A Solution to Feminine Hygiene Disposal

More and more public restrooms are being outfitted with restroom sanitation equipment. This type of equipment includes things such as automated toilet flushers, sanitary floor mats, and automatic faucets just to name a few. This proactive effort is encouraging to see because the general public is now more aware of what they can do when looking to avoid germs – especially those in public restrooms.

One specific area in the restroom that needs more promotion is feminine hygiene disposal. Too many schools, offices and other public restroom facilities currently do not offer the ideal disposal services. Typically the disposal service involves a special trash can, and must be emptied by an employee on a daily basis. The problem with this approach is twofold. First, many females are afraid to open the container with their hand for fear of touching an unsanitary product. This results in our second problem which is plumbing blockage that is associated with the flushing of sanitary products.

Avoiding Contact

Avoiding contact with any type of unsanitary feminine product should be the focus of any female restroom patron. In order to provide the best solution, some facility owners and building managers are turning to professional feminine hygiene disposal services. This helps with the following:

· Decreases the amount of cross-infection and exposure to blood-borne pathogens.

· Biodegradable E-Cards placed inside the units inhibit bacterial growth and eliminate odor.

· No more open or overflowing containers in the bathroom.

· Decreased plumbing issues as a result of the flushing of sanitary products.

· Eliminate the need to change the liners daily. This decreases the amount of labor and cleaning costs.

When Problems Arise

When problems arise in public restrooms it can be a frustrating experience because many of the problems could have been avoided. When there is not an adequate way to dispose of feminine hygiene products, many females make a decision that typically results in costly repairs. Did you know that companies spend thousands of dollars in plumbing repairs each year when tampons swell and clog pipes? Having the right disposal equipment in public restrooms can save organizations thousands of dollars annually. It is also important to note that many elect to use an abundant amount of toilet paper to wrap used tampons and pads. This type of consumption can be cost over time.

What You Can Do

If your school or office does not offer a clean and safe way to dispose of your waste waste, talk to your boss, facility manager or the building owner about utilizing the proper equipment. Educating them on the advantages of this type of technology will help them understand that providing a better solution is not only responsible and more hygienic, but can also help cut cost annually.

Women at Risk For High Cholesterol

Even a woman who routinely aces her medical tests may earn less-than-perfect scores at cutting-edge preventive health centers. At some health centers the goal is to get women to lower risk factors beyond standard recommendations. Here are some answers to your questions on the numbers that translate into maximum protection.

What cholesterol levels do you look for? New national guidelines say that LDL (bad) cholesterol levels less than 100 are optimal, and that patients with a previous heart attack or diabetes should level for levels below 70. We say that less than 75 is optimal for healthy people. For HDL (good) cholesterol, guide lines are that over 50 is normal for women; we want levels of 65 or higher.

What about blood pressure? You should pretty much go with the guidelines: under 120/80. But doctors tell patients that even lower is better. If your pressure rises in the doctor's office, keep in mind that it's probably also going up when you're stressed at work or stuck in traffic-that can be a risk.

How can women achieve these superlow numbers? If you have only a borderline risk, you should talk about diet, exercise, and stress reduction. Often, just by making lifestyle changes, women can get a 20 percent improvement in their cholesterol levels.

Does that always work? No. Even women who eat well and are fit may have problems with cholesterol. In that case, it's probably genetic. That's when medication can really add to what you do on your own.

What's the takeaway message for women? Stay on top of your tests. Ask to get a copy of lab results, not just a call saying everything's OK. Since labs vary, it's best to track changes in your cholesterol by the ratio of total cholesterol to HDL (divide the total by the HDL number). What do you look for? The American Heart Association says you should aim for a ratio below 5: 1; we believe the optimal is 3.5: 1. And if your ratio, weight, or blood pressure start to creep up, take action. It's much harder to reverse things once you have heart disease or diabetes.

Stress Kills – How to Deal With the Death Hormone

Chronic stress is linked to heart attacks, stroke as well as life impairing diseases like diabetes. Along these, stress can cause you headaches, eczema flare ups, insomnia, chronic aches and pains, weight gain around your waist, ulcers, indigestion, anxiety attacks and burn out. It also increases your bad cholesterol level and leads to an increased risk of heart disease.

Even if stress does not kill you, in your quality of life. Stress ages you more quickly too, leading you to an earlier grave.

You see, stress causes your body to produce more cortisol. The stress hormone, also known as the death hormone. As we grow older, growth hormones and other hormones decrease, while cortisol increases.

Cortisol increases your blood sugar levels. In a situation where you need to physically fight off or run from a threat, like a caveman confronted by an angry bear, that comes in useful as more energy is ready for your body to use. However, if blood sugar levels stay high due to elevated cortisol levels, you can develop diabetes as a result.

Likewise, when blood pressure increases and blood is directed away from non essential tasks like digestion, and heart beatises, your body is better prepared to fight or flee from physical threats, however, if this is sustained in the long run, you'd end up with high blood pressure and heart disease.

Unfortunately, stress is part and parcel of life. Some people accept better with stress than others. Type A personality types, the go getters and perfectionists are most likely to be adversely affected by stress. They key thing is this. After a stressful event, your body needs to wind down. You need to let the cortisol levels subside, for your metabolism to return to normal, for the non essential systems like your digestive system to function normally, for your heart rate to lower to its normal rate, in order to stay healthy in the long run .

In other words, you need to relax.

Take a break. Not by party. Give yourself some time out. Read a book. Rest by the beach. Stare out into the horizon. Just do nothing.

Lowering High Cholesterol Levels

Raised cholesterol level equals increased risk of heart disease and in many cases diabetes and many forms or cancer. There are two main causes of high cholesterol levels:

– Saturated fats – found mostly in animal products
– Hydrogenated fats – found mostly in pastries, cookies, margarines and other processed foods.

You can take an action and lower your cholesterol levels significantly by introducing some changes into your diet and exercise patterns. These are the main steps you can take:

– Eat plenty of fiber rich whole grains, vegetables, fruit and organic soy products
– Introduce more movement and exercise into your everyday life

In general, the higher the intake of fiber (found in whole grains, legumes, vegetables and fruits) in your diet, the lower the level of cholesterol you will have in your blood. Scientific evidence indicates that a diet based on plant food with a minimal amount of foods derived from animals is the ideal diet for human beings.

The best diets are those in which every calorie comes packed with nutrients. When you eat foods low in healthy nutrients, you body still feels starving and you want to eat more.

