Choosing an Outboard Motor For Your Dinghy

30 years ago American manufacturers dominated the outboard motor market.Names such as Mercury, Johnson, Evinrude and Chrysler, led the field competing with each other to produce bigger and better outboard engines. However, while this was going on they were neglecting the smallest of the outboards. These are the outboard motors that sell in the greatest of numbers and are often the first outboard many of us, buy. This being the case many of us stick to the same brand (brand loyalty) as we buy other bigger outboards over the years. The Japanese seized on this fact and gradually Honda, Yamaha, Suzuki and Tohatsu concentrating on small outboards began to take over as market leaders. They achieved this domination by improving efficiency and reliability. As well as adding features to these small outboards previously only found on larger engines.

Having achieved success in the small outboard market, these Japanese manufacturers expanded up the power range. They again came to dominate the outboard engine market up to at least 20 hp. The American manufacturers instead of competing with the Japanese, gave up and decided to buy these engines from the Japanese and badge them as their own. Now the Chinese have entered the market. Basically doing what the Japanese did previously, copying the best features of the present engines and at the same time keeping costs down.

So let us compare the outboards that are on offer for those looking for an outboard motor for their dinghy. If we take a fairly larger dinghy say, a Pioner 12, so that each outboard has to push a reasonably heavy weight through the water. If we then take the following outboard motors :

Mercury 2.5hp; Mercury 3.5hp; Mariner 2.5hp; Tohatsu 3.5hp; Yamaha 2.5hp; Suzuki 2.5hp; Honda 2.3hp; and a Parsun 2.6hp. All these outboards are 4 stroke engines. This is due to an E.U. Directive that prevents 2 strokes from being sold in the E.U. These outboards will provide a fairly wide range of engines available on the market, for powering dinghies.

To judge one engine against the another several tests were completed. A Bollard pull test showed that the Mercury 3.5hp and Tohatsu 3.5hp were the most powerful at 90lbs of thrust (These two engines along with the Mariner are virtually identical). The least effective was the Honda 2.3hp at 66lbs of thrust. In between were the Suzuki 2.5hp at 83lbs of thrust, the Yamaha 2.5hp at 78lbs of thrust and the Parsun 2.6hp at 70 lbs of thrust.

Next test was Fuel Consumption. At full speed – 5.75 knots, the best outboards were the Yamaha 2.5hp and the Suzuki 2.5hp by at least 20%. The worst was the Parsun 2.6hp. When the throttles were eased and the dinghy was cruising the Fuel Consumption comparison was less evident, only about 10% difference. All these figures are for 4 stroke engines. However, based on figures previously recorded for 2 strokes under similar circumstances, the older engines were up to 50% less fuel efficient at full speed. Very thirsty! Remember 2 stroke outboards are still available second hand.

Then the weight of each outboard motor was compared. Four stroke engines are heavier than older 2 strokes because of the powerhead etc. The Mercury, Mariner, Tohatsu, Yamaha and Parsun all weighed approx. 38 – 41 lbs (18 kg.). However, the Honda 2.3hp and Suzuki 2.5hp weighed a lot less at 28 lbs (12.5 kg.).

The price of each outboard motor was then compared. This was difficult to be accurate as discounts and sale offers are always changing.

Mercury 3.5hp £449

Mercury 2.5hp £380

Mariner 2.5hp £429

Tohatsu 3.5hp £449

Yamaha 2.5hp £489

Suzuki 2.5hp £379

Honda 2.3hp £429

Parsun 2.6hp £375

Although the Parsun was the cheapest and it is virtually identical the same engine as in the Yamaha 2.5hp, it is not as good. It is a bit like me following a Gordon Ramsay recipe, to the letter, but when compared side by side you just know that his is going to be that much better. The Chinese are able to copy, just like the Japanese did before them, but they have not got it right, yet!

Finally a little about each outboard tested. The Mercury, Mariner and Tohatsu are the same engine. Starting settings for the throttle are easy to understand with the choke and stop button clearly labelled. The petrol on/off tap is not so clearly marked. All these motors have gears. Ahead and neutral then using the 360 degree rotation you can get astern thrust. There are 4 tilt positions and a shallow water ability. Oil levels can be easily checked by viewing the indicator on the side of the engine cover.

The Yamaha 2.5hp also had easily understood starting and stopping settings but the oil level gauge was out of sight under the engine casing cover. As with the Mercury outboard the Yamaha 2.5hp has gears, ahead and neutral with 360 degree rotation. Unlike the Mercury which has a shear pin, the Yamaha has a rubber hub at the propeller, so no shear pin to break.

The Suzuki 2.5hp is as above but with the oil gauge easily viewed at the side of the cover. The propeller has a shear pin with spares stowed under the engine cover.

The Honda 2.3hp is not water cooled like all the other outboards tested. It is aircooled and has no gears. Instead it uses a centrifugal clutch. This makes starting and maneuvering more difficult than the others. It simply takes a bit of getting used to it. The oil gauge is out of sight under the cover. The propeller has a shear pin with spares kept under the engine cover.

Finally the Parsun 2.6hp, a copy of the Yamaha 2.5hp but not as good. However it is the cheapest engine when new. Fuel consumption was its biggest draw back.

Auditory Working Memory – What is it, and Why is it so Important?

You’ve heard the expression: It goes in one ear and out the other. For individuals with sub-optimal auditory working memory, this is pretty close to the truth.

What is auditory working memory (AWM) exactly? It is one part of the two part working memory system. One part is the visual-spatial sketchpad and the other is the verbal loop, often called the phonological loop. It is the latter that is usually referred to as AWM. Relevant information is held in this auditory “storage” while a cognitive activity is completed (e.g. a multi-step math problem or remembering a teacher’s lecture long enough to get pertinent information written in the notes).

