New Foot in the Sand Technology can Solve Many Health Problems

A vast array of after-market insoles has been merchandised through the years. Most of these consist of a bed of cushioning foam with only hints of accommodation for foot anatomy. Other than extremely expensive orthotic insoles, commercial varieties do little to solve the far-reaching problems of feet restricted in a quite unnatural device, the shoe.

A new ergonomically designed insole, based upon “foot-in-the-sand” technology©, has been developed. It is the result of several years of research in comparative anatomy, kinesiology (mechanics and anatomy of movement), ergonomics (human engineering for efficient and safe use) and testing in the most rigorous and demanding of sports and vocations.

(See [http://www.wysong.net/images/insole/sand.jpg])

A Personal Note

My interest in functional footwear was forced upon me by many years of training in competitive badminton (not the recreational type played in backyards), an exceptionally rigorous sport including much jumping and rapid lateral and back and forth movements resulting in tremendous concussive and shear forces on the feet. I did the majority of my training on cement and over the years I discovered I was not made of steel. The first thing to suffer was my feet. The pain after a workout was so bad I had to lie in bed at night with my legs elevated on pillows so my heels were suspended and did not touch anything. Not willing to give up the sport, I set about looking for shoes and orthotics that would help. That process was unfruitful and in most cases exacerbated the problem. For example, the common solution to heel pain is to provide cushioning under the heel. That was my first impulse as well, but cushions there simply guaranteed more heel contact, the very thing my feet were crying out to avoid.

Frustrated with commercial products, I and the research staff at Wysong set about developing something that would work not only for me, but for anyone in sports and anyone wanting relief

from the incredible pounding the feet receive. This is the story of the results of over five years of research and development.

The Foot Is A Dynamic Structure

The foot is an exceedingly complex mechanical structure. It is comprised of 26 bones (25% of all the body’s bones!) as well as muscles, tendons, ligaments, joints, sesamoids, nerves, lubricating fluids, pads, nails, veins, arteries and lymphatics, all comprising hundreds of interconnecting intricate parts. Modern shoes entomb the foot into a virtually immobile state – as if it were comprised of one piece – denying its important underlying functional and dynamic design. The foot has no rectangular or perpendicular edges and was not meant to be strapped to a platform. Conventional shoes are created for adornment (pointed shoes even have a sexual history) with only token considerations made for the critical needs of a living foot crying out for freedom from bondage and solitary confinement. In fact, 80% of all foot problems occur in women because of the distorting shoes they wear. Overweight individuals are even more prone to foot problems due to the compounded gravitational forces funneled down to the foot. (see [http://www.wysong.net/images/insole/anatomy.jpg])

Conventional shoes (better termed coffins) lead to a broad host of ailments. Similar to the binding used to create diminutive feet in Japanese women, modern shoes bind and misshape feet. The misshapen feet of modern adventurers who travel to primitive regions amaze barefooted natives who have naturally wide, toughened, prehensile, toe-spread feet.

The true potential of liberated toes becomes apparent in the disabled who have no hand function, yet learn to write and use eating utensils with their toes. In contrast, toes that have spent a lifetime in shoes can barely move. (see [http://www.wysong.net/images/insole/bare.jpg]) Feet are best thought of as analogues to the prehensile hands, not mere shock absorbing bumpers at the end of our legs.

The Foot’s Relationship To Health

The average adult walks five miles in the course of daily activities, and our feet absorb about 1,000 tons of force a day – much of it on hard surfaces. Improper footwear sends “dis-ease” up through the legs and spine, all the way to the cranium. Feet forced out of balance and inhibited from proper movement can result in corns, calluses, ingrown toenails, heel spurs, fascitis, sesamoiditis, tarsal tunnel, calconeal apophysitis, shin splints, torn Achilles tendons, sprains, broken ankles, joint pain and arthritis. Pelvic and hip problems as well as lower back and cervical (neck) disc problems can also result. Improper foot mobility interferes with blood and lymphatic circulation leading to edema, varicose veins, phlebitis, and claudication. Resultant clots can migrate to critical blood vessels in the brain and other areas potentially causing stroke, heart attacks and degeneration of the kidneys and other organs with critical microcirculation. This is not to mention fatigue, headaches, and even depression that can have an ultimate cause linked to body imbalance and organic malfunction beginning in the feet. Foot pain can lead to decreased exercise and with that increased susceptibility to unhealthy weight gain and a host of other mental, physical and physiological weaknesses.

(see [http://www.wysong.net/images/insole/healthy.jpg])

The feet are much too important to simply bind, adorn and hide. The foot is designed to be our connection to Earth. The sensations received by the foot on the ground create body awareness not unlike the input received by the senses.