Avoid processed foods and empty calories. Foods to avoid:

– Sugary soft drinks
– Fatty burgers and fries
– Creamy deserts, including most of the cheese cakes
– Snacks with a large quantity of sugar or high fructose corn syrup

Introducing more movement and exercise into your everyday life is also a huge step towards lower cholesterol levels. Start with some light exercise 3-5 days a week and gradually increase the exercise intensity and frequency as far as it feels comfortable. If you have high blood pressure or any heart problems please consult your GP before starting your exercise program.

In conclusion, try avoiding processed foods and foods with empty calories and low nutritional value. Eat a varied diet which includes a lot of plant based products, whole grains and a small quantity of lean meat and other foods derived from animals. Move more and exercise more, ideally 5-7 days a week and you will see significant results.

Waking Up to a New Horizon

LIFE !!!

To believe in your life is to have hope in what tomorrow will bring.

When a man works on his physique, straight & a woman benefits her beauty with colors & ornaments, it brings us back to the dark days where the ancientors would be ready to face the battle of survival.

Live life to the fullest of your emotions. Appreciate the sunrise & the sunset.

To enjoy every single moment, to win depression, to do volunteer work, to trust your instinct.

Learn how to forgive, do not hold yourself to insignificant and worthless issues.

Smile until you cry. Have positive thoughts. Your thoughts will turn into words, your words will turn into actions & your actions will lead you into the life you choose to have.

Respect other people's feelings. laugh by yourself, laugh of your self, be honest, start looking a lives around. Happiness can arrive in small packages. Understand that you are unique.

Dance; do not be embarrassed. Do not hold your self to matter because it does not matter. You can replace it as many times as needed, it's just matter.

Breathe the ocean breeze, pay attention to Mother Nature. Appreciate a raining day or even a hot one. Be motivated, be able to see beyond the appearance.

To discover something so simple but yet so important. We need each other. Always look at new horizons.

Acknowledge that you are human and so am I.

Go ahead and be ready to win your biggest opponent which is yourself. See your beauty.

Understand that life is a consequence of your actions & do not delay any decisions.

Live life with passion. Put you positive energy in everything you do.

Are you going to bake a cake? Let it be the best cake!

Are you going to clean the floor? Let it be the cleanest floor! And do not ever be sorry for what you did not do.

Be a partner, take advantage in the opportunities life keeps on presenting you.

Listen to your heart, because it is The Master.

Love life as if there's no tomorrow.

Different Types of Breast Cancer

Perhaps if you’re already experiencing some of the symptoms of breast cancer, you’re more concerned in determining the type of cancer you have. So, what are the different types of breast cancer?

About 5-10% of breast cancer incidents are due to hereditary factors. Individuals with genetic defects in the BRCA1 (breast bane gene1) and BRCA2 (breast sarcoma gene2) are more prone to developing ovarian bane and breast cancer.

Breast tumors can also come from inherited mutations especially with CHEK-2 gene, p53 gene (growth suppressor), and ataxia-telangiectasia gene. If these genes are present in your family, you’re at high risk of developing the disease.

The inflammatory breast cancer primarily involves the skin areas of the breast. About 4% of the total numbers of patients are diagnosed with inflammatory breast every year. Oftentimes, it is characterized by general boils or rosiness of the breast skin. Lumps may also be present in some cases.

Here are the different types of breast cancer:

1. Tumor grade – this is assigned by the pathologist and it is based on the typeface of the melanoma; through the use of the microscope, the pathologist can see how the cells resemble with the breast bandanna. Through the given grading info, the doctor can determine the best handling options

2. Metaplastic carcinoma – the lesion localizes and you can find different cell types which are not usually present in other forms of breast cancer. The diagnosis and treatment are similar to the dangerous ductal carcinoma.

3. Tubular carcinoma – the name was derived from the plague appearance as seen from the microscope; this is an insidious type of cancer as compared to the lobular carcinoma and ductal carcinoma.

4. Lobular carcinoma (in situ) – this is not sarcoma. However, this would mean that the individual is at high risk of developing melanoma. Even if you don’t have lobular carcinoma but your sister and mother has it, you will also be at high risk.

There are also times when an individual develops fibrocystic changes. These refer to cysts and fibrosis. Cysts are crammed fluid sacs while fibrosis is fibrous, or hankie or wound-like formation. Fibrosis and cysts often develop first prior to the breast cancer stage.

If you feel a lump on your breast and you see a slightly dull or filmy nipple discharge, this may already be a symptom of the deadly disease. Only a doctor can accurately diagnose if you have breast cancer or not. Several tests are performed before accurate diagnosis can be given. After that, you can choose among the different treatment options available.

Some patients go for the conventional treatments but there are also those who forgo with the conventional medicines and instead choose the alternative medications. Well, it is up to you to choose the best treatment option to employ. If you can’t afford the conventional medications, you can always choose the alternative medications but oftentimes, you need to consider the stage of the cancer you are in.

The treatments vary and it depends greatly on the types of breast cancer. There is an appropriate treatment for a particular type of cancer. Only the doctor can give you the proper treatment. Don’t attempt to use any other medications unless your doctor tells you so. Breast cancer is a serious matter and it can be life threatening when left untreated. Do some self examinations and if you discover a lump or mass, consult a doctor at once.

What Causes Cold Sores to Reactivate?

Cold sores, also called as fever blister are small painful blisters that suggest the sign of herpes simplex outbreak. It is estimated that around 80-85% of the total world population will have herpes simplex sometimes in their life. Although cold sores are mild compared to other viral infections, they can cause extreme physical discomfort and have tremendous negative effect on social life. It not only impact the lives of the sufferers, but also those of family members and relatives. Cold sores are generally seen on lips, mouth and inside nose. In some cases like immunocompromised people (those with HIV Aids, Diabetes, Cancer) they may even occurs inside mouth, but for normal healthy people its rare.

What causes cold sores?

Cold sores are caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2. More than 90 percent of cases are caused by type 1 virus (HSV-1) and few percent accounts for type 2 (HSV-2). HSV-2 virus causes genital herpes in human. What are the triggering factors of cold sores? Based on two factors, internal and external factors herpes simplex virus can be triggered anytime during the life. Internal factors are those which can’t be prevented while external factors may be prevented and avoided. Below are some of the triggering factors for herpes simplex virus.

