lenses are a benefit, and a replacement frame is provided if the frame cannot be repaired. While this is not necessarily an unlimited benefit, it can be used more than once if your child is prone to breaking glasses. Loss of eyeglasses is not specifically defined as a benefit but may be covered.
  5. Lens treatments such as scratch resistant coatings, glare free coatings, tints, and thin lens materials are not covered. Scratch resistant coatings are the one option you should purchase. Prescription eye glass lenses without a scratch coating will most likely have scratch marks on them within a day or two of teenager usage. Scratch resistant coatings are not scratch proof, but they will certainly extend the usable life of the lenses. There is a way to have thinner, lighter lenses covered for your child. If you request polycarbonate lenses, they will be much thinner and attractive for higher eye glass lens prescriptions, and help your child’s self image. Polycarbonate lenses are usually recommended for children and teens needing eyeglasses due to their extreme impact resistance.
  6. Other services may be available with prior authorization. Vision devices for children that have significant sight loss from eye diseases, some lens treatments, therapy for lazy eye, and other services are sometimes approved. Don’t expect a fast approval, but it is worth the wait when the service ends up being covered.

Medicaid is constantly changing and this information is provided as educational, not as representative of current state policy. Different types of programs are available in some areas of Colorado. Eligibility for enrolling in Medicaid and understanding your vision benefits is your responsibility, and the State of Colorado has resources to help you. Visit the Colorado State website at: []. Thousands of children are eligible for Medicaid coverage in Colorado but are currently not enrolled or covered by any insurance plan. You can help keep your kids healthy by taking the time to enroll them now, and keeping up with annual preventative eye doctor examinations.

Diving Sulawesi and Coral Reefs

Over 58 genera and sub genera of hard corals have been recorded in the waters that surround the Bunaken National Park, a province of North Sulawesi in Indonesia. This is almost three times that what you might find from the reefs of the Caribbean.

The ideal water temperatures for coral reefs to flourish are between 20 and 28 degrees Celsius. They also require clear waters; this is because most corals rely on an algae species known as zooxanthellae for their source of food. The algae use photosynthesis to create food, of which the excess is passed on to the coral. This is known as a symbiotic relationship, where both species benefit. In fact it is the algae that creates the colors of the reef and not the coral itself.

Corals are colonies of the same animal, individually referred to as ‘polyps’. They are joined together by a thin layer of common tissue. As they grow they secrete a calcium carbonate structure which enables them to bind together with some other type of material.

The coral reefs of Sulawesi support an incredible diversity of marine organisms including thousands of different fishes, crabs, sea stars, sea cucumbers, snails, clams and worms. Coral reefs provide a solid habitat for these organisms to survive on. The coral reefs around this area one of the best places in Indonesia to go on scuba diving holidays.

The most predominant type of reef in the Bunaken National Park is fringing reef. Fringing reefs grow along the edge of landmasses and islands. Close to the islands of northern Sulawesi are mangrove forests, from here most commonly you’ll find sea grass beds, from which the reef flat usually extends for 30 – 50 meters before reaching the reef crest and reef slope, more commonly known as the ‘drop off’. Each of these habitats will be preferential to different marine life. For example mangrove forests are ideal grounds for juveniles as they provide protection, sea grass beds provide a feeding ground for hungry turtles and the reef flat will allow corals the opportunity to flourish.

Coral reefs are in desperate need of protection, The North Sulawesi Watersports Association is an organization set up by local dive operators to ensure the protection of the area. Let us hope that diving in Indonesia keeps its high standards with the efforts of this organisation.

Floaters in the Eyes – Their Causes and How to Get Them Removed

Eye floaters are small specks, spots and cobweb like particles that drift about in your field of vision. Ordinary eye floaters are fairly common and need not be a cause of alarm.

Your eye contains a clear gel like liquid called the vitreous. Unfortunately, the vitreous humour degenerates as we age. When we are young the vitreous has a gel like consistency but as we grow older it may become more watery, especially in the centre of the eyeball.

Parts of the vitreous become more watery and other parts become more solid than they should be. The more solidified gel particles may float around in the more watery parts of the eye.

