How To Raise Your Kids The Right Way

The goal as a parent is to help your child feel competent and confident, and to help her develop a sense of passion and purpose. There are many ways to raise happy, well-adjusted kids, but science has a few tips for making sure they turn out okay. From keeping it fun to letting them leave the nest.

No one would argue that raising children of character demands time and effort. While having children may be doing what comes naturally, being a good parent is much more complicated. Here are some steps to follow.

1 – Put parenting first:

Once you're a parent, you have to learn to put your priorities below your children's, and to make the sacrifice to spending more of your day caring for them than you doing caring for yourself.

2 – Do not aim for perfection:

According to a study, new parents who believe society expects perfection from them are more stressed and less confident in their parenting skills.

3 – Be good to your sons, Mamas:

A warm, attached relationship with mom sees important in preventing behavior problems in sons, even more so than in girls, the research found.

A close relationship with their mothers can help keep boys from acting out.

4 – Eat dinner as a family:

The dinner table is not only a place of maintenance and family business but also a place for the teaching and passing on of our values.

5 – Tend to your mental health:

Research suggests that depressed moms struggle with parenting and even show muted responses to their babies'ries compared with healthy moms.

According to researchers, kids raised by these mothers are more easily stressed out by the preschool years.

6 – Give your child enough play time every day:

"Play time" does not mean having your child sit in front of the TV while you do the dishes.

It means letting your child sit in his room or play area and to actively engage with stimulating toys while you help him explore their possibilities

7 – Be positive:

Parents who express negative emotions towards their infants or handle them are often likely to find themselves with aggressive kindergartners.

Behavioral aggression at age 5 is linked to aggression later in life, even towards future romantic partners.

8. Joking helps:

When parents joke and pretend, it gives young kids the tools to think creatively, make friends and manage stress.

9. Encourage independence:

You can still be there for your child while encouraging him to explore his own interests. Do not tell your child which lessons to take; Let him pick from a variety of options.

Do not be accused if you feel things are getting too much for you. Ask for help. Tell your partner when you're having a hard time, find a babysitter or parenting counselor, seek support from other parents, learn new ways of parenting that will make it more easy and enjoyable for you.

Ted's Side of the Story

It has been 45 years since Ted Kennedy's car plunged into the waters of Chappaquiddick. A young woman, Mary Jo Kopechne, drowned that night. Kennedy himself has been dead for nearly five years, but the event is still capable of provoking passionate debts.

With only a few exceptions, Kennedy spent the seven days immediately following the incident in seclusion. When he was seen, he was wearing a neck brace, a silent reminder of the accident. He emerged 45 years ago today – sans neck brace – to deliver a national address on the matter.

Since Bobby Kennedy's assassination a year earlier, Kennedy was broadly considered as a sure thing if he wanted the Democratic presidential nomination; After the accident, the conventional wisdom was that he was damaged goods – damaged beyond repair.

Before the Chappaquiddick incident, Kennedy was often mentioned as a potential Democratic candidate for 1972. Even after Chappaquiddick, his name was still mentioned in connection with the 1976 race. He chose not to seek the nomination in either year, and it appeared his presidential ambitions were really behind him.

Incredibly, he did seek the presidency – in 1980 – but it always seemed to me he did so more out of a sense of personal obligation than anything else.

And he picked a year to run in which it was almost certain that he would not succeed. He ran against an incumbent Democrat, Jimmy Carter, in a year that was shaping up to be a Republican year. Running against an oath from one's own party has almost always been a "Man of La Mancha" -esque proposition – and, predictably, at least in the context of history, Kennedy did not defeat the incumbent.

But there was more to it than that. Early in the campaign for the nomination, Carter benefited from a rally-'round-the-flag mentality following the takeover of the American embassy in Iran and the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan.

If Kennedy had beaten Carter, it is far from certain that he would have defeated the Republican nominee, Ronald Reagan. In hindsight, it really seemed the tide was running against all Democrats in 1980.

Before any votes had been cast, Kennedy's commitment was brought into question when he had a rambling answer to a pretty straight-forward question posed by CBS 'Roger Mudd – "Why do you want to be president?"

But on July 25, 1969, he did not speak about the presidency. He spoke about Chappaquiddick. Earlier in the day, he had entered a plea of ​​guilty at the Edgartown, Mass., Courthouse; He was given a suspended sentence and his driver's license was taken away.

Thoughts of the presidency probably were part of the equation, though, particularly when you examine the issues he chose to address when he spoke before the cameras:

  • His wife, Joan, had not accompanied him that weekend due to "reasons of health." Her absence had been frequently mentioned, and Kennedy apparently felt obliged to say that she was pregnant (she suffered a miscarriage shortly thereafter).
  • He denied the "broadly circulated suspicions of immoral conduct" by himself and Kopechne.
  • He denied that he had been under the influence of alcohol while he was driving.
  • He acknowledged that his actions after the accident "made no sense to [him] at all."
  • He said he had been told by his doctors that he had suffered a conversation and shock, but he did not use that as an excuse for his actions.
  • He said it was "indefensible" that he did not contact authorities after the accident.
  • He told viewers that he had enlisted the help of two friends at the party to help try to rescue her.
  • He said that "all sorts of scrambled thoughts" went through his head that, in hindsight, seem like nothing short of denial – including the idea that Kopechne may have saved herself somehow and if "some awful curse actually did hang over all the Kennedys. "

"The speech was not a success," wrote William Manchester. "He answered questions that had not been asked … He also appeared to insist that the damage to his career was more momentous than [Kopechne's] death." That, I suppose, remained to be seen.

Quiet Discoveries Lead to Fast Sinus Relief

It’s amazing what you can find when you start your search a little outside the bulls eye. While clicking through Magnetic Resonance Imaging research online, my colleagues and I found some intriguing scientific studies completely by accident!

What did we find? Well, let’s just say if you’ve got a stuffy nose you should try magnets before sniffling through that bottle of nasal spray!

Did you know that every year, more than 35 million Americans suffer from sinusitis? It’s one of the leading chronic diseases in the United States [1]. And it’s no wonder, as bacteria, viruses, cigarette smoke, and allergens like pollen, mold, dust mite feces and pet dander are all common causes of this condition [2]. Unless you live in a bubble, there’s really no escaping these tiny antagonists.

The sinuses are actually four pairs of hollow spaces in the bones of the face. Connected to the nose, air is allowed to flow in and out of these spaces. To help warm and filter the air, each sinus is lined with a mucous-producing membrane, called the mucosa [3].

Acute sinusitis occurs when the mucosa is irritated and inflamed. The small openings from the nose to the sinus cavities become congested (or even completely blocked), causing the facial pain and pressure most of us have experienced at some point in time. Mucus production is often increased as well, adding to the pressure, and causing that annoying runny nose symptom [3].

Many people turn to preventive methods like HEPA air filters, or frequent cleaning of carpets and bed sheets to reduce household allergens [4]. Decongestants, saline nasal sprays, and vaporizers are commonly used to treat the symptoms–but as you and I know, they take time to work.

This is where those studies come in. There’s an interesting, but little known fact about the sinuses: they are magnetically sensitive.

Based on our own research and experiences with clients and health practitioners over the years, we’ve observed that sinus congestion is dramatically improved or completely relieved with the application of magnetic therapy. In fact, taking about 20-30 minutes on average, it’s one of the conditions that biomagnetics alleviates quickest.

Until recently, though, we didn’t have much research to back these findings (other than our own records). But, while sifting through online abstracts from MRI research, I happened to stumble upon this:

Dating back to 1983, a study was conducted to assess the influence of magnetic fields on the physiology and behavior of biological organisms, and to search for possible magnetic sources within the organisms themselves.

It was found that a wide range of life forms could detect and orient to magnetic fields. (Like having a built-in compass.) Results showed magnetic orientation by bacteria was due to the presence of particles of magnetite (ferric/ferrous oxide) within the organisms.

The same magnetic material was also found in bees, homing pigeons, dolphins and other organisms–including humans. More specifically, the researchers found that “the bones of the sphenoid/ethmoid sinus complex of humans are magnetic and contain deposits of ferric iron”. (The sphenoid/ethmoid sinuses are located between the eyes and progress inward towards the back of the head [3].)

Refining our search, we were able to uncover other MRI studies confirming this finding. Here’s a brief timeline of what was found:

1986 – “Magnetic Resonance Imaging [using a 1.5 Tesla (15,000 Gauss) magnet and a spin echo technique] has revealed a remarkably intense signal from abnormal tissue in the human paranasal sinuses. Inflammatory disease in the maxillary, sphenoid, ethmoid, and frontal sinuses has been detected and demonstrated with greater clarity than any other available technique.”

1990 – A study conducted at the UCLA School of Medicine tested conditions affected by MRI field strength. Results illustrated that “magnetic susceptibility artifacts are prevalent on the boundary of air-containing paranasal sinuses”.

1995 – Research at Uppsala University in Sweden discovered that “large, local magnetic field variations up to 3 parts per million were found in the human brain near interfaces between air or bone and brain tissues”.

2002 – An Ohio State University study compared differences in magnetic field susceptibility at tissue interfaces in the human head. “Considerable magnetic field inhomogeneities were observed in the inferior frontal lobes and inferior temporal lobes, particularly near the sphenoid sinus and the temporal bones.”