Internal factors that triggers herpes reactivation

  • Fever
  • Infection with another virus like flu and common cold
  • Minor infections
  • Menstruation
  • Metabolic diseases like diabetes and thyroid disorders
  • Fatigue
  • Factors or diseases that suppress your immune system
  • Gastrointestinal disorders

External Factors that triggers herpes simplex reactivation

  • Excessive prolonged sun exposure
  • Anxiety, stress and other emotional disorders
  • Prolonged and excessive dryness of the lips
  • Some allergic reactions
  • Cold or chills
  • Any physical injuries
  • Dental procedures

There is no cure for herpes; once you are infected with herpes simplex virus, it stays inside your body forever. Most of the herpes infection are acquired during childhood and stays inactive inside your body until certain factors like above mentioned triggering factors reactivates it. Good thing is that, if you avoid such triggering factors and are immunocompetent cold sores may not return and you could live a normal healthy life.

Quick note:

  • Do not squeeze bite or pick the blisters
  • Avoid foods that are acidic in nature and avoid salty, spicy foods
  • Avoid sharing day to day applications like towels, razors, lips balm etc.
  • Herpes simplex is highly contagious, avoid kissing or other oral activities during the breakouts

Avoiding Fuel Poverty and Saving Energy by Insulating Hard-to-Heat Solid Wall Homes


Do you remember the saying “It’s the ECONOMY, stupid!”. It is a statement that has gone into political legend. But as far a global warming is concerned we need to recognise that “It’s the HOUSE, stupid”. In fact individual homes in Western Developed Nations are responsible for up to 50% of global warming – and hence climate change – problems.

Heating causes most of this because a great deal of the energy used comes from burning fossil fuels. It doesn’t matter whether this is in the home or at some remote electricity generating station. Wherever the fuel – the coal, gas, wood, oil and so on – is converted into energy it gives off carbon dioxide gas – the main “green house” gas that helps cause global warming.

In fact 25% of all the UK’s CO2 (carbon dioxide) emissions come from household energy use, with 70% linked directly space heating and hot water.

Because the problem is so urgent the UK Government has decided this must be reduced by at least 20% by 2010. But at the same time it has committed to ending fuel poverty by 2015.

Both are tall orders.


Let’s first take a look at fuel poverty – where any household has to spend more than 10% of disposable income to make their home comfortable to live in.

The WHO (World Health Organisation) regards 21°C as being an adequate temperature for Living Rooms, and 18°C elsewhere. However, if it’s 2°C or less outside, 18% of UK homes fall way below this, recording only 16°C in their living rooms.

It 2000 AD there were over 5 million such homes in the UK, more than 3 million of which were solid wall properties – i.e. buildings that do not have cavity wall type construction..

Significantly 83% of people suffering from ‘fuel poverty’ are considered socially and economically ‘vulnerable’. That is to say older people, families with children and those who are disabled or have long-term illness occupy properties that are the most fuel inefficient.


Because many of them don’t spend enough on heating to reach even minimum comfort standards, their homes may be cold and damp – conditions associated with ill health and early deaths.

People living in rural areas often face additional problems, like no gas network, higher heat loss from detached properties, more solid wall construction, and general lack of good quality housing for those on low incomes.


In the UK over 60,000 cold-related deaths are recorded in the UK each year, some 40,000 of these in winter. Thus it is reckoned that exposure to cold is responsible for 30% more people dying than need to.

Cardiovascular disease accounts for 50% or more of these ‘excess’ winter deaths, while respiratory diseases are responsible for 30% or so. Although hypothermia itself is only responsible for less than 1% of these, for every degree C below the UK winter average there are 8,000 extra deaths.

Contrast this with the fact that Yakutsk in Russia – the world’s coldest city – records no excess winter deaths.


Living in cold homes affects us in the following ways:-

– Below 18 – 24 Deg C…. comfort and health

– Below 18 Deg C…….. discomfort but no serious health risk

– Below 15 Deg C……… risk of respiratory disorder

– Below 12 Deg C……. cardiovascular strain, risk of heart attack and stroke

– Below 4 Deg C……… risk of hypothermia after 2 hours

Additionally there are other effects on health. Living in a cold, damp home affects us in other ways. It exacerbates asthma and bronchitis, leads to reduced dexterity and muscle power, increases the incidence of confusion and depression, and there are many other problems related to the mould growth that can occur under such conditions.


Through the building regulations and other measures the UK Government is now pressing for even greater energy efficiency in homes. The aim is to achieve required comfort levels at lowest cost for occupiers, while simultaneously minimising damage to the environment.

However, these measures only apply to new homes, improvements and extensions. We still the need to tackle the mass of solid wall properties throughout the country. These waste an excessive amount of energy and have proved extremely difficult to insulate at anything like reasonable costs.


With around 25 million homes in the UK, almost 11 million (43%) are built of solid brick, stone, concrete, pre-1944 timber frame and other ‘non-cavity’ wall construction. To reduce CO2 emissions the need to improve their thermal insulation is of key importance.

While over the last 30 to 40 years many property owners have installed cavity wall insulation, Local Authorities, Housing Associations, private landlords and individual homeowners have largely ignored the need to Improve thermal efficiency in solid-wall properties. Mainly this has been because available solutions have been seen as disruptive and not cost effective. Consequently they have come to be regarded as “Hard to Heat Homes”. But this is not strictly true. While considered very expensive to insulate, they are not hard to heat.


Research and Development in building materials technology is now beginning to address these problems. New ideas are coming forward, like the use of nanotechnology to create insulating paints. But new applications for old ideas, like ‘magic wallpaper’, are also emerging.


For many years the problems of condensation that caused damp walls and mould growth was a major issue in homes with solid walls, many built before World War II. But it also became a problem in some building systems introduced to address the post-war housing crisis.

Finding ways to keep the surface of inside walls warm so as to reduce or prevent this condensation led to its manufacture some 30-40 years ago. Now special development work over recent years has led to a new 10cm thick variety, specifically created for energy conservation and already dubbed ‘flexible insulating lining’.


Successfully installed in thousands of local authority flats and houses throughout the UK, it is a remarkable material. Applied on the inside of external walls it significantly reduces heat loss and leads to rooms instantly feeling warmer and more comfortable. But this is not just a ‘feeling’, or sense of greater comfort. It is a reality.

Tests by the UK’s National Physical Laboratory and calculations from the National Building Research Establishment show considerable kilowatt savings. So much so that the material is now approved by the UK’s Energy Saving Trust as an Energy Saving Product, meaning it qualifies for Carbon Emissions Reduction Target (CERT) Funding and, under their Market Transformation Action schemes, is given a 50% uplift in reducing CO2.


