How to Strengthen Ankles

Anyone who looks at their feet and ankles and wonders if there is a way to reduce this excess fat. The truth of the matter is that in order to lose ankle fat you will have to lose weight over your entire body in order to get to your ankles. Just as with anything else you have to work on your entire body in order to achieve a weight loss in any specific area from your abs to your ankles. Understanding how to utilize diet, exercise and portion control are the keys to losing that stubborn ankle fat.

If you want to specifically target losing ankle fat then you should start be eating healthier. Lay off of the high fat and sugar foods and go for a great tasting fruit or even some protein filled chicken. As eating healthier will be the first step in losing ankle fat it will not do much for you if you are not an active person.

The ankle is the juncture of three bones: the tibia and fibula on the lower leg and the talus of the foot, also known as the ankle bone. Held together by ligaments and tendons, the ankle allows the foot a wide range of motion. Because of the ankle’s crucial role in walking and standing, ankle injuries should be taken seriously and treated properly.This is a simple exercise in which you take your ankle and trace the letters of the alphabet all the way from A to Z. To further the exercise you should trace plenty of circles and move your ankle as far up and down as it will go and as far left and right as it will go. To make it more difficult you can always use ankle weights.

Depending upon the severity, an ankle sprain can damage muscles, ligaments and proprioceptors (PRO-pri-o-CEP-tors) specialized nerves that control your balance and sense of position. Proprioceptors are present in muscles and tendons. Proprioceptors in a properly functioning ankle sense when your ankle is about to roll and instruct your tendons and muscles to fire and take corrective action, i.e. prevent the sprain. When these nerves are damaged during the initial sprain, they often do not regain their full functionality.

Any exercise routine that involves the ballet bar will invariably begin with the plies, either demi or grand and the reason that plies are used at the beginning is because these exercises help to tone every single one of the muscle groups contained within the legs.

The body tends to heal very slowly. Left to itself, an ankle injury usually takes about 2-8 weeks to heal, depending on the severity of the injury. But, when you actively rehabilitate it with specific exercises that strengthen it and increase range of motion, the ankle responds very quickly and swelling goes down rapidly. My clients recover from a sprained ankle in days not weeks. They are usually walking normally within 3-5 days after an ankle sprain injury.

If you’re playing football and you need to make a sharp lateral cut to avoid getting hit, the majority of that force goes right through the ankle. A weak ankle will turn and possibly sprain. A strong ankle will take that force and allow you to make that sharp, powerful cut and leave tacklers in the dust!

If you have had a previous ankle injury and used the R.I.C.E. system, you already know it does not yield quick results. First of all, ice is only effective for the first 36-72 hours. After that, you will notice the ankle is still very swollen, bruised and stiff. But, the r.I.C.E system says at that point, you should just rest and wait. Well, left by itself, the ankle will heal very slowly. There is most likely some ligament damage and ligaments heal very slowly o their own. So, you can expect a minimum of a two week healing period, but most likely it will be closer to a month.

Health Benefits of One of the Oldest Spices – Black Pepper Or Piper Nigrum

After morning meditation, I drink hot fresh ginger tea with crushed black pepper. The way I make it is by peeling ginger and placing a chunk in a mortar and pestle with 3 whole black peppers. I crush the contents, pour hot water into the mortar and transfer the contents into a tea cup. I started adding black pepper to ginger tea when I read the ingredients of one of my most favorite packaged teas. Ever since I have been adding black pepper, I have felt better. Here is what I have found by paying close attention to my body.

Black pepper induces sweating, urination and it aids digestion. It adds an element of fire to the digestive system. It signals to the stomach to generate hydrochloric acid for proper digestion. This acid keeps food from remaining in the stomach too long, thereby reducing intestinal flatulence and stomach irritation.

Black pepper is a cleansing agent. With it’s anti-inflammatory properties, it helps clear sinus problems and nasal congestion. During allergy season, if you experience a dry cough, suck on black pepper to reduce irritation in your throat.

Aside from improving digestion and clearing sinus problems, it provides nutrients such as manganese, vitamin K, iron and dietary fiber.

The outer layer of pepper helps break down fat cells, which can reduce weight and provide energy.

The best way to enjoy black pepper is by crushing whole pepper in a mortar and pestle. Store the extra ground pepper in a sealed container and use throughout the day. It is much more pungent when it is freshly crushed. And it is very satisfying to engage in the crushing process via a mortar and pestle.

The only disadvantage is that black pepper is very acidic. Therefore you need to watch to make sure your diet is full of alkaline foods.

Cat Sneezing Symptoms – 5 Main Causes

Kitten sneezing symptoms and cat sneezing symptoms, like human symptoms, are not in and of themselves a necessarily bad sign. However, chronic sneezing coupled with other symptoms can be especially concerning. Let’s take a look at some common cat sneezing symptoms and cat cold symptoms.

1 – Dust, Pollen, Cleaning Supplies, etc

Little Muffy sticks her investigative nose everywhere… in corners, under furniture, in old smelly shoes. Her sneezing may be nothing more than a healthy reaction to a common household irritant such as mold, dust, cleaning supplies or pollen, or some other mild cat sneezing allergies. As long as your cat is not frequently sneezing, mark it up to her curiosity.

2 – Upper Respiratory Infection

Cat upper respiratory infection symptoms can mirror cat sneezing allergies, and are the most common cause for continual cat sneezing. Comparable to the common cold in people, they can usually be cured by good food and rest. If the sneezing continues, a natural application of homeopathic medication can help. Borax and Phosphorous are two elements found to help alleviate kitten sneezing symptoms in cats of all ages. As always, contact a reputable source to obtain these remedies.

3 – Dental problems

The next major cause of sneezing in cats is dental disease. This is not generally something that cat owners think to check, but a disease in Tabby’s teeth can easily creep into her sinuses and infect her there. If your cat has pain when eating, or shows swollen gums, take her to a veterinarian for a dental cleaning.

4 – Feline Herpes

Actually rather common, the herpes virus usually causes cat sneezing symptoms and upper respiratory problems, possibly even cat vomiting symptoms, but only lasts a few weeks, then goes back into hibernation. If this virus inhabits your cat, he will have it his whole life. However, it is rarely a danger to his health. Pulsatilla was used in ancient Greece to cure runny eyes and noses, and is still used effectively in many homeopathic remedies for cats today.

5 – Feline Leukemia

The most dangerous cause of cat sneezing is Feline Leukemia. Leukemia weakens your cat’s immune system, and can cause your cat to contract other more dangerous diseases such as asthma. If the application of other common remedies and medication does not help, take your cat to a vet for a comprehensive checkup.

Cat sneezing symptoms can be early warning signs of a more serious problem, and are more serious when you notice kitten sneezing symptoms because of the youth of your pet, but are generally treatable by the application of safe, non-invasive, natural homeopathic medicines. Always make sure that anything you use on your feline friend is FDA approved and contains no artificial colors or preservatives.

How HGH Cuts Fat Without Exercise

Human growth hormone [HGH] does more than just cause the loss of fat. The

typical weight loss programs today result not only in the loss of fat but

also in many cases the loss of body mass. With HGH therapy there is not only

the loss of fat but also the replacement of fat with muscle which is why in

some cases people actually gain weight to their greater advantage of the more

sculpted body and better health. Human growth hormone actually recontours

your body which results in a younger and better functioning you.

Once we get into our mid thirties there is this evolution that accelerates

from a nicely chiseled body towards more of a blob like shape. Our lean body

mass ( LBM ) including all of our organs begin to shrivel while fat mass also

known as adipose mass increases. In fact, between the ages of 30 and 75

organs such as the brain, kidneys, liver, and pancreas atrophy by up to 30.

It is now a well known medical fact that this increase in fat significantly

increases the risk for heart attack, hypertension, and diabetes and even

contributes towards cancer.

The first long-term studies with HGH were done by doctor Rudman in 1989 in

saint Thomas hospital in London on 24 adults with growth hormone deficiency.

Half the group was given a placebo while the other group was put on human

growth hormone. After six months those on growth hormone had lost an average

of 12.5 pounds of fat and gained an average of 12.1 pounds of lean body mass

which was mostly muscle. The study would not be so significant if was only

related to the fact that the study was on those with diseased or removed

pituitary glands since this would only be limited to a few thousand people in

the United States.

