How to Prevent Coronary Heart Disease and Heart Attack

Coronary heart disease and heart attack like heart infarction can in great extend be preceded by lifestyle measures.

THE DIRECT CAUSES OF HEART DISEASE

The direct causes of coronary heart disease and heart attack are factors like these:

– Narrowing of blood vessels in the heart and the rest of the body by arteriosclerosis.

– High blood cholesterol level.

– High blood pressure.

– Over-weight.

– Diabetes.

– High level of the amino acid homocystein in the blood.

– High content of low density lipoprotein (LDL) and low content of high density lipoprotein (HDL) in the blood. Lipoprotein is a combination of protein and fatty substances bound together.

– Inflammation in the circulatory system.

– High age.

– Inherited tendencies for high cholesterol levels and heart disease.

– Men have somewhat greater chance of getting heart disease than women.

These factors are interrelated in complicated ways, and are causing or amplifying each other. For example, arteriosclerosis will cause higher blood pressure, and high blood pressure will cause even more arteriosclerosis. Many of these factors are extremely caused or aggravated by these lifestyle factors:

-A too high consume of fat, cholesterol and sugar.

-Consuming the wrong fat types.

-Lack of fiber, vitamins, minerals and other diet deficiencies.

-Stress at work and in the daily life.

-Smoking.

-Lack of exercise.

Lifestyle adjustments will there be the main methods of preventing heart failure.

GENERAL DIET ADVICES

A diet with the aim of preventing heart disease is generally the same as a diet to prevent cancer and other diseases. Here are the general diet advices

– Avoid or reduce the amount of food that is industrially processed, artificially made or heavily fried.

– Eat fish at least every second day. Also eat seafood and fouls.

– Do not eat very much red meat.

– Eat 5 fruits or vegetables each day. Each piece should be of the size of an apple or carrot. They should be raw or carefully boiled so that the nutrients are not washed out.

– Eat full corn bread, full corn cereals, peas, beans and potatoes.

– Eat just a moderate amount of fat.

– Consume cholesterol rich foods like egg, spawn or liver in just moderate amounts.

– Ideally most fat you eat, should be of the type mono-unsaturated. You also need some poly-unsaturated fat of the types omega-3, and omega 6, but not too much of omega-6. The consumption of saturated fat should be moderate.

– In order to achieve right balance balance, much of the fat supply should come from a blending of sources like olive, olive oil, canola oil, nuts, nut oil, sunflower, sunflower oil, linseed oil (flax oil), fish and fish oil.

– Use only a moderate amount of soy oil and corn oil in the diet. Only using such oil types will give you too much poly-unsaturated fat of the omega-6-type.

– Use just a very moderate amount of fat sources like butter, coconut oil and palm oil. A high consumption of these fat sources gives you too much saturated fat.

– Avoid alt fat that has been chemically altered, giving so-called trans-fat. This type of fat is often found in margarine, cookies, snacks, fast food and other pre-made food.

– Consume just a very moderate amount of sugar, refined flour or refined cereals.

– Consume just a moderate amount of tranquilizers and stimulants like alcohol and caffeine.

– Use just a moderate amount of salt in the food. However, in warm weather and by hard physical work, you will need more salt.

DIET SUPPLEMENTS THAT HELP PREVENT HEART DISEASE

Evidence suggests that it will be helpful to take some supplements of natural substances to prevent heart disease and help to ameliorate already manifest heart problems. These supplements are:

– Omega-3-fatty acids derived from fish and other marine sources, especially the fatty acids EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) and alfa-linolaeic acid. 1 gram a day of each of these substitutes may be taken as a supplement. Higher amounts should only be taken under medical supervision, since higher amount of these substances may cause bleeding tendencies, and may suppress the immune system.

– Supplement of vitamin C has been thought to help prevent heart disease, but newer finds cast doubt upon this.

– Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine), folic acid / folate, vitamin b12 and riboflavin seem to prevent the building up of the substance homocysteine ​​in the blood and thereby help prevent heart disease, according to results from research projects.

GET RID OF OVER-WEIGHT

The lifestyle measures listed in this article will also help you loose weight. If these measures are not enough, you should consider engaging in a more specific weight reduction program. You should choose a program that has a moderate fat content philosophy. Some weight reduction programs have a higher fat and low carbohydrate intake philosophy, and those are probably not the best ones to reduce the chance of getting heart disease.

EXERCISE

You should do some exercise of at least half an hour at least every second day. Condition training as vigorous walking, jogging, cycling or swimming is best for reducing the heart attack probability. Muscular building exercises are also of value, especially exercises building leg muscles

STOP SMOKING

If you smoke, stopping or reducing this habit radically will decrease the chance of getting heart problems.

CONTROL DIABETES

If you suffer from diabetes type 1, a good control of the disease by insulin medication and by diet adjustments will help to prevent heart disease.

Many people over the age of 50, and an increasing number of young people suffer from diabetes type 2 because of bad lifestyle. This disease does not necessarily give dramatic symptoms, but the disease increases the chance of getting serious heart problems, and many have the disease without knowing it. This disease can be preceded by the same lifestyle measures described above. If you already have got the disease, a more rigorous control of carbohydrates intake is necessary. And sometimes also medicine must be used. People over the age of 50 and younger people that do not feel well should find out if they suffer from this condition.

TAKING ASPIRIN

Low doses of acetyl salicylic acid or aspirin prevent heart disease by persons bearing a high risk for heart disease. However, this medication increases the risk of bleeding and should not be used without constant medical supervision. For persons with a low risk of heart disease, the dangers of aspirin will be greater than the benefits.