These four independent studies all relate to the notion that human sinuses are magnetically sensitive. When compared to other regions of the head, more intense magnetic field readings are seen, and conditions of inflammation are more easily observed.

So how does this lead to sinusitis relief?

Magnetic therapy is proven to be effective in reducing inflammation, a primary symptom of sinusitis. By reducing inflammation of the mucosa, mucous blockages can be drained and the sinus cavities reopened. This, allows you to breathe freely again, while eliminating the facial pain caused by pressure build-up.

When applied properly, magnetic therapy products can relieve sinus congestion in as little as 15 minutes. That’s faster than any decongestant or vaporizer, lasts longer than most nasal sprays, and is completely free of any side effects (like dryness or burning). Not to mention, you won’t need to worry about buying refills or possible addiction to certain nasal decongestants.

What Therion products work best to help relieve sinusitis?

The Eye & Sinus Mask is designed specifically for relief of your sinus congestion. Inside it has 28 neodymium magnets covering areas around your eyes, forehead and upper cheeks. (The magnetic field has an effective penetration depth up to 2.5 inches.) You can expect sinus and headache relief within 15-25 minutes of wearing it.

For even faster relief plus more restful sleep, Therion ‘s magnetic dual contour pillow is the perfect choice. The visco elastic (memory) foam is soft and comfortable, but also supportive. You’ll actually feel it adjusting and conforming to the shape of your head and neck. It’s ideal to use as a regular sleeping pillow, as the magnetic field reaches the pineal gland. This is a magnetically sensitive area in the brain that functions to induce sleep by secreting melatonin. (See the article “Having Trouble Sleeping” found in the Learning Center at http://www.therionresearch.com.

So before you open that box of ‘non-drowsy’ decongestants or reach for the nasal spray on your nightstand, give magnetic therapy a try. If it’s fast acting with no side effects, and never needs a refill, what do you have to lose?

See you soon at http://www.therionresearch.com

SOURCES:

1 – Sinus News: Sinus Pressure

2 – Sinus News: Sinus Facts Overview

3 – The Sinus Treatment Center

4 – The Allergy Relief Center

1983 — PubMed: Magnetic bones in human sinuses.

1986 — PubMed: High-field magnetic resonance imaging of paranasal sinus inflammatory disease.

1990 — PubMed: Effect of field strength on susceptibility artifacts in magnetic resonance imaging.

1995 — PubMed: Measurements of magnetic field variations in the human brain using a 3D-FT multiple gradient echo technique.

2002 — PubMed: Three-dimensional numerical simulations of susceptibility-induced magnetic field inhomogeneities in the human head.

Symptoms of Pain and Illness in Dogs

Dog owners, who recognize the early signs and symptoms of illness or pain in their dogs, will not only relieve their loved one’s suffering but may also be able to save themselves an expensive trip to the veterinarian. Not only is it important to recognize these signs early to relieve pain and suffering, but it is much more effective to treat an illness when it is detected early.

The dog owner should keep an accurate and detailed account of their dog’s symptoms to help the veterinarian correctly diagnose and effectively treat the dog’s illness or condition. Most canine illnesses are detected through a combination of various signs and symptoms:

Temperature, Respiratory Rate and Heart Rate

A newborn puppy will have a temperature of 94-97º F. which will eventually reach the normal adult body temperature of 101.5º F. at the age of 4 weeks old. Take care when trying to take your dog or puppies temperature as the thermometer can easily be broken off in the canine’s rectum. Also any form of excitement can cause the temperature to rise by 2-3º when the dog is actually in normal health. If your dog’s temperature reaches 105º or above OR 96º or below please take him/her to the emergency vet immediately!

An adult dog will have a respiratory rate of 15-20 breaths per minute (depending on such variables as size and weight) and a heart rate of 80-120 beats per minute. You can feel for your dog’s heartbeat by placing your hand on his/her lower ribcage just behind the elbow. Don’t be alarmed if the heartbeat seems irregular compared to a human’s heartbeat, it is irregular in many dogs. Have your vet check it out and get used to how it feels when it is normal.

Behavior Changes

Any behavior changes that are not associated with a change in the household atmosphere, such as jealousy over a new pet or child may be an indication of an illness. Signs of behavioral changes may be:

o Depression

o Anxiety

o Fatigue

o Sleepiness

o Trembling

o Falling/Stumbling

If your dog shows any of these signs, he/she needs to be kept under close watch for a few hours, or even a few days, until positive signs develop or he/she has returned to normal. Do not try to exercise the dog or put him/her in any situation that may cause stress. Most veterinarians will want for you to keep track of when the symptoms first appeared, whether they are getting better or worse, and also whether the symptoms are intermittent, continuous, or increasing in frequency.

Pain

Dogs that are in pain will likely indicate that they are suffering by giving you clues as to where the area of discomfort is. For instance, a dog that has abdominal pain will continually glance toward their belly, bite or lick the area, and will not want to leave his/her bed. The dog may stand hunched over, or take the ‘prayer position’ which is when a dog gets down on it’s forelegs with the hind legs still standing, because of the pain in her abdomen area.

Dogs can not tell you that they are hurting or cry real tears but a dog may vocalize their pain in a different way. A dog that is hurt suddenly (such as being stepped on) will cry out or wimper in pain. This also happens when an external injury or internal injury (such as an organ) is touched. Whining or vocalization that is unprovoked may be caused from an internal injury as well. Some breeds of dogs (such as the American Pit Bull Terrier) have a higher pain threshold and need to be watched more closely for signs of pain. Breeds with a high pain tolerance are more likely to endure the pain without vocalization.

Another clue to pain is a change in temperament. A dog that is in pain may show signs of aggression. Please take note of this before concluding that a dog has become vicious and let your veterinarian know so that the correct treatment can be administered. Also females in general (even humans!) have days when they are just in a bad mood for no obvious reason. Take note of days of times that these mood swings occur as well as any events that might have triggered them.

Other signs that your dog may be sick:

o Ears: discharge, debris, odor, scratching, crusted tips, twitching or shaking.

o Eyes: redness, swelling or discharge.

o Nose: runny, thickened or colored discharge, crusty.

o Coughing, sneezing, vomiting or gagging.

o Shortness of breath, irregular breathing or prolonged/heavy panting

o Evidence of parasites in the dog’s stool, strange color, blood in the stool, or lack of a bowel movement (constipation).

o Loss of appetite or not drinking as much water as normally would.

o Weight Loss.

o Strange color of urine, small amount of urine, straining, dribbling, or not going as frequently as normal.

o Bad odor coming from mouth, ears, or skin.

o Hair loss, wounds, tumors, dander or change of the skin’s color.

o Biting of the skin, parasites, scratching or licking the skin frequently.

The preceding article was meant to help educate you to the signs and symptoms of probable pain or sickness in your dog. If any of these symptoms occur over a prolonged period of time, please seek the help of a veterinarian. I hope that this article will help stress the importance of keeping watch over your dog’s health patterns and the importance of keeping an accurate, detailed health record for your veterinarian’s convenience.

Ataxia and Multiple Sclerosis

Ataxia is the term given to any number of abnormal movements that take place while doing some voluntary movement. It sounds simple enough.

I guess that whenever medical terms or definitions are involved things can get a little (if not a lot) complicated for most of us so, I’ll try to put it in layman’s terms.

Folks suffering from ataxia have problems coordinating muscle movements. Often, these problems manifest themselves in the legs but also in the arms, eyes and in muscles used in speech. Some of these involuntary movements result in you experiencing incoordination or interruption in your movements. Lots of MSers have experience this type of Ataxia when we under – or over – shoot something we intended or target with our hand, arm, leg or eye.

This missing of target is a type of Ataxia known as Dysmetria. Since my diagnosis, I started to experience Dysmetria of the hand. This can make your writing and picking things up difficult or even impossible.

Your cerebellum is the part of your brain in charge of synchronizing all voluntary muscle movement throughout your body, cerebellar ataxia is the result of lesions on the cerebellum or in the nerves that connect into it. Cerebellar ataxia can result in:

Uncoordinated walking – gait ataxia.

Inability to maintain a steady posture – hypotonia.

Shaking when attempting fine movements – intention tremor.

An inability to coordinate the muscles involved in speech – dysarthia

Jittery eye movements – nystagmus

If the damage is located in the spinal cord – in its posterior columns to be more exact – the type of Ataxia that occurs is known as sensory ataxia.

Whenever you experience not knowing exactly where your limbs (hands and feet) are, you are experiencing Sensory ataxia. Another manifestation of this type of Ataxia happens when you experience an unstable stance. Common problems seen by this type of Ataxia are:

Loss of position sense

Inability to detect vibrations

Unstable stance also known as Romberg’s sign

In multiple sclerosis, the last type of Ataxia is known as vestibular ataxia which is caused by lesions to the brainstem and the vestibular nuclei. Common problems seen by this type of Ataxia are:

Loss of Balance

Dizziness

Nausea and

Vomiting (vertigo)

Jittery eye movements – Nystagmus

I know now that I experienced this type of Ataxia when I had my first MS relapse. It came with a loss of balance, dizziness, vertigo and a little jittery of the eyes (nystagmus) besides the optic neuritis that never really went away.

Contrary to what most people think, Ataxia is not a direct result of muscle weakness (atrophy) but a dysfunction in the sensory nerve inputs or motor nerve outputs.

HOW COMMON IS ATAXIA AMONG MSers?