When information comes into our auditory system, we must actively rehearse what we have heard because this information rapidly decays after one or two seconds. In order to repeat the information to ourselves, we must use selective attention, screening out irrelevant sounds to attend to the significant information at hand. Research has shown that if short term memory is low, we have a hard time selecting what we wish to hear. In other words, selective attention doesn’t work so well when AWM is low.

AWM is critical for every academic subject because it affects reading, reading comprehension, and math performance. It is also essential for problem solving because we have to hold the problem in our short term memory long enough to make sense of it.

What is the behavioral profile of a child with low AWM? In the classroom, teachers describe these children as inattentive, easily distracted, forgetting what they have learned, forgetting instructions, not completing tasks, making careless mistakes, and having difficulty in solving problems.

If you’re thinking this sounds a lot like attention deficit disorder (ADD) or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), you’re not the only one. A great deal of research in the last few years has shown that low auditory working memory is indeed associated with ADD/ADHD. Interestingly, some research has shown that stimulant medications can enhance one’s auditory-verbal and visual-spatial working memory. However, there is no long term benefit. In other words, the working memory is improved only as long as the medication is in the system.

One approach that has been used to help students with low short term memory is to teach material in a way that makes fewer demands, especially on AWM. While this helps students in specific courses, it has no long term benefit for working memory. In contrast, programs designed to improve AWM (and visual spatial memory as well) have demonstrated long term benefit to the point of actually increasing fluid intelligence (the ability to reason quickly and think abstractly)!

These programs have been used successfully for individuals with schizophrenia, traumatic brain injury, dyslexia, and ADD/ADHD. Most programs consist of strategies designed to “train the brain.” It’s much like training the muscles and cardiovascular system with physical exercise. It requires frequency, intensity, and duration. In the case of auditory working memory, a minimum of two to three hours per week for several months will usually bring the working memory up substantially, sometimes by several grade levels.

The Psychology of Creativity

On studying the creative process and the creative individual to understand creativity

Creativity is the process of generating novel ideas and is the basic force for all inventions. The process of creation involves seeing new relations between concepts and things and determining unique solutions to problems. The creative process is about seeing new associations between objects and concepts and the creative person is marked by traits of originality, nonconformity and high levels of knowledge. When you come out with an appropriate yet unique and different solution to a problem that has not been thought before, you are being creative.

Psychologists have tried to explain creativity with many theories. Among these are cognitive theories of creativity (creativity as a cognitive process using mental constructs and structures), behaviorist theories (the environmental and associative nature of creative ideas), psychoanalytic theories (creativity as neuroticism), social theories (creativity as a social process and role of schools and family in the development of gifted children) and personality theories (emphasizing on personal creative traits).

In the psychology of creativity we have to understand two things -firstly the creative process and secondly the creative individual. So the psychology of creativity is about:

1. The Creative Process – this includes the definitions of creativity and the mental processes involved in creativity.

2. The Creative Individual – this is about the personality traits of the creative individual, the attributes of genius and the peculiarities of the creative personality

Psychological theories have tried to explain both the creative process and the creative individual.

The Process of Creativity – So what is creativity and what is the mechanism through which people actually create new ideas, solutions or concepts? According to many theorists, creativity is about chance or serendipity or making discoveries by ‘accident’. So the creative process, according to this explanation is an ‘accident’. This means that while you’re trying out several methods, a best method or a solution to your problem arises out of nowhere and by chance you discover something totally unique. Some people would suggest that the creative process is more of trying to find out new relations between older known concepts so this is less about originality and more about ‘experience’. The more experienced you are in a particular subject area, the more likely you are to consider creative solutions. Creativity has also been described as a moment of ‘insight’. It is almost like enlightenment and divine intervention and a flash and the trick is to prolong this moment and creative individuals are people who can develop their sudden insights. So the creative process can be about a sudden chance, novel use of the knowledge/ experience or a sudden insight. The creative process thus involves using several possibilities/methods and past experiences to arrive at sudden solutions through insights or accidents.

In 1926, Graham Wallas described stages of creativity in which a creative idea is first prepared, then internalized through incubation, after which the creative individual uses the illumination or insight to finally go through the verification process of applying the idea. Psychologist JP Guilford explained creativity with his concept of convergent and divergent thinking and convergent thinking is about trying to find the single correct solution to a problem and divergent thinking is the generation of multiple creative solutions to a problem. Creativity is thus characterized by divergent thinking and generation of multiple possibilities. According to the Geneplore model developed by Finke, Ward and Smith (1992), creativity involves two phases – the generative phase in which the individual generates constructs from pre-inventive structures or known processes/ideas and the exploratory phase in which pre-inventive structures are interpreted to come up with new creative ideas. Most of these psychological theories seem to be emphasizing on preexisting mental structures through knowledge and experience and using these structures for novel or unique solutions. The creative process is thus all about insight, ‘a sudden flash’, almost like a moment of realization and it has been described as serendipity or divine intervention by scientists and artists alike who have tried to described their moment of discovery, although the role of previous knowledge and experience is an equally important background factor. The scientists and artists are able to realize the potential of these ‘flashes’ and are able to recognize, capture and prolong their moments of insight for better realization of their creative goals.

The Personality in Creativity – This brings us to the question about the traits or personality factors that make a person creative. Is there a well-defined creative personality? Of course, there is. Highly creative individuals and geniuses have marked similar traits and although every human being is creative in one way or the other, some individuals actually develop their creativity too well and so they are recognized as creative geniuses. Psychologists believe that all highly creative individuals have certain common personality traits.