Is High Cholesterol Getting You Down? Why Not Get it Down?

Lowering cholesterol is best accomplished by changing the foods you eat. Eliminating saturated fats and reducing the cholesterol in your diet are both important to good health. Getting your cholesterol down is only treating the symptom, not the cause (poor diet). Although it is a good start but it is far from all that is needed.

Lowering your cholesterol is recommended to lead a more healthy life and maintain a healthy heart. It is actually quite simple to start lowering your levels, and does not require surgery or drugs. With a healthy lifestyle, naturally getting your cholesterol level down is easy since it helps normalize your cholesterol, naturally and safely. One of the easiest ways to starting lowering is to limit the amount of cholesterol you take in. Lowering cholesterol is also something that will help to increase the life expectancy of someone that is suffering with high cholesterol.

Diet is not always effective in lowering your cholesterol, for the simple reason that 90% of it is made by your body. So your cholesterol level has little to do with precisely what you're eating. Diet and drugs are the main instruments available to normalize lipid levels. The choice of drug to combine with diet must be based on its specific effects on lipid metabolism, side effects, and how well it does in decreasing cholesterol levels.

Exercising regularly with thirty to sixty minutes each day can be a great help in lowering your cholesterol. Swim laps and brisk walking are just some exercise that you can do regularly. Exercise, as stated above, will help with that. However, you should maintain a healthy diet as well.

Vegetables, fruit, legumes, whole grains and nuts are naturally rich in fiber. Check the nutrition facts label for grams of fiber. Vegetables and fruits also contain soluble fiber. All of these foods also offer protective phytochemicals.

Can Being Too Clean Cause Crohn’s Disease?

Researchers at a tiny company by the name of Coronado Bioscience, based in Burlington, Massachusetts, say they have enough information to show that this is true and plan to be introducing a new and radically different product in the next few years to fight autoimmune diseases like Crohn’s Disease, Rheumatoid Arthritis and even Multiple Sclerosis.

Studies have shown that the incidence of autoimmune disease tends to be highest in the developed world, and particularly the highest upper-income groups. Researchers hypothesize that the elimination of certain intestinal parasites may have led to the loss in some individuals of a key mechanism for modulating their immune systems.

The technology behind Coronado’s new product was developed by Dr. Joel Weinstock, chief of gastroenterology and hepatology at Tufts Medical Center in Boston, and advisor to Coronado Bioscience, along with researchers at the University of Iowa. It is based on the “hygiene hypothesis,” which holds that many developed countries have, in some ways, become too clean for their own good.

Today in many parts of the modern world organisms or parasites, are kept at bay with an array of antibacterial soaps, detergents and sanitizing gels. However in third world countries where few if any of these sanitation aids are present, millions of organisms, including viruses, bacteria and worms, freely enter the body through contact with dirt. However, Researchers believe many of these organisms are needed to train the body’s immune system to recognize and fight disease. That is why the poorer countries have very few Crohn’s Disease suffers.

Coronado Bioscience is developing what it hopes will be the first in a new class of treatments for autoimmune conditions. Each dose of the drug consists of thousands of microscopic parasite eggs, culled from pig feces, suspended in a tablespoon of saline solution to be swallowed.

In a pig, the eggs would grow into mature whipworms and reproduce, without harming their host. In humans, the same eggs barely survive two weeks. Yet in that short period they appear to modulate a patient’s immune system and prevent it from attacking the body’s own tissues and organs. Better yet, according to Coronado’s chief executive officer, Bobby Sandage Jr., “With the pig whipworm, there is no permanent infection, no real possible side effects”.

Coronado’s partner, German drug maker Dr. Falk Pharma GmbH, is conducting a midstage trial of the drug, known as trichuris suis ova (TSO), in Europe. The two companies plan to share data when filing for marketing approval in 2016 or 2017

The company is also preparing to enroll 220 patients with Crohn’s disease in a midstage clinical trial. Participants will receive either a dose with 7,500 eggs from a pig whipworm or a placebo once every two weeks for 12 weeks.

However, the big question remains: If you had a chronic and potentially debilitating condition such as rheumatoid arthritis or Crohn’s disease, and swallowing the eggs of a pig parasite could help, would you do it?

The team at Coronado Biosciences Inc. is betting you would. Here are a few reasons why:

“It really does take a bit of getting used to. But once you talk to patients and they understand the theory, they accept it. We have had no trouble recruiting,” said Dr. John Fleming, a professor of neurology at the University of Wisconsin who is testing the drug in patients with multiple sclerosis. Humans and their parasites have evolved in tandem for millennia. Most parasites have found ways to feed off humans without killing them, and some have become important for health.

Another reason that Crohn’s and other autoimmune sufferers could be convinced to drink this stuff was offered by Coronado CEO Sandage saying, standard drug treatments for autoimmune disorders carry many risks to use “standard treatments for autoimmune disorders include injectable drugs that block a protein known as tumor necrosis factor. They include Amgen’s Enbrel and Abbott’s Humira. These depress the immune system and send its army of infection-fighting cells back to their barracks. They also raise the risk of serious infection, including tuberculosis, and some types of cancer”. This is a big reason why patients with serious Crohn’s conditions would choose the company’s drug despite its radical departure from the normal medicines offered for years.

Walking Pneumonia Symptoms – Things You Must Know About Walking Pneumonia

The common symptoms of Walking Pneumonia can remain undetected. The walking or atypical pneumonia does not manifests in huge way so person suffering can often ignore it as just feeling little tired or being under the bad weather, quite unlike the bed ridden situation of typical pneumonia.