It is estimated that between 80 and 85% of MSers will experience ataxia or tremors at some point during their disease. Ataxia is quite a common symptom in Multiple Sclerosis but is also seen in other conditions such as:

1. Spinal cord compression

2. Diabetic polyneuropathy

3. Acute transverse myelitis

4. Vacuolar myelopathy

5. Tumor or cord compression and

6. Hereditary forms of ataxia

HOW IS ATAXIA TREATED IN MSers?

In order to help you manage these symptoms, several different treatments currently exist. They can be categorized by:

Physiotherapy

Neurosurgery

Oral medications – Some of them containing marijuana or cannabis extract, isoniazid or baclofen.

The Cochrane Collaboration, currently published in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2010 Issue 11, Published by John Wiley and Sons, Ltd. concludes that there is not enough evidence to suggest that any treatment (drugs, physiotherapy or neurosurgery) provides sustained improvement in ataxia or tremors.

The one thing everybody seems to agree on is that more research is required.

Last but not least, along with the multiple problems caused by ataxia, you may experience tremors.

Tremors are rhythmic shaking movements of different amplitudes.

Whenever I stand in the same place for too long, I experience tremors in my right knee. These tremors are nothing serious and once I start moving they just vanish. While researching the subject I found out that tremors in MSers are mostly affecting the head, neck, vocal cords, trunk or limbs.

TIPS & EXERCISES FOR ATAXIA

In ataxia the person presents.

  • Incoordination
  • Tremor
  • Disturbances of posture
  • Balance and
  • Gait

Physiotherapy is directed at promoting postural stability, accuracy of limb movements, and functional balance and gait.

Postural stability can be improved by focusing on static control (holding) in a number of different weight bearing, antigravity postures (e.g. prone on elbow, sitting, quadruped, kneeling, plantigrade and standing). Progression through a series of postures is used to gradually increase postural demand by varying the base of support and raising the centre of mass and increasing the number of body segments (degree of freedom) that must be controlled. Specific exercise techniques designed to promote stability include:

  • Joint approximation applied through proximal joints (through shoulders or hips) or head or spine
  • Alternating isometrics (PNF)
  • Rhythmic stabilization (PNF)

Patient with significant ataxia may not be able to hold steady and may benefit from the technique of slow reversal- hold (PNF), progressing through decrements of range. The desired end point is steady mid range holding. Dynamic postural responses can be challenged by incorporating controlled mobility activities such as:

  1. Weight shifting
  2. Rocking
  3. Moving in and out of postures or movement transitions

The patient should practice important functional movement transitions, such supine to sit, sit to stand and scooting.

Distal extremity movements can be superimposed on proximal stability to further challenge dynamic postural control. For example, resisted PNF Chop or lift patterns combined upper extremity movements with trunk movements (flexion rotation or extension with rotation).

An important goal of therapy is to promote safe and functional balance. Static balance control can be improved by using force platform training. The person with ataxia learns to reduce the postural sway (frequency and amplitude) and control centre of alignment position. The added biofeedback from visual and or auditory feedback display can improve control in some patients. Somatosensory, visual, and vestibular inputs can be varied, as appropriate, to assist in sensory compensation in sensory system less involved, for example:

  • Standing with eyes open to eyes closed
  • Standing on flat surface top a foam surface

Prolonged latencies (onset of responses) should be expected. Dynamic balance control can be initiated using self initiated movements (e.g. reaching, turning, bending). A movable surface can also be used. For example, sitting activities on Swiss ball are an excellent way to promote balance control.

Control of dysmetric limb movements can be promoted by PNF extremity patterns using light resistance to moderate force output and reciprocal actions of muscles for example: slow reversals, slow reversal- hold. Frenkel’s Exercises can be used to remediate the problems of dysmetria. The exercises are performed in supine, sitting and standing. Each activity should be performed slowly with the person using vision to guide correct the movement. The exercises require a high degree of mental concentration and effort.

For those patients with prerequisite abilities they may find helpful in regaining some control of ataxic movements through cognitive processes.

Ataxic movements have sometimes been helped by the application of light weights to provide additional proprioceptive loading and stabilize movements. The use of Velcro weight cuffs (wrist or ankle) or a weight belt or weight jacket can reduce dysmetric movements and tremors of the limbs and trunk.

The extra weights will also increase the energy expenditure, and must, therefore, be used cautiously in order not to bring about increased fatigue. Weighted canes or walkers can be used to reduce ataxic upper limb movements during ambulation.

For patient with significant tremor, this may mean the difference between assisted and independent ambulation. Elastic resistance bands can be used to provide resistance and reduce ataxic movements.

The pool is an important therapeutic medium to practice static and dynamic postural control in sitting and standing. Water provides graded resistance that slow down the person’s ataxic movement, while the buoyancy aids in upright balance.

Swimming and shallow water calisthenics have shown to be effective in improving strength, decreasing muscular fatigability and increasing endurance. Furthermore, the use of moderate or cool water temperature may help moderate spasticity. In general folks with ataxia do better in low stimulus environment that allows them to concentrate more fully on their movements. They benefit from augmented feedback (verbal cuing of knowledge of results, knowledge of performance, biofeedback) and repetition to improve motor learning.

Constipation Remedy – Three Remarkably Effective and Amazingly Simple Cures

Are you wound tighter than a spring, desperately looking for a constipation remedy that will give you relief quickly, effectively, and more importantly safely?

But I’m getting way ahead of myself.  First you have to identify whether or not you have true constipation symptoms.  Answer the following questions to see where you stand.  

1.    Are your stools hard whether small or large?

2.    Do you strain when having a bowel movement?

3.    Are you producing less than one ounce of stool with each bowel movement?

4.    Do you have bowel movements less than 3 times a week?

5.    Do you go more than two weeks at a time between bowel movements?

Answer yes to any of the questions above could mean that you are experiencing some disruption in your colon.

But don’t worry, constipation is common and most people suffer from constipation pain at some point in their lives.  In short, your bowls are not moving regularly and fail to be completely emptied out when you do go to the bathroom.  

You may not know this but the cause of most disease can be traced back to the digestive system.  Toxins that are not eliminated from the body make their way into your bloodstream and are then carried throughout all sections in the body.  

For example, chronic constipation left untreated can lead to high blood pressure, arthritis, rheumatism, cataract and some cancers.  

It’s time to put to good use a constipation remedy that will give you some relief from the symptoms you’ve been experiencing before it worsens.

To begin with you must take a close look at your diet.  Oddly enough, the foods you eat and the liquids you drink are the number one constipation causes.  

If you live off of fast food, soda, and a diet high in sugar, you are doing great harm to your colon or large intestine.  

The colon needs fiber in order to function properly.  The fiber allows the body to absorb just the right amount of water necessary to make stools soft and easy to pass.  

When the colon is in trouble, it takes on too much water leaving the fecal matter hard and dry.  

So the best place to start is to drink plenty of water.  Eat your fruits and vegetables and get plenty of exercise.  

Here are three foolproof constipation home remedies that you can use to help your digestive system work well:

Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM):  An essential structural mineral that is both natural and organic sulphur.  Its main job is to reduce inflammation and to soothe the mucous membrane that lines the GI tract.

Garlic (Raw or Tablet Form):  Garlic aids in reducing inflammation of the GI tract as well as soothes and cleanses your system.  The potassium that garlic is rich in strengthens your muscles in your intestines.  If you place several cloves of raw garlic in a salad will give your excellent results fast.

You can dice some garlic and add it to some soup or take two tablets once or twice daily.  

Licorice:  Licorice acts a stool softener.  On top of that, an easy recipe is to simply add some tea and have a cup right before eating.  

So let me summarize and review…just the right constipation remedy will give you relief almost immediately.  Believe it or not, from MSM and garlic to licorice you can bring your digestive system into balance in no time at all.

How to Improve Eyesight Naturally – Know Tips That Can Improve Your Vision

There are ways on how to improve eyesight naturally that does not involve taking medicines or undergoing surgical procedures to improve vision.

Poor vision seems to come with advancing age and this is mostly due to the straining of the eyes. Poor eyesight is also partly caused by a poor diet plan and other factors such as staring at a computer screen for prolonged hours and reading in poor light.

Wearing lenses and eyeglasses can help correct eye problems and help people have clear vision however there are certain things that one can do to improve vision naturally. These ways on how to improve eyesight naturally can also help in treating eye strain. Long-term correction of vision disorders can also be achieved through these methods. Improving your vision naturally costs nothing so they are better options than

Tips on How to Improve Eyesight Naturally

In a way, exerting effort to boost your vision naturally is better than relying on contact lenses and glasses. Why is this?

These vision aids provide clear eyesight by altering refraction which can worsen vision overtime. Contact lenses and glasses fixes your eye focus but it does not work to treat the root cause of the problem. Doing eye exercises and training your vision naturally on the other hand deal with the factors that cause poor or blurry vision. The methods of improving your eyesight naturally helps relax the eye muscles and enhance blood circulation in the eye area.