1. Complexity – The creative individuals love complex situations and problems as this provides a challenge to their own mental abilities and help them to think of several possible solutions

2. Flexibility – Highly creative individuals are extremely open-minded and receptive to new ideas and possibilities which help them to move beyond traditional modes of thinking

3. Confidence – Boldness and confidence mark the creative genius as in order to be a pioneer, one has to have leadership qualities, extreme self-confidence and creative geniuses are leaders as they show a new path and open new possibilities

4. Non-conformity – The creative process itself is an act of non-conformity so creative individuals are non-conformists and unconventional.

5. Intuition – Highly creative people are extremely intuitive and they can scare you with their ability to read minds and people’s thoughts. That is how they can create as they have to know the order of things and are able to predict people’s responses.

6. Sensitivity – Creative individuals have well developed sensitivity as without extreme sensitivity, it is not possible to feel and portray the emotions through creative work. A novelist has to know ‘how it feels’ to be character in his novel otherwise he cannot create a good novel.

7. Curiosity – An insatiable child-like curiosity for almost everything around them is what characterizes the creative genius. The creative individual wants to know and learn new things and is persistently asking questions and this is the fuel for creative growth.

8. Knowledge – Closely associated with curiosity, creative individuals have very good general knowledge as they have to use this knowledge in their creative pursuits. That is why creative people are usually interested in several subject areas.

9. Independence – One trait that definitely characterizes very high creative geniuses is their independence of thought. This is again related to leadership and nonconformity as in order to think independently, one has to move beyond norms.

10. Imagination – The creative person lives in his own world of imagination and has a very highly developed and enriched mental life and even if grounded, sometimes thrives on fantasies.

11. Impulsiveness – Since the creative process is a sudden realization, the creative individual has a love for suddenness and loves to work on impulse. Creating something new is an adventure so impulsiveness which could be recklessness or adventurousness makes the creative individual a compulsive risk-taker.

12. Criticism – Highly creative people are also extremely critical both of themselves and of others. They criticize others and that is how they take new paths and they are also prone to extreme self-criticism.

13. Fluency – The creative person has an extremely fluent thought process and has a prolific range of ideas

14. Charm – The genius is usually characterized by a humorous nature, extreme charm and personal attractiveness and a ‘presence’ that makes them popular and attractive to all sorts of people.

15. Egoism – Highly creative individuals usually have a ‘me first’ attitude and are almost always narcissists or marked by extreme egoism, although they may be very generous and may not reveal their egoism for social reasons and many even transcend the self boundary and work for greater causes.

16. Originality – Creative individuals have a love for the novel and the unique and try moving beyond established ideas to find something radically different

17. Disorder – A love for disorder is common among all creative people as they are apparently bored with order or any predictable course of events

18. Ambiguity – Uncertainty is very attractive for creative individuals and they love the ambiguous or when there are two or more ways of explaining a problem, especially because this gives them freedom of thought and expression.

19. Loneliness – The creative individual is usually a loner and according to psychoanalysis, also a neurotic. The genius is perennially isolated from society and being very uncomfortable with social norms, they tend to avoid social interaction. Political and social leaders are however more socially active than the creative artist and writer, although some tend to lead reclusive lives.

20. Motivation – The creative individuals are extremely motivated, almost driven by a sense of higher purpose in life. They are in a way self aware and enlightened and many of them seem to believe in an unexplained (divine) purpose of existence.

There are of course other traits as creative people are characterized by hyperactivity and obsession with their work, high yet sublimated sexual drives, and according to psychologist Sternberg, wisdom rather than simply intelligence.

The creative process and creative individual naturally leads the discussion to anomalies in creativity. So now finally, some words about the connection between madness and creativity. Creativity has been closely associated with mental illness and the highly creative individuals are considered prone to mental disorders. In fact all creative geniuses may be vulnerable to bipolar disorder or schizophrenia and creativity itself is a sort of neuroticism. Yet I would suggest that even though creative geniuses have propensity towards mental illness, their creative outlet is a very strong tool that helps them to maintain sanity. So considering the inbuilt defense mechanisms that creative individuals have, it is highly unlikely that such people would actually become completely insane. Although there are many exceptions as the creative genius may develop extreme sense of inadequacy and loneliness and may actually show severe mental problems. However in most cases, creative geniuses are not afraid to stretch their minds, thoughts and behavior too far as to almost reach the limits of sanity, so they are branded as ‘weird’ or ‘eccentric’. But these people are extremely strong because they are self-aware and are blessed with the ability of controlling their mind and sanity. So when the whole world is afraid of their perceived madness, they are not. The difference between a madman and a genius is that the genius controls his own madness and can choose to become sane or insane at his own free will.

In fact, the process of creativity is also an exercise in madness, as the creative individual has to continually stretch mental limits to maintain all creative pursuits. The success of the creative genius is another issue and I will discuss it in a separate article.

The Elixir of Beauty

The cold chilling winds of the winter are always a welcoming call for skin and hair problems. Many people complain of dry skin and problems of dandruff that is impossible for them to avoid. Imagine you are an executive of a company wearing a tuxedo or coat and people point out the dandruff on the suit. Embarrassing it would be, Right?

How about you are going to a gathering of friends and having skin problems or dandruff problems? And your friends suddenly point at your dress and laugh at the dandruff that is clinging to it. Won’t you be frustrated about it?

Ever noticed how we shake our hair in winter season and dandruff drops like ice on Christmas? Well, that is a common problem with almost everyone. Let me share with you a home remedy that works like magic against dandruff.

It is amazing how there are solutions right in front of our eyes, and we fail to notice them every time. Such a remedial solution for dandruff is called the “Egg Oil,” which not only is a very effective remedy against dandruff but has many other benefits. Problems such as hair loss, weak hair, and less shiny hair may easily be taken care of by Egg oil.