There are more than 2 millions patients suffer from this each year, most of them are under 15 years old, so knowing the symptoms is important thing especially for the parents. Here are some of the main symptoms being caused by mycoplasma pneumonia, the walking pneumonia virus.

• Lethargy and gradual lack of energy
• Sudden surges of cold through the whole body are felt
• Feeling of pain in the chest and back
• Soar throat and sudden chills
• Severe head aches start
• Annoying fever without any reason
• The nose starts to run
• Severe pain in the stomach, eye and throat

The walking pneumonia can easily cause the feelings of gloom to settle quite fast in any one especially the person having breathing problems already. They can feel out of breath and have quite a shock to the system with this.

The fist stage of this disease can run for three weeks or so before the patient start to show some signs of anything happening. The low energy levels are often the first thing one discovers so keeping eyes on that is important for patients. At the later stages the patients start to lose feelings like smell and taste too.

The immediate treatment should be started as soon as any of these signs start to appear. Your family physician or doctor should be consulted as soon as possible in this. There are some easy tests which can determine the exact problem and its intensity so follow the doctor's advice to avoid this problem to exculpate.

The doctors usually treat this problem with the antibiotics. The key point here is that the tablets should be taken for the full duration as being suggested by the doctors to fully cure it. Some patients go to doctors at the later stage thinking it as just common cold, in such situation the advance level of intervenes antibiotics are given to cure it.

The Papal Vestments and Their Meaning

Papal vestments serve both practical and symbolic purposes. Although early practices subscribed to secular dress, Celestine I rebuked the practice in 429. As a result, Christians adopted the clothing of early Roman antiquity. This proved an important decision since the lack of photographs and portraits meant that the faithful had no way to recognize their religious leaders. Vestments, jewelry, and regalia adorned with royal symbols and colors signified the Pope as an important religious authority. Although Catholic vestments are similar to Papal vestments, certain improvements indicate the Pope's elevated status over ordinary practices.

Formal Vestments
The Pope wears records similar to those worn by other clergy, but several additions signify the Pope's high status. The Pope alone reserves the right to wear the pallium, which is the wide white wool circular band decorated with six crosses. The pallium is loosely draped around the neck and secured in place with golden pins. Although most Popes wear the pallium symmetrically, Pope Benedict XVI chose to wear it asymmetrically in step with Eastern Orthodox churches. The fanon is the double-layered poncho like cape worn benefit the pallium. The bottom layer of the fanon is worn by victories during mass. The mantum, or papal mantle, is a decorative open cloak that opens across the chest and is secured with a brooch known as a morse. The mantum is reserved for the Pope and can be red or white. Previous Popes was a falda, but its use has fallen out of practice. The falda is a skirt that extends beyond the other vestments; its length required footman to stand in front of and behind the Pope to lift so the Pope could walk. It has not been worn since the 1960s.

The tradition of red papal shoes harkens back to the red boots worn by secular Roman rulers. The Pope is the only clergy allowed to wear red shoes or slippers. Pope John Paul II and Pope Francis eschewed red shoes in favor of brown shoes.

Popes have 22 tiaras designated for their use; however, the use of the tiara fell out of practice in 1963 with Pope Paul VI. Instead, Popes wear the three-tiered crown during coronation and the mitre at other formal ceremonies. The three-tiered crown is found on the Papal coat of arms. The mitre is the white cloth crown with peaks in front and back that resembles the priestly head covers of the Old Testament. The mitre is a symbol of priestly authority.

Informal Vestments
While regular clergy wear black during informal occasions, the informal papal vestments are white. The Pope wears a white siman, which is like a cassock or robe, with a short shoulder cape. The siman is fastened above the waist with a wide fringed cloth strip. The fringe is always on the left side and may bear the Papal coat of arms. He may wear a mozzetta, which is a short red cap that that buttons up the front. The cape is red satin in the summer and red velvet during the winter. The mozzetta is made of serge during Lent and is white during Eastertide. A pectoral cross suspended from a gold cord is always worn with the informal vestments.

The Pope wears the zucchetto during ordinary events. This is the white skullcap that is similar to a yarmulke. When the weather necessitates heavier headwear, the camauro replace the zucchetto. It is like a zucchetto but covers the ears and is made of red wool or velvet and trimmed with white ermine. It is similar to the hats worn by ancient academies. Wear of the camauro fell out of practice for several years until Pope Benedict XVI restored it to use.

During private life, the Pope wears the cappello romano. This is a hat with a fall crown and wide brim. It resemblance to the planet Saturn has led the hat to also be known as the saturno. The saturno is never worn during official obligations or during religious services.

Accessories
The Ring of the Fisherman is given to the Pope by the Camerlango of the Holy Roman Church after election. The gold ring depots Peter in a boat casting his net and is surrounded by the name of the Pope. The Pope wears the ring until his death at which time the Cardinal Chamberlain destroys it with a hammer. The Ring of the Fisherman was traditionally used to seal public documents and papal briefs.

The Pope carries the papal ferula, which is the staff topped by the crucifix. It is similar to a bishop's crosier. An umbraculum, which is a red and gold striped canopy that resembles an elaborate umbrella, is often transported over the Pope. It is thought to have originated as a way to keep the hot Roman sun off the religious official.

Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ) – What Is It and How Is It Treated?

The Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ) is the joint that connects the maxilla (upper jaw bone) to the mandible (lower jaw bone). The joint is a sliding ball and socket joint with a disk between. The primary muscles in the area are the massetter and the temporalis which allow the jaw to open, close and to move laterally. This joint is used throughout the day, especially in biting, chewing, talking, and yawning. It is one of the most frequently used joints in the body.