The following are some useful tips on how to improve eyesight naturally:

  • Perform eye exercises regularly. This will naturally improve vision and correct underlying cause of eyesight problems. A good eye exercise you can do is blinking your eyes quickly for a few seconds and close them. After a few seconds, open them again and repeat the same 3-4 times. Another exercise is nodding your head up and down and while you’re doing this, focus your eyes on the ceiling and your toes respectively. If you work in front of the computer, stare at distant objects for at least 30 seconds after every hour to exercise your eyes and avoid straining them.
  • Maintain a healthy diet. Eating healthy, this is one of the best tips on how to improve eyesight naturally. Include lots of fruits and vegetables in your diet and notice your eyesight become sharper. Opt for vegetables and fruits that contain essential vitamins which are beneficial to the eyes like coloured vegetables like pumpkin and carrots. Reducing your intake of sugary foods will also help you improve your eye vision if you have poor eyesight.
  • Make use of herbal remedies. There are some herbs known to treat vision disorders and improve eye health. Rooibos tea is a great herb to use when trying to improve vision naturally. Rooibos contain high percentage of antioxidants that can help poor eyesight. Blueberries, bilberries and mahonia grape extract are also known to improve vision naturally.
  • Relax your eyes. Straining is one of the reasons why eyesight weaken. One good way to relax your eyes is by closing and palming them in a dark room. To so this, sit in a chair and position yourself in an upright position. Close your eyes then place your palm over your eyes. Make sure that no light enters your eyes and remain in that position for 10 minutes.
  • Get enough sleep. Another useful tip on how to improve eyesight naturally is to get adequate sleep. Not having enough sleep can cause tired eyes, eyestrain, blurred vision and other problems. You use your eyes to focus on things during the daytime and sleep is your body’s way of shutting them and relaxing them properly. 8 hours is the recommended hours of sleep to help relax the eye muscles and improve their focusing power in the daytime.
  • Take dietary supplements. Dietary supplements when taken in the right dosage can also improve vision. The best supplements for the eyes are those based on vitamin E, vitamin C, zinc and omega-3 fatty acids. You cannot overdose on vitamin C but you must watch your dosage of the others. Make use of these dietary supplements under strict medical supervision.

Aside from these tips on how to improve eyesight naturally, avoiding stress is also a good way to keep your eyes healthy. Following a proper eye care is also necessary to make eyesight better. It goes without saying that you must avoid immersing yourself in hours after hours of TV watching, facing your computer all day, reading until your eyes water, etc. Always take some time out of your daily work to relax your eyes – this won’t take more than a few minutes and can do you a lot of good to keep your vision sharp and clear for always.

These tips on how to improve eyesight naturally should help you boost your vision without relying in medicines and resorting to using contacts and glasses.

Top 5 Physical Therapy Customer Relationship Management Tips

As practice owners and many times new business owners, we are thrown into the worlds of marketing and advertising to bring new customers into our practice. This includes patients but it also includes physicians, DME providers and relationships with community resources. These customers are necessary compliments to the services provided in rehabilitation including local fitness centers, community centers and programs to provide continued education and support to our patients.

Once a client base is established, it is vital to continue to bring new clients into a practice but to also show appreciation for their loyalty and continued support. Customer relations management can be the difference between practice sustainability and high volume turnover which takes a large amount of staff and time to manage. By developing a plan for customer loyalty, the basis of a company is not only acquiring patients but continuing to provide them with updated service and quality care. An ongoing CRM plan can include many activities to assure customers are happy with the services they have received and to assure they will continue to seek your services in the future. A plan may include:

1. Be honest: A customer must know what they are purchasing, whether it is a tangible item such as a piece of equipment, or a service such as Physical Therapy treatment. By having a discussion about covered benefits and non-covered services in advance, a plan of care can be established and agreed upon prior to initiating services.

2. Don’t surprise the individual with additional/hidden costs: Customers appreciate your honesty and value having all information necessary to make an informed decision. Surprise costs will lead the customer to think there are other items they are not aware of which will lead to distrust over time. This perceived deception will ultimately ruin a customer-provider relationship.

3. Help find what the customer needs: Assisting a customer access necessary service is a vital part of being a Physical Therapist. Whether the customer needs to access local community programs or to access services closer to their home to increase compliance, these acts of good service will lead to improved customer relations. These acts will come back to the practice by having the customer then share their positive experience with others they come in contact with reinforcing your marketing strategy. Providing bridges of access to necessary services is a responsible cornerstone of practice management.

4. Add personal touches to the care: Send a simple handwritten Thank you note after a client enrolls with your service/practice or a congratulations card once they achieve their goals. The note is a gesture which states your true appreciation of the customer choosing your service in a competitive market. Thanking someone for their effort in choosing your service establishes a basis of mutual respect and appreciation.

5. Call the customer/Solicit Feedback: Taking time to call patients and customers to ask what they think is an extremely valuable tool. This provides an opportunity to check on patients after discharge to see if they have maintained their goals and exercise programs, assure they have accessed the appropriate community services to support their rehabilitation, as well as assess their level of satisfaction with services provided. The phone call is an opportunity for open discussion as well as gaining targeted information from that consumer. This can head off future problems and work towards establishing an ongoing relationship with the customer. This will again lead to customer satisfaction and loyalty.

Customer Relationship Management (CRM) and developing consumer loyalty is achieved through simple, calculated tasks. By showing customers you are loyal to and honest with them, they will be satisfied with your services and be loyal in return. Feedback in any format will help you understand how your services and attempts at consumer satisfaction are perceived. Consumer perception is vital to the long term growth and sustainability of your practice. Without it you operate in a vacuum implementing strategies which may be unnecessary or unwanted. Loyal customers are your biggest asset in the maintenance and growth of your company.

The Ideal Diet for Hypothyroidism

If you have hypothyroidism is very important to know that the type of diet you follow can help you reduce your symptoms, and at the same time help you control your weight. Weight gain goes hand in hand with hypothyroidism and to some people it gets rather difficult to lose weight with this condition.

There are key nutrients and foods that a diet for hypothyroid should include. On the other hand, there are certain foods that should be avoided.

What Your Diet Should Have

A healthy diet for someone with hypothyroidism would include whole grains, natural foods, plenty of fruits and vegetables and a good supply of seafood and other lean protein. You should cut back on fatty meats. A multivitamin is probably a good idea if you don’t already take one.

An Important Mineral

Selenium may be the most important nutrient in a diet for hypothyroid.

Why?

This trace mineral is an antioxidant and is essential for converting the thyroid hormone your body produces, T4, into its active form, T3. Brazil nuts are an incredibly good source of selenium, but you can also get it from some lean meats.

Fiber is Key to Control Your Weight

Another tactic that will be very helpful for you if you’re trying to lose weight is eating more fiber. Fiber makes you feel full and can help you lose weight, in addition to being helpful for constipation, another side effect of hypothyroidism.

You can ingest your fiber in pill form or through one of those over-the-counter fiber concoctions, but it is so much better if you get your fiber from actual foods, like beans, rice and other grains, whole wheat and oatmeal.

Strive for whole grains, also known as complex carbohydrates, over refined grains (things made with white flour or sugar). They’re better for you, help maintain your blood sugar stable and will make you feel fuller.

Alcohol should also be avoided because it can cause blood sugar fluctuations.

A Diet With More Meals

Ideally, a diet for low thyroid function will include small meals spread out through the day rather than three big meals. If you eat five or six small meals it will help balance the slow metabolism that is part of hypothyroidism. Just remember, keep these meals around 300 calories each, and include exercise if you want to lose weight, too.

Some doctors recommend the Zone diet to those with hypothyroid. The why behind the system is somewhat complicated, but it has to do with balancing out your insulin reaction to food, limiting the spikes and crashes you probably feel right now. Carbs are a big part of this diet, particularly those refined grains we were just talking about.

The diet calls for drinking lots of water (a good idea for anyone), eating more fruit and vegetables and less pasta, bread and starches, and a small amount of lean protein through the day. Most of your carbs should come from fruit and vegetables, with other starches used sparingly. You also should not go more than five hours between meals.

Red Light Foods

As we were saying before, your diet should not include certain foods. Some vegetables, fruits and grains can depress the function of your thyroid gland. To learn about these foods visit diet for hypothyroid.

Polynesian Weight Loss – 12 Diet Secrets to Accelerate Your Weight Loss

1. Boost your weight loss by beginning with a 24 hour water fast. Drink a lot of water.

2. Spark your metabolism by eating small meals structured around lean proteins every 3 hours.

3. Drink plain water with every meal, up to a liter. This alone will boost your weight loss.

4. Increase your fiber by eating lots of vegetables, or take a fiber supplement everyday.

5. Eliminate all junk food, and low nutrient dense foods such as bread, ketchup, diet foods.

6. Taper your calories making first meals the largest, and the last meal the smallest.

7. Taper your carbs. This one is a weight loss fundamental and one of the most powerful tips.

8. Eat your last meal at least 2 hours before bedtime. Four hours is even better, but harder.

9. Do 30 – 60 minutes of moderate cardio first thing in the morning on a empty stomach.

10. Drink green tea and take a multivitamin every day.

11. Do not eat soy, or soy products.

12. Do not eat dairy products or drink milk.

Polynesian bodies are very sensitive to carbohydrates, and of all the diet and weight loss strategies employed, this is by far the most important. You must manage your carbohydrates carefully if you are ever hoping to achieve weight loss. This means eliminating refined sugars, junk foods, fried foods, processed foods, and especially so called diet foods. They are nothing more than cleverly disguised junk foods that will surreptitiously sabotage your weight loss efforts. Furthermore, of the healthy carbohydrates you eat, you must taper them throughout the day, eating most of your starchy carbs early in the day when your body is more likely to burn them as energy. Towards the end of the day switch your carbs in your meals to slow burning fibrous vegetables, and eliminate the carbs completely from your last meal.