For athletes, the demands on the feet are greatly amplified. Many have their careers cut short by foot injury and degenerative foot diseases. The causes are many, but not the least of which is improper shoe and insole design. All athletes sooner or later have foot problems. Given a natural surface to play a sport on (like sand, if that were possible), and using conditioned bare feet, these problems would rarely occur.

Health should be the primary consideration in footwear, not a little cushioning here and there and a lot of fashion and style. A product that needs to primarily address function should not become simply an opportunity for marketing.

(see [http://www.wysong.net/images/insole/ball.jpg])

How Feet Are Designed To Work

The proper position of the foot is up on the ball. Propulsion and landing should only incidentally (if at all) employ heel contact. The heel is to movement what the buttocks are to standing. You’re on your heels while standing but not moving, and on your buttocks if you’re sitting and not moving.

Unfortunately, the platformed box design of shoes encourages heel contact with motion, thus decreasing reaction time and speed and setting the stage for injury.

(see [http://www.wysong.net/images/insole/flat.jpg])

The natural movement of the foot is a complex, resilient, flexing and rolling motion – not the two dimensional heel-foot thumping forced upon it by modern footwear. The natural foot roll employs the same principle used by a parachutist when landing. By folding and rolling the chance of injury is dramatically decreased. So too should the foot roll at each landing. That is, in fact, what it is anatomically designed to do. The motion I speak of is the natural rolling from light heel contact or no heel contact, to the lateral (outer) arch, to the ball, then to the toes.

(see [http://www.wysong.net/images/insole/roll.jpg])

What are the toes supposed to do trapped in modern shoes? What can they do? They’re forced into a crunched together pointed shape dictated by improper shoe design (whose foot is shaped like a shoe?) and rendered basically useless. Toes should have room to spread out and be free to dig in and grip to help drive the body forward at the end of the foot roll.

If one compares the feel and function of the bare foot in sand to that within a modern shoe, it becomes apparent why problems arise. The solution is to return the foot to the sand. The design we have created allows the foot to experience the support and movement possible in sand and thus restore the foot to its living functional role in movement and health.

(see [http://www.wysong.net/images/insole/print.jpg]) If you walk barefoot in sand and look behind at the impression left, that is the contour created by this new insole. The feel of the foot in sand and on the insole is also strikingly (and refreshingly) similar.

Arch Support

In the sand, the foot is primarily supported by the arch, not the heel. Most shoes and insoles only hint at arch support. A proper ergonomic design lifts the foot with comfortable support of both the transverse and longitudinal arches. This takes pressure off the heel by properly distributing the weight over the largest surface area of the foot, the arch and ball. In a run, a heel strike concentrates 5,120 foot pounds of force directly to a point on the calcaneus (heel bone). With a well-designed insole, this force is spread over approximately 15 square inches of resilient ligamentous tissue under-girded by the long metatarsal bones in the arch and ball area.

(see [http://www.wysong.net/images/insole/arch.jpg])

Tendon and Bone Reliefs

Carefully designed depressions in the insole Wysong developed accommodate major tendons (plantar aponeurosis) running from the great and 5th toes to the heel, as well as the metatarsal tuberosity on the lateral side of the foot. If one were to examine the impression of a foot in sand, the ergonomic design (ED) insole Wysong is patenting is an exact replica in all detail, accommodating the precise anatomy of the foot undersurface and encouraging proper foot dynamics.

(see [http://www.wysong.net/images/insole/relief.jpg])

Heel Cup

Heel pain is perhaps the most common of all foot problems. It would seem at first glance that the way to relieve it would be to place soft shock absorbing materials under the heel. But when this is done, the foot is lifted off the arch and even more pressure is concentrated on the heel. What is needed is to get weight off the heel by transferring it to the arch and ball of the foot. The significant arch supports in the ED lift the foot off the heel, and the absence of underlying insole under the heel effectively relieves pressure and pain in the heel and permits healing. This is precisely how physicians provide relief for body pressure points, suspending them in air by creating cushioning foam “donuts” around such parts.

(see [http://www.wysong.net/images/insole/donut.jpg])

Ball Bed

As the foot naturally rolls forward from the arch, the ball of the foot (metatarsal heads) then receives the majority of the weight. When running, this area receives it all if the “on-the-toes” stride is correct. The heel is not supposed to have significant impact but rather merely be a point of contact to create balance for the human upright position in the standing and slow walk modes. Virtually no other creature allows the heel to strike the ground in movement. Rather, they are lifted to the ball of the foot or even onto the ends of the toes as in horses.