The fact that is significant here is that this is

indicative of a lack of human growth hormone which almost everyone

experiences as they age. Rudman’s study showed that young adults with

pituitary disease are the same as elderly men and women. Rudman did a six

month treatment on men between the ages of 60 and 81 giving them human growth

hormone. These men gained an average of 8.8 in fat mass. Also, their skin

density thickened 7.1 and 17. In a follow-up study, it was found after twelve

months of treatment with growth hormone there was additional increase with

lean body mass increasing by 6, skin thickness by up to 4 growth of a liver

and 23 acceleration in the rate of fat loss that was beyond the effects of

diet alone. In fact the latest studies from Sweden now show that growth

hormone is the most effective treatment to get rid of the middle age spread

and all the disease conditions that arise with it.

In the past 35 years we’ve gone from having ¼ of U.S. citizens being fat to 1/

3 in 1980 to now a majority of 2/3’s in 2004. Fat men have pulsatile release

of growth hormone that is three times lower compared with normal weight men

and make 25 or more gain it back. In a six month treatment of growth hormone

deficient adults at Sahlgrenska hospital there was an overall 20 compared

with 13 central deep layer body fat and 6.1 total body fat. The placebo group

gained fat during the same period. Also, there was improved glucose intake,

lower blood cholesterol and triglycerides, and lower blood pressure.

Central belly fat appears to be the major culprit in producing insulin

resistance. This kind of resistance also known as diabetes type 2 is now in

academic proportions in the U.S. and is directly related to obesity. Because

HGH is so effective at sucking out this underlying gut fat insulin

sensitivity is improved and allows the body to get rid of the blood sugar

more effectively. If you are now obese HGH is a proven product for getting

rid of your fat in the areas where it is so threatening to your health. In

fact, it has been shown that using HGH will not only cause one to lose

significant weight but also to gain muscle and even look and feel decades


In older studies it appeared that growth hormone countered the effects of

insulin on the metabolism of glucose which made people more insulin resistant.

There was increased insulin resistance in patients after six weeks of

treatment with growth hormone. However six months studies show that insulin

sensitivity returns to where it was before treatment. Also, large studies

with growth hormone show there is no increased incidence of diabetes. This is

because of the profound changes in body composition after six months which

induces greater insulin sensitivity due to the removal of abdominal fat. When

you use growth hormone it tends to direct the action of insulin towards

putting sugar into the cardiac, muscle, and nerve cells, rather than into the

fat cells.

Why in the world one go for things like stomach stapling and all the other

crazy gimmicks which often have terrible side effects when HGH will do a far

better job? A Belgium Physician, Thierry Hertoghe, made careful body

measurements before and after two months of treatment with growth hormone and

recorded 23 to 30% shrinkage in the love handles of older people. Not only is

there shrinkage of the abdomen but that the underside of the thigh gets

thinner, while the upper side gets thicker with more muscle. The belly

buttons of most of his patients moved up by more than 1 inch after two months

of growth hormone treatment. The skin that hangs from the upper arm of a

woman is a signal of the loss of growth hormone. When a woman receives enough

growth hormone this hanging skin from the upper arm tightens back to a normal

more attractive appearance.

Growth hormone increases the free fatty acids which makes fat stores

available for energy production. There is a process in cells called lipolysis.

Fat cells have growth hormone receptors and when growth hormone binds to

these receptors it triggers a series of enzymatic reactions in the cell to

break down fat. Also, human growth hormone increases the overall energy

expenditure so that you burn calories faster. Growth hormone is also believed

to counter the effect of the hormone, insulin. Insulin acts kind of like the

gate opener to allow into the cells glucose, amino acids, and fats. Growth

hormone blunts the sensitivity of this gateway by opposing the action of

insulin which means far less fat is absorbed into the cell and the cell is

kept thin.

Growth Hormone also conserves nitrogen needed for the building of muscle. It

also increases protein synthesis without increasing the breakdown of proteins

in the cell. It is a well established fact that growth hormone deficient

adults that quit taking growth hormone have a significant decline in muscle

mass and strength. Human growth hormone contributes significantly towards the

building of muscle and this has been proven in the study of many different

groups including athletes, healthy young men, GH- deficient adults, and the


What Is the Difference Between LASIK and ILASIK?

In our world of advanced medical technology, there are many amazing techniques that can be used to improve our health. Vision correction surgery is very popular. The four most common procedures are Lasik and iLasik, photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and custom wavefront guided treatments

What is LASIK Surgery?

Two of the most popular are LASIK and iLASIK surgeries. They are exactly the same surgeries, except with regard to flap construction. The difference is the instrument used to make the flap. In traditional LASIK surgery, a blade or microkeratome is used to make the flap. In iLASIK surgery, the ophthalmologist uses a laser, most commonly the Intralase, to make the flap. This method is more reliable and safer than using a microkeratome flap. After the flap is constructed, a different laser is used to reshape the cornea.

When LASIK surgery is performed, the flap that is created and folded out of the way much like a can lid, allowing access to the cornea so that the vision correction procedure can be completed. After the cornea is reshaped, the flap is then replaced. There are no sutures needed to secure the flap in place, as once the tissue is repositioned it sticks in place by small pumps in the cornea which function like nature’s Velcro.

The patient remains awake with numbing eye-drops anesthetizing the eye. It is a simple procedure that is usually performed in an outpatient surgery suite which may be located in your ophthalmologist’s office. Most people are back to their regular activities within 24 hours.

During healing, prescription eye drops are usually prescribed for one to two weeks after surgery.

Photorefractive Keratectomy (PRK)

Photorefractive Keratectomy is a laser cornea-reshaping eye surgery that is primarily used for correcting mild to moderate nearsightedness. This procedure uses a cool, pulsing laser with ultraviolet light that reshapes the surface of the eye’s cornea. This procedure is performed when the patient has a thinner cornea and may not be a good LASIK candidate, a person who has an occupation that may require physical contact with the eye, or in a person with corneal scarring who may not be a good candidate for a flap. The healing time may be slightly longer than LASIK, but the vision is usually equivalent once the eye has healed. This procedure may require 3-5 days off from work during the healing phase.

Wavefront Guided Treatments

The Wavefront Guided Treatment can be thought of as measuring a fingerprint of the eye. The laser system then treats this measurement on the surface of the cornea. This allows the ophthalmologist to correct not only the blurriness caused by the glasses but also blurring cause by rays of light that are out of focus for other reasons. These are commonly referred to as higher order aberrations.

What Are There Complications to Eye Surgery?

In rare cases, complications may occur after a person has vision correction surgery. But, most people finish up the healing time without any concerns or complications. Statistically, laser created flaps are less likely to have complications because the flap creation is done with the precision of a laser and not a surgical blade.

If you are considering vision correction surgery, you should talk with your ophthalmologist to determine whether the surgery is right for you. Your doctor will also give you the opportunity to explore the differences between LASIK/iLASIK surgery. You will find that the majority of the surgeons will suggest a bladeless procedure.

Be sure to research a bit before you have your surgery, so that you can better understand the procedure. Taking some time to examine your options will also give peace of mind that you found the most qualified professional in your area to complete the surgery.

Preventing Needlestick Injuries in Health Care Settings

More than 8 million health care workers in the United States work in hospitals and other health care settings. Precise national data are not available on the annual number of needlestick and other percutaneous injuries among health care workers; however, estimates indicate that 600,000 to 800,000 such injuries occur annually. About half of these injuries go unreported.

Data from the EPINet system suggest that at an average hospital, workers incur approximately 30 needlestick injuries per 100 beds per year. Most reported needlestick injuries involve nursing staff; but laboratory staff, physicians, housekeepers, and other health care workers are also injured. Some of these injuries expose workers to bloodborne pathogens that can cause infection.

The most important of these pathogens are HBV, HCV, and HIV. Infections with each of these pathogens are potentially life threatening and preventable.


Between 1985 and June 1999, cumulative totals of 55 documented cases and 136 possible cases of occupational HIV transmission to U.S. health care workers were reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).  Most involved  nurses and laboratory technicians. Percutaneous injury (e.g., needlestick) was associated  with 49 (89%) of the documented transmissions. Of these, 44 involved hollow-bore needles, most of which were used for blood collection or insertion of an IV catheter. 