Most Polynesian bodies fall into the endomorph category, with elements of the other two body types, but are primarily endomorphic. As such our bodies often require more cardiovascular training in order to achieve weight loss. This is not necessarily a disadvantage, just a fact. Everybody is different, but if you are prepared to do whatever it takes, then you will succeed. Eat your last meal at least 2 hours before bed. Upon waking drink a cup of green tea, and at least two glasses of plain water. Then perform 30 – 60 minutess of steady moderate cardio depending on the time you have. In this fasted state your body has the correct hormonal environment to mobilize fat and accelerate weight loss by 300% more, than at any other time of the day. This is the best time to burn off that body fat, and the effects of this cardio session will boost your weight loss for several hours following.

Taper your calories to achieve greater weight loss. Polynesian people cannot follow the typical American diet and expect to lose weight. The average working American typically skips breakfast; the cardinal sin of weight loss, works all day without eating a proper meal, only to come home and eat like there’s no tomorrow. Then off to bed to get ready to repeat this atrocity the next day. If you were to flip this plan on it’s head, then you would have a better eating schedule regardless of the quality of that food. It would be much better to have a huge breakfast, go all day long snacking at work, and then to skip dinner. This would be a wonderful plan for weight loss.

Finally, do not be fooled by marketing hype surrounding milk, soy, and soy derivatives. Soy contains estrogen properties that interfere with the bodies natural release of testosterone. It is in 95% of all processed foods in some form or another; check the labels. Who wants more estrogen in the body which promotes fat storage as well as female characteristics. Not only are our children more obese than ever, but young boys are developing feminine shaped bodies including breast tissue. Girls are developing pubescent traits at very young ages. Much of this is due to the increased estrogen introduced into their bodies from processed foods and milk. Yes, milk producing cows have two staples in their diet, corn and soy. The ‘Got Milk’ slogan is a multimillion dollar a year ad campaign. Don’t buy into it. If it is unnatural for us to drink our own mothers milk after the first years of our life, how could it be good to drink the milk from an animal. It will derail your weight loss efforts.

Follow these 12 diet secrets for weight loss and you will see success.

Choosing Security Guards For Event Security & Parties – How Many Guards Do I Need For Crowd Control?

You have that special event or party on your calendar and the day is fast approaching. All the elements are coming together to ensure your event is a successful one. However, there’s one vital aspect you must address to ensure things truly do run just right: the event security concerns and the right number of security guards you need for crowd control.

Part I: Choosing the Right Security Company for You

First, what should you look for in a security guard company to receive the service you need? Here’s a brief rundown on what to look for in a professional, reputable security company:

Qualified and Licensed Security Guards

Choose a company that has a current Master Security License and only employs fully qualified and licensed Security Officers. Additionally, check that a security guard has other necessary certification, such as a First Aid Certificate. This provides the best level of protection suitable for a variety of circumstances.

Regional Experience

Choose a security company that has a history of serving your region with exceptional and dependable guards. These guards would understand the unique concerns particular to that locale. A security officer familiar with your area handles a situation based on knowledge of the environment and its people.

Security Industry Versatility

Choose a company that has experience providing security guards to homes, businesses, and government. This well-rounded approach to security provides you with premium protection capable of handling many different kinds of events or parties.

Affordable

Choose a company that doesn’t force you sign a long-term contract. Locking yourself into a contract with a security company that doesn’t perform to your expectations is the last thing you want. A reputable security firm charges you a reasonable fee for their service. You choose how long you use their guards, and pay only for that time.

Offers a Wide Variety of Security Services

Choose a company that can handle all of your security needs. Make them your one-stop shop for whatever assets you need to protect. A good, well-rounded security service will offer security guards, but will also provide alarm responses, home alarm installation and business security system installation. They should additionally offer CCTV security cameras, access control, alarm servicing, and more.

Part II: How Many Guards do I Need?

The next thing to consider is the size of your event or party. How many security guards you need for crowd control depends on your venue size and the number of people attending. Having one guard per 100 people at your party or event is a general rule to meet your needs. This rule can help you plan and budget your security accordingly. Seek counsel from a security company experienced in both small-to-medium sized and large-scale events. They give good advice, based on their experience, on the correct number of security guards for your event size.

Small to Medium Sized Events and Parties

Smaller events do not necessarily mean fewer security personnel. Small to medium-sized events held outdoors over a wide area might require several guards. This is to control entry and exit in numerous spots. Such an event in a larger room with many points of entry may require the same. An event can easily become difficult to control if a room is too small and becomes overcrowded. There’s also the chance more guests may show up than originally planned. This can happen when you have no pre-determined guest list. If the event is open to everyone or is vulnerable to “party crashers”, you may require professional security guards experienced in those situations.

Large-Scale Events

For crowd control at larger events or parties, you will definitely need significant event security. No matter the size of the venue, there’s always the risk a large crowd can get out of control. You don’t want an understaffed event from a security standpoint. You can run into legal issues by not having sufficient security, especially if someone becomes injured. Knowing the scope of your event, a security company offers guidance on what type of guard is compatible. A high profile event, with high-value assets on display and VIP’s, may require visible armed personnel. A low-key event with no expensive assets in the space and fewer guests may require only an unarmed security guard presence.

Events where alcohol is served in a festive, high-energy atmosphere may require event security guards stationed amongst a crowd. This is to spot volatile situations quickly and defuse them. Events and parties of a more subdued nature often mean security officers stationed solely at entrances will be suitable, especially when there exist only a few points of entry. Uniformed security guards are appropriate where an open show of authority is desirable. Sometimes you need to make it obvious to event-goers that inappropriate behaviour will receive a swift response. Meanwhile, plain clothes event security is often advisable for situations where a uniform may cast too harsh a presence over a dignified event.

In Closing

Consider the above points when it comes to hiring quality security guards for your next event or party. By doing so, you will ensure your guests receive quality, effective protection and you will also enhance your integrity as an event facilitator at the same time. The choice of the right security company and the right number of security guards is crucial to protecting the investment you have in your event.

Hospital Management Software: Useful for the Complete Running of a Hospital

Hospital management software incorporates several important features that help in the smooth running of the day to day operations of a hospital. The program is designed in such a way that it takes care of the inpatients, outpatients, database of patients, billings, hospital information including doctors available, their specialization, the billing process and payments to various staff members. In a nutshell, hospital management software takes care of the every aspect of the running of a hospital in a cost effective manner.

Hospital Management Software: Key Features

This software incorporates features aimed at managing all the aspects of a hospital and cover areas like reception, OPD, inpatients, outpatients, medical records, inventory of medicines and other material, appointments, doctors in charge, scheduling of doctor duties, laboratory and accounts. Basic features of hospital management software are:

* Facilitates smooth and complete running of reception

* Management of the Laboratory and its equipment

* Management of all wards and bed allocation systems

* Management of the complete history of patients and their treatments

* Inventory management with regular and timely refurbishment of the stock of medicines and other instruments

* Regular scheduling of doctors and nurses to the various departments and allocation of their duties

* Proper and timely accounting to ensure correct billing

* Maintenance of proper record of the medical reports and tests of the various patients.

* Can be easily accessed by multiple users at the same time

Hospital Management Software: Benefits

Such software has features that allow the users to modify the details of the various patients and doctors and incorporate security features that prevent misuse of the stored information. This software allows the hospital owners and other users:

* To check the occupancy level at any point of time

* The number of doctors and other staff on duty

* To view the treatment being provided to any specific patient and his medical history

* To check the payments made by a patient and the amount due in his/her name

* To view and print the medical reports of patients

* To prepare various types of accounting reports

* To check the appointment list of the medical staff

* To check the billing status of various patients

Best Time To See A Gynecologist Doctor

A gynecologist doctor is a health care practitioner who focuses on a female’s reproductive system from early adulthood through old age. He or she will perform preventative medicine, diagnose maladies or conditions and plan courses of treatment. Every woman should begin to see a gynecologist when she is eighteen years old or becomes sexually active. Here are some tips for scheduling the best time to see a gynecologist:

Mid-menstrual cycle: The best time in a female’s monthly cycle to see this practitioner is in the middle. This means approximately two weeks before or two weeks after a menstrual cycle. Many females’ monthly menstrual cycles are irregular so it may be best to call to let the doctor’s office know this. They may be able to offer some flexibility in scheduling appointments.

Empty bladder: It’s best to have an examination performed when the patient has an empty bladder in order for the doctor to do a manual exam accurately.

No douching: It’s advised that a patient should not do any vaginal douching for a day or so before the exam. Douching is a questionable practice anyway. The body is designed to cleanse itself naturally and man-made products may upset this delicate balance. Ask the physician for his or her opinion on the subject.

No recent sexual intercourse. Sexual intercourse may disturb the laboratory results, which will show up on the exam. It’s wise to abstain from sex for twenty-four hours prior to the appointment.

Any unusual pain: If a woman experiences unusual pain in the region of her genitals or internal reproductive system, she needs to see this physician. Pain is a red flag, which shouldn’t be ignored.

Bleeding after intercourse: If a patient experiences bleeding after having sexual contact, she needs to bring this to the attention of her health care practitioner. This could be the sign of something serious.

