Hangman & Its Origins

Hangman is a simple spelling game in which participants try to build a scaffold and execute an evil villain. Not exactly politically correct these days, but the game remains as popular as ever.

Forget reality TV: this must have been gripping to witness.

Dating back to Victorian times, it makes sense that a game such as this would have developed out of a society where executions were a public spectacle. No more violent than The Itchy & Scratchy Show, yet somehow equally compelling in its appeal to our voyeuristic tendencies.

The game is a relic of the 19th century, when criminals received the ultimate penalty for committing the ultimate crime. It’s used nowadays to make learning words fun and to help people get to grips with a new language.

Hangman can be played in a variety of different ways. The purpose of the game is to guess a word by inserting letters into a series of blanks. With each incorrect guess, a new piece of the ‘hangman’ picture is drawn. The game is over when either the word has been guessed or the drawing is complete.

In some versions of the game the gallows is built first, while in others the drawing doesn’t start until the first guess has been made. This latter variety is particularly useful with longer or more difficult words. Once the platform is erected, the next phase includes drawing the hanging man, including the head, torso, and each of the arms and legs.

The precise origins of the game are unclear, although it is mentioned in the 1894 book by Alice Bertha Gomme entitled Birds, Beasts and Fishes.

Being a hangman was not a job for the faint-hearted. Nor was it a particularly popular way to make a living. Often hangmen or their assistants were refused entry into public buildings on grounds of taste and decency. Yet the same people who denied them access would be the first in the queue to watch them carry out their despicable but indispensable deeds.

But before you jump on your high horse and revel in the fact that things are so much more civilised these days, remember this. The last executions in Britain took place on August 13, 1964 at exactly 8 am local time. So have we really come very far?

The writer Charles Dickens was among many Victorians who petitioned to have hanging abolished. It took time for the practice to disappear, thanks in no small part to the entertainment value it provided. In an era when there were no televisions or iPods it must have been a relief to have something to do, and something free, at that.

And you can imagine the more infamous murderers drawing enormous crowds. One such occasion helped to bring the phrase ‘money for old rope’ into the English language.

It was the execution of the notorious British surgeon William Palmer, accused of murdering his younger betting companion, John Parsons Cook. His rope was made an extra 30 yards longer than normal, and for many years after the executioner George Smith was still selling off pieces of the ‘rope that hanged Palmer’.

Characteristics Of The Zodiac Venus In Cancer

In an astrological chart, the planet Venus is associated with how a person expresses their self in their relationships- especially in love, attraction and marriage. It describes how beauty is appreciated and interpreted by the person and also how they relate to others. The sign of the Venus is often the same as the Sun since they can never be more than forty five degrees from each other. In the cases when the signs are identical, the behavior the person has towards people in general translates into their romantic life. If the signs are different, there is a disparity between how they treat people in general and how they treat people they are romantically involved with.

Those who are born with their Venus in Cancer have an extremely sensitive core hidden behind a somewhat stoic exterior. Their nature is sympathetic and kind but they are prone to moodiness. Though they feel a need to be in a relationship and are capable of much tenderness, they know how easily wounded they are and try to protect themselves with caution. When they do form an attachment, there is a tendency to treat their partner in a nurturing fashion. They are also likely to cling to this relationship as it is their stabilizing influence in a turbulent world. People who don’t want to be needed should avoid a relationship with someone with their Venus in Cancer.

Relationships are all about stability and security to those with their Venus in Cancer. They need their partner to give ample evidence that they are feeling the same way and that the relationship matters to them as well. The home is their castle, a place to be safe and recharge their energies. If the partner helps to achieve this picture of domestic happiness, the Cancer will then turn their attention to making sure that all of the partner’s physical and emotional needs are being fulfilled. When this person shines their light of affection and love onto a person, it is a bright light indeed. Unfortunately, not everyone likes to be in the spotlight and some people may be turned off by all of the attention and neediness that is coming their way.

If this person feels hurt, they tend to sulk about it while they pretend it didn’t matter. They are so easily hurt and have such high expectations for their relationship that there are going to be disappointments and wounds to heal. This person derives their sense of stability in the world from their relationship and if that is missing, the partnership will crumble. It is likely that this person will strike out numerous times before they find someone that offers that stability. In that case the relationship will be long lasting (often for life) and utterly faithful. The person who has their Venus in Cancer doesn’t like to rock the boat and will be content with weathering the storm together as long as it feels like they will be safe with their partner at their side.

Create Your Dream Kitchen With the Aid Of Free Kitchen Design Tools

For homeowners, planning to build or remodel their kitchen area involves several great ways. Traditionally, we make our layouts out of our imagination and sketch them on paper so that other people can get an idea of what we want. It becomes frustrating when we try to express what we want but we cannot fully describe it. With the latest technology, anyone can now find a lot of different tools to help them get ideas and inspirations for kitchen layouts. Instead of using pencil and paper, you can now create your layout using your desktop and browser-based software.

Many of these free tools are available online. Some manufacturers of kitchens have an online planner that visitors can use free. One can do a quick Google search and type “free kitchen design tool.” This will bring up results depending on what you are searching for like cabinetry, flooring, back splashes and many more. Once you have decided on your choices you can then take a look at some manufacturer’s website to see if they have what you need.

When planning to build your kitchen, try using free kitchen design software such as interactive kitchen design tools. The software helps you plan, design and create a virtual kitchen on the computer. Once you are done, you can then print it out to show and discuss with your designer or builder. It is also another great way for creating a kitchen layout especially for homeowners who want to make a statement in their kitchen style and design. More and more environmental conscious homeowners are now looking to use environmental friendly materials for their kitchen. You can now easily choose from various eco-friendly kitchen ideas and you can play with some of the alternative designs for your brand new or remodeled kitchen with these interactive tools. These kitchen planner tools are mainly browser-based. They are also slow as they are dependent on graphics information through the internet connection of the user.

Most of these tools work in the same way that allows you to choose the basic layout that you would want for your kitchen as well as customize the size of your kitchen. You can also decide on the location of the door and windows, cabinetry and the placement of your appliances.