HIV infection is a complex disease that can be associated with many symptoms. The virus attacks part of the body’s immune system, eventually leading to severe infections and other complications, a condition known as AIDS.

Health care workers who were investigated and (1) had no identifiable behavioral or  transfusion risks, (2) reported having had percutaneous or mucocutaneous occupational  exposures to blood or body fluids or to laboratory solutions containing HIV, but (3) had no  documented HIV seroconversion resulting from a specific occupational exposure.


Information from national hepatitis surveillance is used to estimate the number of HBV infections in health care workers. In 1995, an estimated 800 health care workers became infected with HBV [CDC unpublished data]. This figure represented a 95% decline from the 17,000 new infections estimated in 1983. The decline was largely due to the widespread immunization of health care workers with the hepatitisB vaccine and the use of universal precautions and other measures required by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) bloodborne pathogens standard. About one-third to one-half of persons with acute HBV infection develop symptoms of hepatitis such as jaundice, fever, nausea, and abdominal pain. Most acute infections resolve, but 5% to 10% of patients develop chronic infection with HBV that carries an estimated 20% lifetime risk of dying from cirrhosis and 6% risk of dying from liver cancer.


Hepatitis C virus infection is the most common chronic bloodborne infection in the United States, affecting approximately 4 million people. Although the prevalence of HCV infection among health care workers is similar to that in the general population (1% to 2%), health care workers clearly have an increased occupational risk for HCV infection.

In a study that evaluated risk factors for infection, a history of unintentional needlestick injury was independently associated with HCV infection. The number of health care  workers who have acquired HCV occupationally is not known. However, of the total acute HCV infections that have occurred annually (ranging from 100,000 in 1991 to 36,000 in 1996), 2% to 4% have been in health care workers exposed to blood in the workplace.

HCV infection often occurs with no symptoms or only mild symptoms. But unlike HBV, chronic infection develops in 75% to 85% of patients, with active liver disease developing in 70%. Of the patients with active liver disease, 10% to 20% develop cirrhosis, and 1% to 5% develop liver cancer.


After a needlestick exposure to an infected patient, a health care worker’s risk of infection depends on the pathogen involved, the immune status of the worker, the severity of the needlestick injury, and the availability and use of appropriate post exposure prophylaxis.


To estimate the rate of HIV transmission, data were combined from more than 20 worldwide prospective studies of health care workers exposed to HIV-infected blood through a percutaneous injury. In all, 21 infections followed 6,498 exposures for an average transmission rate of 0.3% per injury. A retrospective case-control study of health care workers who had percutaneous exposures to HIV found that the risk of HIV transmission was increased when the worker was exposed to a larger quantity of blood from the patient, as indicated by (1) a visibly bloody device, (2) a procedure that involved placing a needle in a patient’s vein or artery, or (3) a deep injury. Preliminary data suggest that such high-risk needlestick injuries may have a substantially greater risk of disease transmission per injury.

Post-exposure prophylaxis for HIV is recommended for health care workers occupationally exposed to HIV under certain circumstances. Limited data suggest that such prophylaxis may  considerably reduce the chance of becoming infected with HIV. However, the drugs used for HIV post exposure prophylaxis have many adverse side effects. Currently no vaccine exists to prevent HIV infection, and no treatment exists to cure it.


The rate of HBV transmission to susceptible health care workers ranges from 6% to 30% after a single needlestick exposure to an HBV-infected patient. However, such exposures are a risk only for health care workers who are not immune to HBV. Health care workers who have antibodies to HBV either from preexposure vaccination or prior infection are not at risk. In addition, if a susceptible worker is exposed to HBV, post-exposure prophylaxis with hepatitis B immune globulin and initiation of hepatitis B vaccine is more than 90% effective in preventing HBV infection.


Prospective studies of health care workers exposed to HCV through a needlestick or other percutaneous injury have found that the incidence of anti-HCV seroconversion (indicating infection) averages 1.8% (range, 0% to 7%) per injury. Currently no vaccine exists to prevent HCV infection, and neither immunoglobulin nor antiviral therapy is recommended as post-exposure prophylaxis. However, recommendations for treatment of early infections are  rapidly evolving. Health care workers with known exposure should be monitored for  seroconversion and referred for medical follow up if seroconversion occurs.


Although exposure to HBV poses a high risk for infection, administration of preexposure vaccination or post-exposure prophylaxis to workers can dramatically reduce this risk. Such is not the case with HCV and HIV. Preventing the needlestick injury is the best approach to preventing these diseases in health care workers, and it is an important part of any bloodborne pathogen prevention program in the workplace.


Devices Associated with Needlestick Injuries

Of nearly 5,000 percutaneous injuries reported by hospitals between June 1995 and July 1999, 62%  were associated with hollow-bore needles, primarily hypodermic needles attached to  disposable syringes (29%) and winged-steel (butterfly-type) needles (13%). Data from hospitals participating in EPINet show a similar distribution of injuries by device type.

Activities Associated with Needlestick Injuries

Whenever a needle or other sharp device is exposed, injuries can occur. Approximately 38% of percutaneous injuries occur during use and 42% occur after use and before disposal. The circumstances leading to a needlestick injury depend partly on the type and design of the device used. For example, needle devices that must be taken apart or manipulated after use (e.g., prefilled cartridge syringes and phlebotomy needle/ vacuum tube assemblies) are an obvious hazard and have been associated with increased injury rates. In addition, needles attached to a length of flexible tubing (e.g., winged-steel  needles and needles attached to IV tubing) are sometimes difficult to place in sharps containers and thus present another injury hazard. Injuries involving needles attached to IV tubing may occur when a health care worker inserts or withdraws a needle from an IV port or tries to temporarily remove the needlestick hazard by inserting the needle into a drip chamber, IV port or bag, or even bedding.

In addition to risks related to device characteristics, needlestick injuries have been related to certain work practices such as:

  • recapping,
  • transferring a body fluid between containers, and
  • failing to properly dispose of used needles in puncture-resistant sharps containers.

Past studies of needlestick injuries have shown that 10% to 25% occurred when recapping a used needle. Although recapping by hand has been discouraged for some time and is prohibited under the OSHA bloodborne pathogens standard unless no alternative exists, 5% of needlestick injuries in NaSH hospitals are still related to this practice. Injury may occur when a health care worker attempts to transfer blood or other body fluids from a syringe to a specimen container (such as a vacuum tube) and misses the target. Also, if used needles or other sharps are left in the work area or are discarded in a sharps container that is not puncture resistant, a needlestick injury may result.



The current Federal standard for addressing needlestick injuries among health care workers is the OSHA bloodborne pathogens standard, which has been in effect since  1992. The standard applies to all occupational exposures to blood or other potentially  infectious materials. Notable elements of this standard require the following:

  • A written exposure control plan designed to eliminate or minimize worker

exposure to bloodborne pathogens

  • Compliance with universal precautions (an infection control principle

that treats all human blood and other potentially infectious materials as infectious)

  • Engineering controls and work practices to eliminate or minimize worker exposure
  • Personal protective equipment (if engineering controls and work practices do not eliminate occupational exposures)
  • Prohibition of bending, recapping, or removing contaminated needles and other sharps unless such an act is required by a specific procedure or has no feasible alternative
  • Prohibition of shearing or breaking contaminated needles (OSHA defines contaminated as the presence or the reasonably anticipated presence of blood or other potentially infectious materials on an item or surface)
  • Free hepatitis B vaccinations offered to workers with occupational exposure to bloodborne pathogens.
  • Worker training in appropriate engineering controls and work practices
  • Post-exposure evaluation and follow up, including post-exposure prophylaxis when appropriate

OSHA also intends to act to reduce the number of injuries that health care workers receive from needles and other sharp medical objects. First, the agency has revised the  compliance directive accompanying its 1992 bloodborne pathogens standard to reflect newer and safer technologies now available and to increase the employer’s responsibility to evaluate and use effective, safer technologies. Second, the agency has proposed a requirement in the revised recordkeeping rule that all injuries resulting from contaminated needles and sharps be  recorded on OSHA logs used by employers to record injuries and illnesses. Finally, OSHA will  take steps to amend its bloodborne pathogens standard by placing needlestick and sharps injuries on its regulatory agenda.