So here is what we do. Take about six eggs. Boil the eggs properly and peel them neatly. Separate the egg white and collect the yolk (yellow portion) into a pan. Start heating the pan on low fire and stir and mash the egg yolk properly. Put the pan on slow fire and keep heating till the protein in the yolk burns and the magical stuff oozes out of the yolk. That magical stuff is the oil you want to collect for your treatment of dandruff. Let the pan cool down at normal room temperature. And then filter the oil through a clean and fine cloth. Apply the oil on the hair and massage properly. Make sure that all areas of the scalp are properly soaked in oil as it is much more effective this way.

Once the oil has seeped into the hairs and skull here, the rejuvenating process begins. After twenty to thirty minutes, rinse the hair and feel and see the difference. Egg oil gives a very refreshing treatment to the scalp and the hair. Making the hairs strong and shiny and also strengthening any damaged areas effectively.

When preparing the oil, do make sure that there is proper ventilation in the kitchen. And also the doors and windows of the rooms are open. When heating the egg yolk, it gives off a very pungent odor that can cause an uncomfortable feeling. Miraculously the oil is not only good for just hair, but it is also a great remedy for facial skin problems. Applying some oil on the face, and a gentle massage can cure problems of acne and dry/cracking skin. An amazing phenomenon about the oil is that it has proved to be a good natural medicinal solution. It can treat burns and bruises with having any side effects.

How To Get A Bubble Butt – A Few Tips That Will Make Your Booty Rounder and Bigger

There are often things we would like to change on our bodies. We would like to be taller, stronger, have a flatter tummy, smaller nose, bigger breasts etcetera.

This article is about how to get a bubble butt. Fortunately this is something you can get without too much trouble and effort. It will require some effort and dedication but practically anyone can do it.

So where do you start, what do you have to do to get a bubble butt? There are few different things you can do to get a really round and perky butt.

The buttocks are primarily made up of muscle but also fat. Strengthening the muscles will make your booty firmer, rounder and bigger. So if small changes are what you are after, exercise (together with a good diet) is all you need.

However when we are talking about bubble butts we tend to think of really big and well rounded booties. In order to get that muscle alone is not enough, you also need to add fat to it. The fat will add a fair bit of volume to your booty and strong muscles will keep it round and firm. So we need to get muscle and fat on our booties. Now to the methods that will get you there.

Exercise: Though many activities are good for training the buttocks (running, walking, cycling) I will only go over the most effective butt building exercises, the ones that will give you results, fast.

• Frog squats: these differs to ordinary squats as you keep your feet apart (sort of like a V) Do them slowly to maximize resistance and to avoid putting strain on your knees

• Kneeling Sidekicks: You get down on all fours, lift your leg as high as you can and kick sideways. Change your legs and repeat

• Lunges: Stand upright, feet together and take one long deep step forward until your thigh is parallel to the floor (don’t go further as this can damage your knee) get back up and repeat, change legs and start over again

• Bridges: You lay flat on the floor, pull your legs up until they have an angle of 45 degrees. Keep your feet flat on the floor and lift your butt as high as you can while squeezing your buttocks. Repeat until it gets difficult.

• Standing leg raises: Stand up with you feet together holding on to a doorpost or pole. Then raise your leg sideways as high as you can, lower it slowly and repeat. Change legs. If you think this is too easy, put a small weight around your ankle.

Do these exercises at least three times week. Make sure to eat well after work outs as the muscles need to recover in order to grow. Eat healthy natural foods, make sure you eat little more protein. A good diet could consist of fish, meat, vegetables, fruit, cereals, milk and eggs.

There are also some foods that are particularly good for butt building. This is because they will help you to put some fat on your booty. Putting fat on the booty is necessary in order to get a bubble butt as muscle alone cannot give it the volume you wish.

Eating nuts is good for this. Nuts contain fatty acids and Omega 3 and this will be stored in your butt thus “fattening it up”. Eating fatty fish like salmon or taking fish oil will have the same effect. Drinking milk is also excellent for building a bubble butt so drink plenty of milk.

There is one more method that is very useful in order to make your butt bigger. There is a way of moving body fat from you’re other parts of your body to your butt. This method involves a simple skin brush and will take only a few minutes a day. It is very efficient.

This is how to get a bubble butt. Now you only have to get started and in a couple of months you can have a much bigger, rounder and sexier butt.

Long Distance Vs Short Distances Relationships

What is the difference between these two relationships? Short distance relationships are right there in your face all the time. You do not have to call them to talk to them or see them they can be right there in just a few minutes of walking or driving or riding a bike there. The man or woman does not have to travel so far to see you all the time.

They might need to go a couple miles but not that far. The man and woman can go out on dates and have fun with each other going bowling or to the movies. With all this for the short distance relationship there are still faults to it as well. The man or woman can still cheat on their boyfriend or girlfriend right under their nose and will find out a lot sooner than with a long distance relationship. They can still make you cry and make you hurt just as a long distance relationship can and sometimes does.

In many relationships it is hard to deal with loving someone so much it hurts you or makes you want to cry. Most ask themselves questions before they get into a relationship to begin with. They might ask themselves is this the right person to be with right now? Will I be happy with this man or woman? Can I let myself be happy with them? Will I get hurt? Will I hurt them if I get into this relationship? Same applies in a long distance relationship just with a farther distance.

Long distance relationships are harder to maintain it takes both persons sheer will power to keep it going. It takes determination hard work and a lot of love between both people to make the farther apart relationship work out so well. Working on the longer distance relationship takes a lot of will power and a lot of love you still ask yourself all the say questions you do with short distances relationships, but you also ask yourself more than those basic questions.