COMMON CAUSES

TMJ syndrome, otherwise known as myofacial pain dysfunction and Costen’s syndrome, can be a complex condition which can involve inflammation of the muscles, tendons, and ligaments, or structural damage to the bones, disk or joint. Because the muscles and joints work together, a problem with either one can lead to stiffness, headaches, ear pain, bite problems (malocclusion), clicking sounds, or locked jaws. The primary cause of TMJ can be overuse caused by chewing gum, the grinding or clenching of teeth, or stress. Injury to the area or misaligned teeth or jaw can also be the cause of the problem. TMJ is largely a chronic disorder, caused over time, but it can occasionally present as acute, in particular when caused by an accident.

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS

Common signs and symptoms include headaches, ear pain, dizziness, a full feeling in the ear, sounds similar to grinding, crunching, popping or ringing sounds which may or may not be accompanied by pain

ASSESSMENT / TESTS

A test to help determine if a client is presenting with TMJ is to place one or two fingers against the triangle area of the ear. Move them slightly to the anterior and ask the client to open and close their jaw. If any pain presents, or if there is any accompanying popping, grinding or clicking of the joint, it would be advisable to refer them to a general practitioner or dentist to diagnose the problem. The client will need to be made aware of any clenching or grinding of teeth and stress that they experience. Clients should also be advised to avoid opening their jaw too widely. Further referral to a psychologist to help with stress management may be helpful.

TREATMENT

Treating TMJ involves passive opening and closing of the jaw, massage of the muscles involved including trigger points, and heat/cold therapy. Ischemic pressure to the area will help to inflame the area and encourage healing. Anti-inflammatory or steroids may be prescribed by a GP, or dental work/surgery may be necessary for structural conditions. Occlusal therapy, where a custom made acrylic appliance which fits over the teeth is prescribed for night use, may also be used. Left untreated, TMJ may lead to permanent wearing of the teeth, the disk or the bones. Damage to the bones could also lead to osteoarthritis in the joint, or an inability to open or close the jaw, otherwise known as lockjaw.

MASSAGE

Massage has been shown to be highly beneficial in the treatment of TMJ. Techniques such as myofascial release, trigger point therapy, and relaxation massage have all shown positive results. The practitioner should focus his attentions on the pectoralis minor, sternocleidomastoid, scalleens, temporalis, and mastoid muscles in particular.

ADDITION ADVICE/REFERRAL

Referral to a general practitioner, dentist, or psychologist would be advantageous. Clients should be advised to utilize heat/cold therapy where applicable and to ovoid clenching their jaws, grinding their teeth, jawing gum, eating hard foods or opening their mouths too wide.

Types of Frozen Shoulder Treatment

Frozen shoulder is a medical condition that is known clinically as adhesive capsulitis. It causes stiffness and restricted movement in the shoulder and arm.

The shoulder capsule or joint is the part of the shoulder that houses the tendons and ligaments. These tendons and ligaments attach the arm bone to the shoulder blade bone. When this joint develops inflammation, it becomes very difficult to move the arm in any direction.

Frozen shoulder has no known cause. However, other medical conditions are thought to add to a patient's propensity for developing this condition. Diabetes, a history of heart surgery or shoulder injury, and hyperthyroidism are all medical conditions that may affect whether or not a person develops frozen shoulder.

There are three phases to frozen shoulder. First, the patient will experience severe pain in the arm and shoulder region. This pain will cause the patient to be related to move the arm resulting in stiffness and possible temporary paralysis. This is the second phase. During the third phase, the infection will begin to improve and the patient will notice restored range of motion.

The severity of the pain and stiffness will determine the treatment that is prescribed. Most doctors agree that the most effective treatment is physical therapy, steroid injections, and NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs).

When physical therapy is done for its treatment, there are exercises that patients must do on a daily basis if the physical therapy is to be successful. If the pain is intense, a nerve block might help to relate some of the pain.

If all other types of frozen shoulder treatment have failed, there are extreme measures that can be taken to correct the problem. The physician may elect to do a shoulder manipulation while the patient is under anesthesia.

This is, however, not an option most doctors like because there is a chance of dislocation of the shoulder or teasing of the shoulder tendons and ligaments. The other option involves surgically cutting any tight ligaments and removing the offending scar tissue.

History of the Collar Stiffener or Collar Stay

Collar stiffeners are essential shirt accessories for the well-dressed man; they enable the shirt collar to lay flat against the collarbone rather than curling up or down. For none UK readers, what the British call collar stiffeners may be known as collar sticks, bones, tabs or stays, although stays are also those safety pin type clips that connect each collar tab via specially made holes in the shirt fabric.

Today the collar stiffener delivered with a shirt is usually made of plastic, pointed at one end and rounded at the other. This is inserted, pointed end first, into a specially made pocket on the underside of the collar that reaches to the point of the collar. On some shirts the collar stiffener may be sewn into the collar, but accidental damage, especially during laundering can result in them buckling or breaking. For this reason, shirts with removable stiffeners are the best choice.

Before the invention of plastic, collar stiffeners were made from solid strips of metal such as brass, celluloid, mother of pearl, horn, ivory, whalebone and valuable and unusual woods. There is a reference in an encyclopedia of 1809 to collar sticks being made of boxwood found on Box Hill in Surrey, although whether these were for the collars of a shirt or the collars of a coat or other garment remains unknown. Suffice to say that the principal and effectiveness of collar stiffeners was well known by this time.

Today’s shirt collars descend from the ruffle created by the drawstring at the neck of the medieval shirt, which was an undergarment rather than an exposed shirt that we are familiar with today. However, when the exposed shirt collar became fashionable detachable collars became popular as they allowed the shirt to be worn for several days while the collar could be changed for a fresh one as and when required. Lace collars were imported from the Holland where there was a thriving lace industry.