Shown to deliver excellent carbon reduction, the annual CO2 savings for a 3 bedroomed semi-detached house are around 679 kg. – the same as can be achieved by cavity fill insulation. Not surprising then that the Energy Savings Trust recommends it for insulating solid wall homes.


Besides walls it can be applied to ceilings, including flat concrete ceilings, dormer and mansard roof ceilings. Ideal for use by proficient DIY’ers, the material is simple, quick and easy to fix with hardly any mess. It can be decorated with almost any paint, emulsion or wallpaper and can even be tiled

Water – What Are We Really Drinking?

We all need water to survive. No way of trying to get around it, it is a fundamental part of just LIVING. Without water we would die. As I'm sure most people are aware, more than half our body weight is just water. Water is the main ingredient in our blood and is what makes our internal systems work. Be it the digestive system, lymphatic system or circulatory system they all need water for optimum function. Water is what flushes out the toxins and carries the nutrients to your cells.

The body can not store water and so since we lose water all the time, through urine, bowel movements and perspiration it is imperative that it gets replaced. Dehydration is never a good thing. You feel weak, drained, tired, and lightheaded. To top it all off you suffer from terrible headaches.

Well now we know that we NEED to drink water but when we do so are we aware of exactly what it is that we are putting in our bodies?

The quality of the water we drink varies from place to place and from country to country. Do not misunderstood all water contains impurities of some sort and need to be 'decontaminated' as there are many parasitic disease found in water, but some people quite rightly want to know how much of the chemicals that go into the water are harmful to our bodies?

Due to this more and more people are drinking bottled water. Bottled water may come from a tap, spring water, well water, purified water or it may just be untreated water and so very contaminated. People seem to be under a sense of false security when it comes to bottled water. We all tend to believe that bottled water is safer than tap water. In some cases it is and in others it is far more harmful.

In the United Stated bottled water is regulated by the FDA but they too seem to fall short in some areas. Bottled water suppliers are not made to document the approval of their sources, so we the public have to "go on their word". I was completely horrified to learn that 'water bottlers are permitted to sell contaminated water if, and only if, their labeling notes the water contains "excessive bacteria" or "excessive chemical substances."' I for one will be reading more labels.

Then we are faced with toxic spills. Thousand of environmental groups around the world demand that the public be made aware of toxic spills and some companies actually accommodate the public by informing them when these things happen but what about when they do not / will not do it? What happens when chemicals get purposefully dumped? In some cases these crisis are unduly well managed but let's not be naïve. They can not get them all.

Outbreaks sometimes just happens and there is no fore warning and no way of controlling it initially. These things take time. In 1993 Milwaukee, Wisconsin saw the largest waterborne disease out break in the history of the United States. A reported 400 000 people were sick. The disease was Cryptosporidium, which is a diarrheas disease caused by parasites. It is apparently a parasite that is one of the more common waterborne diseases in the United States and is found in both drinking water and recreational water. It is not just found in the United States however, it is a common parasite found world wide. The parasite has a hard outer layer that helps it to survive and so once inside you the parasite lives in the intestines and passes in the stool.

Sometimes it's not the chemicals, not bacterial outbreaks that are harmful but the general wear and tear of your plumbing materials. As they start to corrode so you get the introduction of lead into your water. This is the water that you, your loved ones and children consume. Well, once off it probably does not do much but over time it leads to high blood pressure and kidney problems in adults and in children it can delay physical and mental development. The results of this being a short attention span in children and in some cases learning disabilities.

We need water, no arguing it as we have already established, without it in a couple of days we will die. We can not control everything in our lives but we can be more proactive in finding out what is in what we are drinking. Especially since when drinking water we are doing so to just stay alive. Ironically never to harm ourselves.

Article by: Michelle Ludick [http://www.bhealthy247.com]

The 4 Major Health Benefits of Weight Training!

While some individuals are strictly interested in weight training to obtain muscle for aesthetic reasons, what most people are not aware of are the many health benefits weight lifting will have for you. Such benefits include:

  • Increase bone density
  • Decrease frequency of injuries
  • Reduce health related risks
  • Prevent fat gain
  • Increase Bone Density

Weight lifting, being one of the best weight bearing exercises you can do, will help increase bone density, which is a major factor in preventing stress fractures or osteoporosis in later life.

Most people assume that running is the best exercise for increasing bone density, this is not strictly true. Running can even be the cause of muscle breakdown in the body and road running can cause significant wear and tear. Weight lifting, being an anabolic process, helps to promote the building of tissues.

Decrease Frequency of Injuries

When you weight train, not only are your muscles going to get stronger, but you also strengthen the ligaments and tendons that are connecting bones, muscles, and other tissues, therefore reducing the chances of injury when participating in other physical activities.

Research shows that 80% of injuries are the direct result of a ligament, tendon, or muscle not being strong enough to cope when a significant force is applied.

Reduce Health Related Risks

Studies have shown that regular weight training can have benefits to overall health and well being by showing reductions in the rate of insulin resistance, heart disease, blood pressure, diabetes and even cancer.

Successful weight training programs are always coupled with a good clean diet, this is a sure fire way to give your body the best defense possible in the fight against disease and chronic problems.

Prevent Fat Gain

Regular weight training increases metabolism, so the more food you can eat while maintaining your weight.
One of the main things that put most people off weight training is the assumption that they will become big and bulky. This is definitely not the case.

Most of the muscle and weight gain that bodybuilders see are the result of their diets and food intake. Bodybuilders take on an awful amount of calories, proteins, fats and carbohydrates to allow their muscles to grow. Weight training on your usual diet will not make you bulky.

Not choosing to include weight training as part of your current workout program is without-a-doubt the biggest mistake you could make as far as your long-term health and fitness level is concerned. Do not let this exercise pass you by any longer.

How to Grow Roses from Cuttings

Attempting to grow roses from cuttings may not be not as easy as it sounds, but it is something that rose growers at all experience levels can achieve. With some basic knowledge about the process, you can be successful with mere stalks as long as you choose them wisely and take excellent care of them.

Ordinarily, gardeners cultivate roses from cuttings in a greenhouse where temperature and humidity are kept at consistent rates. Even without a greenhouse you can still generate new roses by incorporating some everyday plastic wrap or Ziploc bags and wrapping your cuttings in order to control the amount of air to which they are exposed. A simple heating pad can also ensure the constant heat source your clippings need.