Whenever you design your brand new kitchen or planning to remodel your kitchen, you can use a number of inexpensive home design tools that you may find available in your area, perhaps ask from a reputable designer of kitchens in your town can be a great option. Check your local computer store as these programs are also available in these places and they can be downloaded, too. With the aid of kitchen design software, it is so easy for any homeowner to create visuals of their dream kitchen. With the advancements in technology, it is now possible for anyone to carry out plans and details that normally, only architects can do.

Medical Diseases – A Cause to Constipation

Many things have been talked about along with constipation, what are they? How is it caused? What are its side effects? Etc but do you know that there are many diseases which are also considered to be the cause of constipation? Why and how are these diseases responsible for constipation? What are all those diseases which cause constipation? Let us get into a brief of that.

The diseases which cause constipation try to hamper the organs which work for the digestion of food. And they try to hamper the system to work properly. Some of the diseases included in this list are given below and we will know how far does this disease is responsible in affecting human body. There are certain body disorders which are also called systemic disorders like lucus, scleroderma and amyloidosis which are said to be causing hard tools formation in your colon.

There are many neurological disorders too which are responsible for causing constipation and these are spinal cord injuries, stroke, Parkinson’s diseases, Multiple sclerosis, and also the chronic idiopathic intestinal pseudo obstruction. All these in one or other way are responsible for constipation and its side effects. Some metabolic and endocrine situations are also affecting bad for your digestive system. When there are patients of diabetes, uremia, hypercalcimia as well as hypothyroidism then they are on very critical condition and more chances are there for them to suffer from constipation.

Apart from these some intestinal obstructions, cancers like colon cancer or any other kind, Hirschsprung’s Disease, as well as Diverticulosis is also responsible for being a very good cause of constipation. Whenever you suffer from constipation try to visit a doctor and find out the exact cause so that the best treatment should be done without and side effects.

Taking the colon cleanser Aloe Vera Colon Cleanse Tablets provides all the recognized properties which are widely used to help maintain digestive regularity and assist the friendly bacteria in there process in keeping the colon healthy and free from impurities.

How to Decorate a Glass Display Cabinet

You can decorate glass display cabinet in your home showcasing various collectibles and accomplishments that make the room more inspiring. There are different types of display cases with different designs and materials, choose the one that suits your home. Here are the tips that would make your living room livelier.

Exterior: Make sure that the design and the color of the display case compliments the existing furniture around. You do not want to have a cabinet that looks odd in the midst of your living or bed room.

Interior: When it comes to decoration, the interior of the display case is the one that you must take care of. Along with the design, the placement of the mirrors and suitable lightning enriches the look of the display cabinet. Halogen lights would be the best pick.

Trophies: Trophies always remind your achievements and always a source of inspiration. It also gives a decent look to your display cabinet. Arrange other memorabilia along with the trophies which gives better interest to your decoration.

Treasures: Treasure is not something that you bought recently for a million dollars. It is something that is valuable to you that money just cannot buy. It may be some antique piece came from your granny passing all the ancestors in between or it can be something that was a part of your life since childhood or something special given by someone special. Rolling your eyes over it gives you a lot of peace of mind.

Dolls and Collectible figurines: You can give a really cute and decorative look by adding all the dolls that you have collected over the years or the dolls that you think fit the display cabinet very well. You can also include teacups, saucers, expensive cutlery and collectible plates and so on to make the cabinet look beautiful.

Glass Items: It really pleases the eyes to watch combination of glasses that give some illusion effects. Place some glass item like glass antiques, glass dolls or abstract glass objects in the glass display case. It will be more beautiful if you use colored glass items.

Items from all over the world: If possible collect different items from different parts of the world which can be showcased in the display cabinet. It will be like capturing all the different cultures and lifestyles in one place.

Placement: Finally, do not overcrowd the display cabinet with all you have got. Place each items carefully so that the combination makes a great display. Make sure that you leave some space between objects so that it will not look as if you are trying to push all in your display cabinet.

Very Low Dose Birth Control Pills For Perimenopausal Women

Are you rejoicing in the signs that your body is getting ready to say ‘goodbye’ to your period and you are looking forward to throwing out your birth control? Don’t be lulled into a false sense of security – if you are still getting your period, you can still get pregnant. When you stop menstruating you are not officially ‘menopausal’ until 12-18 months later so you still need to continue with a method of birth control during your ‘perimenopausal’ period, which can last 3-5years. Your doctor can measure your FSH or follicle-stimulating-hormone via a blood test to tell if you are in menopause- don’t rely on over the counter test kits as birth control pills can mask these tests!

Using a Low Dose Birth Control Pill

Many doctors do not advise staying on hormonal methods such as the patch, injection and ring during perimenopause but often recommend that you change over to a low dose birth control pill such as Alesse or similar that contains only 20mcg of estrogen. Using a low dose birth control pill will, in most cases, keep your periods regular while still giving you pregnancy protection. Low dose birth control pills are taken in the same way as regular oral contraceptives and you will be unlucky if they don’t act to regulate your periods during perimenopause.
Low Dose Birth Control Pills also have health benefits.

Hot flashes and vaginal dryness are common symptoms of perimenopause and menopause but these can be reduced with very low dose birth control pills such as Alesse. Osteoporosis and bone loss can occur at this time also and low dose birth control pills may prevent this in some cases. A more well known benefit for all women regardless of age is the protection from cancer of the ovary and uterus through the use of low dose birth control pills.

Do NOT take very-low-dose birth control pills during perimenopause if you smoke OR if you have a history of blood clots, breast cancer or heart disease.

Good news about side effects- due to the very low dose of estrogen fewer women will experience side effects and lost libido but if you’re unlucky, side effects may include nausea, breast tenderness, higher blood pressure or headaches.

Barrier based methods of birth control (diaphragm, cap, sponge, female condom, male condom etc) will be fine to use BUT be aware that as your periods get lighter and less frequent during perimenopause, it will be more difficult for you to track your cycle accurately if you use ‘natural’ methods (fertility awareness) of birth control.