These detachable collars would be stiffened with starch during washing to make them crisp. The starch served a secondary purpose in that dirt and sweat would adhere to the starch rather than the fabric and this would easily wash away during laundering along with the starch.

In early Victorian times the shirt collar would generally be worn turned upwards rather than folded down, but as fashions changed to less showy designs the downward pointed collar became the standard that we know today. Having a shirt with a crisp shirt collar was an important fashion feature, but starched collars were stiff and uncomfortable to wear and in the early part of the 20th century many patents for designs for alternative collar stiffening devices were applied for.

There is a source that claim that the modern collar stiffener was invented by Max Rittenberg an employee of Alexander & Oviatt a Los Angeles haberdashers who made their own branded shirts and that Rittenberg’s boss, James Oviatt didn’t patent the idea and gave it to a friend who was a salesman for the Van Heusen shirt-company. However, this claim refers to a date of no earlier than 1912 while as pointed out above, there are several patents earlier in the century for many varieties of collar stiffeners.

Today solid silver collar stiffeners are a fashionable and much longer lasting than the plastic, celluloid, wood or whalebone alternatives. They make terrific gifts for the well-groomed man, especially when personalised with the name or initials of the user, or a special message. The message may be hidden, but the user will have a regular reminder of it when they change the stiffeners between shirts. Messages from children engraved on the stiffeners are especially popular.

The Improper Use of Prostaglandin Gel May Cause Brain Damage and Cerebral Palsy

Prostaglandin gels are popularly used during labor and delivery as an artificial way of inducing labor for women who have difficulty doing so. They mimic the action of prostaglandin, a natural hormone produced by the body. Prostaglandin thins and softens the cervix, preparing it for delivery of the baby. When prostaglandin gels are used, the pregnant woman would usually start labor within 6 to 12 hours.

There are several conditions for the use of prostaglandin gels. Doctors cannot just use them without satisfying even just one of the following conditions. Prostaglandin gels may be used to induce labor if the pregnant woman is already past her due date. They can also be used to start labor if you are going to deliver a large baby or a small one, and you are already near or past your due date. Hypertension in pregnant women is also a ground for induction of labor using prostaglandin gels.

Prostaglandin gels are inserted into the cervix. After that, you have to remain in bed for an hour so that it does not ooze out and it stays in place. While you are lying in bed, you will be hooked to a fetal monitor so that the doctor can monitor your contractions and the baby’s response to the prostaglandin gel. You will start to experience true labor within 6 to 12 hours, but if you don’t, you will be sent back home and asked to return for another dose at another time.

Prostaglandin gels can have some rare but annoying side effects, such as vaginal irritation, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting, cramping pain, and lower back pain. You may also have excessive contraction, which can be pretty dangerous. Excessive contractions result from overstimulation of the uterus, which can then lead to fetal hypoxia or lack of oxygen going to the brain of the baby, hence leading to brain damage. That is why it is important for pregnant women to be hooked to a fetal monitor during the induction of labor with the use of prostaglandin gel. If the doctors ignore the effects of the prostaglandin gel and something bad happens to the baby or the mother, they can be held liable for the incident. They can also be held liable for the improper use of prostaglandin gels.

However, it is very easy to defend these kinds of cases on the part of the doctors. Most doctors’ lawyers will argue that what happened during labor and delivery are beyond their control already and the brain damage that baby incurred is a result of non-physician management causes. They can also argue that the brain damage can be caused by a number of other factors, such as inherent metabolic conditions, infection, genetics, and even the mother’s lifestyle.

A Look At Sleep Paralysis And The Old Hag Syndrome

You wake up and realize that you can not move. You can not speak, and then, all of a sudden you realize you're not alone.

If you've never experienced Old Hag Syndrome, then you're very, very fortunate. If you're unfamiliar with the phenomenon, let me enlighten you … so to speak.

A person wakes or is suddenly and inexplicably awakened to find that he or she can not move, feels a weight on their chest or body and senses that there's an evil or threatening presence in the room. The experience seems so terrifying because the victims, although paralyzed, have full use of their senses and faculties. In many cases the sufferer feels as if someone is sitting or lying on the bed beside them. The feeling of something on top of or beside the person is often preceded by strange smells and sounds, the sound of approaching footsteps or opening doors, and a sense of something dark or evil. The oppressive weight on the chest or body makes it difficult if not impossible to breath and the victim is unable to scream out for help or even speak. Often dark shadows, old women or glowing eyes are witnessed. All of the body's senses are telling the person that something real and unusual is coming to them, however, when they finally regain the ability to move and speak they find that there's nothing visible in the room.

In the Gullah lore, this nightmarish experience is described as being "hag-ridden." The "Old Hag" was believed to be a nightmare spirit in British and Anglo North American folklore. Folk belief in Newfoundland, Georgia and South Carolina tells of a dark figure of a hag who leaves her physical body at night and perches herself on her victims' chests. The victim wakes with a feeling of terror, has difficulty breathing (because of a perceived invisible weight on his or her chest), and is unable to move.

The phenomenon was broadly considered to be the work of demons or incubi, which were believed to sit on the chests of sleepers and engage in sexual intercourse with both men and women. In Old English tales, these entities were called mares, or a mære, and is the root of our modern word nightmare. Today these experiences are thought to be the result of a physiological condition called sleep paralysis.