Under the regulations of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) application clearance process, the manufacturers of medical devices (including needles used in patient care) must  meet requirements for appropriate registration and for listing, labeling, and good  manufacturing practices for design and production. The process for receiving clearance or  approval to market a device requires device manufacturers to (1) demonstrate that a new  device is substantially equivalent to a legally marketed device or (2) document the safety and effectiveness of the new device for patient care through a more involved premarket  approval process. FDA has also released two advisories pertaining to sharps and the risk of  bloodborne pathogen transmission in the health care setting.

State Regulations

Currently, multiple states have adopted and more are considering legislation to require additional regulatory actions addressing bloodborne pathogen exposures to health  care workers. The California standard has several requirements that go beyond those currently  required by OSHA.  These requirements include stronger language for the use of needleless  systems for certain procedures or (where needleless systems are not available) the use of needles with engineered sharps injury protection for certain procedures.


Comprehensive Programs to Prevent Needlestick Injuries

Safety and health issues can best be addressed in the setting of a comprehensive prevention program that considers all aspects of the work environment and that has employee involvement as well as management commitment. Implementing the use of improved engineering controls is one component of such a comprehensive program. Since many devices with needlestick prevention features are new, this section primarily addresses their use, including desirable characteristics, examples, and data supporting their effectiveness.

Desirable Characteristics of Devices with Safety Features

Improved engineering controls are often among the most effective approaches to reducing occupational hazards and therefore are an important element of a needlestick prevention program. Such controls include eliminating the unnecessary use of needles and implementing devices with safety features. These characteristics include the following:

  • The device is needleless.
  • The safety feature is an integral part of the device.
  • The device preferably works passively (i.e., it requires no activation by the user). If user

activation is necessary, the safety feature can be engaged with a single-handed technique and allows the worker’s hands to remain behind the exposed sharp.

  • The user can easily tell whether the safety feature is activated.
  • The safety feature cannot be deactivated and remains protective through disposal.
  • The device performs reliably.
  • The device is easy to use and practical.
  • The device is safe and effective for patient care.

Although each of these characteristics is desirable, some are not feasible, applicable or available for certain health care situations. For example, needles will always be necessary where alternatives for skin penetration are not available. Also, a safety feature that requires activation by the user might be preferable to one that is passive in some cases. Each device must be considered on its own merit and ultimately on its ability to reduce workplace injuries. The desirable characteristics listed here should  thus serve only as a guideline for device design and selection.

Contaminated Sharps Discarding and Containment.

Contaminated sharps shall be discarded immediately or as soon as feasible in containers that are:

  • Closable;
  • Puncture resistant;
  • Leak-proof on sides and bottom; and
  • Labeled or color-coded.

During use, containers for contaminated sharps shall be:

Easily accessible to personnel and located as close as is feasible to the immediate area where sharps are used or can be reasonably anticipated to be found (e.g., laundries);

Maintained upright throughout use; and

Replaced routinely and not be allowed to overfill.

When moving containers of contaminated sharps from the area of use, the containers shall be:

Closed immediately prior to removal or replacement to prevent spillage or protrusion of contents during handling, storage, transport, or shipping;

Placed in a secondary container if leakage is possible. The second container shall be:

  • Closable;
  • Constructed to contain all contents and prevent leakage during handling, storage, transport, or shipping; and
  • Labeled or color-coded.

Reusable containers shall not be opened, emptied, or cleaned manually or in any other manner which would expose employees to the risk of percutaneous injury.


Contaminated laundry shall be handled as little as possible with a minimum of agitation.

Contaminated laundry shall be bagged or containerized at the location where it was used and shall not be sorted or rinsed in the location of use.

Contaminated laundry shall be placed and transported in bags or containers labeled or color-coded. When a facility utilizes Universal Precautions in the handling of all soiled laundry, alternative labeling or color-coding is sufficient if it permits all employees to recognize the containers as requiring compliance with Universal Precautions.

Whenever contaminated laundry is wet and presents a reasonable likelihood of soak-through of or leakage from the bag or container, the laundry shall be placed and transported in bags or containers which prevent soak-through and/or leakage of fluids to the exterior.

The employer shall ensure that employees who have contact with contaminated laundry wear protective gloves and other appropriate personal protective equipment.

When a facility ships contaminated laundry off-site to a second facility which does not utilize Universal Precautions in the handling of all laundry, the facility generating the contaminated laundry must place such laundry in bags or containers which are labeled or color-coded.

Communication of Hazards to Employees —

Labels and Signs —

Warning labels shall be affixed to containers of regulated waste, refrigerators and freezers containing blood or other potentially infectious material; and other containers used to store, transport or ship blood or other potentially infectious materials.

These labels shall be fluorescent orange or orange-red or predominantly so, with lettering and symbols in a contrasting color.

Labels shall be affixed as close as feasible to the container by string, wire, adhesive, or other method that prevents their loss or unintentional removal.

Red bags or red containers may be substituted for labels.

Individual containers of blood or other potentially infectious materials that are placed in a labeled container during storage, transport, shipment or disposal are exempted from the labeling requirement.

Labels required for contaminated equipment shall be in accordance with this paragraph and shall also state which portions of the equipment remain contaminated.

Regulated waste that has been decontaminated need not be labeled or color-coded.


Needlestick injuries are an important and continuing cause of exposure to serious  and fatal diseases among health care workers. Greater collaborative efforts by all stakeholders are needed to prevent needlestick injuries and the tragic consequences that can result. Such efforts are best accomplished through a comprehensive program that addresses institutional, behavioral, and device-related factors that contribute to the occurrence of needlestick injuries in health care workers. Critical to this effort are the elimination of needle bearing devices where safe and effective alternatives are available and the development, evaluation, and use of needle devices with safety features.

radiology ceu

Double Vision Causes – Natural Eye Exercise Remedies for Double Vision

Good eyesight helps make life a little easier for you so that you can drive, read and study with far less difficulty, stress and strain. There is a vision disorder called Diplopia, commonly known as Double Vision that hinders the ability of the eyes to function normally. Fortunately, a series of specific vision exercises can alleviate the symptoms related to this vision condition.

What is Double Vision? According to Medical News Today, a respected authority on vision care in America, if you are seeing Double Vision, a single image appears to you as 2 images simultaneously.

What causes Diplopia? identifies a series of different causes of this vision imbalance. One of the primary causes is Binocular Double Vision. In such a case, the patient’s eyes are misaligned. As a result, there is an imbalance that causes the eyes to point at different angles at varying degrees. The brain perceives images that are not identical enough in order to form a single image. Hence, two images are created; causing double vision. Damage to the third cranial nerve that is responsible for eye movement causes the affected eye to move outwards when the healthy eye looks forward causing this visual abnormality. The following conditions are also contributing factors to double vision: a thyroid disease, diabetes, a stroke, an injury, astigmatism and dry eye syndrome.

A natural alternative remedy for this vision disorder are eye exercises. Before beginning any kind of eye exercise program consult your physician. Eye exercises improve this vision problem in cases whereby an individual suffers from what is known as convergence insufficiency. According to the Mayo clinic, convergence insufficiency means: “your eyes don’t turn inward properly when you are focusing on a nearby object. When you read or look at a close object, your eyes should converge- turn inward together to focus so that you see a single image” (Mayoclinic. com, 2012).

Here are some eye exercises for Double Vision:

Swinging: This technique is helpful in cases whereby there is damage to the third cranial nerve that is responsible for controlling eye movement and because of this visual malfunction, the eye that is affected tends to move outward while the healthy eye looks forward creating double images. In order to perform swinging stand up and select an object in the distance and focus on it. Then, gently sway your body from side to side while you maintain your focus on the distant object to the best of your ability. You may blink while you perform this exercise. Perform 2 sets of 10 repetitions.

Pencil Push ups: According to a study by the Pennsylvania College of Optometry, patients suffering from convergence insufficiency who were prescribed this particular eye technique saw a significant reduction in their symptoms. For this exercise, you will need a pencil. Sit in a comfortable chair while you hold a pencil in front of your face at a distance where you can clearly see the letters on the side of the pencil. Gradually move the pencil to the point where it is about six inches close to your nose. The objective of this vision exercise is to maintain your focus on one particular letter of the pencil as you move it toward your nose. In the event that the letter appears as a double image move the pencil farther away from you. Perform this exercise for 10 minutes as you continue to move the pencil back and forth in front of your face.