When small pieces break loose from the back of the eye and float around your eye it is called a floater.

Floaters also have a tendency to sink to the bottom of the eyeball and can blur the vision until they move to a different area. Sometimes people may think they see something out of the corner of their eye but nothing is there.

Floaters are more noticeable in bright light or looking at a computer screen for example. You may not see the floaters but they may cast shadows on the retina at the back of the eye, which you do see.

The Sudden Appearance of Floaters

If floaters appear suddenly then seek expert advice immediately. It may mean serious damage to the eye. It could indicate serious problems with the vitreous gel or even the retina becoming detached.

Posterior Vitreous Detachments – PVDs

This occurs when the vitreous gel starts to become detached from the retina. This is serious and will need urgent attention. The gel may pull on the retina causing physical damage and even retinal detachment.

This may be noticed by the occurrence of light flashes because there is mechanical stimulation to the retina such as the vitreous gel pulling on it. This will stimulate the retina in a similar way when light falls on it.

Weiss Ring Floater

A large floater that is attached around the optic nerve area. Usually circular, doughnut or C shaped.

In more serious cases the retina may be torn and blood will leak into the vitreous, seen as small dots moving across the field of vision.

Vitreous Haemorrhage

This is a severe condition, which could mean a retinal tear or retinal detachment.

Retinal detachment requires urgent attention as it could lead to blindness.

Common Causes of Severe Eye Floater Conditions

> Cataract Surgery

> Laser eye surgery

> Diabetes – diabetic vitreopathy

> Eye infections – may cause the vitreous to liquefy

> Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis is inflammation of the retina of the eye caused by a virus

> Being very nearsighted – high myopia. The elongated shape of the eye may cause tension on the retina. More likely to get floaters at a younger age.

Any surgery or damage to the eye such as an accident or fall may aggravate a floater condition.

As you get older these problems become more likely as the vitreous gel becomes more watery in the centre and the gel attached to the retina starts to pull more on the retina and parts can become detached and float around in the watery centre of the eye.

Treatment of Floaters

Most eye floaters are merely annoying and irritating and will probably not cause any major problems. They become more likely as we grow older.


For severe cases – the vitreous is drained from the eye and is replaced with a saline liquid.

Laser Vitreolysis

The floaters are targeted with a laser and burnt away. This method is less invasive than the Vitrecomy procedure but does pose risks to what otherwise could be simply annoying floaters.

An Instant In The Wind by Andre Brink

An Instant In The Wind is arguably André Brink’s masterpiece. In the guise of an historical novel set in the eighteenth century, Brink presents a superb portrait in miniature of the dilemmas and contradictions facing a South Africa organised by an assumption of apartheid. Unlike many stories of conflict, however, an Instant In The Wind is no tragedy. Unusually, the novel is a remarkable tale of fear, struggle and eventual survival that leaves the reader with an uplifting positive message on the value and potential of human cooperation. It’s an historical novel, it’s a travel book, it’s a road story, it deals with relationships between consenting adults and there are several battles with nature. And it’s positive. What a mix!

The story revolves around just two people who have been unwittingly thrown together. For most of the book’s duration, there is no-one else in view, literally, as the two principals wander across deserted landscapes in search of both safety and ultimately themselves. She is Elisabeth Larssen, née Louw, of the Cape. Elisabeth is married to a Swedish traveller, adventurer and aspiring scientist called Erik Alexis Larssen. Erik is a bearded and rather myopic pursuer of facts. He wants to catalogue things, usually from afar, an approach he applies to his relationship with his wife. The husband is considerably older than the wife and their communication does not run deep, their mutual understanding even shallower.

The other, the ‘he’ of the story, is Adam Mantoor, a runaway slave, a black man, or even a brown man, perhaps, but definitely not a white man. And therefore, according to the mores within which Elisabeth has been raised, he is not even a man, but he might be something to be feared. He has a past which becomes partially revealed. There is surely a history to be told about this life, but he is not willing – or perhaps not able – to tell it. What he is able to do, however, is crucial for André Brink’s story: he can survive.