Sleep paralysis has become a common medical explanation for a terrifying phenomenon that is happening to more and more people around the world and has been coming to people for hundreds or thousands of years. Today, this event or 'condition' is considered a sleep disorder by doctors and researchers who bother to look into the phenomenon, which by the way is very few. And these 'specialists' tell us there are two different types of sleep paralysis: hypnagogic and hypnopompic. Hypnagogic paralysis occurs shortly before falling asleep, while hypnopompic paralysis typically occurs right after falling asleep. The typical sleep paralysis experience usually happens when the brain is awakened from REM sleep.

According to the researchers who do study the phenomenon, it may or may not be bought at times of stress, it may or may not result from improper or insufficiency sleep and it may or may not happen if you sleep on your back. The symptoms can -can be the operative word here- can sometimes include complete to partial paralysis of arms, legs and upper body. It can include the sensation of weight or pressure on the entire body, or sometimes just the chest. It can sometimes include a choking sensation, and is usually, but not always, experienced at sleep sunset or just as one is waking up.

Auditory or visual hallucinations are often experienced during an episode of sleep paralysis. An intense fear or panic can often accompany the experience as well. The sufferer (erroneously) believes that there is an alien, demonic, evil or malevolent being, energy or presence of some kind in the room with them intent on doing them harm in some way.

As I mentioned, research suggests that sleep paralysis is correlated with REM (rapid eye movement) sleep. The REM sleep cycle is when we seem to have the most vivid, bizarre and lengthy dreams and so our brains shut off our motor centers in order to keep us from acting out our dreams and preventing us from injuring ourselves. Thus our brain is fully active but our body is totally paralyzed.

Thus, neuro-scientists posit that sleep paralysis (and consequentially old hag syndrome) is the result of our mind waking up while still in a REM cycle, and our body remaining immobilized because of this safety mechanism which causes the often terrifying sensation of being fully awaken and aware, and at the same time paralyzed. This explanation suggests that the sufferer is still in some of a dream state and partly conscious at the same time. This results in the conscious mind perceiving the dream content as real and terrifying. This is somewhat analogous to experiencing a lucid nightmare.

The aforementioned is the scientific explanation of the phenomenon. However, although the theory does or seems to explain the undering mechanisms associated with the paralysis that occurs during an episode, it fails to account for all the other symptoms or experiences during the event that people continuously recount. Sufferers often report pain in various areas of their bodies; horrible smells; feeling violated or strangled. Some individuals have reported having their hair pulled; feeling their bed move or the impression of someone or something sitting or laying beside them. Some people have even reported physical marks on their bodies after the experience has ended.

My own experience with this phenomenon happened about twenty years ago. I had shattered my leg and my knee snowboarding with my sons on New Years Eve. To make a long story a little shorter, I ended up in a full leg cast for months. However, just after the surgery, I was not to put any weight on my leg at all so I was not given crutches and was pretty much bedridden for several weeks. It was during this time that I endured the most terrifying night of my life.

I was not able to sleep with my husband in our bed because of the cast and the need to keep my leg elevated, so I was sleeping in our youngest son's room. I was awakened by the sound of footsteps and the floorboards creaking. As every mother knows, we're ever vigilant when it comes to our children so we sleep with "one ear open," so to speak.

I immediately sensed that someone or something was in the corner of the room and I KNEW it was not my husband or either of my sons. I heard the footsteps near the bed and I felt someone or something sit on the edge of the bed, and I heard the bed springs creak and moan. The room was very dark and I could not see anything at first. Then I smelled a horrible stench. I can only describe it as a rotting, musty, moldy smell. And then I felt something pressing on my chest and I could not breath.

I began to see an outline of an old woman (can not remember the details very well any more) and my heart began to pound so hard I could feel it in my chest and hear it in my ears. This thing, presence whatever it was, was moving closer and closer to my face and I could feel its hands on my throat. I tried screaming but no sound came out. I tried moving and was unable to move.

I was absolutely terrified and beyond rational thinking. I unfortunately searched the room looking for something … what I do not know. I heard my husband snort (in his sleep) in the other room and then all of a sudden I could move and speak. I screamed for my husband while at the same time jumping up out of the bed and literally running -in a cast- to where my husband lay peacefully sleeping. I refused to sleep in that room again. I stayed and slept on the sofa in the living room for the duration of the time I had to keep my leg up.

I found out a few years later that my son, who was ten at the time we lived in that house, also had the same experience in that room.

Can this experience be considered a sleep paralysis episode? Well, I was sleeping prior to the episode and I was unable to move or speak. But that's all I can confirm with any certainty. First, I did not just fall sleep or I was not on the verge of waking up. I had been in bed for a few hours. Neither was I sleeping on my back. I woke up on my left side. Although some would argue the point, considering I had shattered my leg, I was not stressed. My sleep was a little disrupted due to the discomfort and of not being able to sleep in my own bed, but it was not overly so. I was not in the middle of a dream when I woke up. And I know this because I'm a dream researcher and therapist and I've been recording my dreams for years. I would have been aware that I was dreaming.

I was also completely wake and alert before the pressure on the bed or my chest began, and the fear increased gradually. I did not wake up terrified. Nor was I the only one to experience this phenomenon. Therefore, the evidence or argument for the sleep paralysis theory being the 'cause' of a sleep related hallucination is tremendously weak. Just as a side note: I have had difficulty sleeping for many years now. It started long after this experience. I suffer from frequent wake ups and I'm lucky if I can sleep for two straight hours at a time. So you would think that I would be a strong candidate for repeating bouts of "sleep paralysis." Additionally, I also suffer from migraines. But, thankfully, I've never had this horrible phenomenon repeat.