Eye rolling: roll your eyes in a clockwise direction and then in a counter-clockwise direction. Make sure that the rotations are slow, controlled and try to avoid any jerky movements. Smooth rotations can be achieved through regular practice. Perform 2 sets of 10 repetitions each.

Double Vision is a disorder that is caused by an imbalance in the position of the eyes that causes the brain to transmit double images rather than single images. It is also triggered by a variety of other factors. For example, vision disorders and health conditions such as Diabetes, stroke, injuries, Binocular Double Vision, astigmatism, and dry eye syndrome. While the symptoms of Double Vision may seem distressing, specific eye exercise techniques practiced regularly, are an effective remedy for the problem.

Top Insurance Companies – Selling Single Premium Life

New and professional insurance agents alike, often overlook selling single premium life. Some agents do not know who the top insurance companies offering the plans are. Other agents are unfamiliar with the advantages the coverage can provide the client. This will briefly explain the needed information on both

This is a great option for a client that has a lump sum of cash not needed right now, and desiring guaranteed life insurance protection. For provide the family or charity with a later payment, single-premium life insurance may be the ideal product for you. The minimum investment payment is usually $5,000.

Single Premium Life Insurance protects the financial security of individuals interested in preserving and transferring their wealth without passing along estate taxes. Single premium life insurance requires a one time, lump sum of money paid into the policy in return for a death benefit guaranteed to remain paid-up until the policy owner dies. With single-premium life insurance, the cash invested builds up quickly because the policy is fully funded.

The size of the death benefit depends on the amount invested and the age and health of the insured. At age 55, a $25,000 single payment on a female could carry a $60,000 death benefit. In turn a 50-year-old male may make a $25,000 single payment and have a $100,000 death benefit. Some SPL policies give tax-free access to the death benefit to pay for long-term care expenses. This super feature can help protect other assets from the overwhelming cost of long-term care. The death benefits remain in the policy, and when the policy owner dies, they pass income tax free to the beneficiaries.

 Investment Options   There are two popular single-premium policies that offer different investment options. First, there is single premium whole life, which pays a fixed interest rate. This rate is based on the investment experience and current economic conditions affecting the insurance company.  The other option is single premium variable life that allows policy owners to select from a wide number of professionally managed money market, stock, and bond or set up a fixed account.

The advantages of single premium life insurance include earnings that accumulate tax deferred, a beneficiary receives an immediate, tax-free death benefit, and policy owners are able to retain access to their money to meet unseen circumstances.

The disadvantages of singe-premium life are that is not a deposit that it is not FDIC insured by a Federal Government Agency. It is also not guaranteed by any bank provisions and could possibly lose value.

The Top Insurance Companies Actively Promoting SINGLE PREMIUM LIFE

1. Americo Financial Life and Annuity Insurance Company, all states but Al, AK, MS, NJ, NY, PA, WA

2. AmerUs Life Insurance Group, national

3. Assurity Life Insurance Company, national

4. Aviva Life $ Annuity Company, all states but MA. MT, PA, VT

5. Baltimore Life Insurance Company, all states but KY, MA, MT, NY

6. Catholic Family Life, these 20 states: AZ, CA, CT, IL, IN, IA, ME, MD, MI, MN, MN, MO, NE, NH, PA, RI, SD, VT, VA. WI

7. CSA Fraternal Life, these 17 states: CA,CO,FL, IA, IL, IN, KS, MD, MI, MO, NE, NJ, OH, PA, TX, WI

8. EMG National Life Company, no NJ or NY

9. Equitable Life & Casualty, all states but AK, CA, CT, DE, FL, GA, HI, MD, MA, MN, NJ, NY, PA, RI, VT, WA, WI

10. Illinois Mutual, all states but not AK, HI, NJ, NY

11. Lincoln National Life Insurance Company, national

12. Motorists Life Insurance Company, available in FL, GA, IL, IN, KY, MI, OH, PA, SC, TN, VA, WV, WI

13. Mutual of Omaha, all states but MD, MA, NJ, PA, VT

14. New York Life Insurance Company, national

15. National Guardian Life Insurance Company, all states but ME, NY, VT

16. Nationwide Financial, all states but CA, CT, HI, MA. MS, MT, NV, NJ, NC, PA, TX, UT, WA

17. Royal Neighbors, All states but AL, AK, HI, MA, NH, SC, VT

18. SBLI USA Mutual Life Insurance Company, most states

19. Standard Life and Accident Insurance Company, all states except AL, AK, ME, MT, NH, NJ, NY, SD

20. William Penn Association, all states except CA, CT, Fl, Il, IN, KY, MD, MA, MI, MO, NE, NJ, NY, OH, PA, VA, WV, WI

Counseling That Works – Engaging That Resistant Teenager

“Forty-four? the teenager asks. Yes, that’s my age. At least it is for another few months. That’s what I tell my young clients, even though everything inside me is itching to assure them that I am 18 with 26 years of experience. Although adolescence is a time most of us remember as stressful, awkward, and confusing, it is also a period of life that we often wish to recapture. We do so because it was a time of adventure, discovery, and exhilaration. The mixture of feelings we experienced as teenagers is often present in the treatment of adolescents.

Providing therapy to angry or mistrustful adolescents who do not even want to be in our offices, much less talk, is one of the most challenging scenarios we face as Christian counselors. It is not one, however, that we encounter infrequently. Many teenagers come into our offices reporting that The school thinks that I should be here, or My pare not’s say I need to come, or The court says I have to. How do we engage these young people? Where do we begin?

An Angry Young Man: Johnny was one such young person I encountered very early in my career. I had just begun my first job in the field, and Johnny was a middle-schooler who had been referred to services by his school. He was described as a very troubled, angry, and non-communicative young man who tended to be a loner and was given to bizarre acting out. Reportedly he would regularly make all sorts of noises during class and frequently got out of his seat and wiggled about the classroom floor like an eel. My supervisor explained that Johnny had already gone through three other therapists and that I did not have to accept him as a client. However, since I needed to build up my caseload, I was free to do so. Johnny arrived at our first session wearing jeans, sneakers, a black T-shirt, and a partially opened black leather jacket. Plopping into a chair, he pushed himself into the corner as he straightened out his legs. He dropped his chin to his chest and flipped up the collar of his jacket, which he then zipped closed with an angry jerk. Any little shift of my head to catch some glimpse of his face was met with a countering shift of the client’s posture. This kid was not allowing any contact.

All my attempts at establishing rapport bounced off Johnny like a brick wall. Listen, I said to him, I know you do not want to be here. I am sure the last thing you wanted to do was run over here as soon as school let out. He lifted his head but dropped it again, shaking it from side to side. We sat in a painfully long silence, and I began thinking more about how Johnny might be feeling right at that moment. I also began paying more attention to what I was feeling about sitting there and how I might have felt when I was his age. I thought about what I did know about Johnny and how he might have handled those feelings if remaining in defiant, Impassive silence was not his number one reason for being. This is boring! I blurted out Johnny grunted and turned away. I made an exaggerated movement to stay in his view. He turned further and I got out of my chair, saying I could not take any more boredom and leaned against the wall to gain his view. Johnny turned away, head down, his chin back inside his jacket. I got down on the floor in front of him.

I shifted back and forth a few times, checked my watch, and got back in my chair facing him. Look, I do not know about you, but just sitting here feels like detention. Johnny’s head popped up, curious and mistrustful. Getting out of my chair and onto the floor makes it a little better, but it also makes me feel stupid and probably has you thinking I am pretty weird. There is got to be a better way of spending our time together. If you do not want to come back next week, Ill tell my supervisor that this isn’t going to be productive, and you won’t have to return. Johnny sat up straighter. But here is your situation.