Stay tuned to Your Body during perimenopause

You may be in your late forties or fifties and have plenty of ‘sexual miles’ left in you yet, (hey, some claim this is the best part of your sex life!). However, perimenopause and menopause are times of great change in a woman’s body, not least of all in the hormone department.. Now is the time to stay tuned to what your body is telling you and to ‘support’ this transition in the best way you can to stay healthy and of course, not get pregnant. You won’t be surprised to read that eating a well balanced diet, taking a good vitamin supplement, reducing coffee and alcohol intake (just when you may fancy it most!) and keeping up some exercise is really good for you but you also need to know how to manage this last stage of your ‘contraception career’ successfully.

Finally Stopping Birth Control

Your doctor will help you to decide when to stop using low dose birth control and how to manage your menopause. Take time to become informed and to make up your own mind about whether or not to keep on using ANY form of hormones.(HRT) Your body needs support as it is going off hormonal birth control and this can be done smoothly and with minimal symptoms if you follow medical advice.

Running and Nutrition – Pistachios – The Perfect Snack For Runners!

Runners are always looking at what they are eating and trying to find foods that are good for them – but also taste good. In my opinion, I’m not going to eat something that I know is good for me if it tastes horrible! And, I don’t think I’m alone. Runners also like to snack. So, we need a snack that is good for us, tastes good and will help with muscle recovery.

Pistachios are the wonder snack that fits runner’s criteria! Now, I’ve always loved pistachios – I can remember my Dad and I eating them by the handfuls. But, I just recently found how good they are for me as a runner.

Nutrition wise – pistachios are full of seven essential nutrients that we all need. These are thiamin, vitamin B6, copper, manganese, potassium, phosphorus and magnesium. They are a great source of fiber and have antioxidants in them that are good for eye health. And, as a side note – there is only 3 calories in each one!

Another great thing about eating these little wonder nuts is that they can help with your cholesterol levels. Eating them can lower your bad cholesterol while building up your good cholesterol.

Now, to the part where pistachios are good for runners. Pistachios are full of protein. Protein is what runners need to help build their muscles for long distance running. In addition, they are great for an after run snack. There have been studies done that show that eating foods high in protein (such as pistachios) after a long run or hard workout will help to reduce muscle soreness and help to rebuild your muscles for a quicker recovery.

Eating pistachios are also great as they fill you up faster and help you to feel fuller longer. That’s due to the high fiber content in them. So, if you are also trying to lose a pound or two – this will help. Also, buy pistachios that are still in the shell. Seeing the shells piling up will also psychologically keep you from over eating them.

As I stated before, I love pistachios and have been eating (and enjoying them) for years! I’m just happy to now know that they are a great snack for me as a runner!

Natural Penis Enhancement – The Top 5 Foods To Eat To Help Make Your Penis Grow Bigger

Do you want to risk getting major side-effects, severe pain, a potentially disfigured penis, end up suffering from impotence, lose your sex drive, and to even make matters worse… spend (and lose) a boat load of your hard-earned money? If you answered HECK NO, then I have just 3 simple words I recommend you follow if you want to ensure you maximize the size of your penis and improve the health of your manhood. Those 3 words are natural… penis… enhancement. What this means is exactly as the name implies: Naturally making your manhood grow bigger!

Why is it so important to stick with a natural method? My friend, it is important that you stick with naturally getting a bigger manhood because that is the only way your penis will ever grow (plus develop more benefits)… and will do so without side-effects and pain… and where your results will last permanently.

One of the best natural things you can do to help grow bigger is adding some powerful and very beneficial foods into your diet. The reason these foods are highly recommended to include in your diet is because they help do one of the most important parts for getting a bigger penis erection: Increasing blood flow. Having more blood flowing into your organs (in this case, your manhood) will help with increasing its size, improving the health of your manhood, and making your erection firmer. Also, these foods will of course help with improving your overall health as well!

Here they are…

1. Dark Chocolate – Not only is dark chocolate an excellent food to help increase sex drive, it also helps with increasing blood flow as well since it contains natural flavonol. The best type of dark chocolate I recommend is the type that has a high concentration of cacao, I recommend for it to be organic, and it should have a low amount of sugar in it. Dark chocolate also has lots of antioxidants in it, and this will help with cleansing your body! And of course, eat in moderation since no matter how healthy it is, it still has a ton of calories.

2. Cayenne Pepper – This spicy spice is not only great on grilled chicken breast or added into some chili, it also is good for helping you increase the size of your manhood. Cayenne pepper increases blood circulation and so much more (including boosting your metabolism). As a matter of fact, I have a dash of it mixed with apple cider vinegar every morning. The taste is not so great, but the health benefits are through the roof!

3. Ginger – If you have a weak immune system or a weak penis erection, then ginger is certainly highly recommended! This nutrient is VERY beneficial in so many ways. Not only does it help with increasing blood flow to your penis, it increases blood circulation to all your organs, and it can aide in burning off body fat as well. So you can look lean and fit… AND… have a bigger manhood!

4. Ginkgo Biloba – This is probably the most important nutrient to include in your diet if you want to help make your penis grow bigger. This nutrient significantly increase your blood circulation and it helps with other important things as well (such as brain health).

5. Pumpkin Seeds – If you want a nice snack that can help you get bigger, pumpkin seeds will certainly fit the description. These seeds will help in speeding up blood since it contains a high amount of Vitamin E.

The Perfect Natural Penis Enhancement Method To Put It All Together…

Now, as you can see from above, increasing the amount of blood flow is VERY important if you want to get a bigger penis. What better way to do that than simply eating healthier foods? However, to make your penis grow up to 9 inches in length, to increase the thickness of your erection, to make it hard as a rock, and to even last longer during sex (plus more), it’s important that you do a natural growth technique that enhances ALL aspects of your manhood…

And the best method I recommend you do in conjunction with eating those foods above are natural penis exercises. This is the only method that will enlarge your main penile chambers, the ligament that is responsible for your length, and will strengthen the muscle of your manhood (the PC muscle… which improves your sexual functions), plus will also help in increasing blood flow.