And so when Larsson sets off on his desired expedition of intended discovery to the interior beyond the Cape, he must organise the transport and bearing of much chattel, whose inventory is known to include his wife. Elisabeth is used to the domestic life and fears what might befall them in what she sees as a wilderness. How will she cope? Probably none too well.

The expedition did not progress as planned. There was internal strife, theft and attacks. And then Erik Larssen disappeared without trace, leaving Elisabeth in the wilderness alone with a man she regarded as a savage, a runaway slave of a different race. Inevitably their plight required them to liaise, but initially Elisabeth seems to assume that relationships that pertain in ‘civilised’ society might be maintained. She has a lot to learn. The trek ahead of them to safety is dauntingly long and they have only one another for support. The path is long, unclear and dangerous. There are hostile people and wild animals plus some unwelcoming homesteads. There are rivers to ford, deserts to cross, mountains to climb, little water and less food.

Elisabeth is initially revolted by Adam. She is terrified of him, and he is deeply suspicious, even afraid of her. But his knowledge is essential for their survival. She wants to return to the Cape, but a miscarriage and illness complicate things. He is fearful of what might happen to him if he returns to the Cape, for there is unfinished business around this man. Together they struggle, survive and gradually learn to live alongside and then depend upon one another.

An Instant In the Wind is no historical account. The facts are non-existent about the real people, but their imagined story sounds more than merely plausible, and its telling is pure delight. In places, the reader almost feels the thirst and hunger, and senses all the dangers. Equally, Elisabeth and Adam’s growing ecstasy also becomes almost tangible as they realise, their races apparently apart, that their humanity is shared.

Common Errors and Misconceptions in Writing Business Card Titles

What’s in a title? A lot, especially if it is placed on a business card. Business card titles are one of the main highlights of this identity card.

Look at how much information is written there. There’s your name, company or organization, phone number, cellphone number, office address, email address and your title, of course. Given the very limited space of business cards, usually set at 2″ x 3.5″, you need to put in only the most significant information about you. And these are not just to tell people about your contact details. It is also a powerful tool to build a big impression, especially if you have a nice title to go with a sleek business card.

Notice that you really can’t include anything much other than the data mentioned above. This means that, unlike brochures, postcards, flyers and other advertising tools, you cant say much about who you are, what you do and what you are offering. With business cards, recipients pretty much have a lot of deducing to do from the info found in the card, especially from the business card titles and logos.

Selling points

Having an office space in a posh and renowned commercial district leaves a mark. Being in a company that belongs to the Fortune 500 list is even more impressive, but having a highly regarded title/position either because of your educational achievements like getting a Doctor of Philosophy degree, or due to your well-deserved rise in the company hierarchy as vice president certainly speaks a lot about who you are and what you are capable of. So isn’t it important that you write it properly?

Of errors and misconceptions

A person with a degree in Medicine is a doctor, and earns the suffix M.D., but should you write ‘Dr. John Doe, M.D.’? Some people do. Here are some of the common errors in title-writing that you should avoid:

1. Do not include both your degree and your title. Choose one.

For doctors, either write ‘John Doe, M.D.’, or ‘Dr. John Doe’. If you are done with your doctorate degree, write ‘Dr. John Doe’ or ‘John Doe, PhD’. Lawyers, on the other hand, can write either ‘Atty. John Doe’ or “John Doe, Esq.’

The same follows if you have different titles like CPA and Esq. Do not write ‘Atty. John Doe, CPA’.

2. Do not place ‘Mr.’ or ‘Ms.’ before your name in business cards.

Don’t write Mr. John Doe’ on your business card. ‘Mr. John Doe, M.D.’ is especially a big no-no. This also applies to other writings. Do not use ‘Mr.’ if you want to include your title or degree in your name.

3. Not all Abbreviations and Acronyms require periods.

PhD should actually be written as Ph.D. but more recently, the former has become accepted and widely used. The same goes for MD. Some of the other proper abbreviations and acronyms include: D.Ed. (Doctor of Education), D.M.D. (Doctor of Dental Medicine), RD (registered dietitian), RN (registered nurse), CEO (chief executive officer) and COO (chief operating officer).

So remember, before you venture into online printing for your next set of cards, check if the business card title is written correctly. It should be an asset, not a turn-off.