Missed periods: If an individual misses monthly menstrual periods, she needs to go in for a pregnancy test. Menstruation cessation could occur because of pregnancy, stress, menopause or other causes.

Mid-cycle spotting: Spotting is a normal condition, usually triggered with use of birth control pills in the first few months of use. If spotting remains frequent it is something that the MD needs to know about. Time to make an appointment to find out what’s going on.

Having unprotected sex with a random partner: If a person has unprotected sex on a whim, she needs to be tested for a variety of STDs. Accidents happen but it’s crucial to not let it escalate into a deadly situation.

Pregnancy: If a patient turns out to be pregnant, she will need to see an OBGYN, not just a GYN. OB stands for obstetrician. An obstetrician is the doctor who will see the pregnancy through. Monthly exams, ultrasounds, maternity vitamins and exercise will all be necessary in order to support the mom-to-be and unborn infant.

Annual exams: Pap tests, breast exams and pelvic examinations should be done on a regular annual basis in order to keep a woman in good health.

A gynecologist doctor should see female patients through sickness and health. It’s important to have this health care practitioner on one’s speed dial.

A Biblical View of Punishment Redefined

A biblical perspective: abandoning retribution as a doctrine for legal punishment

I. Introduction

The Old Testament is filled with different mandates regarding punishment for certain acts and crimes, a great deal of which includes the penalty of death. Conversely, the New Testament somewhat disregards the Old Testament idea of punishment, in that it became secondary to Jesus’ message of love and redemption. In this respect, both reward and punishment are seen as taking place in eternity, rather than in this life. How do we reconcile these differing views? What are the reasons for the sharp shifts in these fundamental concepts? Moreover, to what extent should our system of criminal law incorporate these biblical models of justice?

II. Criminal Law

Two broad theories of punishment exist which guide our current criminal justice system: utilitarianism and retribution. These theories guide lawmakers in developing general principles of criminal responsibility.

Utilitarianism

From a utilitarian perspective, punishment exists to ensure the continuance of society and to deter people from committing crimes. The primary utilitarianism objective is to augment the total happiness of the community by excluding everything that subtracts from that happiness. There are three distinct forms of utilitarianism: A.

Deterrence

The theory of deterrence suggests that the pain inflicted upon a person who has committed a crime will dissuade the offender (and others) from repeating the crime. Deterrence hinges around the idea that punishment has to be appropriate, prompt, and inevitable. Deterrence protects the social order by sending a message to the public at large. An English judge once defined the standard long ago when he remarked, “Men are not hanged for stealing horses, but that horses may not be stolen.” The general theory of deterrence is further divided into two categories. General deterrence describes the effect that punishment has when it serves as a public example that deters people other than the initial offender from committing similar crimes. General deterrence illustrates punishment delivered in order to send a message to everyone that crime doesn’t pay. Specific deterrence describes the punishment of an individual designed to prevent that individual person from committing future crimes. This idea generates from the concept that it is impossible for an individual to commit another crime while they’re in prison. Both forms of deterrence as punishment methods are meant to discourage individuals from recidivating.

B. Incapacitation

Specific deterrence is very similar to and often takes the form of the notion of incapacitation. Incapacitating a known criminal makes it impossible for this individual to commit another crime. If a criminal is confined, executed, or otherwise incapacitated, such punishment will deny the criminal the ability or opportunity to commit further crimes which will harm society. The only total, irrevocable punishment is the death penalty. Other punishments, such as imprisonment, produce only partial and temporary incapacitation. Incapacitation, however, does not decrease offenses of convicts who would have not committed additional offenses anyway. Examples of this would include generally law-abiding citizens who committed a “crime of passion” in a specific, non-recurring situation.

C. Rehabilitation

Advocates of the rehabilitative form of utilitarianism believe that punishment will prevent future crimes by reforming prisoners by providing them with skills and assets that could help them lead a productive life after their release. Supporters of rehabilitation seek to prevent crime by providing offenders with the education and treatment necessary to eliminate criminal tendencies, as well as the skills to become productive members of society. Rehabilitation seeks, by means of education or therapy, to “bring a criminal into a more normal state of mind and into an attitude which would be helpful to society.” Rehabilitation is based on the notion that punishment is to be inflicted on an offender to reform them as to make their re-integration into society easier. This theory is firmly grounded in the belief that one cannot inflict a severe term of imprisonment and expect the offender to be reformed and to able to adjust into society upon his release without some form of help.

Retribution

The theory of retribution is grounded in the belief that punishment of a wrongdoer is justified as a deserved response to a wrongdoing. Unlike utilitarianism, which punishes in order to prevent future harm, retributivists punish because of the wrongdoing. Thus, the criminal gets his “just deserts” regardless of whether the punishment serves to prevent any future crime. An assessment of desert will take into account “both the harm done and the offender’s culpability.” The focus on culpability is based on the “presupposition that people are morally responsible for their actions, and requires the court to take into account mitigating factors or excuses such as diminished capacity, duress, and provocation.” Under a retributive theory of penal law, a convicted defendant is punished simply because he deserves it and for no other purpose. There is no exterior motive such as deterring others from crime or protecting society – the goal is simply to make the defendant suffer in order to pay for his wrongdoing. Some scholars believe that it is entirely natural for an individual to seek revenge and retribution when injured or harmed by another. Thus, one of the primary reasons for the existence of retribution as a doctrine recognizes the reality that people often need to be relieved of their need to retaliate against those who have wronged them. In fact, it can be argued that it is potentially harmful to the state if it does not satisfy these needs and urges. If the people are not satisfied, as history has shown, then people will sometimes take the law into their own hands in the form of mobs and vigilantes.

III. Biblical Concepts of Punishment

The Old Testament is replete with references and examples of God punishing the Israelites for their transgressions. In Genesis God defines that punishment is based upon a belief in the sanctity of life. God instructs the Israelites in several places within the Pentateuch that with respect to certain crimes, the penalty shall be an “eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot.” A closer look at this historical tradition, however, seems to teach that this penalty was not to be interpreted literally. Instead, what the Biblical instruction really intended was for the victim of an assault or another crime to receive from the criminal the equivalent value of whatever was taken. Regardless, the “eye for an eye, tooth for a tooth” axiom has become synonymous with harsh retribution and supporters of this theory sometimes justify their viewpoint based on this rationale. As well, how do we properly reconcile the prevailing view under the Mosaic Law with the teaching of Jesus? The scriptures tell us that Jesus asked God to forgive his executioners and promised the repentant thief beside him that they would be together in paradise when being crucified. Jesus also told his followers that they were to forgive their enemies, turn the other cheek when assaulted, refrain from judging others, minister to crime victims, visit prisoners, proclaim release to captives and liberty to the oppressed. All of these concepts seem to be in direct contradiction to the punishment concepts laid out under the Mosaic Law, so analyzing the teaching of Jesus to develop our own theory of punishment would prove worthwhile.

Mosaic Law

According to Hebrew teachings, Moses led the Jews out of slavery in Egypt around 1250 B.C. and received the 10 Commandments from God. The Hebrews then put the commandments and other principles into written form as a code of religious and moral laws known as the Mosaic Law. The laws given were in the context of a treaty with the Israelites so they could live according to God’s plan and engage in a meaningful relationship with Him. The Hebrew word law when translated always has a positive meaning and is commonly identified as the term “instruction.” The law, therefore, was “like an outstretched finger pointing the direction a person should take in life.” The Mosaic Law was explicit in its teaching regarding punishment. The sixth commandment was, “thou shall not commit murder.” Accordingly, the punishment for murder was, “he who strikes a man so that he dies shall surely be put to death.” There are 36 eight capital offenses under the Mosaic system detailed in the Pentateuch which prescribed the death penalty. The Mosaic Law even prescribed the death penalty for violating the Sabbath. It would seem on first glance that the Mosaic era centered its system of punishment around principles of retribution. The phrase “an eye for an eye, tooth for a tooth” expressed a principle of justice also known as lex talionis, which in Latin translates to the “law of retaliation.” The literal meaning of this passage would undoubtedly lead one to presume that this calls for punishment very similar to retribution. Prosecutors have even used the phrase in closing arguments in trials to persuade jurors to return particularly harsh punishments, including the death penalty. Accordingly, “an eye for an eye, tooth for a tooth” is widely understood to equate to harsh retribution pursuant to a mentality commonly referred to as “Old Testament justice.” However, what the lex talionis actually called for was simply proportionate punishment commensurate with the crime.