My friend, if you combine eating those foods above with doing penis exercises, then you can pretty much count on being a well-hung alpha male in no time. What’s even better is that there are no side-effects to worry about… and the results last permanently.

Viola Tricolor: a Novel and Therapeutic Remedy

The common name of Pansy (older form ‘Pawnce,’ as in Spenser) is derived from the French pensées, the name which is still used in France. Shakespeare’s Ophelia says of pansies in Hamlet, “There’s a pansy, that’s for thought,” because their name comes from French pensée, “thought.” In traditional “flower language,” pansy’s three colors-purple, white, and yellow-stand for memories, loving thoughts, and souvenirs, all of which ease the hearts of separated lovers. Pansy therefore is also called by the name heartsease.

Wild pansy is indigenous to or naturalized in large parts of Europe and the Middle East as far as Central Asia, also found through the United States. In the Lithuanian flora wild pansy habitats areas have been fast reducing; this not only limits the availability of the reserves of medicinal raw materials for pharmacy and therapy needs but also causes a menace to survival of species. [1,2,3]

The wild species is an annual, but from it the countless varieties of the perennial garden pansies, with blossoms of large size and singular beauty, are supposed to have originated.

Macroscopic Feature

The flowers vary a great deal in colour and size, but are either purple, yellow or white, and most commonly there is a combination of all these colours in each blossom. The upper petals are generally most showy in colour and purple in tint, while the lowest and broadest petal is usually a more or less deep tint of yellow. The flowers with a long peduncle, are zygomorphic , with 5 oval , lanceolate sepals, an appendage pointed outwards and 5 petals of which the lower one bears a spur.

. The stem is angular and hollow. The leaves are oval, petiolate, with a cordate base or elongated and obtuse, with lyrate stipules, divided in the middle. The andromecium consist of 5 stamens bears at the apex a membranous connective appendage with 2 spurs

The triocular ovary shows a a short style and globular stigmata. The fruits are navicular capsules, three lobed yellowish brown, 5mm to 10mm long. The pale yellow, pyriform seeds are about 1mm long, bearing a caruncle. [4]


Wild Pansy. Love-Lies-Bleeding. Love-in-Idleness. Live-in-Idleness. Loving Idol. Love Idol. Cull Me. Cuddle Me. Call-me-to-you. Jackjump-up-and-kiss-me. Meet-me-in-the-Entry. Kiss-her-in-the-Buttery. Three-Faces-under-a-Hood. Kit-run-in-the-Fields. Pink-o’-the-Eye. Kit-run-about. Godfathers and Godmothers. Stepmother. Herb Trinitatis. Herb Constancy. Pink-eyed-John. Bouncing Bet. Flower o’luce. Bird’s Eye.Bullweed.Anglo-Saxon)Banwort,Banewort.(French)Pensée.


Wild pansy (Viola tricolor L.) has a history in folk medicine of helping respiratory

problems such as bronchitis, asthma, and cold symptoms. The drugs and extracts are prepared from raw material of pansy; it is a component of some prepared expectorant, dermatological medicines and tonics, alteratives, and anti-phlebitis remedies. John Gerard’s Herball (1597) quotes medical opinion that pansy tea is effective for infantile convulsions, goes on to commend it for “chest and lung inflammations,” and also speaks of its effectiveness externally for scabs, itching, and ulcers. This external use caused pansy to be listed for a time in the U.S. Pharmacopoeia, and has continued in herbal medicine. [1]

Art And Culture

The pansy remains a favorite image in the arts, culture, and crafts, from needlepoint to ceramics. Shakespeare and other famous personalities of 19th and 20th century was quite impressed with its beauty .There were some instances from which we can assume the cultural importance of the plant

In 1827, Pierre-Joseph Redouté painted Bouquet of Pansies.

In 1926, Georgia O’Keeffe created a famous painting of a black pansy called simply, Pansy. She followed with White Pansy in 1927.

D. H. Lawrence wrote a book of poetry entitled Pansies: Poems by D. H. Lawrence.

In ancient days the plant was much used for its potency in love charms, hence perhaps its name of Heartsease It is this flower that plays such an important part as a love-charm in William Shakespeare’s play Midsummer Night’s Dream. (Act II, Scene I see also: Oberon at II, i)

The folkloric language of flowers is more traditional than scientific, with conventional interpretations, similar to the clichés about animals such as the “clever fox” or “wise owl”. Ophelia’s oft-quoted line, “There’s pansies, that’s for thoughts”, in Hamlet (Act IV, Scene V)

The Pansy is a symbol of the Delta Delta Delta women’s fraternity, and represents the alumni members.

The celebrated Quesnay, founder of the ‘Economists,’ physician to Louis XV, was called by the king his ‘thinker,’ and given, as an armorial bearing, three pansy flowers.

In many old Herbals the plant is called Herba Trinitatis, being dedicated by old writers to the Trinity, because it has in each flower three colours [1]

Vernacular name : Heartsease; pensée sauvage (French); Feldstiefmütterchen (German); viola del pensiero (Italian).


Pansy is native to Europe, North Africa, and temperate regions of Asia, and has become naturalized in the Americas. Pansy thrives in many habitats, from grassy mountainous areas to coastal sites, and is cultivated as a garden plant, is abundantly met with almost throughout Britain. It is a very widely distributed plant, found not only throughout Britain, but in such diverse places as Arctic Europe, North Africa, Siberia and N.W. India. Though found on hedge banks and waste ground, it seems in an especial degree a weed of cultivation, found most freely in cornfields and garden ground. It blossoms almost throughout the entire floral season, expanding its attractive little flowers in the early days of summer and keeping up a succession of blossom until late in autumn. [2,3]