The school has told your parents that you have to go for counseling, and your parents have made it clear that they are going to follow through with the schools direction. You do not have to come here again, but that means your parents will take you to another service that has been recommended, and you will have to keep replaying this until the school is satisfied that you have gone for counseling. That can be here or nowhere else. If it’s done here with me, that’s fine, but I’d rather not spend another hour like this. If you do not want to talk about home or school, and then bring something in we can talk about…music, books, comics, magazines, cards, if you like. So how about next week? Do you want me to tell my supervisor to recommend other services to your parents, or do you want to plan to come back here and bring something we could talk about or do next week? Johnny shrugged. Does not matter. Is it true you like BMX riding? Do not they have magazines or catalogs on them? Yeah, I got a ton of them. You mean I could bring them in here to read? Sure, but if you do not want to talk about them bring in a few for me. I do not want to do charts with you sitting here.

The next week Johnny showed up with about five magazines. I began learning about such things as the gear ratios and the various alloys used in the manufacturing of BMX bikes. I also discovered what excited and disappointed this incredibly bright young man. Three weeks later, we were walking toward my office to begin our session. Johnny was moving quickly and ahead of me. We have got to talk! My mom is really starting to tick me off! Over the next several months, I continued to learn more about BMX bicycles, and we got a lot of productive work done, the positive effects of which were reported from school and the home.

Drawing on our own Creativity: Across my professional career I have matured (hopefully) as a counselor through continued training and experience. I have learned to incorporate and refine joining, reframing, and paradoxical techniques to negotiate the types of challenges presented by teenagers. The reason, however, I chose to share this case from my first month in the field is to help us recall the intuitive and creative use of ourselves in helping others that was there when we were first drawn into the field. Before we had theory and training, we had ourselves, our sensitivity to others, and our openness to the spirits leading.

I strongly believe that counselors must be informed by theory and prepared by training, but these should enhance and not replace those natural gifts which previously existed. In working with clients, especially those like Johnny, it is very important not to be rigidly constrained by one’s own therapeutic model. Ultimately, counselors need to be directed and constrained by the therapeutic relationship their knowledge of themselves and their clients and not by rigid allegiance to or dependence upon a given model or theory.

It is also helpful to re-frame ourselves as well as our clients. When we make the shift from viewing these situations as those in which we must overcome resistance to those in which we must increase client readiness, we make an Important attitudinal shift one that will reinforce our roles as facilitators and will help protect us from viewing our clients as adversaries. Find a counselor for suggestions.

It is also important to find something in our clients that is likable and interesting and delve into their interests. Most Importantly, we need to be willing to join our clients on their own ground, to enter their territory. This may involve assuming a one-down position from time to time, but isn’t that Implicit at a certain level in all our therapy? That is, how can we expect to help our clients if we do not first learn from them?

Calorie Shifting – A Healthy Way to Lose Weight Fast

Sure there are many different kinds of diets and weight loss plans available. But how many of them do you think actually work? So many of the popular miracle diets that are advertised in the media are complete crap and the ones that do work can actually harm your body. If you are serious about losing weight fast and keeping it off then you need to realize right now that there is only one healthy way to do so. The only way that it is possible to lose weight fast in a healthy manner is to use a diet called calorie shifting.

What Is Calorie Shifting?

Well, for one it is a diet. But the funny thing is that in reality it really isn’t much of a diet at all. When following this “diet’s” you will still be eating 4 meals a day. Sounds pretty strange right?

Hang in there for just a little longer! Let me first explain the concept of this diet. You see, there are two different things that can happen after you eat a meal. The fat that you consume is either stored or it is burned. What does this have to do with shifting calories? Well, by following the meal plan of this diet you will be burning fat much more often than you are storing it. This diet is based around a very specific meal plan that allows you to lose a ton of weight just by eating food. In fact, you can lose 9 lbs every 11 days by following this diet!

7 Running Weight Loss Tips – How to Optimize Your Running Weight Loss Exercise

Exercise is a necessity, more so when you’re determined to slim down. For a workout that gives you fast results, try a running weight loss exercise. It’s not only easy, but you can do it almost anywhere and even choose your own pace. Running weight loss exercise is a great high-intensity cardio that works several muscle groups and boost your metabolism.

1. Bump up your exercise with a good run. Walking is a good exercise. But in the same way that you need to intensify walking to get more calorie burn out of it, you need to bump up from walking to get more out of your cardio. A 15-minute run would be a good starting point.

2. Warm up and cool down. It’s important to remember when opting for running weight loss exercise to warm up before a run and cool down after. Start with a walk, working into a brisk walk then a slow jog moving to a moderate jog. After the run, cool down and follow the reverse, going from moderate jog to a walk before coming to a complete stop.

3. Run regularly. The minimum frequency for running would be 3 to 4 times a week to see and maintain results. The calories burned differ depending on the intensity of the run, but a good estimate would be 100 calories burned per mile. Gradually work to 25 to 30 miles per week, increasing your mileage by 10% weekly until you reach the target.

4. Substitute with the slow run. One way to vary your running weight loss regimen is to sustain a slow run for 90 minutes once or twice a week. At this point, your body will start burning stored fats instead of the carbohydrates for energy.

5. Amp up with the interval run. Interval runs are another way to put variety into your running workout. Simply do a fast run or sprint for 10 seconds then slow down to a 10-second walk. Do 10 sets of this for a quick running weight loss exercise.

6. Intensify with the uphill run. The more effort you exert, the more calories you burn. Intensify your workout by running up a hill but choose an easy slope that you can sustain. A general rule for counting the calories burned is that for every degree of incline, you burn 10% more calories than when running on flat surface.

7. Record your heart-rate. To get into the fat-burning zone, you need to be running at your aerobic maximum (estimate this by subtracting your age from 180). Strap on a heart-rate monitor to record your actual intensity level. You don’t want to overdo your running weight loss exercise nor do you want to fall below your optimum level.

Cardio workouts such as the running weight loss exercises are your best bet to blast those fats away, fast and for good. It’s a routine that you can easily fit into your daily schedule. This high-intensity calorie-burner is not recommended for those with weak or problem knee joints to do regularly though, and they’d best stick to walking. Still, a low-impact, slow jog every now and then can’t really hurt.

Smiles and Your Baby's Brain

Positive, happy, smiling looks are vital to the growth of your baby’s brain. In case that’s too easy to miss, I’ll use the lazy tool of repetition to make sure it’s easy to take home this take home message. A smile doesn’t only make him ‘feel better’ (sounds a bit vague), doesn’t only ‘distract him’ when he’s upset: smiles are vital to the growth of your baby’s brain (Gerhardt, 2004). Studies on different areas of the brain and nervous system (neuroscience) and on the hormone systems can now provide evidence to explain our innate parenting behaviours and also to demonstrate how crucial they are to the brain’s development. Wonderful! It’s good to hear that what you already do is fantastic! Congratulations! By ‘innate parenting behaviours’, it is usually meant: smiling at your baby, copying their actions, making the same noises to them that they make to you, hugging your baby, soothing your baby to help him regulate his emotions when he is distraught. In essence, responding to your baby’s cues as often as possible is essential for the development of his brain.

Your Baby Needs to Attach to You…

You may have heard of John Bowlby and his Attachment Theory. His idea was that a baby has a developmental need – not just an ‘emotional’ need, whatever that might be – for a ‘secure base’ (Bowlby, 1988). He believed that without knowing that there is a predictable someone who can see him and respond to him, the baby will struggle to develop a secure sense of self. Observational studies of the behaviour of parents, with follow up studies of the growing children, demonstrated that clinginess, neediness and a tendency towards separation anxiety in adult relationships correlate well with a lack of responsiveness from parents in infancy (Dettling, 2002). Based on his research, Bowlby believed that the need for an ‘attachment figure’ was as important as the need for food, for warmth, or for sleep. Responsive parenting is the means by which we communicate that we are that needed attachment figure. Even though he didn’t have the scientific explanations for his theory, it has been enormously influential.

…So That His Brain Can Develop

And now, we do know why. The brain is a relational organ. Right. So what does this mean? Let’s use the example of smiling at your baby. A baby has an innate attentiveness, from birth, towards faces and facial expressions. When you look at your baby positively, he sees that your pupils are dilated (as you are feeling pleasurable feelings of love) and innately recognises this signal. His nervous system is activated in response, his heart rate goes up, and he releases neurochemicals into an area of his brain. The neurochemicals cause pleasurable feelings in your baby; but that’s not all. They also glucose to be taken up in this area of the brain, which encourages growth of new tissue (Gerhardt, 2004).  So when I say ‘the brain is a relational organ’, I mean that in the absence of loving and positive responses from a parent, the brain develops in a decidedly non-optimal environment and its growth is literally stunted. It’s a beautiful (and simplified, for the sake of poetry!) concept: baby’s brain is built on smiles.