Not all researchers, academies and interested observers of this phenomenon buy into the medical or scientific explanation; Egypt at least not all of it.

Dr. David Hufford, the forensic authority on sleep paralysis and "the old hag" syndrome argues that; after studying these experiences for over three decades, and indeed experiencing it itself beginning in college, the scientific paradigm is ill-equipped or incapable of explaining the varied experiences connected to the episodes and so we must look to something other than the materialistic method for an accurate explanation.

According to Hufford there are some typical "symptoms" that are universally experienced during, or within, this phenomenon that help individuals identify and acknowledge that they are victims of such terrors:

  1. The individual is somehow suddenly awakened
  2. The sufferer is paralyzed yet fully cognizant of their environment and thoughts
  3. The individual is unable to speak
  4. The victim generally finds it difficult to breath
  5. A negative or evil presence or entity is sensed or seen
  6. The experience is terrifying

"Sleep paralysis embryologies a universal, biologically based explanation for pervasive beliefs in spirits and supernatural beings," Hufford argues. "The experience thrusts mentally healthy people into a bizarre, alternative world they find difficult to chalk up to a temporary brain glitch."

Currently, there seems to be only two theories for this phenomenon; a physiological, scientific one related to a malfunctioning sleep mechanism and a supernatural one that has developed into folklore and tales of demons and witches sneaking around in the dark trying to suffocate or seduce us. There has to be another explanation, something between the two, one that explains all the symptoms or collective experiences of the phenomenon and provides a realistic and logical cause at the same time.

I will admit that it's helpful and probably reassuring for individuals who've experienced this to know that there is at least some physiological basis for the encounter, and to know that they're not alone, nor are they crazy. But just knowing what the mechanisms of REM sleep are, and what the possible problems may be does not help me, and I assume many others, in understanding why a relatively rare, or presumably rare, physiological malfunction in the sleep cycle results in what we see and what we feel during this "glitch" as David Hufford called it.

It's my intention to continue researching this subject and hopefully develop or at least discover alternative theories, ideas or possibilities.

To read more accounts of very real experiences with this phenomenon click here .

Bipolar Medications

The treatment for bipolar disorder usually involves bipolar medication. Often medications are used in combination for effective results, and it can take a period of trying different medications before a suitable medication or combination of bipolar medications is found to suit the individual.

Because bipolar mood swings often move between periods of mania and depression, mood stabilisers may need to be used in conjunction with anti-depressants, but caution needs to be exercised as for some there is a real risk of the depressed mood switching to a mood elevation, and this switching can have negative implications in long-term treatment.

Some of the more common bipolar disorder medications* include-

Mood Stabilisers

The most common and utilised being-

Lithium

Valproate or divalproex (Epilim or Depakote),

Lamotrigine (Lamictal or Lamictin ),

Olanzapine (Zyprexa )

Quetiapine (Seroquel)

Carbamazepine (Tegretol)

There is some evidence for the use of oxcarbazapine (trileptal), while topiramate (topamax) and gabapentin are not of established value.

Antipsychotics

Most commonly used are-

Olanzapine (Zyprexa)

Risperidone (Risperdal)

Quetiapine (Seroquel)

Aripiprazole (Abilify)

Ziprasidone (Zeldox)

Antipsychotic medications are used in treating mania and some have also been effective in treating depression and preventing the recurrence of episodes. They are at times used to relieve anxiety and sleep difficulties.

*All medications have a generic name – this is related to their chemical composition. All medications also have a trade or brand name which is given by the pharmaceutical company. Generic names are consistent across countries, however the brand name varies, we have included some of the commonly known brand names on this list in brackets ( ).

For more articles on Bipolar Disorder and for an Online Bipolar Self Help Program visit MoodSwings.

Tonsils White Spots – Treatment & Cure For Tonsillitis White Lumps

Many times we come across peripheral ailments. They may seem to be minor ones, but if ignored, they become chronic. One such ailment is white spots on the tonsils. These can occur in various parts around the tonsils, inside the mouth and on the neck. Most of these white spots are visible with a naked eye. It looks like a lump coming out of the neck.

Actually, these lumps are caused due to unwanted accumulation of debris and sulfur based bacterium near the tonsils. They start with food wrapped with mucus getting collected in then neck. Then slowly and steadily, the mucus is secreted by the body and food gets converted in to bacteria. Initially, it is harmless, but in the span of time a lot of bacteria are formed in these spots and then they become really harmful. When the stone becomes hard, you have no choice but to get it removed surgically. In case they are checked in time, you can get rid of them with some simple home remedies. Some of these tips are given below:

Home remedies to get rid of tonsil white spots

* You must have lots of liquids. These include fresh vegetable juices and smoothies. You must avoid solid foods as much as possible as it causes more irritation in the neck.

* Next, you should gargle with warm water at least 4 to 5 times a day. You have many options of what to add in this water. You can add only salt. Another choice is salt, powdered pepper and turmeric powder. The third alternative is salt, lime juice and concentrate of fenugreek seeds boiled in water.

* You must not have very cold or very hot water or food, all this while.

* The bad breath that is caused in this problem can be stopped by using some mint gargles. Also you must keep your toilets separate and also store them very hygienically.

* Next, you must change your tooth brush very frequently.

* The people who often have tonsil white spots must rinse their mouth and gargle properly after every meal.

Diabetes – The Silent Killer!

Diabetes is a silent killer. It preys on one's body like animal in the wild. It can take away one's limbs, eyes and also eat away one's organs. This deadly disease is capable of many things to create havoc in one's life. It is important to remember not to ignore this lethal disease for it will not ignore and spare anyone affected.