Pansy breeding has produced a wide range of flower colors including yellow, gold, orange, purple, violet, red, white, and even black (dark purple) many with large showy face markings. A large number of bicolored flowers have also been produced. These are generally very cold drought resistant plant surviving freezing even during their blooming period. Plants grow well in sunny or partially sunny positions in well draining soils. Pansies are developed from viola species that are normally biennials with a two-year life cycle. The first year plant produce greenery and then bear flowers and seeds their second year of growth and afterwards die like annuals. Most biennials are purchased as packs of young plants from the nurseries and planted directly into the garden soil. Under favorable conditions, pansies and viola can often be grown as perennial plants, but are generally treated as annuals or biennial plants because after a few years of growth the stems become long and scraggly. Plants grow up to nine inches (23 cm) tall, and the flowers are two to three inches (about 6 cm) in diameter, though there are some smaller and larger flowering cultivars available too. Pansies are winter hardy and they can even survive between -37°C to -12°C (zones 4-8.) They can survive light freezes and short periods of snow cover, in areas with prolonged snow cover they survive best with a covering of a dry winter mulch. In warmer climates, i.e. -7°Cto+4°C (zones 9-11), pansies can bloom over the winter, and are often planted in the fall. In these climates, pansies have been known to reseed themselves and come back the next year. Pansies are not very heat-tolerant; they are best used as a cool season planting, warm temperatures inhibit blooming and hot muggy air causes rot and death. In colder zones, pansies may not persist without snow cover or protection (mulch) from the extreme cold.

Pansies should be watered thoroughly about once a week, depending on climate and rainfall. To maximize blooming, plant food should be used about every other week, according to the plant food directions


The herb can be collected throughout its growing season from March to August


 The pansy (Viola L.) is the only non-tropical genus of the tropical Violaceae Out of the several species of pansy; two are medicinal: wild (V. tricolorL.) and field (V. arvensis Murray) pansy not much differing in habitat and content of active substances and usage.

 Chemical Constituents [5,6,7,8]Salicylic acid derivatives (Methyl salicylic Acid and Violutoside )

Percentage occurrence 0.3%

Usages Salicylic acid has keratinolytic properties and is applied topically in the treatment hyperkeratotic and scaling conditions such as dandruff, ichthyosis and psoriasis. Initially a concentration of 2% is used increasing to about 6% if necessary.

Chemical Constituents [5,6,7,8] Mucilages (made up of glucose galactose arabinose and rhamnose )

Percentage occurrence 10.0%

Chemical Constituents [5,6,7,8] Tannins

Percentage occurence 2.4 %

Usages Anti-inflammatory effect

Chemical Constituents [5,6,7,8] Flavonoids

Percentage occurence 4.5%

a) Usages Flavonoids like Rutin and Violanthin is also an antioxidant, and therefore plays a role in inhibiting some cancers. reduce inflammation and oxidation, accelerating the healing of derma and

 Chemical Constituents [5,6,7,8] Carotenoids (violaxanthin zeaxanthin

Percentage occurence 3.41%

Usages These molecules reduce inflammation and oxidation, accelerating the healing of dermatitis.

Chemical Constituents Coumarin

Usages It can occur either free or combined with the sugar glucose (coumarin glycoside) in pansy. Coumarin has blood-thinning, anti-fungicidal and anti-tumor activities. Coumarin should not be taken while using anticoagulants. Coumarin increases the blood flow in the veins and decreases capillary permeability. Coumarin can be toxic when used at high doses for a long period

Chemical Constituents Violine


Wild Pansy contains an acrid and poisonous principle unique molecule, violine, resembles emetine in its action, is a pale-yellow or white powder of bitter and acrid taste, more soluble in water than emetine, insoluble in ether, quite soluble in alcohol, and forming an insoluble compound with tannin solution. It also exists in other plants of this family, particularly in the rhizomes of the perennial, and especially the stemless species of violet

In internal use, this molecule is responsible for its laxative and depurative effects in the treatment of dermatitis. At high dosages, violine has an emetic effect.

Useful Parts of Viola tricolor

1. Flowers It has cooling,emollient and cathartic Bronchitis and Rheumatism, mucolytic, sweltering, blood-cleansing effect

2. Roots It has emeto-cathartic Purgative property

3. Seeds Used as a Laxatives, Uric acid gravel Emetic, Purgative, mucolytic, sweltering, blood-cleansing effect

4. Leaves Used as Emetic , keratinolytic

 Therapeutic Uses

  •  Pansy has been used for centuries as an effective expectorant that has been helpful in easing chest problems, such as bronchitis, asthma, whooping cough, lung inflammation and dry coughs.  It is said to help loosen and expel phlegm.  The mucilage in Pansy acts as a demulcent that soothes mucous membranes and eases painful coughs, and the salicylic acid content helps to ease the pain of lung inflammations. .
  •  It is believed that the blood cleansing properties of the pansy makes it especially useful for scrofula and skin eruptions in children.  When taken internally, it is said to rid the body of toxic products that cause skin problems, including acne. Due to this property it is used as topically in lotions and poultices, it is said to treat wounds, scabies, boils, itching, rashes, impetigo, acne, swellings and weeping eczema.
  • Pansy promotes the flow of urine and expels toxins and waste through the increased urine; and as a diaphoretic, it promotes sweating, which not only cools the body and reduces fever, but it will also further rid the body of toxins through the skin. Therefore it works as a diuretic
  •  Pansy is said to strengthen the blood vessels and stabilize capillary membrane fragility and act as a gentle circulatory stimulant.  These qualities are said to help combat arteriosclerosis by improving blood flow and also help in cases of varicose ulcers.
  • Pansy is used as a mild sedative and calmative, and has been used to soothe nervous complaints, including hysteria, and it is also considered an anodyne or substance that relieves pain or promotes general comfort
  •  Recent studies shows that the cytotoxic cycloids Cycloviacin obtained from Pansy has a anti tumor activity


Pansy is used mostly in three areas, the skin, lungs and urinary system. Pansy may be used in eczema and other skin problems where there is exudate (often called weeping) eczema. As an anti-inflammatory expectorant pansy is used for whooping cough and acute bronchitis where it will soothe and help the body heal itself. For urinary problems pansy will aid in the healing of cystitis and can be used to treat the symptoms of frequent and painful urination.


1. Gaylor, Annie Laurie Rediscovering A Forgotten Symbol Of Freethought – A Pansy For Your Thoughts”. Freethought Today June/July 1997.