What If Baby Can’t Attach…?

So what happens to prevent this process which I’ve so cavalierly called ‘innate’? Because the truth is, many parents do not find it easy or instinctive to respond to their baby’s cues or to smile at their baby. Maybe they never learned this behaviour because their own parents couldn’t do it with them (you can’t do something until you’ve learned it). Maybe they are suffering with postnatal depression and it is, for many reasons, painful to be close to baby. Maybe they are exhausted. It isn’t the goal of this article to judge anyone; only to present what some of the research shows so that more parents can do whatever they can with the right information.

What Is Stress for a Baby?

The difficult truth is that a baby who is left to cry, or who is not responded to with sensitivity, experiences stress, and that this stress damages the development of his brain. Right. Let’s unpick that a little. Stress. What is it? It’s a word bandied around so much that it’s lost any useful meaning so I will define it here as ‘a biochemical response to an emotional experience which is too much for your baby to manage’. Let’s remember that a baby’s is completely powerless, and his survival is dependent entirely on you. If he can’t see you, his terror is related to a fear of abandonment and death – and this isn’t overdramatic (Gerhardt, 2004, pp. 70-71). An overwhelming emotional experience can be triggered by things which would be trivial to an adult, or even to baby himself, a year down the line – such as you walking out of his sight to make a cup of tea. An end point of the biochemical stress response to this experience, which is triggered in one area of the brain, is the release of the stress hormone cortisol.

What Cortisol Does to Baby’s Brain

You’ve probably heard about this hormone in relation to adult stress, but it’s particularly damaging to a developing brain; it literally corrodes it. A baby has little or no ability to regulate his own stress, or to self-soothe; his cortisol system is highly oversensitive at birth. So long as a parent is providing a soothing environment (touch, strokes, feeding, rocking, warmth, responsiveness, smiles), his cortisol levels remain relatively low. But in the absence of these behaviours, cortisol floods his brain and corrodes the nerve tissue in brain areas needed for social interaction and socialisation as adults . It’s not difficult to see why neuroscientists and psychotherapists using this research state “the practice of regularly leaving a baby to ‘cry it out’ leaves a lot to be desired”  (Gerhardt, Corrosive Cortisol, 2004). It’s not alarmist to say that a baby who ‘cries it out’ on a regular basis is literally poisoning his own brain. It also gets worse; the presence of cortisol in the brain sensitises the tissue to cortisol exposure in the future – so the baby (and the adult, later) becomes progressively less able to self-soothe and progressively more sensitive to stress (Dettling A. , 2002). This is why I emphasise that ‘regularly’ crying it out is damaging – it’s the sustained release of cortisol which damages the brain tissue.

“If you Go to Him When He Cries, You’ll Make Him Too Needy”

In our culture, there is ambivalence about attachment concepts (Daily Mail, 2009). Many people believe that a baby who cries when he’s not hungry, or his nappy doesn’t need changing, is manipulating them and that this will lay down problems later. Well, yes – your baby IS manipulating you! He is acting in an innate, biologically determined manner which is designed to elicit those attachment and bonding behaviours from you which are essential to his brain’s development. It’s like a seagull pecking on the red spot on its’ mother’s beak to get food. Yes, he is manipulating you, but no, it isn’t bad, and no, it doesn’t lay down problems later. In fact, research shows that the more responsive a mother is in the first year of life, the less an infant will cry in the second year of his life (Bowlby, 1988). He has formed his secure attachment to you, is more confident and feels less anxious than a baby who received less responsive parenting. Now one interesting counterargument is this: babies who are left to cry may also seem to cry less. However, according to studies of cortisol production, the baby’s brain is still flooding with cortisol; he stops crying not because he is content, but because he has learned that when he cries, no one will come to soothe him (Gerhardt, Dangerous Stress, 2004). We all know people who find it difficult to express or name their emotions, and this may well be the beginning of this character trait (Gerhardt, Trying not to feel, 2004). The reason that this matters is that if emotions cannot be expressed, cortisol is released constantly in the baby (and later in the adult), which leads to suppression of the immune system and disease susceptibility. In addition, in the attempt to suppress emotions, the insecurely attached adult is likely to develop a propensity to substance abuse (Blass, 1986) (Lyons, 1996) or eating disorders (Abraham, 2008).

The Good-Enough Parent

Oh no! So does this mean that whenever I mis-read my baby, or fail to notice that he is looking to me for smiles, or when I occasionally leave him to cry because he JUST WON’T STOP, that I am stunting the development of his brain? No, it doesn’t mean that.  The concept of the ‘good enough parent’, and ‘ordinary loving behaviour’ described by psychiatrist, sociologist and psychoanalyst Donald Winnicot, is a great one to introduce here (Winnicott, 1973). Your baby needs you to fail, occasionally. It’s essential for the development of his own emotional regulation abilities, which are so important in adulthood. He needs to learn that his emotions can be soothed, and he learns this as you soothe him most of the time. But then he needs to develop an ability to do this for himself, which he can’t if you are always there, providing exquisite and ‘perfect’ parenting. In addition, it’s OK if responsive care is given by a childminder – it doesn’t have to be you all of the time (Dettling, 2002). If you are an ordinary, loving mother, you are probably doing the right thing. If you’re struggling with bonding or PND, it‘s terribly hard, but don’t waste time on guilt (there will be a reason and it’s NOT your fault)…see your GP, a family psychotherapist or a charity such as OXPIP to get some help.

There’s a lot in this article, but what you need to take home, and out, and everywhere you go, is: your responsiveness, affection and demonstrated love helps to build your baby’s brain…but so does your occasional failure!


This article was based on Susan Gerhardt’s incredible and easy-to-read book “Why Love Matters”.

(2009). Retrieved from Daily Mail:

Abraham, S. (2008). Eating Disorders; The Facts. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Blass, E. (1986). Interactions between sucrose, pain and isolation distress. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behaviour , 483-89.

Bowlby, J. (1988). A Secure Base. Oxon: Routledge.

Dettling, A. (2002). Quality of care and temperament determine changes in cortisol concentrations over the day for young children. Psychoendocrinology , 25: 819-836.

Dettling, A. (2002). Repeated parental deprivation in the infant common marmoset. Biological Psychiatry , 52: 1037-46.

Gerhardt, S. (2004). Building a Brain. In S. Gerhardt, Why Love Matters (pp. 41-43). London: Routledge.

Gerhardt, S. (2004). Corrosive Cortisol. In S. Gerhardt, Why Love Matters (pp. 70-71).London: Routledge.

Gerhardt, S. (2004). Corrosive Cortisol. In S. Gerhardt, Why Love Matters (pp. 56-84). London: Routledge.

Gerhardt, S. (2004). Dangerous Stress. In S. Gerhardt, Why Love Matters (pp. 71-73). London: Routledge.

Gerhardt, S. (2004). Trying not to feel. In S. Gerhardt, Why Love Matters (pp. 93-111). London: Routledge.

Lyons, K. (1996). Attachment relationships among children with aggressive behavior problems: The role of disorganized early attachment patterns. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology .

Winnicott, D. (1973). The Child, Family and the Outside World. Middlesex .

Orphans and Their Life

A child is like raw clay whatever shape we will give it will mould accordingly. Child is most truthful and innocent being, he or she should be treated with great love and respect, they have right to get good education, opportunity in society to grow as good citizen. They need protection from family to build confidence to face the world and care to nurture their childhood. Unfortunately there are millions of children who are living without any support, care and roof. They are deprived of family and education and forced to live in inhuman condition. Such helpless children are known as orphan. An orphan is a person who has lost his or her parents and therefore he left alone and nobody is there to take care for them.

Orphans whose parents have died are thrown out from their house and left alone in the street. Dubai is an international city in UAE, it is well know tourist destination in the world. It is know as shopping paradise and people come with their children to enjoy their holiday. Unfortunately it has many orphans staying alone looking for help and hope. In Dubai orphans are treated as social responsibility of kingdom. They are first sent to paediatric hospital for first aid and basic medical treatment. Afterwards the child is admitted to ward. Thus state hospital takes full responsibility of child development.