The general population does not regard diabetes as the silent killer, but the medical community does. Diabetes is one of the top 10 killers in the medical world and diabetic heart diseases account for most deaths. Due to the vagu and subtle symptoms that are typical of diabetes, it is one of the most common undiagnosed diseases.

It does not kill one suddenly, but high blood sugar levels gradually damage all the blood vessels through the body, sometimes for years before one gets diagnosed. It is also associated with other silent killers, rarely hypertensive and high cholesterol.

Consider this once one diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes, he has to spend the rest of his life injecting himself with insulin four times a day, have an increased chance of contracting cardio vascular disease, blindness and loss of limbs. Is not that enough to classify this deadly disease as a silent killer?

According to a survey, more than 80 years have elapsed since the discovery of insulin, a hormone that has changed this lethal disease into a chronic yet manageable condition. Despite this diabetics still have a life expectancy of 15 years or less than average.

Managing the disease is important because not only does it shorten one's life but also affects the quality of life. If not managed properly it can result into organ failure and other life threatening ailments like high blood pressure, heart disease, heart failure, kidney disease and renal failure. That's why Diabetes is aptly called a silent killer.

Children and Obesity – Today's Parents Have Longer Life Expectancy Than Their Children

Today's generation is the first generation in US history not expected to live longer than their parents. The main reason: obesity. Doctors are concerned about childhood obesity because it can lead to life-threatening conditions such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, asthma, and sleep apnea. Regretfully, social isolation and discrimination can also be an income for the obese child. Although obesity can be linked to one's genetic makeup, there are important behaviors within our control that can reduce the likelihood of excess weight gain. So what can parents can do to protect their children from the dangers of childhood obesity?

Limit passive television, internet, and video game entertainment. What's the magic number? Two hours per day or less.

Rarely give your kids sugary sweets or high-fat treasures. You should never allow your children to eat sugary sweets or sodas on a daily basis. Our children only get sugary treats perhaps once a week or twice a month. And, as a result, they do not crave them or hound us for them. Healthy snacks include bananas, carrots, fig newtons, grapes, and other fruits. Fruit juices contain a lot of sugar as well. Mix water with about 1 / 6th organic fruit juice. This will keep your kids hydrated, keep the calories low, and still give them a little flavor and vitamin C. Of course, it's even better if you can juice the fruit yourself.

Make them move! It does not necessarily have to involve expensive gymnastic classes, structured swim lessons, or an overly scheduled lifestyle. Remember when you were a kid? Most of us spent a good portion of our childhood entertaining ourselves by running around the neighborhood playing games. We were not thinking about exercise – we were just doing it. Chase your kids around the yard or go for an evening walk with the family. Just make sure that they move their bodies every day.

Eat at home. One major reason to eat at home that many people may ignore is the fact that you can control the cleanliness of your food. A friend of mine who worked at a four-star restaurant went into work one day with the flu. When I asked him why he would go in and handle food, he said he would not get paid and could even get fired for missing a busy weekend shift. But as it pertains to obesity, portion control is the main reason to eat at home. Today's plate in the average American restaurant was yesterday's platter that fed an entire family.

Hide the veggies. With kids, especially picky toddlers and preschoolers, you can sneak the veggies into their diets by making their food fun. For example, you can make a salad into a cartoon-looking face, or a plate of whole-grain pancakes into a clown face with strategically- placed berries. Also, make a list of their favorite dishes and think of creative ways you can make them more healthy.

With collective education and effort, we can reverse the dire prediction regarding the longevity of the youngest among us and help make them the healthiest generation to have ever lived. It's up to us to protect our children.

Yeast Infection Rash – How to Easily Recongnise a Yeast Infection Rash & Cure It!

Rashes are commonplace and many people all over the world suffer from an annoying, itchy rash at some point or other. However not many people seem to be able to tell the difference between a normal everyday rash and a yeast infection rash. In fact, there can be many different types & causes of everyday rashes, so how do you go about diagnosing one that is being caused by an underlying yeast infection?

Here’s How You Can Easily Identify A Yeast Infection Rash:

Location – it is a known fact that yeast infections tend to prefer and thrive in moist, warm places on the body (e.g. the genital area), so if you notice a red, itchy rash here then it could be caused by a yeast infection. If the rash is elsewhere on the body, then it is less likely. If the rash only seems to affect the areas in close contact with clothing etc, then this is most likely going to be a standard heat rash.

Appearance – A yeast infection rash will typically have little red bumps and this is a good indication that you have an infection. Any rash without bumps is again less likely to be caused by an infection.

Sensitivity – Heat rashes and other generic rashes are itchy and annoying, but usually a rash caused by a yeast infection will be more intense and uncomfortable.

Why Yeast Infections Can Be Dangerous If Left Untreated!

If you ignore an infection (or only treat the symptoms and not cure the underlying cause), then you are highly prone to further outbreaks in the future. Failure to remove the yeast infection can in some cases lead to more long term health problems, where the infection can enter your bloodstream and attack internal organs.. It can even enter your brain, and infections here are very severe indeed.

So How Can I Prevent This From Happening?

Fortunately, yeast infections are totally curable and long term problems can be avoided if you treat it right. A lot of people use over the counter treatments, but whilst these do work in relieving the symptoms of an infection, they don’t really cure the root cause of the infection – they just cover it up really until the next outbreak.

The best way to cure an infection properly, is to fight it at the source inside your body where it originates from. This can be done 100% naturally, safely and also cheaply (as it doesn’t involve medication). There is a product on the market now which will do just this, cure your infection at the source and stop it coming back for good, plus it works very quickly indeed – just 12 hours is the average time it takes to work.