Questions such as: Can they wait for me if they really love me? Can they love me from so far away? How will it work with us being so far apart? Those are just a few questions running through a persons mind when thinking about going into a long distance relationship. Yes both types are hard relationships to maintain but there are also the facts that shorter the distance the easier it really is because with the short distances you are least can see each other when you want.

You do not have to wait hours upon hours to see each other or drive a long distance to get to one another. Long distance relationships have more work involved to keep them active. They use the phone on the internet and text messaging on phones back and forth just to keep the relationship in contact with one another. The biggest thing with a long distance relationship is the people have to trust each other not to cheat or hurt one another while they are not face to face with each other. So there is an upside to both relationships both can be successful and the down side they both could fail you just never know.

Does Your Age Affect Your Short Term Memory?

What impact does the aging process have on the brain and how it processes memories? Can anything be done to prevent the effects of aging on your recall? These are all questions that we have to face as we get older. Thankfully, there are answers.

The question of does your age affect your short term memory may seem odd, but it really is an important question to look at as we get older. Humans have long been wrestling with the aging process attempting to slow it or stop it altogether. Since our minds are central to how we think, what we know, who we are then it perhaps one of the more critical areas to study when trying to determine what impact aging has.

So how does your age affect your short term memory? The answer is varied, but there are a few main factors of aging that inhibit recall and brain function. We’ll touch on three of them here.

The first is a decrease in blood flow to the brain as we get older. As we age the circulatory system can become less efficient and blood circulation can become hindered. Also, the same issue of clogged arteries that can affect your heart also affect your brain. Plaque in the vessels can reduce cerebral blood flow and harm brain function. The brain is highly dependent on the oxygen and nutrients that blood brings to the cells. In fact the brain is roughly the largest user of oxygen among the organs of the body. Decrease in oxygen can impact your short term memory from being able to hold and process information. It decreases concentration and inhibits focus.

Therefore, our diet and exercise levels during our lifetime not only play a role in how healthy our heart stays, but also how well our brains continue to function as we age. So while age is a factor in how efficient our circulatory system operates, we do have the power to delay that process by how well we manage what we eat and how we keep our bodies in shape.

We can also turn to nutritional supplementation to augment this by using vitamin and mineral supplements to ensure we’re getting all the nutrients our bodies need. There are also some good supplements of Ginkgo Biloba and Ginseng that help increase blood flow to the brain and enhance the memory functions. These can be especially useful whether we are young yet or we are in our later years.

The second issue that comes up when looking at how does your age affect your short term memory is the decline of neurotransmitter production. Neurotransmitters are the brain chemicals that allow your brain cells to communicate and perform their various functions. As we age the problem can be twofold. One is that we can produce less of these chemicals as we age and two the body’s natural process of breaking down excess neurotransmitters can begin to malfunction and work to excess causing a lack of supply for the brain.

Without proper supply of these chemicals the brain cannot perform correctly. One of the issues with Alzheimer’s for example is that aside from physical damage to nerve cells there is also a significant decrease in various neurotransmitters resulting in an inability to process things into memory or out of memory. It can also affect mood and other aspects of the mind.

Again, one of the keys in fighting this problem is in proper nutrition and diet. The body needs to have the right levels of vitamins and nutrients to support the production of neurotransmitters. Also, exercise tends to help slow down the aging process in general and helps keep the production process strong.

Also, supplementation here can be helpful. There are supplements out there that support brain function by providing compounds like huperzine A, which helps counter the destruction of neurotransmitters in the brain as well as L-Tyrosine, Acetyl L-Carnitine and Choline which help in producing brain chemicals and protecting nerve cell function. These can be useful tools in combating age related decline of these functions.

Lastly, one of the important elements in protecting the brain from decline as we get older is to continue to exercise the brain itself. Studies have shown that people who keep mentally active and challenged as they age tend to keep function longer than those who don’t. The habit is to let ourselves slow down. We retire from our jobs and we tend to stop being active and learning new things. This allows brain function to atrophy. You need to continue to push yourself and strive to learn new things. Working the brain even with simple things like word puzzles or brain teasers helps strengthen those functions. The brain physically strengthens the nerves that are used most, so it truly is a use it or loss it process.

The reasons behind how does your age affect your short term memory are varied, but the answers are simple and within the reach of most everyone. Some of the same things we need to do to stay healthy physically help us mentally. Maintaining good eating habits and regular exercise along with staying active mentally as well as possibly using natural supplements to enhance these programs will help ensure that age doesn’t play as big a role in our mental function as it could otherwise.

Physical Therapy – What Is The Quickest Way To Become A Physical Therapist?

Physical therapy as a profession is lucrative. With licensed practitioners earning a median base salary of $65,000 to $75,000, many people are dreaming of become physical therapists. However, many of these people do not have the time to focus on schooling and attaining this degree since they are working or are probably tasked to do other equally important assignments. The experts in the field very well understand this predicament and therefore better options have been created. There are now some quick ways to become a physical therapist.

One of the most popular methods available that can save you time is pursuing an online degree. There are a bunch of these degrees offered through the internet. Advantages of choosing this option include not being required to be physically present in classes and it allows one to work on school requirements at his own time.

However, here are a few tips to remember in order to become a Physical Therapist very quickly and surely.

1. Get an undergraduate degree and make sure that this particular degree is rich in science courses such as physics, biology, and chemistry. It is not really necessary to take up an undergraduate course in physical therapy; however, doing so will ensure a shorter time to fulfill the required coursework.

2. Right after graduating, it would be best to immediately pursue a master’s degree preferably in physical therapy since this is needed to get a license. One also has to make sure that the American Physical Therapy Association accredits the school chosen by them.