Naturopathy Courses – Healing Arts in a Nutshell

Find Naturopathy Courses in the United States and Canada. If you are drawn to the healing arts, then enrolling in one of several naturopathy courses may be the right educational choice for you.

Teaching an ancient and holistic medicine system that facilitates natural healing modalities such as Ayurveda, herbalism, homeopathy, hydrotherapy, aromatherapy and environmental medicine – to list a few – naturopathy courses are comprehensively designed for the future naturopathic physician in mind.

Prospective students should carefully examine naturopathy courses as many healing arts schools and universities require a standard prerequisite of at least four years of college or a bachelor's degree. In addition, one must be committed to his / her studies as naturopathy courses are intensive and require a fair amount of deduction and concentration. For example, many of the lessons taught in naturopathy courses are not just about naturopathic medicine theories and philosophies; The first part of most naturopathic educational programs involve in-depth coursework in anatomy, biology, biochemistry, chemistry, histology, physiology, pharmacology and pathology. Additional instruction entails nutritional counseling, manual therapies, and natural remedies (supplements, herbs, macrobiotics, etc.).

Students who enroll in naturopathy courses will learn the principles of naturopathic medicine, which include "First do no harm," "Treat the whole person," and "prevention" – among others. Depending on the individual school and / or region, a number of naturopathy courses may result in either a degree or diploma.

Once students have completed all naturopathy courses , they are eligible * to become licensed naturopathic doctors (NDs). (* Licensing requirements and laws vary in individual states and provinces.) In many regions, graduates must pass a board exam given by the North American Board of Naturopathic Examiners (NABNE) to gain licensing.

Although many practitioners may go into private clinics as primary caregivers, a number of naturopathic doctors may seek carers as counselors, professional instruc- tors, and researchers. In addition, as with any healthcare profession, naturopathic practitioners are required to earn continuing education units through a number of naturopathy courses to maintain licensure.

Practicing a natural and complementary healing art, NDs are quickly growing by the numbers as more professional opportunities come available due to the widening public acceptance of alternative medicine.

If you (or someone you know) are interested in finding naturopathy courses, let professional training within fast-growing industries like massage therapy, cosmetology, acupuncture, oriental medicine, Reiki, and others get you started! Explore career school programs near you.

Naturopathy Courses: Healing Arts in a Nutshell
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Cation Mud Therapy for Pain Relief and Healing Degenerative Disease

Trauma can create Interference Fields at several areas on the body. Interference Fields (IF’s) are quite pervasive and can cause chronic pain and resistant health issues that do not respond to ordinary therapies. Scars from surgeries or trauma, accidents and falls, dental work, tattoos and body piercings can create IF’s that are effectively treated and cleared by implementing Cation Mud Therapy (pronounced kat-i-on). Clearing the stagnation in tissue affected by trauma allows for more thorough healing of the body and all of its tissues and multiple systems.

Cation Mud Packs have long been used for detoxifying tissue and promoting healing. The high cation exchange and osmotic extracting effect pulls out toxins and heavy metals while eliminating pain and reduces the burden on the immune system. Medicinal mudpacks increase micro-circulation, lymph flow, nerve flow, and cellular energy flow so the body can repair and heal with less hindrance. Increased mobility, reduced pain, minimized scar tissue, repair of damaged tissue, and enhanced organ and gland function have been discovered as an outcome of cation mud therapy in clinical tests.

The need for mud packs can be established by testing trauma sites for Interference Fields (IF’s). An IF can develop after any trauma has occurred to the body. Although the time it takes for an IF to cause problems varies (from 6 months to 20 or more years), the nutritional state of the body at the time of injury often determines if a trauma site will develop into an Interference Field. Surgery scars, broken bones, falls and accidents, head trauma, severe burns, dental surgery, body piercings and tattoos are all examples of tissue trauma that can lead to an Interference Field on the body. The tissue surrounding an IF often accumulates toxins and heavy metals, impairing the flow of energy, nutrients and nerve impulses to that area.