2. Scharfetter R. Biographien von Pflanzensippen. Wien. 1953.

3. Spegg H. Planta medica. 1959; 7: 8-23

4.British Pharmacopoeia 2008 Vol 2; The stationary office on behalf of the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency ; 1649-50

5. Silvija R, Ona R, Nijolë S; 1The cumulation of Wild pansy (Viola tricolor L.) accessions:the possibility of species preservation and usage in medicine ; MEDICINA (2003) 39 tomas, ;414-416

6. Bisset NG, Wichtl M.;. Herbal drugs and phytopharmaceuticals. CRS Press, L.-N.Y.-W. Medpharm GmbHScientific publishers Stuttgart; 2001. ; 527-9.

7. Serbinova E. ;Oxidative damage and repair. ;1991; 77-80.

8. Savickienë N, Dagilytë A, Lukoðius A, Þitkevièius V. ;Importance of biologically active components and plants for the prevention of diabetes mellitus ; Medicina (Kaunas) 2002;38:970-5.

9. T. H. Koopman,J. Naardingsstraat ;Information about ‘MICROBIOTICUM’ manufactured by INEKO bv (The Netherlands Europe);Aver Nv;15-16

Blood Pressure Terminology

Traditionally, BP measurements report two basic pressures (Systolic pressure and Diastolic pressure). This article explains the reason why diastolic pressure should be actually called as ‘lowest or baseline systolic pressure.’

Whenever BP is measured, external pressure (cuff-induced) combines with baseline arterial pressure to challenge the heart to pump the blood beyond the artificially vasoconstricted region. For example, when brachial artery is artificially vasoconstricted to greater extent, the heart can’t pump blood beyond that pressurized portion till the pressure is relieved to a level, so that heart can exhibit its maximum strength to work against this elevated resistance. At one point, when the examiner drops the pressure in the cuff, heart sounds start to appear and this point can be called ‘highest systolic pressure.’ This point indicates the maximum resistance against which that individual’s heart can work.

Next, when gradual drop in the cuff pressure takes place, at a point, the heart sounds start to disappear and this point can be called as ‘lowest systolic pressure.’ The place where the heart sounds disappear allows the artery to return back to their original dimension and offer its own resistance only. This point indicates the baseline pressure (no cuff-induced pressure) against which the heart has to work.

Let us look at two definitions for diastole of the heart.

Definition 1: Cardiac diastole is the period of time when the heart relaxes after contraction in preparation for refilling with circulating blood.

Definition 2: Diastole is that phase of the cardiac cycle when the heart is not contracting to propel blood out to the body, brain and lungs but instead is relaxed and filling with incoming blood.

These two definitions are to be correlated with the two formulae.

Formula 1: Blood pressure = Cardiac output x Peripheral vascular resistance

Formula 2: Blood flow = Pressure / Resistance

We have to combine the definitions and formulae to understand the following;

Diastole is the phase where cardiac output becomes zero. So, during diastole, the blood pressure caused by blood flow also becomes zero.

BP (caused by blood flow during diastole) = 0 x Peripheral vascular resistance

= 0 mm Hg

In fact, the pressure in the arteries doesn’t fall to zero during diastole (because some hydrostatic pressure still exists during diastole) but the pressure caused by flow of blood pumped by heart becomes zero.

Since both the extremes of the blood pressure are measured during systolic phase (blood pumping phase) of heart, the term diastolic pressure doesn’t match the actual physiologic scenario of circulation and can lead to misconception. Finally, the traditionally expressed ‘diastolic pressure’ is actually the baseline pressure against which cardiac systole happens. Baseline systolic pressure is the apt term to be used to indicate the lowest pressure detected during BP measurement. For example, if your BP tests for a client (at rest) reveals 120 mm Hg/ 70 mm Hg, then;

(a) 120 mm Hg is the highest resistance (highest systolic pressure) against which his heart can pump the blood.

(b) 70 mm Hg is the lowest resistance (lowest systolic pressure or baseline systolic pressure) against which his heart is working or has to work.

However consensus must be developed for the replacement of ‘diastolic pressure’ as ‘baseline systolic pressure.’ Physicians and health care professionals are actually very much concerned about the baseline BP or baseline resistance against which the heart functions and help stabilizing the abnormalities if any.

7 Top Family Bonding Road Trip Games

Family Interaction Game #1. “I Spy” – with variations

No road trip would be complete without a (many) games of “I Spy”.

This works well for younger kids especially. Take turns to look for something the other players have to guess correctly. You begin your turn by saying “I spy with my little eye something beginning with a (letter)_____”. The other player tries to guess it from the surrounding items or countryside. The person who correctly guesses gets to have the next turn.

Variations. How about I spy with my little eye something with a colour of_______, or I spy with my little eye something that is associated with_______ eg flying (bird, plane), milking, ploughing, riding (horse, bike, car etc)

Family Interaction Games #2. Geography Game

This is a great game for players (old and young) to brush up on their world knowledge.

The first player thinks of a place or country (say London). The next player has to think of a place or town or city with the last letter of the previous place mentioned. In this case it would be N, (for Naples), being the last letter of London, and so on. The game continues until someone gets stumped and cannot think of an appropriate place. Each place, town or city can only be used once.

Family Interaction Games #3. When I was Young / When you were born

From experience, kids love to hear about 2 things especially – when they were born and when their parents were young, like themselves.

The game is started by one or both the parents retelling stories of their childhood and events surrounding the birth of the children. Tales relating to the parents schooling, how they travelled to school, how far they walked to school and favourite/worst teachers.

Events at the birth relating to the dash to the hospital, first impressions at the birth, some major character traits and first words are all great conversation starters.

Family Interaction Games #4. Math – Number Plate Bingo

Good game for learning number recognition skills.

Each player lists out numbers 1-50. Then they are to look for those numbers on number plates. The one who completes their list first is the winner. To make this game spin out a little longer only number plates of a certain state or color can be used.

Family Interaction Games #5. My best, my most scary, my best…

Each child (and the parents) try to remember a certain event in their lives (or from their imagination) from the choices below or make your own: (each choice represents 1 round). Players agree on the type of event before each round.