If punishment was to be administered, the guilty man was to receive “the number of lashes his crime deserves.” Another passage that disregards the literal interpretation of “an eye for an eye, tooth for a tooth” is illustrated by the decree in Exodus how a “person who injured their servant was to let them go free as compensation.” In other words, a free mandate for mutilation was not given. Instead, “the aim was proportionate and not imitative retribution, often by way of compensation or restitution.” From this, it appears that punishment should be imposed on an offender – normally and certainly no more than – in proportion to what their offense deserves. New Testament The Old Testament’s “eye for an eye” is often contrasted with the “turn the other cheek” compassion of the New Testament. Jesus’ teaching in the New Testament never directly concentrates on the subject of what method is best to punish criminals. In fact, it should be noted that Jesus’ main teaching point focuses on the unseen, remarking, “My kingdom is not of this world.” One of the main scriptural references that is readily apparent, which accurately demonstrates this concept is the thief on the cross: Then one of the criminals who were hanged blasphemed Him, saying, “If You are the Christ, save Yourself and us.” But the other, answering, rebuked him, saying, “Do you not even fear God, seeing you are under the same condemnation? And we indeed justly, for we receive the due reward of our deeds; but this Man has done nothing wrong.” Then he said to Jesus, “Lord, remember me when You come into Your kingdom.” And Jesus said to him, “Assuredly, I say to you, today you will be with Me in Paradise.” It is pertinent to recognize that Jesus’ assurance of salvation only came into effect after the thief died. It should be noted that Jesus did not restore the thief to his status on this earth, which would have thereby recognized his rehabilitation and repentance for his earthly sins. As shown previously, the concepts of justice and proportionality were recognized under the Mosaic Law, while in the New Testament “the virtues of redemption and forgiveness are frequently extolled.” Therefore, what the Old Testament says has to be tempered by the examples of mercy shown by Jesus. Christian interpretation of the biblical passage regarding the “eye for an eye, tooth for a tooth” passage has been heavily influenced by Jesus’ Sermon on the Mount. Jesus urges his followers to turn the other cheek when confronted by violence: “You have heard that it was said, ‘An eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth.’ But I say to you, offer no resistance to one who is evil.

When someone strikes you on your right cheek, turn the other one to him as well. If anyone wants to go to law with you over your tunic, hand him your cloak as well. Should anyone press you into service for one mile, go with him two miles. Give to the one who asks of you, and do not turn your back on one who wants to borrow.” Analyzing this passage would assuredly lead one to conclude that Jesus’ teaching does not promote a system of justice analogous to the retributive principles discussed previously. Another New Testament passage that is relevant when analyzing how punishment should be considered is the story of the man and woman caught in adultery: At dawn He appeared in the temple courts, where all the people gathered around Him, and he sat down to teach them. The teachers of the law and the Pharisees then brought in a woman caught in adultery. They made her stand before the group and said to Jesus, “Teacher, this woman was caught in the act of adultery. The Law of Moses commanded that such women be stoned. But what do you say?” This they said, testing Him, that they might have something of which to accuse Him. Jesus bent down and started to write on the ground with his finger, as though he did not hear. When they kept questioning Him, He straightened up and said to them, “If any one of you is without sin, let him be the first to throw a stone at her.” Again He stooped down and wrote on the ground. At this, those who heard began to go away one at a time, the older ones first even until the last. And Jesus was left alone with the woman standing in His midst. Jesus straightened up and asked her, “Woman, where are they? Has no one condemned you?” She said, “No one, sir.” Then Jesus said to her, “Then neither do I condemn you; go now and sin no more.” This passage typifies Jesus’ message of forgiveness and redemption. It is hard to justify condemning a person for any offense in light of Jesus’ teaching here.

This passage conveys that Jesus personified the message of hope and compassion to those who are perhaps undeserving. I personally believe that Jesus’ teaching here was a message to the people that they had perhaps taken the Mosaic Law out of context over the years. Assuming this proposition to be true, it would be hard to rely on the Mosaic Law as a justification for any of the punishment methods in our current society. An additional passage that could be interpreted with regards to those incarcerated is Jesus’ teaching describing how He will separate the “sheep from the goats” based on how people treat others: Then the King will say to those on his right, “Come, you who are blessed by my Father; take your inheritance, the kingdom prepared for you since the creation of the world. For I was hungry and you gave me something to eat, I was thirsty and you gave me something to drink, I was a stranger and you invited me in, I needed clothes and you clothed me, I was sick and you looked after me, I was in prison and you came to visit me.” Then the righteous will answer him, “Lord, when did we see You hungry and feed You, or thirsty and give You something to drink? When did we see You a stranger and invite You in, or needing clothes and clothe You? When did we see You sick or in prison and go to visit You?” The King will reply, “I tell you the truth, whatever you did for one of the least of these brothers of mine, you did for Me.” Jesus’ teaching in this passage is in direct opposition to anything resembling an “out of sight, out of mind” approach to leaving prisoners detained for incapacitation or specific deterrent reasons. Instead, Jesus directly mentions the virtue of visiting prisoners while they are incarcerated and maintains that the righteous are those who remember to consider the individuals who society has forgotten. Taken as a whole, it seems at the very least Jesus warns against not having compassion for those in prison. Jesus’ entire message focused on love and forgiveness. When Christ was executed, he gave a model response to his enemies in His dying words: “Father, please forgive them.” Before God, all of us are accused and found guilty. This alone stands for the assertion that all of us fall short of God’s grace in many ways, yet Jesus through his divine love still finds the compassion to plead for our forgiveness. Given this, I believe it should be hard for any man to stand in judgment against another. Jesus imparted this knowledge in the Sermon on the Mount: “Judge not, or you will be judged. Condemn not, and you shall not be condemned. Forgive, and you will be forgiven.” Based on this, it should be hard for Christians to justify punishment based on traditional retributive principles of letting those harmed seek retaliation in response to a wrongdoing.

Ancient Israel

When interpreting the Mosaic Law it is important to consider that their society was far different from our own. Most religious scholars believe that God revealed to Moses the Torah around the thirteenth century B.C. It was not until the fifth century B.C. that the Hebrews actually put the commandments and other legal principles into written form. According to Jewish tradition, the written Torah was never meant to be read entirely by itself. Rather, it was the starting point for learning the Oral Law, which supplemented the written text in many ways. Considering this, scholars believe that most of the seemingly harsh criminal laws were never applied literally. As such, an “eye for an eye” was never meant to include an actual maiming of an offender. Rather, it called for the monetary compensation for the value of the victim’s lost eye. Likewise, there were many significant evidentiary and procedural safeguards for criminal defendants that caused a court to rarely carry out the death penalty, believing God was better suited to “settle accounts.” Restitution, rehabilitation, and atonement were paramount considerations regarding criminal punishment – not retribution – contrary to what would likely be assumed given the explicit meaning of “an eye for an eye.” Moreover, prison as a method of punishment was virtually non-existent. The use of prisons was limited primarily because the retributive aspect which is so prevalent in our system was not subscribed to as a reason for punishment. That being said, the idea of a violent criminal being able to roam free in the city while trying to make restitution is an absurd idea. It is for this reason why “cities of refuge” were implemented where manslayers were exiled.

IV. Imprisonment as a Form of Punishment in the United States

What is the true aim of our prison system? Some would argue that it is to punish those who have committed wrongs asserting the theory of retribution as justification. However, the more important goal of prisons, arguably, should be in rehabilitating and reintegrating criminals to function in society. John Braithwaite is a renowned scholar and proponent of the restorative justice movement. Braithwaite’s hypothesizes in his book Crime, Shame, and Reintegration that fear of shame and having pride in being law-abiding should be the major social forces for preventing crime, but modern criminal justice has become “severely disconnected from those emotions.” Instead, the criminal justice system often creates “anger and indignation at the state for offending citizens’ dignity in response to the inhumane conditions of prison life.” To further support his theory, he invokes the New Testament theory of “hating the sin but loving the sinner.” In large part, this rationale is maintained by our increasing reliance on confining individuals within a penitentiary for wrongdoing while having virtually no alternate forms of punishment.

Theory of Incarceration

The overarching remedy in the United States is to punish people when they commit crimes through incarceration. Restitution is sometimes included, although most often it is afforded as a civil remedy and is not considered in the criminal context. As Americans we pride ourselves in our freedom and our ability to freely engage in the “pursuit of happiness.” Perhaps the reason we rely so heavily on threatening offenders with incarceration is because by doing this society is effectively taking away a fundamental privilege enjoyed by every American citizen. However, it would unquestionably be wise if legislators and policymakers would evaluate if incarceration is indeed the only way to achieve the objective of discouraging crime. A prevailing view among the law enforcement community reflects the attitude “if you commit the crime, you do the time.” Once a person willingly engages in an activity that is prohibited by law we feel that person has subjected itself to the absolute certainty of imprisonment if apprehended. Once incarcerated the prisoner will spend their sentence in the hostile environment of a penitentiary awaiting either parole or release, often subjected to violent crimes from other inmates which are sometimes ignored by prison officials. Our prisoners often face degrading living conditions, filled with overcrowding and a general atmosphere of brutality of physical and sexual violence. These conditions undoubtedly create stress, fear, and anger which promote dysfunctional behavior that is damaging and dangerous to society once the prisoner is released. According to Michael Foucault, given the isolation, boredom, and violence prisoner’s face, “the prison cannot fail to produce delinquents.” As noted previously prison was almost completely ignored in Ancient Israel as a method of punishment. The Israelites did not see any objective to locking someone up in a cell without using this time to make them more productive members of society. One flaw of our system that was recognized with the Ancient Israelites centuries ago was the benefit of segregating criminals within the cities of refuge based on the degree of offense. Only negligent killers were allowed asylum in the cities of refuge, while intentional and reckless killers were not afforded this privilege. In our current system violent criminals often are interspersed with other offenders who are confined for far less serious offenses. Empirical studies have shown that recidivism rates are far lower if low-risk offenders are segregated from more serious offenders.