They are kept there are treated well. They get all the basic needs like food, clothes and shelter. There is well devised adoption process where these orphans can be adopted by citizens. Volunteers are allowed to visit the hospital so orphan child development can have exposure to out side world. There is one very touching story about called Annie’s girl which talks about a child brought into an orphanage and how she survived and discover about her family and life before orphanage and life after that.

This story describes the intricacies how children are treated in orphanages and how what they become and what happened to them. This tells how the child remembers she was taken to orphanage when she was around three year old unable to think what is happening and what will happen in future. She suffers from not only physical but mental trauma. As she encounters various ugly and inhumane incidents which makes a permanent mark in her memories and troubles her though out her life. This book tells the truth about the inhuman condition in which orphanages are run and how they make feeble and insecure grownups.

Education is very important to every child and it is their birth right. There are many human right bodies and organization which work in welfare to these orphan children. It is very important to make them aware of how education can bring fresh breath in their life. It is very important to take steps to make sure these children get proper education in healthy atmosphere. They should be given equal opportunity to study with normal students and get one with open society.

There are NGOs working towards making an effort give them equal opportunity, they help these children by giving them admission in schools, giving them books, uniform etc. this make them feel that they have support and they can also grow up and become respected member of the family. It is very important to make these children aware for their human rights and so that they can speak up whenever there occurs any unpleasant incident. They should be well protected by law as well. Making them aware about human rights give them power to fight against any atrocities and inhuman acts. These NGOs make sure to safeguard rights.

These orphan children needs home and family and that why there are NGOs and local bodies which help finding home for these children. In Dubai, adoption to such orphan children is guarded; authorities do allow nationals to adopt these abandoned children. According to is Islam holy Prophet Muhammad said that “the house which welcomes orphan and where they are treated with love and affection is considered the best house of all. And the house where there is no love affection, and place for such deprived sons of lord that is considered as worst house”. State of Dubai encourages people to adopt child of god and give them hope and family. However state forbids any other national to adopt its child irrespective of their cast, creed, and social status. Once a child is left to street and abandoned it becomes responsibility of state ward and only nationals and citizens can adopt these children. This law however restricted many Expat living in Dubai and willing to adopt a child there. This law however did encouraged locals to come forward to make them part of their family. People have become well aware and they are welcoming them with open heart.

It is reported that state ward has never had more than 12 god child including girls and boys. Couples look for adoption when they are not able to conceive. And there are cases where people feel responsibility toward these innocent children and wish to give them family. In order to adopt they must give a written request to Director General explaining their situation and reason why they wish to have foster child. Such couples are allowed to visit the ward where they can interact with the children. So when their application is approved they already know which child they will be taking home.

State investigates about the Family status and environment. A complete report gets complied about the family and their background and reason for adoption and submitted to Director General to his kind consideration. Recommendations are given by social worker who thoroughly study each case and then only recommend them; this is lengthy process and may take 2-3 months. However, the process does not end there, with the social workers continuing to follow up for a number of years after the legal fostering process has been completed. Director General of department of heath and medical services Dubai had praised this program enthusiastically and termed it as “very successful” program. Many such orphan children are already married and happy in their respective life.

There is well formed mechanism in Dubai to foster help of orphanage children. The state takes full responsibility of such deprived children and has set up ward 16 in Al Wasl Hospital; hospital authority takes care of these children. Authorized person told that children are brought in the hospital and their health and condition gets checked and afterwards they get admitted to pediatric wards and authorities try to find out about their real parents if they fail to find them such children gets admitted to ward 16 and become ward of state.

All across the globe people work towards welfare of orphans. North London Gas Alliance in London has been working towards improving lives of such children. Great efforts are being taken by countries like Europe, Africa, US, Asia, and Russia. Great efforts of mother Teresa has resulted in changing lives of millions of children. Like she rightly said that “Let nothing perturb you, nothing frightens, you. All things pass: God does not change. Patience achieves everything who ever has God lacks nothing’.’

In order to bring about changes in these deprived children we all act together, government should make permanent arrangement to bring a wholesome environment and give them equal opportunity. It is import educate children who have parents that these orphan children also need their help and support not sympathy.

I have researched that there are NGO and social organization is playing greater part than government bodies, thus government bodies’ should increase their active participation. Also awareness needed to be spread so that society should accept them and give them respect and love. The education should be made available and they should be encouraged to study well and to become responsible citizen.

Two Excellent Hospitals in Changchun, China

Changchun, situated in northeast China, is the capital and largest city of Jilin province. It is a major industrial, transportation, tourist and cultural center of this part of China and is home to the biggest vehicle producer of the country, FAW. The city has a pleasant climate and is often referred to as the forest city, the spring city and the city of automobiles and films. Like all other major cities in China, Changchun also has a well-developed medical service sector. The leading hospitals are provided with the latest facilities and offer the service of eminent doctors at an affordable cost. This is a summary of some of the well known hospitals in Changchun.

China-Japan Union Hospital situated at 126 Xiantai Street in Changchun in the Development Zone is a huge, state-owned, modern hospital with 1550 beds. The hospital was founded in 1949. This tertiary level hospital is managed by the Ministry of Health and was the first A-hospital in the province. This advanced hospital has an area of 201900 square meters and a construction area of 134,400 square meters. The hospital employs 1501 staff members. There are 274 senior medical staff including 80 professors and 156 associate professors. The Japanese government invested 2.6 billion Yen in the venture and this is why it is also referred to as the China-Japan Friendship Hospital. This service-oriented hospital puts great emphasis on the use of modern technology, high levels of quality and is approved as a “Baby Friendly Hospital” by WHO, UNICEF and by the National Drug Clinical Research Center in the Chinese government. The center has full-fledged departments in all major as well as rare specialties including rheumatology, hematology, infectious diseases, honored traditional Chinese medicine, nuclear medicine and electrical diagnosis.

The First Clinical Hospital of Jilin University is another leading hospital in the country and is located at No 71, Xinmin Street in Changchun, near the beautiful Chaoyang Park. The hospital has a 1,100 bed capacity central hospital and 350 bed capacity subsidiary hospital both of which are managed by the Public Health Ministry. This advanced hospital with a 72,650 m2 area has a glorious history of 61 years. The hospital employs 1855 staff including 113 professors and 232 advisors. It has spacious outpatient department that treats over 1,520,000 people annually. The center has acquired 35 prizes of scientific and technological advancement given by the national and provincial governments during the last decade.

What Happens to a Teacher Who Gets a DUI?

Teachers are people who have a great impact on children’s lives. Because of this, teachers are held to very high standards in order to keep their jobs. – And keeping a clean record is a part of this. A DUI is something that can ruin a teacher’s clean record and the penalties of a DUI as a teacher can be more than just a legal nightmare riddled with fines, community service, counseling and DUI school.

The Potential for Job Loss

In some cases a teacher who gets a DUI can lose their job immediately. However, in other situations teachers will be able to continue working, but their contract may not be renewed at the end of its term. Ultimately the decision depends on the school, the circumstances of the DUI and the state. If the DUI is a misdemeanor then an employer may be a little more lenient. However, if the DUI conviction is a felony, then of course the risk of a teacher losing their job is much higher.

Job Suspension

Some school districts will choose an alternative form of punishment for a teacher who is convicted of a DUI, such as a suspension without pay or requiring the teacher to take a year off. The amount of time the suspension lasts will be up to the school and may include other requirements, such as completing an alcohol rehabilitation program. Either way, these options will still mean a loss of wages for the teacher. Which financially speaking is just one more impact as a result of a DUI conviction.

Loss of Teaching License or Certification

Depending on the state where a teacher is arrested and convicted of drunk driving, he or she may automatically lose their teaching license or certification. Unfortunately if this happens, it will leave a teacher with the responsibility of having to find a completely new career, as they likely won’t be able to find employment working in education. This can obviously be a major blow for anyone in the teaching profession.

Being a teacher is a tough job. It’s a career that most people choose because they thoroughly enjoy helping people and having an impact on young people. This is why every teacher should remember the severe punishment for a DUI conviction in the education field. Heck, if you drink, just call a cab. It’s a lot cheaper and could save your life and your career.