My most scary moment My best time My favorite holiday My most stressful event

Each player then recounts the event in their life (actual or imagined). After each round the family members vote whose story is best, based on on originality and graphic detail The one with the most votes wins the round. The one with the most winning rounds after 5 rounds wins.

Family Interaction Games #6. Maths – Number Search

Each player (kids and adults included) lists 1 – 100 in a column and the winner is the first player that finds all the numbers on the list by finding the number words or symbols on advertisements, road speed signs and distance signposts. Write each occurrence against the item on your list as you find it.

Family Interaction Games #7. Car Make/Model Reversii

This will have the whole car in fits of laughter…guaranteed! If you see a Cadillac Eldorado (for instance) whiz past the players try and quickly say the make and model spelled BACKWARDS. So for this example the kids will be trying to say “Callidac” (Cadillac spelled backwards) and the pronunciation would be something like Call-i-dac.

Then for the model Odarodle (Eldorado spelled backwards) they would try to say O-dar-odle. Once people are trying to say these words quickly, as other cars zoom past, it quickly turns into a real laugh… you’ll remember this game for years. (I don’t know of anyone else who has played this game apart from our family – so you could say it’s exclusive.)

I sincerely hope that these games will help the whole family have a great holiday…

Is Your Business an Energy Star?

As a green business, you are probably aware of how Energy Star appliances can help you with your production and environment while helping you cut costs and be a responsible member of the world community. What you may not know is that your business itself can earn the Energy Star. That's right; The rating is not just for the appliances you use to build. It's not easy rating to achieve but nothing worth doing is easy. You work hard to make your business the best it can be in other areas; Making your Texas business the best it can be energy wise just makes sense.

Energy Star uses the EPA's rating system based on how your company stands up to other similar businesses throughout the country. To qualify for the rating a business must make the best use of sustainable energy and conservation resources. The company needs to be in the top 25% of the EPA's Performance Rating System.

It does not cost anything to apply for an Energy Star rating, but the value received can be without measure. Having this rating gives your Texas business top billing in the ecologically minded communities and will help you build customer satisfaction and draw more loyal clients to your doors. The areas surrounding major metropolitan cities in Texas such as Houston, Dallas, Austin and DFW are growing in their desire to make the best use of sustainable energies. You can prove your participation in a way that has national resonance by achieving Energy Star status.

Getting your company ready to participate in the program can be complicated if your structures are already in place, but not impossible. Replacing old fixtures with conservation models, replacing heating and cooling systems with more efficient systems that use sustainable energy like solar or thermal power. Finally, and maybe more difficult, are the methods with which waste matter is distributed depending on your type of industry. Compliance with all Federal levels of toxic release will greatly influence your Energy Star rating.

It is much easier to incorporate green building methods with new construction. However, showing that you can create a green atmosphere from old buildings and methods will put you in a great position for positive media and community recognition. That recognition translates into excellent PR and development of consumer loyalty.

Along the community recognition and customer loyalty, you will have the satisfaction of knowing you are working toward making the environment safer for yourself, your children, and all of the people around you. Energy Star works hard to promote the companies that meet their requirements for this rating as well. You will gain media attention and have the honor of being a partner to give your company a fantastic boost in the eyes of consumers everywhere. Having the most recognized symbol of efficiency behind your company is priceless.

History of Gadgets

The history of gadgets spans as far back as humanity itself – since hominids began creating tools to make their lives easier. Humans have always created devices and appliances with specific practical purposes that were initially thought of as novelties, due to unfamiliarity with and initial unwillingness to accept the technology. Today, industry has augmented the creation of new gadgets, while certain retailers, including Brookstone and Richard Thalheimer’s RichardSolo.com, specialize in popularizing them.

What famous inventors Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Edison, Alexander Graham Bell and Leonardo da Vinci, among others, had in common was foresight. They understood that a lifetime spent playing with what others viewed as toys and senseless gadgets would eventually result in indispensable technology. From just that small group, the groundwork for electricity, communications, film, and flight was laid because of their gadgets, which obviously possessed more value than novelty.

Perhaps one of the earliest, most well known gadgets created is the wheel, many millennia ago. Take a ride in your car and witness how truly revolutionary such a gadget became and how much we now rely on it for transportation. A more recent gadget, the Apple iPhone, appears to be the beginning stages of yet another gadget-turned-necessity that will reshape communications.

“The iPhone may someday be looked upon as the device that started a second revolution in computing. Desktop computing was the first revolution. Hand-held computing will someday be regarded as the second revolution, and the iPhone is the product that started it.”

-Richard Thalheimer, RichardSolo.com

All gadgets were not created equal. In fact most inventions are built on the newest technology. The world of gadgets is tiered; devices fall into one of four categories: mechanical, electronic, programmable, and application. Mechanical gadgets include the wheel, as well as later developments such as the pulley, the bicycle, the sail boat, the thermometer and the sort. Following the advent of electricity, gadgets were taken to a new level as inventors began to discover different uses for the newly harnessed energy. The television, radio and quartz watch are examples of electronic gadgets. After electricity, inventors toyed around with electronic information via microprocessor, beginning an age of programmable devices such as computers, and later, MP3 players and the iPhone. Application gadgets include iTunes, Microsoft Office and other computer applications that customize our experience with programmable devices.

Richard Thalheimer, the President and founder of online gadget vendor RichardSolo.com, and founder and former CEO of gadget giant The Sharper Image, understands, maybe better than anyone, that there’s much more to gadgets than novelty.

“Certainly most people enjoy the novelty of a gadget that introduces new convenience to their lifestyle. What they forget is that solving these everyday problems is not just entertainment, but some of these devices become functional necessities. In my personal life, I rely on my iPhone, my garage door opener, my nose hair trimmer, my electric toothbrush, and other gadgets that were once regarded as novel gadgets. ”

– Richard Thalheimer, RichardSolo.com

Both his former brainchild and his current venture sell quirky, useful and fun gadgets of all types, from mechanical to programmable and application. He has seen some devices, such as the Ionic Breeze air purifier, spur sensational and lasting trends based on a realization of utility value, while others collected dust on the shelves after their novelty wore out. Specialty stores like The Sharper Image and Richard Thalheimer’s RichardSolo.com serve a greater purpose: spread new ideas, and give credit to the Franklins and Edisons of the world.