Some gardeners have actually had success when attempting to generate new growth from a florist stem, although they aren’t considered the best choice of cuttings. You have a better chance of achieving new growth from the firm young stem of a repeat-flowering variety that has recently shed its first bloom or petals. Cuttings from spring roses when they are just past full ripeness are also viable contenders. 

Finding youthful cuttings should be a priority, but there are limits as to how young your cuttings should be. Avoid stems that have not yet lost their first flower, or those whose buds have produced no color yet. A certain amount of biological activity must be taking place within your cuttings to generate new growth, which is why wilted and dry plants are such poor contenders.

Roses love warm and humid climates, which creates a real challenge to germinating rose cuttings outside. They have a heightened vulnerability to predators and disease outside, so bring your cuttings indoors to get their root formation started.

Leave some green foliage on the stems, as these are important in accelerating the natural chemicals within the plant that stimulate root growth. Continuously spray your stems with water to keep them moist and supple. You can’t let them dry out or wilt or your project will end before it even gets started. Once rose cuttings wilt, the failure to root rate increases substantially.

Sunlight is necessary for any plant to survive, and your rose cuttings will do well if they are placed by a window that provides at least four hours of sunlight daily. Be careful to check in on them often, as overexposure to sun rays can scorch them, which can kill them.

It may take a month or slightly longer for your new plants to finish rooting, so patience is your good friend in this process. If you’re looking for instant gratification – or at least, significantly less time than large roses take to root, try miniature rose cuttings which generate quickly. You can start with miniature roses and then graduate to other varieties, a great way to learn about each type’s uniqueness. By learning the best steps to follow and nurturing your rose cuttings, your return on investment will be obvious when you’re enjoying your flourishing new roses.

The Exceptional Cognitive Abilities of Dolphins

Dolphins are perhaps the most intelligent aquatic mammal on Earth. With their self-awareness and abilities to communicate, reason, express emotions, adapt, and perform altruistic acts, they have spread across every ocean and many freshwater rivers in the same way humans have populated every continent. The cognitive abilities of dolphins are exceptional. Below is a close examination of this mammal’s brain size, structure and remarkable cognitive abilities.

I. Brain Size/Structure:

Dolphins have a large, folded brain with an exceptional intellectual capacity. As a result, they learn extremely quickly and possess the ability to produce creative responses.

Although their cerebral cortex is 40% larger than that of humans, it is shallower, resulting in a neocortical volume that is 80% of that of humans. Nonetheless, both possess comparative cerebral hemispheres and folding to process sensory information and stimuli.

The average bottlenose dolphin brain weighs 1.7 kg (.4 kg more than the average human brain). When comparing brain size to body size – the Encephalization Quotient (EQ), the average dolphin brain registers between 4 and 5 (second to the 7 EQ of the average human brain and significantly higher than the EQ of any other type of animal including the great apes). This indicates a close proximity to human cognitive abilities.

In comparison to humans and other land mammals, a dolphin’s brain has five versus six layers in their neocortex, with no functional segregation. This likely permits humans to focus on greater detail and dolphins to process sensory information at greater speeds, which may be more critical in a 3-dimensional water-based environment with few distinguishable landmarks where sound travels 4-5 times faster than on land.

In addition, relative to brain size, a dolphin’s brain has a significantly larger cerebellum than a human. This is likely since an aquatic environment places greater need on motor control. Furthermore, a dolphin’s cerebellum is also larger due to the absence of functional specialization, since it is likely used for cognitive processing.

Unlike the human brain, a dolphin’s brain includes a paralimbic lobe to enhance integrated information and emotional processing. It is likely that emotions play a greater role in a dolphin’s life than a human life.

Dolphins generally sleep in a semi-alert state by closing one eye and resting one side of the brain at a time. They usually alternate, closing one eye for 5-10 minutes and then the other. Within a 24-hour period, dolphins generally rest each eye and each side of the brain between 3-4 hours.

This is necessary so that dolphins can keep a lookout for potential predators – usually large sharks and killer whales. Remarkably, many dolphins in captivity, having recognized the absence of potential predators, rest both sides of their brain simultaneously, sleeping with both eyes shut.

II. Social Setting:

Dolphins are exceptionally social animals, consistent with humans, great apes and other creatures displaying high levels of intelligence. They occupy home ranges and live in pods or schools known as fission-fusion societies based on subgroups of age and sex-related individuals with size varying dramatically from about 6 to up to several thousand. At times, when there is an abundance of food, pods can join with each other forming superpods.

Although membership in pods is flexible and fluid, members of a pod form strong bonds with each other. Some pods are long lasting while others are merely temporary associations of individuals formed for a common goal. Nevertheless, dolphins refuse to abandon injured or ill individuals, assisting them to stay afloat to breathe if necessary. In addition, mother dolphins are known to take loving care of their young while entire pods will risk their safety to protect a mother and her calf from harm.

Within these pods, dolphins maintain intricate social networks. Each dolphin has a few close associates and additional more casual relationships with others within the pod. Dolphins breathe together, hunt together, coordinate their movements to capture prey, and take turns ingesting such prey. In addition, dolphins frequently alert others when large amounts of prey are discovered enabling others to get more food while enhancing safety with their greater numbers since potential predators may be interested in the same food source. Dolphins work exceptionally well during times of danger.

Dolphins are among the few species known to teach their young survival skills and culture. Mother dolphins teach their young to hunt through playful-looking movements, pointing gestures, and repetition. When teaching a calf to hunt, mother dolphins consistently take 8 times longer to capture and ingest their prey – often capturing and releasing it so that their calves can learn through observation and repetition. This transfer of knowledge is called “theory of mind.”[1]

In addition to learning to hunt, young dolphins undergo extensive training. They learn about the rules of the pod, are disciplined when they act inappropriately, are taught about collaboration and cooperation, and about the identities and personalities of each member. Furthermore, to assist with the tasks, mothers share responsibilities and often take turns watching over hyperactive calves.

Dolphins are also taught to communicate through sound imitation. At this time, dolphins are the only non-human mammal to display strong evidence of vocal mimicry, vocal learning,[2] and learning of body movements through imitation.

In May 2005, it was discovered that the Indo-Pacific Bottlenose Dolphin passed on cultural behavior by teaching their young to break off sponges and cover their snouts with them while foraging for food. At the same time, it was discovered that some male dolphins in Brazil taught their young to use weeds and sticks as part of their sexual rituals.