3. After finishing the online degree, waste no time. Complete residency immediately. This can be completed under doctors of various fields including physical therapy.

4. After this, get a license by completing the licensure or the certification requirements of the state. It has to be made sure that the right certification or licensure is taken so that practice of the profession will not be delayed.

5. Finally, one can choose an area of specialization. There are some who like to work with children and childhood-related injuries while others prefer working in the sports scene.

The ways mentioned are not only the quickest but are also the best ways. This is because being sure and careful ensures faster results. You need to ensure all the steps in the process are undertaken with respected and certified schools. But once in these programs you can increase your course load and power through the program. If you do not research your chosen school properly before you enroll, you will be increasing the risk of mistakes and so may end up repeating the whole process.

Feingold Diet Review – Feingold Diet Pros and Cons

The Feingold Diet is a book written by Dr. Benjamen Feingold, a pediatrician who wanted to explore how children’s diets affected their behavior, particularly in terms of ADD, ADHD, and Hyperactivity.

The book gained popularity since it was first published in the 1970s and remains popular to this day. It has also been adopted by many adults as a manual for healthier eating.

The Feingold Diet places a great emphasis on clean eating, particularly in removing several elements from your diet which include the following:

  • Synthetic food colors
  • Artificial flavors
  • Artificial sweeteners
  • Artificial preservatives

These can influence how your child behave but they also influence your health in many other ways, some of which are hard to determine.

This diet book is far from perfect and using it is not without its challenges. Therefore, you should know the following pros and cons of the Feingold Diet:

Pros:

  • The Feingold Diet was written by a Doctor and is based on his research
  • Advocates a balanced diet
  • The diet book contains recipes which you can use to follow the diet more easily
  • Diet beneficial to children with ADD and ADHD symptoms
  • The book contains a comprehensive food list

Cons:

  • Some people may find the required changes in the Feingold Diet too hard to follow
  • Requires a lot of planning
  • The diet does not have a role for exercise
  • Can be time consuming
  • Rigorous and restrictive
  • No fast foods or restaurant foods allowed. This can be healthy but may be difficult for some people.

Overall, this is a book worth reading, especially if you wish to know more about the healthy diet which children need.

How to Lose Weight Fast and Easy – Weight Loss Made Easy With These Mind Blowing Tips!

If you are here to learn how to lose weight fast and easy than put on those reading glasses my friend because you have come to the right place.

Short-term goals

Losing weight is not as hard as many people think, you just need to know how and then have the motivation to keep at it. The best way to get motivation is to see yourself achieving the goals you have, this is why it’s important to have short-term goals so you can constantly feel you’re getting results. Remember to put up new goals when you complete them, it’s also important to not have too hard goals, especially in the beginning. If you have no idea of what goals you should have then a good beginner one is to lose one pound each week.

Processed foods

One of the most common mistakes people do when they’re trying to lose weight is to eat processed foods. Your liver can’t break down processed foods and therefore it’s toxic for the liver, this will slow down your ability to break down fat. Instead you should focus on eating as unprocessed foods as possible, these kinds of food are natural and organic and almost all of them are healthy for you and will naturally burn fat. But don’t be afraid of eating fat as longs as it’s natural and organic. Instead of eating less food you should focus on the quality of the food. But don’t forget to vary your meals widely so you get nutrients from many sources.

Water

The majority of people drink to little water; water is like a miracle beverage and will increase your health in many ways. Water will cleanse your body of toxins and increase your metabolic rate (how much your body burns fat). In fact the only beverage you should be drinking is water if you’re super serious about losing weight, but I know that can be hard, but note that water is the only beverage that makes you lose weight. Drink half of your body weight in ounces every day, for example if you weigh 200 pounds then drink 100 ounces of water every day.

Changing your eating schedule

You should make the meals a little smaller and eat every 2-3 hours instead; the idea is not to eat less during the day but to make the intervals between each meal shorter. Then the body thinks you’re in a very rich environment and you have no need to store some extra energy (fat) for later, great huh?

Henry Sy’s Keys to Success

Who’s Henry Sy? Is he rich and successful? If so, why talk about him? Why not just relish on the successes of Donald Trump of The Apprentice or Warren Buffet, the Oracle of Nebraska?

Henry Sy has inspired millions of people from the Philippines and around the globe because of how he built his business empire; how he created the “malling phenomenon” and transformed the shopping experience in the Philippines.

Henry was born in China. Poor and desperate at age 12, his family migrated to the Philippines to seek greener pasture. Initially, he set up a small retail store as he aimed for a better life. After World War II, he opened a few shoe stores. Inspired by his early successes, he started Shoemart retail store in 1958 and later department stores.

Through perseverance and hard work, he gradually expanded his stores to malls to capture a bigger market. When he planned to build the first mall, many people including bankers and businesspeople thought that it wasn’t a good idea especially that Philippines was then going through crisis. But he followed his vision and his first mall was a huge success.

And now, Henry’s companies own major banks, a real estate business, and several huge malls in the Philippines and in China. In fact, three of his malls in Metro Manila belong to the top 10 largest malls in the world.

In 2008, Forbes Magazine named him as one of the world’s billionaires and the richest in the Philippines with $3.1 Billion net worth. Wow! Not bad for someone who started with almost nothing.

What are Henry’s secrets to success?

Teresita Sy-Coson, Henry’s eldest daughter who runs his many businesses, revealed his success formula. In one of her speeches (printed at Philippine Daily Inquirer, Sept. 2004), she stated Henry’s 14 success strategies: 1. Leadership 2. Integrity 3. Vision 4. Focus 5. Passion 6. Hard work 7. Perseverance 8. Optimism 9. Confidence 10. Discipline 11. Organization 12. Mission 13. Social responsibility and 14. Recognition of opportunity. Do you have Henry’s qualities?