A Debt Owed to Society

It is often said that a criminal who has served a term of imprisonment has “paid his debt to society.” In almost every case, however, the crime usually involves the criminal offender and some victim. Notwithstanding, society as a third party intervenes and our concept of justice revolves around payment to, it as opposed to the victim. Victim participation, from arrest to sentencing, needs careful examination as to what extent the government should actually play in these roles. The idea that the criminal pays a debt to society when punished assumes that “all members of society have made a tacit promise to obey its laws that they have broken.” They then pays this debt when the “compensates society for their broken promises.” This assumption presumes a membership that is not “voluntary which cannot be avoided and implies a promise made without assent.” So, if the criminal did not “technically promise to do anything, the lawbreaker had no promise to keep, and therefore no debt to pay.” For this reason few offenders accept punishment and even fewer repent of their offenses. Our system has lost sight in many respects the role of the victim in most crimes. For instance, with most thefts monetary restitution is usually neglected in our present legal practices. Punishment is not concerned with the actual loss or damage caused by the prohibited act, but only with the integrity of preserving the legal order. The punishment threatened by society proclaims the wrongness of the act and seeks to deter potential offenders, rather than actually compensate individual victims. If society is to be compensated for anything it should be for the breach of its peace. Our criminal justice system knows no other remedy except imprisonment in order to punish for crimes which possibly could be satisfied by alternate means.

Restorative Justice

Restorative justice is a growing movement that involves an approach which strives to maximize forgiveness, hope, and a positive outcome for all parties. The Dalai Lama is a strong proponent of restorative justice, and has taught that “the more evil the crime, the greater opportunity for grace.” In the words of the Dalai Lama: “Learning to forgive is much more useful than merely picking up a stone and throwing it at the object of one’s anger, the more so when provocation is extreme. For it is under the greatest adversity that there exists the greatest potential for doing good, both for oneself and for others.” Advocates of restorative justice see “crime as an opportunity to prevent greater evils, to confront crime with a grace that transforms human lives to paths of love and giving.” Current restorative justice philosophy centers around “bringing together all stakeholders to engage in neutral dialogue regarding the consequences of the injustice which has been done.” These stakeholders meet in a circle to discuss how they have been affected by the harm and come to some agreement as to what should be done to right any wrongs affected. The key component to restorative justice is that it is wholly distinguishable from punitive state justice. Restorative justice is about healing rather than hurting. Responding to the hurt of crime with the hurt of punishment is rejected because the idea is that the “value of healing is the crucial dynamic.” The restorative justice movement has been growing in strength, although there are different and conflicting conceptions of what exactly the concept entails. The central theme is a process of reparation or restoration between offender, victim and other interested parties.

Rehabilitation

As a society we must help alienated people by reviving their dignity and giving them the skills and knowledge to help themselves. Through education and job training, criminals can have the power to take control of their own life and contribute to the community when they are released. Once able to contribute to the community, a person will feel a sense of ownership to the community. They will therefore want to protect the community, and uphold its laws. In short, a criminal with the right rehabilitation can be turned from a menace to society into a very valuable asset. The primary goal optimally should be the reintegration of the suspended individual back into the main stream of life, preferably at level greater than before. Many individuals after their stint in prison try to make it on the outside, but sometimes have to resort to committing more crime in order to survive. Most convicts have no money, education, or training and have a “stigma of being an ex-convict” which makes finding employment all the more difficult. Most of those who are caught and convicted are released either free or on probation at some point. However, they rarely receive the benefit of treatment. A prisoner who is not given the chance to get an education, receive job training, and have healthy interactions with others is likely to walk out of prison in worse shape than when he went in. Conversely, after undergoing effective reform programs and treatment, he could hopefully have a positive impact on the community when he re-enters. The true aim of our prison system, therefore, should be to reform and rehabilitate criminals, not simply to punish them.

VI. Conclusion

Policy towards offenders has grown more punitive, and thus more retributive, over the last few decades. Most states and the federal government have instituted mandatory sentencing guidelines, the lengths of sentencing has grown tougher, and harsher penalties have been imposed reflecting this retributive shift. As a result, the prison population has exploded out of control and the rate of incarceration has increased exponentially. Considering the amount of individuals who have spent time in some form of a correctional facility within the United States, we must collectively assess what we realistically expect of these people after they are released. This article is not advocating that we incorporate implicitly the techniques used by the Ancient Israelites such as the cities of refuge or involuntary servitude because these methods are likely outdated. Rather, it is suggesting that anyone using a conception of punishment based on strict principles of harsh retribution using “Old Testament justice” as justification are relying on a misguided view. Although popular perception might be that the Ancient Israelites used harsh retribution as the cornerstone for meting punishment, a closer examination indicates that rehabilitation and restitution were their primary goals. As such, while specifically incorporating their ideas such as the cities of refuge might be impracticable in our current society, their underlying ideas for their use may not be. Surrounding criminals with positive influences, preserving a humane environment for prisoners, protecting their physical safety, allowing for opportunities for education, and an increased reliance on intermediate forms of confinement are all factors that might serve to collectively improve the U.S. penal system. These are all utilitarian objectives aimed at improving society, so abandoning the notion of retribution as punishment might be required under a Biblical conception. Moreover, while the teaching of Jesus focused on the eternal concepts of life, it is undeniable that His message included the virtues of exhibiting grace and mercy to those undeserving. Therefore, locking prisoners in an inhumane environment with absolutely no consideration for their well-being is in direct contradiction to the teachings of Jesus. Jesus taught that his grace and love is available for anyone who will receive Him. The scripture never indicates that there is anyone who is beyond the infinite love of the Savior of our world. Accordingly, anything akin to an “out of sight, out of mind” approach to warehousing criminals in a cruel and callous environment assuredly cannot be justified pursuant to the teachings of Jesus.

Bodybuilding Supplements with Niacin to Boost Your Muscle Gain

Bodybuilding supplements with niacin are often used to lower cholesterol, thanks to its ability to suppress the disintegration of fats, preventing fatty acids from entering the blood. However, niacin is also found to stimulate the human growth hormone, or GH. The growth hormone is important for everyone, but most especially for athletes and bodybuilders as it boosts cell generation in muscles, bones and vital organs, allowing muscles to grow, as well as rehabilitates injured tissues. Our pituitary glands produce GH but this declines as we get older, which is why we should take natural bodybuilding supplements, niacin included.

Niacin is also known as Vitamin B3, which like its siblings Thiamine or Vitamin B1 and Riboflavin or Vitamin B2, is able to aid in the metabolism of carbohydrates. Niacin’s most basic function is to release energy, and derivatives of niacin have been found to detoxify xenochemicals, produces steroid hormones especially in the adrenal gland and repairs DNA.

Niacin is most popularly used to treat pellagra, which is a disease manifested by lesions on the skin, gastrointestinal problems and even psychological symptoms such as extreme nervousness and depression. It is also used to treat hyperlipidemia, by lowering levels of very-low-density lipoprotein or VLDL, which is an antecedent of low-density lipoprotein, which we know as bad cholesterol. Meanwhile, it also increases the amount of good cholesterol in the body, scientifically known as high-density lipoprotein or HDL, which is why niacin is prescribed to heart attack patients.

Niacin has not been very popular as a natural supplement because there is a small level of toxicity found in rather large amounts, and is definitely not at all allowed for diabetics on insulin. Its most common side effect is the flushing of the skin, particularly in the face, followed by itching and rashes, especially on areas of the skin covered by clothing. This lasts for only fifteen to thirty minutes and may be avoided by drinking aspirin before ingesting niacin, or ibuprofen every day for two or three weeks.

Building a tolerance for niacin is important if you plan to take supplements for the long term; begin by taking small doses and gradually adding to the dosage over time. Niacin’s pharmacological properties work best in large amounts, so being able to tolerate its side effects is necessary to enjoy the vitamin’s benefits. Doctors also recommend ingesting niacin with meals, but this is not effective for bodybuilders who take niacin to enhance the growth hormone must take it on an empty stomach.

This is why niacin has not been a popular natural bodybuilding supplement till recently, its effects on the human growth hormone are only evident if ingested without any fatty acids present. Of course, in the present of fats, the niacin will set to work first on preventing its breakdown. But when it can solely concentrate on working its releasing properties on the growth hormone without any interruption, the rise of the hormone is quite significant.

The recommended dosages of niacin, in general, should be around 15 to 19 mg for men and 15 mg for women. As a bodybuilding supplement, however, you’ll need to take a much higher dosage, around 150 mg for a long term program, or 500 mg for a shorter plan. Many start with smaller dosages, from 50 mg, to get past the side effects of flushing, which usually happens at a minimum of 150 mg. Another dietary supplement has been developed called Inositol Hexanicotinate or IHN, which is also known as No-Flush Niacin. It may be a bit more expensive than niacin, but IHN is effective even if you take lower amounts of it, thereby making it a better option.

Some users of niacin merely wait for the flushing to go away, or to allow their bodies to get comfortable with the flushing and itching. Mostly longtime advocates of natural bodybuilding supplements, once they feel that their bodies have adapted to it enough to stop flushing and itching, they can elevate dosages. Again, be careful when increasing dosages of niacin, as this may also lead to liver toxicity. Although rare, it is still highly possible that niacin may raise the levels of enzymes in your liver.

To get the most out of niacin as a bodybuilding supplement, take your dosage before you go to sleep, so long as you haven’t just had anything to eat a few hours before then. GH normally peaks an hour after we sleep, and it’s a good time for niacin and GH to interact, building up your growth activities while you sleep.