Like other creatures of higher intelligence, dolphins at times engage in acts of aggression using their teeth and snouts as weapons. These disputes likely arise over competition for mates. At times these acts are so intense that targeted dolphins leave the pod or unfortunate calves fall victim to infanticide.

While sexual acts between dolphins are usually brief, foreplay can be lengthy and sexual acts can be repeated many times in a short timespan. In addition, dolphins may engage in sexual activity for pleasure and among different species, producing hybrids. However, at times, sexual activity can be violent with male dolphins displaying aggression towards both females and other males.

Complex play is also an important part of a dolphin’s life. Dolphins occasionally perform acrobatic tricks, play with seaweed and other food, produce bubble rings that they then observe and even bite, and play-fight among themselves. They also enjoy surfing waves and even interacting with boats and other creatures such as whales and humans.

III. Multi-modal Sensory Perception:

Dolphins primarily use four senses to perceive the world around them. These senses, used in simultaneity and conjunction with each other, are vision, echolocation, taste, and touch. Together they are used to integrate information from their surroundings. Such information is processed at high speeds. Yet despite the multi-modal nature of dolphins, it appears that they have no sense of smell.

Dolphins have acute vision both in and out of water. In addition, their eyes possess both rods and L-Cones enabling them to see in dim and bright light, and possibly colors within the red and green light spectrums. Dolphins, however, cannot see blue coloring except under certain light conditions when both the rods and L-cones, which have a very low sensitivity for blue light, are active. However, with 7,000 times as many rods as the human eye, dolphins can see extremely well in dark conditions such as murky water.

In addition, dolphins can move their eyes in different directions at the same time. One eye can look to the side while the other looks up enabling them to have two fields of vision with a 300° panoramic view. These two fields of vision can also overlap.

Dolphins generally hear tones within the frequency range of .25 to 150 kHz versus the average human auditory range of .02 to 17 kHz. In echolocation (the ability to see with their ears, in which the dolphin receives sound waves in the form of nerve impulses that are interpreted into a visual depiction of the object), dolphins may emit up to 700 clicks per second at between 40 to 150 kHz to detect the size and location of an object hundreds of meters away. In fact, dolphin echolocation is so sensitive that it can detect a 3-inch steel ball from approximately 90 meters away. Echolocation is also valuable in detecting echo signatures of potential prey.

Dolphins possess the ability to taste and differentiate between salt, bitter, sweet, and sour. This can be useful for navigation (ocean currents may have distinct chemical traces), orientation, discovering food, locating other dolphins, reproduction, and even stress sensitivity.

Dolphins also are extremely sensitive to touch which can be useful in sensing water movement and utilizing it to their advantage. The reason dolphins have such acute touch is because unlike human skin that possesses an epidermal layer of dead cells, a dolphin’s outer layer of skin is composed entirely of live cells.

IV. Shape Recognition:

Studies have shown that dolphins can match simple and complex shapes with precision. In an early study, dolphins were able to match a cube, pyramid, and rectangular prism with high accuracy based on vision and echolocation.

In another study, a dolphin’s ability to match 16 pairs of complex shapes and designs was tested through vision, echolocation, and multi-modal (vision and echolocation used in conjunction with each other) perception. The results were astonishing. During this experiment, an 8 year-old female bottlenose dolphin, Ebele was able to match 94.6% of the pairs through echolocation to vision (detected the pairs which hidden in a box through echolocation and then matched them through vision with pairs suspended in the water), 97.1% of the pairs through vision to echolocation (detected through vision pairs suspended in water and matched them with pairs hidden in boxes through echolocation) in a sample consisting of 384 trials. The results were even equally astonishing when Ebele’s multi-modal skills were tested. When tested to match pairs projected over a television screen (for which echolocation cannot be used) with pairs suspended in the water that allowed Ebele to use vision and echolocation simultaneously, she was able to identify 95.8% of the pairs in a sample consisting of 24 trials.

V. Mirror Self Recognition (MSR):

The ability to possess sentience or self-awareness to think about oneself in the physical and mental realms illustrates a complex level of abstract thinking that is rare among animals. Studies have shown that dolphins possess this self-awareness.

Studies have shown that dolphins can recognize themselves in a mirror and investigate their own bodies. They have also shown that dolphins are aware of their own behavior and body parts as well as their feelings of doubt when subjected to difficult memory tests.

During the MSR tests, dolphins proved that they possessed selective attention in that they could pay attention to themselves in a mirror and were aware that they were viewing themselves instead of another animal.

When dolphins were marked with non-toxic ink or water markers consisting of no ink, they immediately swam over to a mirror or the most reflective object (when a mirror was not present) to inspect themselves. Furthermore, when dolphins had been marked by non-toxic ink, they spent more time in front of the mirror, carefully examining the marking on their bodies.

With their self-awareness, dolphins can also form analogies between their bodies and those of another, even improvising when the body of another species looks nothing like their own body. For example, if a person raises a leg, a dolphin may raise its tail.

In another example of self-awareness as well as understanding of cause and effect, dolphins have been observed to splash water on people who have approached their tanks and then raise themselves out of the water to determine the response their actions had elicited.

Dolphins can also discern the difference between reality and television. When observing others being fed on television, they initially swam up to the TV to check for fish. Afterwards, upon realizing that televisions projected depictions of reality, dolphins swam to their feeding areas when they saw others being fed on television, in anticipation that they too were about to be fed.

VI. Language and Communication:

Being among the most vocal of animals, dolphins are capable of producing a broad range of sounds ranging from whistles (their primary means of communication), burst-pulsed sounds (primarily used to convey a dolphin’s emotional state ranging from pleasure to distress), and clicks (primarily for echolocation).

From a very young age, dolphins learn to produce a signature whistle (likely their name) based on imitation of a mother’s signature whistle. This signature whistle allows others to identify the individual. In addition, dolphins also learn to imitate another’s signature whistle so that they can likely address other dolphins by name, a key component of any functional language. They often whistle and respond to whistles to let others know where they are. In addition, a mother and calf who become separated, whistle frequently to locate each other until they are reunited. It is also believed that dolphins use whistles to refer to prey and objects. However, the extent is not known.

At the same time, it is known that dolphins use pulsed yelps during courtship, pulsed squeaks when in danger, and a rapid series of buzzing clicks when angry or involved in a confrontation.