~Ben Anton, 2008

10 Top Kids Party Games for an Enjoyable Party

Are you someone whom finds planning children’s parties a daunting affair? Are you worried about what you are going to do to keep them entertained?

If this sounds like you, then don’t despair as you have certainly not been the first parents to experience this. The good news is, that it doesn’t have to be this way, and there are plenty of EASY and CHEAP ways to keep the kids entertained at your child’s party.

There is a lot to be said about all the traditional kids party games that have been around since our Grandparents generation… and probably longer. These games have withstood the test of time for a reason… because they are good… and they really do work!

Here are 10 kids party games that you can use at your next child’s birthday party. You could pick one or two, or use the entire 10, but one thing is for certain… and that is the children will love them!

Pass the Parcel: All children love opening presents, so what is not to love about this game! Simply find a small present (suitable for both a boy and a girl) and wrap it up. Then have several layers of wrapping around the main present. Inside each wrapping it is ideal to place either another small item (a piece of candy, balloon, pen, spinning top… anything small). This is the small gift for the child to keep that opens that layer.

Sit the children in a circle and play some music. Ask them to pass the parcel around the circle until the music stops. When the music stops, that child can open the layer! For younger children it is recommended that you ensure each child has a chance to open at least one layer.

Pin the tail on the donkey: The traditional way to play this game is to have a donkey and lots of tails that the kids will pin onto the donkey (hence the name). You can however use this game to suit any theme you are having. For instance, Pin Dora’s hair band into her hair or pin the banana into the monkey’s hand. You can buy ready-made kits, or if feeling creative you could draw something yourself. Simply have some blind folds available and each child in turn has the opportunity to pin the tail on the donkey. Blindfold the child and ask them to pin the tail as close to where it should be as possible.

Musical Statues: Are there some budding dancers in the room? Choose some favourite music and simply ask the kids to dance! When they least expect it, turn the music off, and the children have to stand as still as possible. The last to stand still is out! Continue the game until only one child remains a statue.

Musical bumps: This game is played very similar to musical statues, except when the music stops, the children have to immediately sit down on their bottom. The last child to sit down is out! Keep playing until only one child remains.

Musical chairs: Gather a chair for each child at the party and place in a circle (seat facing out of the circle). Ask all the children to sit on a chair and then start to play the music. As the music is playing, the children have to walk/dance around the circle of chairs. Have an adult remove one of the chairs. Turn off the music and the children have to sit on a chair. The child left standing is out! Continue until only one child remains sitting, and this is the winner.

Simon Says: This is a great party game that is perfect for younger children too. Designate an adult who is Simon (or change the name to suit the theme of the party ie: Mickey Mouse or Dora the Explorer). Then say “Simon says… put your hand on your head”. The children must do what Simon says. BUT, Simon will trick the children by sometimes saying “put your hands on your head”. If ‘Simon says’ wasn’t mentioned, then the children that made the action are out. Continue with lots of different commands until only one child remains.

Apple bobbing: If it’s a sunny day, this would be a great game for the children to play outside. Organise a large bowl, fill with water and place numerous apples in the water. The children will take it in turns to try to retrieve an apple with their teeth, and their arms behind their back.

Follow my leader: Have an adult as the designated ‘leader’. They will hop, skip, jump, dance etc. The children all have to follow and copy the actions of the leader.

Memory tray: This is a great game if you are hoping for a bit of peace and quiet during the party. Have a tray filled with all sorts of items from around your home and give the children a few minutes to try to remember as many items on the tray. Give them each a pen and paper and then cover the tray and ask them to remember as many items as possible, in say 1 minute. The winner is the one that has remember the most items.

Sleeping Lions: This is a great game to use towards the end of a party. Again this can be tailored to any theme you are having (Sleeping fireman, fairies, ballerina’s… etc). Ask the children to lie down on the floor and ask them to pretend to be sleeping. If the child moves or makes a sound, they are out. If the children are all too good at this game, you can walk around them, tickle them or try to make them laugh and see who can remain sleeping!

These ten kids party games will be sure to put a smile on the children’s faces and in turn on yours! Simplicity is the key to a successful party and with some planning and preparation, the party doesn’t have to be a daunting affair!

The 5 Green Juice Recipe

If you are looking for the Five Green Juice recipe, I can assume that you are also interested in weight loss. In fact, the 5 Green Juice is also one of the most popular vegetable juice recipes with outstanding results for weight loss and detox.

This recipe was originated from the traditional Chinese wisdom.

In Hong Kong, you can buy it fresh from any juice store. They are made to order and at a very economic price. If you are doing juice fasting, a daily glass of fresh green juice is highly recommended. Surely the 5 Green is on top of the list.

Even it is easily available and cheap to buy, you are highly recommended to make it at home. Because the best time to drink is first in the morning when your stomach is empty. DIY and your whole family can enjoy this healthy and delicious drink. If you don’t have a juicer at home, buy one. A basic home juicer will be able to produce this healthy weight loss drink in a minute.

The Five Green Juice Recipe


2 celery stalks, 1 green apple, 1/4 cucumber, 1/4 bitter melon, 1/2 green pepper


1. Wash all ingredients;

2. Seeded green apple, bitter melon, green pepper;

3. Put all ingredients into a juicer;

4. Do not add water

The taste is relatively sweet (green apple and cucumber neutralize the bitterness of bitter melon).

The 5 Green Juice is exceptionally good at preventing high blood pressure, cholesterol disorders and constipation. People suffering from pimples and acne should also benefit from this drink. However there are a few things to note:

1. Not suitable for female during monthly periods.

2. Filter the pulp if you wish.

3. Drink immediately after juicing (or within 10 minutes).

4. Best effect on empty stomach, recommended drinking first in the morning.

5. Drink it at least once a week to achieve maximum weight loss and detox results.