IF’s also affect other organs and glands in the body. For example, an ankle injury may eventually reflex to the adrenal glands, suppressing their function. The person finds that no matter how many nutrients or medications they take, the adrenal glands never seem to function optimally. They are always fatigued or may have stubborn hormonal imbalances. Applying cation mud packs to the appropriate injury and reflex areas will clear stagnation and toxins in the tissue, allowing the adrenal glands to completely absorb and utilize the nutrients necessary to achieve and maintain healthy function without the unending support of additional nutritional supplementation.

In another example, a scar from an appendectomy may ‘reflex’ to the neck and head, causing headaches and/or neck pain that do not respond to treatments. After medicinal mud therapy, headaches, neck pain and stiffness are relieved.

More examples of IF’s:

~ Hand injury reflexes to shoulder causing pain and reduced range of motion

~ Vaccination site reflexes to the thyroid causing hypothyroid symptoms

~ Episiotomy scar reflexes to the legs causing stiff swollen legs

~ Decaying molar (cavitation) reflexes to the chest causing jittery feeling and insomnia

~ Injury to hip reflexes to the stomach causing abdominal weight gain

~ Fall on tailbone reflexes to brain causing sleep disturbances

~ Whiplash from car accident reflexes to the liver creating allergic reactions

~ Tattoos on back reflex to the adrenals causing fatigue and insomnia

~ Broken clavicle reflexes to the thyroid causing hypothyroid symptoms

~ Broken nose reflexes to brain causing memory problems

~ Lower leg injury reflexes to ovaries causing infertility

~ C-section scar reflexes to the thymus causing compromised immune function

Using cation mud therapy for any of these examples can clear blockages in the trauma areas, remove toxins, repairs and restores the normal flow of nerve energy and blood, and allow the body to return to health. Mudpacks can be done at home or in office.

What Types of Vegetables Can I Eat on the Candida Diet?

Loading up on vegetables is a terrific dieting strategy. Vegetables are filled with essential vitamins and nutrients and are a great choice for any healthy diet but are all vegetables created equal? Believe it or not some vegetables may not be appropriate for certain types of diets. The candida diet is one of these diets in which you must pay particular attention to what type of and how much of certain vegetables you eat. To understand what types and why you must eliminate or reduce certain vegetables you must first understand what the goal of the candida diet is.

The candida diet is the cornerstone of treatment for a condition known as candidiasis. Candidiasis is a condition in which Candida albicans, a typically benign type of yeast become and opportunistic organism in the intestinal system. Candida albicans is an innate part of the microflora of the intestinal system which ideally will work in accord with “friendly” types of bacteria to keep the body healthy. Unfortunately, external factors such as overuse of antibiotics, steroids, oral contraceptives, stress and a diet high in processed foods/sugar foods often cause an overgrowth of Candida albicans. When this happens an abundance of toxins are released into the body and cause a variety of seemingly unrelated health problems. Symptoms of candidiasis include but are not limited to chronic yeast infections, chronic sinus infections, irritable bowel syndrome, anxiety, depression and fatigue. The candida diet seeks to cut off the food supply of the Candida albicans by eliminating food that encourages its growth. While the main culprits are sugar, vinegar, fermented foods, glutinous grains and quick acting carbohydrates there are other foods that candida diet guidelines suggest consuming in moderation. Complex grains and high starch vegetables fall under this category because all though they do not break down into sugar as quickly as the simple carbohydrates they do in fact break down into sugar and feed the candida. So which vegetables can we eat freely and which do we eat in moderation on the candida diet?

Vegetables to Eat Freely

Bulb vegetables such as chives, garlic, leeks, onions, scallions, shallots and water chestnuts are all great choices for the candida diet. This group of vegetables can be used to add flavor and texture to meals and onions and garlic in particular have antifungal properties which help combat Candida albicans. Inflorescent vegetables such as artichokes, broccoli, broccoli rabe and cauliflower make great side dishes. Use leaf vegetables such as arugula, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, chicory, collards, endive, lettuce, kale and spinach to complement main dishes and to create delightful salads.

Fruit vegetables, which include avocados, cucumbers, eggplant, okra, peppers and squash will help you to create delightful yeast free meals. Stalk vegetables such as asparagus, celery, chard, fennel and kohlrabi also have a wide variety of uses on the diet.