In addition, dolphins also use body language as a means of communicating. This body language ranges from arching their bodies, bubble blowing, swimming with joined pectoral fins, flexing, head movement, nuzzling, jaw clapping, and even ramming and head butting.

Sufficient evidence exists that dolphins communicate information about “what,” “where,” and “who” while there is no substantive evidence of them communicating about “when,” “how” or “why.”[3] Furthermore, studies have shown that dolphins communication like that of humans, is intentional, the core purpose of developed languages. This communication ranges from playful, excited chatter to more serious conversation, for which the depth and content is not fully understood. A vivid example of dolphins’ intentional communication occurred in an aquarium in Hawaii. When a mother and her two-year-old calf were placed in separate tanks that were connected via audio link, both mother and calf were observed chirping at each other as they rapidly exchanged information over a telephone link.

In addition, studies have shown that dolphins are capable of understanding symbols and hand gestures (mainly from American Sign Language), can learn associations between symbols, sounds, and objects without specific reinforcement or direct intervention, and can classify relationships between events. In fact dolphins have proven to be as proficient as humans when it comes to comprehending constructed sentence structures with a strong understanding of syntax (knowledge that word order makes a difference and changes the meaning of a sentence, for example dolphins know they cannot fetch a person and put him or her on a surfboard) and semantics (comprehension of words and symbols). In addition, experiments have shown that dolphins can also discern between numerical values. They can comprehend if two or three objects are available and can also determine with little effort if something is absent. For example when a dolphin is asked to retrieve a Frisbee in the water, it does so with little effort when such a Frisbee is present. However, when asked to place a Frisbee that is present in the water on a surfboard that is absent, dolphins have been shown to respond that they cannot do so since the surfboard is not present.

VII. Memory:

Studies have shown that dolphins have excellent memory systems. This has been proven by dolphins’ abilities to learn sentence structure and meaning, retain human vocabularies of approximately 40 words in which thousands of sentences can be constructed, to memorize objects seen (matching them against new pairings consisting of pairs and triplicates of objects) and sounds heard (ranging from high frequency to long duration and match them against lists of between two to six different types of sounds) and by their ability to learn specific behaviors that can result in either adverse or rewarding experiences.

However, despite their excellent memory systems, the core of cognitive learning, dolphins appear to have a short-term memory that is more acute than their long-term memory. They were able to identify objects seen and sounds heard with a higher accuracy based on recency of effect.

VIII. Emotions:

Dolphins utilize vocal sounds and swimming patterns to express emotions in lieu of facial expressions.

Dolphins are generally affectionate creatures that show emotions towards their own kind as well as other species. They show concern for ill or injured members of their pod, they fiercely protect a mother and her young from predators, mourn for deceased members, and show excitement and joy when reunited with long lost members for which they had developed a bond. In addition, dolphins have displayed the capacity to show fear and concern and been shown to possess not only emotions that last for a short duration but also moods that could last for longer durations.

IX. Altruism:

Stories date back thousands of years about the altruistic, selfless nature of dolphins. Dolphins are not only altruistic towards their own kind but other species as well. Many examples of intra- and interspecies altruism exist. At times, dolphins have sounded an alert heard 10 kms away to call other dolphins to assist in saving a human being. This interspecies altruism is likely the result of a dolphin’s strong emotional feelings, self-awareness, “theory of mind,” consciousness, and perhaps even the existence of a conscience in that they could not bear to see a human being perish anymore than a person could bear to see a dolphin or cat or dog perish. As a result, they transpose feelings of anguish, hurt, and loneliness onto others producing the same feelings of compassion that humans have for another. In essence, dolphins possess an openness and caring for other species.

A dolphin reportedly saved Telemachus, the son of Odysseus when he fell into the sea and nearly drowned as was written by Homer (c. 850 BC). In gratitude, Odysseus placed the figure of a dolphin on his shield.

Roman scientist Plinius (AD23-AD79) wrote about a dolphin that befriended a little boy. The boy fed the dolphin each day. One day when the dolphin did not see the boy, it searched for him. Upon discovering that he had drowned, the dolphin pushed his body onto a beach, laid next to him and died. Roman mosaics also show men playing with dolphins.

In the 18th century, a pod of dolphins saved Vietnamese sailors after their boat was sunk by hostile invaders.

In 1996, Martin Richardson was saved from a shark attack in the Red Sea when pod of dolphins encircled him and created turbulence to scare away the shark. The dolphins did not leave until Mr. Richardson was rescued.

In 2004, a group of New Zealand lifeguards were saved by dolphins that had formed a protective ring around them. The dolphins maintained the ring for about 40 minutes until 3 m-long shark had left. The lifeguards then swam to shore.

In 2007 a pod of dolphins saved surfer Todd Endris from a great white shark that had attacked him.

In March 2008, a dolphin came to the rescue of two pygmy sperm whales, a mother whale and her calf that were stranded on a New Zealand beach upon hearing the whales’ distress calls. The dolphin led the whales 200 m along the beach and safely out to sea. This was similar to a 1983 incident at Tokerau Beach, New Zealand when a pod of dolphins herded a group of between 76 to 80 pilot whales and guided them safely out to sea.

Dolphins have been known to support a sick member of their pod and to standby an injured or ill companion regardless of the danger to themselves. They also work cooperatively in groups, assist each other in obtaining a mate, and put themselves at risk to defend a mother and her calf.

X. Conclusion:

Based on the exceptional cognitive abilities of dolphins, the existence of cognitive convergence (in which brains of separate species share remarkable abilities to process sensory information and input from their surroundings and to communicate and comprehend language), one can hope for the day when interspecies communication is possible so that all species may develop a greater understanding of the world, greater appreciation for each other, and most importantly collaborate for joint solutions to preserve our wonderful planet. When or if interspecies communication is made possible through technology (e.g. computer links – dolphins have already been proven to understand computer-generated bars and disks that symbolize words and phrases in sign language) and greater understanding, from what can we learn better about what it takes to and is like living in all the oceans of the world regardless of temperature, depth, and chemical content, and anecdotal evidence of marine world issues than dolphins?


[1] Dolphins and the evolution of teaching.  World Science.  7 August 2008.  17 January 2009. http://www.world-science.net/exclusives/080807_dolphin.htm

[2] Diana Reiss, Brenda McCowan and Lori Marino.  Communicative and other cognitive characteristics of bottlenose dolphins.  Trends in Cognitive Science. Vol. 1, No. 4.  Elsevier Science, Ltd.  July 1997. p. 2.