Below, you’ll find questions on Henry’s success secrets. Read each of them carefully and provide your honest answers.

On Leadership

Are you willing to be different? Are you willing to establish a brand that represents who you are or that shows how unique your business is? Are you willing to make the necessary and yet painful decisions to help your business?

On Integrity

Can people trust you? Can you trust yourself? Do you mean what you say and say what you mean? Do you walk the talk? Do you keep your promises?

On Vision

Do you have a long-term plan? Do you see yourself or your business 15 years from now? Or 50 years from now? Have you weighed the necessary steps to achieve your goals?

On Focus

Are you fully focused in achieving your dreams? Do you make the effort to ignore distractions? Do you tactfully deal with people who waste your time?

On Passion

Do you have the burning desire to succeed? Do you like to savor success despite the hurts, frustrations, and losses? Are you passionate about what you’re doing?

On Hard work

Are you willing to give extra hours to pursue a sale or to create a better product or to improve your work? Do you give your best effort in advancing your business or your cause?

On Perseverance

Do you persevere against all odds? Do you stay the course despite the negativism in your community or problems in your family? Do you feel encouraged to do better by your losses and failures?

If you respond yes to all these questions, then you have what it takes to be a success like Henry Sy.

The Cayman Guide to Having a Baby in the Islands

Moving to the Cayman Islands for a fresh start, or to begin a new job, can be a very exciting time in the lives of young couples. When beginning a new life in a new location, being prepared for what can happen is essential, and this includes unexpected, or planned, pregnancy. If you’re having a baby in the islands, it is important to be aware of the general attitude of the public towards pregnancy, babies and children, as well as how and where to find pre-natal and delivery care. If you’ve recently relocated and are considering starting a family, the following is a detailed Cayman guide to having a baby in the islands.

Environment

The Cayman Islands are considered quite child and family-friendly, and there is a general positive attitude towards pregnancy and children. Babies and children are welcome in most places, and the majority of restaurants offer high chairs to diners. There are many young families, as well as many nannies and helpers available for hire, both full and part time. Help within the home is also considered to be quite affordable in the islands.

Obstetrics

There are many obstetricians available in the Cayman Islands that work out of the hospitals and medical centres. Most obstetricians have access to 3D and 4D imaging equipment, and obstetricians specialize in antenatal, prenatal and post-natal care, as well as the management of high-risk pregnancies, infertility treatment, early fetal testing and more. Cayman doctors who specialize in obstetrics include Dr. Howard Deosaran of Trincay Medical Centre, Dr. Gregory Richmond-Peck and Dr. Barry Richter of the Cayman Clinic.

Delivery

If you’re planning a traditional birth, Cayman is home to two main hospitals, The Cayman Islands Hospital and the Chrissie Tomlinson Hospital. The former is part of the Health Services Authority and both establishments are located in George Town. While some doctors have a specific preference, most will delivery at the hospital of your choice. If you prefer to use a midwife for your birth, you can choose to deliver at the Woman’s Health Centre. Choosing an advanced hospital in the United States is sometimes recommended for mothers enduring high-risk pregnancies or who have a high risk of complications.

Cost

Healthcare is not free in the Cayman Islands, and having a child is quite expensive. Once you find out that you are pregnant, it is important to contact your insurance provider to find out which expenses are covered. The extent to which your expenses will be covered will depend upon your specific insurance plan, and may or may not include prenatal care, delivery, a hospital stay and newborn care. The typical cost for a midwife delivery, with a three night stay in a Cayman Islands hospital, is nearly $4,000 Cayman Islands dollars, while private doctors will charge additional fees.

If you find yourself pregnant in the islands, a Cayman guide to prenatal care, hospitals, delivery and costs can be quite helpful. Creating a plan of action for prenatal care, delivery and postnatal care early on is essential to having a healthy, happy pregnancy that is as worry-free as possible. Expanding your family is an exciting time in life and one that should be enjoyed to the fullest.

Is Bikram Yoga Safe For Knees After Surgery?

Knee surgery for a torn meniscus or entire knee replacement sometimes becomes imperative; its rehabilitation takes about seven to eight weeks; by that time any inflammation, redness or pain will be taken care of; as soon as you are able to put your weight on your affected leg without pain, you are ready for Bikram (hot) yoga. It is better to go slow in the beginning- right after the surgery- if there is any indication of redness, swelling or soreness, remember to ice it. Also avoid stretching or bending the leg too far. In Bikram yoga an hour and a half of performance of very challenging poses, in a room kept at 105 degrees Fahrenheit and humidity level at forty percent, produces profuse perspiration to relieve the body of all toxic wastes. It also increases the strength and elasticity in knees after surgery; and prevents injuries in future

Rewards of Bikram Yoga after Surgery

  • Strengthens inner and outer quadriceps
  • Strong inner, outer, upper and lower muscles support the weak knee
  • Increased blood flow and nutrients for the affected knee

Knee Protection while Performing Yoga

After knee surgery, one might want to return to one’s lifestyle quickly, it is important to do so with extreme caution. Adopting wrong poses or pushing beyond limits can further endanger your knees. To practice Bikram yoga as you are recuperating, keep the following in mind.

  • Keep your feet well placed and aligned. Push down through all four corners of your feet for most of the asanas. If your feet are not in the right position, your knees will be affected adversely.
  • Your knees should be in line with your ankles, not moving out over them. This is important especially for lunges and knee bends. The knee must be directing towards the middle toe. In standing extended-leg forward fold, remember to pull up on the arches of the feet.
  • Some postures in Bikram yoga require locking the knees, refrain from that after surgery; you may pull in the knee-caps to take up a pose. If you need to hyperextend your knees for a certain pose, do so by keeping the knees slightly bent in most standing and forward folding positions.
  • If your hips are not opened up or extended fully, your knees will have to bear extra pressure during most of the standing postures. You must open your hips early in a class to avoid putting this strain on your knees.