Vegetables to eat in Moderation

The two types of vegetables that you should eat cautiously on the candida diet are root vegetables and tuber vegetables. Beets, carrots, parsnips, radishes, rutabaga, cassava, potato, sweet potato and yams all belong to this group. You can still enjoy these vegetables on the candida diet but plan meals so that you are not overloading on these types of vegetables.

For more information on living yeast free by following the candida diet visit Yeast Free Living.

Benefits of Swiss Chard – A Natural Fat Burning Food

Discover the incredible weight loss benefits of swiss chard, how to best prepare it and how much you should eat to get maximum benefit from swiss chard – one of nature’s amazing fat burning foods.

The veggie known as swiss chard resembles beets or spinach in taste. Along with kale, collard and mustard greens, it is a leafy green vegetable that is commonly referred to simply as “greens”. You can purchase it throughout the year, but its peak harvest time starts in June and ends in August.

This leafy green veggie has a wide, crunchy stalk colored white, red or yellow. The leaves are a dark green color, very wide, and are spread out in the shape of a fan. You can eat the stalk as well as the leafy parts.

Fat Burning Benefits of Swiss Chard

It contains anthocyans and fiber that give special protection against cancer of the digestive tract, especially cancer of the colon. There is recent scientific evidence suggesting that Swiss chard may protect the kidneys of diabetic patients, because the serum urea and creatinine levels are reduced.

It is also very high in the following substances: Vitamin A, C, E and K, dietary fiber, magnesium, manganese, iron and potassium.

This vegetable additionally contains reliable amounts of Vitamins B-1, B-2 and B-6, plus folic acid, biotin, niacin, Pantothenic acid, copper, calcium, zinc, phosphorus, and copper, as well as protein.

The vitamin K content helps to keep your bones healthy.

Beta carotene is a cancer-fighting nutrient that is also an antioxidant. Beta carotene belongs to the carotenoid family, and might be able to protect the body against skin cancer and various other kinds of cancer.

Vitamin A is helpful in the reduction of negative effects cigarette smoke has on the body, plus it helps to guard the body against emphysema.

Magnesium is helpful in regulating the body’s nerve and muscle tone by regulating the effect of calcium on the body.

Vitamin C helps fight inflammation as an antioxidant that dissolves in water. It provides the energy needed to raise the metabolism of your body in order to burn off excess fat. Swiss chard contains Vitamin C, which is helpful in the prevention of free radical damage to cells, plus it provides additional protection against cancer of the colon. Vitamin C is also very helpful in maintaining a healthy immune system, fending off colds and helping to cure infections.

It also contains potassium, which is helpful in lowering blood levels, as well as cholesterol levels.

The iron content of the vegetable is helpful in producing the body’s energy and also manufactures hemoglobin, a protein that transports oxygen everywhere in the body.

This vegetable contains manganese, a trace mineral that is helpful in producing energy that comes from proteins and carbohydrates, as well as synthesizing fatty acids. In addition, manganese protects the body against free radical damage that occurs when energy is produced.

Proper Way to Prepare Swiss Chard

Look for fresh Swiss chard in your supermarket’s fresh produce section; this section is one of the store’s refrigerated areas. Find the most vibrant green leafy produce, without yellowed or discolored leaves. Be certain that you pick out crisp stalks and crispy leaves that do not contain any visible spots.

You can refrigerate unwashed Swiss chard leaves in a plastic bag for a few days. Blanched Swiss chard leaves may be frozen for future meals. Before cooking the Swiss chard, rinse it off very carefully in order to remove all of the dirt and sand. Immerse the leaves and stalks in a container filled with cold water, swoosh them around, then finish cleaning by rinsing them in cold, running water. Trim off the bottom ends of the vegetable. If the fibers are too plentiful, you can peel them off in the same manner that you peel off excess fibers from celery stalks.

Do not cook this vegetable in an aluminum pot, because the aluminum will, cause your Swiss chard to lose its green color. It is better to quick boil your Swiss chard, as opposed to steaming it, since the quick boil method frees the oxalic acids found in the leaves, and helps it to not taste quite as bitter.