[3] Margaret Klinowska.  Brains, Behaviour and Intelligence in Cetaceans (Whales, Dolphins and Porpoises).  26 September 1994.  17 January 2009. http://www.highnorth.no/library/myths/br-be-an.htm

Additional Reference:

Adam A. Pack and Louis M. Herman.  Sensory integration in the bottlenosed dolphin: Immediate recognition of complex shapes across the senses of echolocation and vision.  Journal of the Acoustical Society of America.  Acoustical Society of America.  1 August 1995. pp. 726, 729-730.

Can You Lose Arm Fat With Reverse Curls?

Walk into any gym, ask what are the best exercises to lose arm fat and you’ll get a different answer from everybody. Even the so called “experts” won’t agree.

What will happen to you as a result? A serious case of analysis paralysis. In this day and age, clear-cut information is more valuable than ever!

And the key to success is to take action as soon as you discover new information. This is called speed of implementation. The most successful people in the world have the highest speeds of implementation, so don’t get paralyzed!

To help prevent you come getting paralyzed, I have decided to review as many arm exercises as possible. Today I will review reverse curls:

1. Snap-shot: Reverse curls are a specialized exercise for targeting the top portion of the forearms. You don’t see too many women doing them. Unfortunately, the overemphasis on the forearm area prevents this exercise from being a top-tier arm fat reducer.

2. Technique: Strand erect and grasp a barbell with an overhand grip and make sure to keep your abs very tight. Exhale and raise the barbell. Then slowly lower it.

3. Common mistakes: Allowing the wrists to bend upwards and downwards. Letting the weight of the body shift from the heel of the foot to the ball of the foot. And using momentum to get the weight up.

4. To do or not to do: This is not a good exercise for losing arm fat and toning the upper arm area. That area where the jiggle lives… It focuses on the forearms way too much. If you want rapid arm toning, you are much better served doing other exercises that specifically target the upper portion of your arms.

Want to lose arm fat fast? Then stick to exercises that work and disregard the hype. The more you learn, the better off you’ll be. And you’ll get faster results. But most importantly, you won’t go around in circles like most women!

Honestly, How Serious Is Diabetes?

How serious is Diabetes?

Very! The early symptoms of untreated diabetes mellitus are related to the elevated blood glucose levels. Excess glucose in the blood ultimately results in high levels of glucose being present in the urine (glucosuria). This increases the urine output, which leads to dehydration and increased thirst. Other symptoms include extreme tiredness, weight loss, blurred vision, itchy skin and repeated minor infections such as thrush and boils.

Another form of diabetes, known as gestational diabetes, occurs in some women during pregnancy. It is a temporary condition caused by pregnancy and usually occurs in the later stages, once the baby has formed but is still growing.

Although there is currently no cure for diabetes mellitus, it can be controlled successfully with an active treatment plan. The potential benefit of pancreas transplants and islet cell transplants in type 1 patients is being investigated.

What are the symptoms of diabetes?

Type I diabetes develops very quickly. The classic signs of diabetes include:

1. Frequent urination, because the body is trying to get rid of the excess sugar in the blood
2. Intense thirst, because the body needs to replace the fluid lost through the urine
3. Increased hunger, because the cells need nutrients
4. Weight loss, because without insulin, the body begins to starve. The onset of Type 2 diabetes is often very gradual and may develop without any symptoms at all. Sadly, the diagnosis most often is made only after a complication of the disease happens


Acupuncture is a procedure in that a practitioner inserts needles into designated points on the skin. Some Western scientists believe that acupuncture triggers the release of the body’s natural painkillers. Acupuncture has been shown to offer relief from chronic pain. Acupuncture is sometimes used by people with neuropathy, the painful nerve damage of diabetes.

Your weight affects your health in many ways. Being overweight can keep your body from making and using insulin properly. It can also cause high blood pressure. The DPP showed that losing even a few pounds can help reduce your risk of developing type 2 diabetes because it helps your body use insulin more effectively. In the DPP, people who lost between 5 and 7 percent of their body weight significantly reduced their risk of type 2 diabetes.

What You Can Do to Cut Your Risk of Diabetes Type 2

Women at risk for developing diabetes type 2 can take a valuable tip from some recent news out of researchers at the University of Glasgow, UK. The British Heart Foundation study found that insulin resistance (a key biological risk factor for developing diabetes) in women identified as "high risk" dropped by 22% after just seven weeks on an exercise program.

Your risk for developing type 2 diabetes can be influenced by a variety of factors. Some you can control … others you can not. Here's what you need to watch out for:

– being overweight

– being inactive

– having a family history of diabetes, a parent or sibling with the disease

– getting older

– being a member of certain races, blacks, Hispanics, American Indians and Asian Americans

– having prediabetes, gestational diabetes or babies over 9 pounds.k

Currently the medical community is not sure why some people get diabetes and others do not, but if you have one risk factor (or more) there's plenty you can do to help reduce the risk.

The Glasgow researchers studied the effects of regular aerobic exercise in 34 females who had at least one type 2 diabetic parent, and 36 women who had no family history of the condition. At the beginning of the study, the group with the family history connection to diabetes had higher insulin resistance than the subjects who did not have a diabetic parent or sibling did.

Bu just what type of exercise did they do? The study involved a program of three 30 minute sessions the first week, working up to five 1 hour sessions by the end of the study. The exercises the women were given were cardiovascular in nature – running, aerobics, cycling or using a rowing machine. A good, solid workout. And while the family history group showed such a marked improvement in their insulin resistance, the control group showed no significant change by the end of the study.

Although more research is certainly needed, this result is a good argument for getting up, and getting moving, especially if you carry a family risk of type 2 diabetes.

Type 2 diabetes is a nasty enough condition on it's own, but it has been shown to also increase the risk of heart disease in patients, with a rather worrying two thirds of diabetics actually dying from heart disease. The good news though according to Dr. Nick Barwell who participated in the study is that, "" People at high risk have it within their power to substantially reduce their risk by increasing their activity levels. "

So, if you have a parent, sibling or grandparent with diabetes type 2, it does not necessarily mean that the condition has to become a part of your life too. You can take steps today to do something about it. It may require a bit of effort … and a bit of change … but starting a regular exercise regimen now, which involves aerobic exercise, can absolutely have a positive impact on your chances of avoiding this life altering disease.