Bikram yoga practitioners who have gone through knee surgery must take extra care to perform certain poses. Hero’s pose if not performed rightly can pull at the knee-ligaments, while done properly, proves beneficial in healing the knees. In Triangle pose there is a risk of locking or hyper-extending your knees. In Seated-Forward Fold, bend your knees a little to avoid any further damage to your knee. To practice Child’s pose, put a blanket between your buttocks and calves to reduce strain on your affected knee. As this branch of yoga puts a great emphasis on patience, you must remember to be patient and allow enough time for your body to heal fully before you put it through a demanding regimen.

Legality of Ma Huang in the USA: What Is Legal and What Is Not

The case of ephedrine is very interesting and it’s not a surprise if so many people commented it and made such a buzz out of each new development regarding the legal status of this substance. Many newspapers published series of articles commenting the ban of ephedrine by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

The reasons of such interest are mainly the following:

  • First of all, many people were already using ephedrine sold over-the-counter, you can easily imagine how interested they were about the potential risks for their health!
  • How come that ephedrine, coming from a natural plant called Ephedra or Ma Huang, had been used without problem since more than 5,000 years and was suddenly presented as dangerous?
  • All serious medical surveys confirmed that ephedrine was presenting real benefits and no health danger when used at the prescribed doses, so what was the scientific basis used by the FDA to justify this ban in the USA?
  • The FDA position changed apparently many times, and many people suspected intense lobbying from the pharmaceutical industry trying to protect their financial interests. In 1997 the FDA proposed a first rule of a maximum authorized dosage of ephedrine, then in 2000 the FDA stepped back, then later in 2004 the highly publicized death of baseball players urged the FDA to ban again, but in 2005 this ban has been overturned by a judgment in Utah! And finally in May 2007 the US Supreme Court rejected a petition challenging the ban of ephedrine, and since that date the sale of dietary supplements containing ephedrine is illegal in the USA. But it is still legal to buy ephedrine as bronchodilator for asthma, given maximal quantities of 3.6 grams per sale and 7.5 grams per month, with the obligation of checking name and address of the buyer. Last but not least, Ma Huang as a pure herb can still be sold legally in the USA, but not as dietary supplement.
  • The fact that a natural plant contained such an efficient fat loss product was preventing the pharmaceutical companies to patent it, and it was a serious loss in their potential market share in the huge and growing weight control market – it would have been a challenge for them to find, produce and sell any other chemical product presenting the same efficiency.
  • Some people were suspecting that the easy chemical reduction of ephedrine to methamphetamine was the main reason why the FDA wanted to monitor in a precise way the quantities being sold in the USA and also to keep track of the identity of the buyers.
  • The ban by the FDA was also ambiguous because ephedrine could not be sold anymore as weight loss diet supplement, but it was authorized as bronchodilator. This kind of “grey zone” made it very confusing for many people.

As a conclusion, no doubt that Hollywood could have written a good movie scenario out of this FDA ban! Many stakes were at work in that story and probably all truth has not been revealed yet.

Legality aside, the important questions are:

  • Is ephedrine efficient for weight loss? Yes, with no doubt, many medical surveys have proved it.
  • Is ephedrine safe? Again yes, an assessment of 19 medical studies is available at the CRN website (Council for Responsible Nutrition), stated that all studies concluded that ephedrine was presenting no risk at the prescribed dosage.

To those people asking where to buy ephedrine, we would remind again the legal requirements: buyer’s identity has to be verified and the maximum sales are 3.6 grams per day and 7.5 grams per month.

Our recommendation to people willing to use ephedrine as bronchodilator would be to consult their doctor first in order to check potential contraindications.

Another advice would be to avoid buying fake products online, because products information online is unclear and might lead to selection errors, we strongly recommend to get help from serious web sites presenting reviews of online shops which sell ephedrine legally.

How to Negotiate Hair Transplant Costs

Over 60% of men will have some sort of hair loss in their life time which they will seek medical attention for. In over nine out of ten of these cases the most prominent factor contributing to the loss of hair is a genetic condition known as male pattern baldness. This problem, with the medical name Androgenic Alopecia, can affect both men and women and is passed down through the generations from either the mother’s side of the family, the father’s, or both.

When a man suffers balding due to this problem his hair follicles (the roots) are attacked by a naturally occurring hormonal substance called DHT. This DHT actually renders the hair follicles incapable of producing keratin, the hair shaft material. At this point the only hope for hair in the balding area is have a hair transplantation procedure performed at a hair restoration clinic. This is fairly expensive but the price can be negotiated down. With the current economic conditions most clinic are operating below capacity and are willing to give discounts to get new patients. If you have been considering hair transplant as the solution to your baldness then this is a great time to get it done.

The first key to negotiating a good price is to let the other party know it is too much. When they give you the cost look shaken and say that is more than you expected. This sets up the stage for the tactics to come. Most people are reluctant to do this part and thus they start off with a week hand when it comes down to the end of the negotiating game.

Next, ask if there is anything that can be done to make it more affordable. Maybe they can cut down on the number of grafts and give you about the same coverage. After this you can ask if they offer free financing. If you are going to borrow the money the fact that they will offer to give you an interest free loan can be worth a lot.

By this time you have often times received discounts but don’t stop there. Offer 15% less than their bottom offer. If they say no then thank the clinic representative and stand up from the table. Say it just doesn’t seem doable. You will be surprised at how many people find one more offer when you are walking out the door.