Substitute Swiss chard in lieu of spinach when you cook a vegetarian lasagna. Substitute it for cabbage when preparing stuffed veggie dishes. You can use the leaves as a sandwich wrap, stuffing them with your favorite tuna fish, chicken or turkey fillings. You can also add cooked this vegetable to a penne pasta dish, with the addition of extra virgin olive oil, fresh lemon juice and chopped garlic cloves. Try adding some steamed Swiss chard to a frittata or an omelet.

The Amount to Eat

The recommended portion size of Swiss chard is the equivalent of one cup.

How to Coach Youth Cheerleading

Coaching a group of young cheerleaders can be a rewarding and fun experience. Teaching kids cheerleading stunts and cheers, and then helping them improve enough to perform in competition is a very proud feeling for any coach. But it’s a big responsibility and requires commitment and training to be successful and respected by your cheerleaders.Many cheerleading coaches are former cheerleaders who have aged out of competition or college cheer but want to continue to participate in this exciting sport. There are many ways you can become a cheerleading coach and there are many first time coaches without any background in cheerleading. Regardless of your cheerleading experience, it’s a good idea to become active within cheerleading communities online to build a network and get tips.

Master the fundamentals & techniques

  • If you aren’t a former cheerleader yourself with experience in cheerleading competition, learn as many of the moves as you can and how to teach them correctly. You will be demonstrating these cheerleading dance and cheer moves for the kids in your program so make sure you practice them yourself and master the fundamental cheerleading stunts. You can also find many good cheerleading video tutorials online from professionals for free
  • Cheer Warm-ups and Drills
    Make sure all of your cheerleaders are warmed up before working on drills. V-ups, straddle-ups, crunches, lunges, and squats will work the abdominal and leg muscles which are essential for high jumps. Also, make sure they warm up their arms, shoulders, and ankles. Pushups are a great exercise to warm up and strengthen the arms.
  • Great Cheer Jumping Drills
    Have your squad practice cheer jumps to counts. Use music to help them stay on the beat and have fun. Having the squad stand in a circle is a good way to see if they are in unison on the jumps. While they are jumping, you should call out the type of cheer jumps and count out loud.
  • Once they are warmed up, have your squad practice doing jumps into tumbling routines, such as back handsprings.
  • Cheer Tumbling Drills
    Make sure each cheerleading member has been trained properly before practicing any cheerleading moves and that all cheer spotters know how to spot each particular move. Once you pair each cheerleader with a cheerleader spotter, circulate around the gym making sure everyone, spotter and tumbler, is doing the drill correctly and safely.

Start as an Assistant

  • Some gyms start training their coaches while the future coach is still competing. Having an older cheerleader, one who is near the end of his or her competitive career, working with the youngest cheerleaders as an assistant coach is a good way for everyone to get a feel for the new coach’s abilities and dedication to coaching.

Get Certified

  • Each state has its own requirements for certification, and no coach should be permitted to coach a team for cheerleading competition without that certification. Doing so poses liability issues for the coach and the gym. In addition to state certification, there are three major certification programs. These meet the requirements for state certification in some states.
  • The American Association of Cheerleading Coaches and Administrators (AACCA) offer a Spirit Safety Certification Program that consists of lectures, required readings, and a timed exam. The program focuses on safety, liability, medical responsibilities, and other topics related to cheerleader safety.
  • The National Council for Spirit Safety and Education (NCSSE) offers core cheerleading classes in Principles and Ethics, Cheer Fundamentals, and Stunt & Tumbling I and II leading to Master level certification.
  • If you work for a private gym doing competitive cheerleading, you can get certified through the U.S. All Star Federation. They offer six levels of certification and training includes hands-on demonstration and Practical Field Experience.
  • First aid training is usually required for coaching. Even if it’s not required for your program, a Red Cross First Aid program is a good idea.

There are many resources for cheerleading coaches available particularly online at free sites like where they have hundreds of free skills & drills and tips for coaching cheerleading. You should also try to take advantage of some of the camps and conventions offered. The more you know, the more you’ll be able to teach your cheer squad. These programs typically focus on safety and you can never know enough about how to keep kids safe while still having fun and learning the proper techniques of cheerleading and dance.