(see [http://www.wysong.net/images/insole/animal.jpg])

The ED encourages the foot to roll onto the ball as it is designed. To help attenuate shock, a special absorbing visco-elastic material underlies this area.

(see [http://www.wysong.net/images/insole/insert.jpg])

Toe Grips

The toe grips in the ED permit the toes to become active in movement thus increasing balance and athletic capability. As the foot lifts off in forward motion, or moves laterally, the toes can grip the ED as they would in sand to increase speed, power and agility. The sensation is one of digging in with the toes and new-found power and control over movement results. The feet feel like they come alive and a sense of strength and spring return to movement.

(see [http://www.wysong.net/images/insole/grips.jpg]) The sensation is quite remarkably like “ready to go!” (No liability assumed for breaking speed limits.)

Materials And Fit

Only the highest quality medical-grade foams and shock-attenuating materials are used in the ED. Unlike shoe insoles or aftermarket products, EDs are substantial and create an almost miraculous feel of the bare foot in sand. ED microporous materials breathe to permit the escape of moisture and to decrease bacterial growth. Air channels are designed to pump air to the feet with each stride. EDs also retain their memory rather than set to a non-elastic and ineffective board-like state.

(see [http://www.wysong.net/images/insole/air.jpg])

EDs may be placed on top of existing insoles (if there is room without constricting the feet), or the shoe insoles may be removed. Using wide width shoes or open-toed sandals is another option to properly accommodate EDs. If the shoe does not accommodate all aspects of the insole, they may be trimmed with scissors as necessary. Once properly placed, the feel of the insole seems to disappear and the foot feels immediate relief. Once used for a time, it is almost impossible to tolerate shoes without them.

(see [http://www.wysong.net/images/insole/trim.jpg])

One user wrote, “I wish I had known of your insoles before I spent $500 on orthotics. Yours are the first solution I have found and my orthotics are now in the closet unused.”

Not the Ordinary

The new ergonomic insoles are not the usual fare by any means. They look unusual and are unusual. No insole under the toes? No insole under the heel? It would seem that a mistake has been made. But sometimes the mold has to be broken in order for advance to occur. The modern foot has been forced into an immobile, injury prone position for too long.

The wisdom of nature is the answer to most of modern man’s health problems. By using nature as the principle in its design – returning the foot to the sand – the ED brings a new era of foot comfort, and with that a new opportunity for better overall health as well.

(see [http://www.wysong.net/images/insole/insole.jpg])

Alternative Medicine, Home Remedies for Menstruation Relief

Menstruation is the term used for the natural monthly cycle of periods in the female body. Periods are when the unfertilized eggs are ejected out of the reproductive system along with blood and several other tissue cells. This flow happens once a month. The flow is profuse on one particular day of the month. However the discomfort of the periods could generally last for three days.

The female reproductive system is indeed marvelous. Every month the ovaries produce one egg which is deposited in the fallopian tube. The uterine wall known as the endometrium thickens and there is increased blood circulation in the entire reproductive system. This is all in preparation of a pregnancy. However, if the woman does not get pregnant, then all these things need to be expelled from the body. This is known as the period. Once the expulsion is done, the ovaries produce a new egg and the cycle continues for another month.

Women may face several difficulties during their menstrual flow. There is increased moistness in the vaginal area, and there could be infections. Women could have fevers, extreme pain in the groin area, giddiness, nausea and vomiting, etc. In some women the effects are more aggressive than others. And the most worrisome thing is that the symptoms could recur month after month. The biological term for menstrual problems is dysmenorrhea.

In Ayurveda, menses (i.e. the flow of the menstrual period) is considered to be the excess pitta which flows out of the body. It is called as Raja. Hence the menstrual flow is also called as Raja Pravritti. Though menstruation is a typically pitta phenomenon, effects on the vata and the kapha are also seen. Some women have insomnia and mood swings during their periods. This is vata vitiation. Some women gain weight. This is kapha vitiation.

(1) Useful Herbs in the Treatment of Menstruation

b) Asafetida (Ferula fetida)

Asafetida is known to increase the secretion of the female hormone, progesterone. Thus it facilitates menstruation. Using asafetida gum fried in ghee and mixed with goat’s milk and a spoonful of honey for a month can reduce the pains during menstruation and also make the flow reduced.

c) Asoka (Saraca indica)

The bark of the asoka tree is given to women who experience extreme blood loss during menstruation due to leucorrhea or uterine fibroids. The plant has a stimulating effect on the uterine wall and the mucus layer in the reproductive tract.

d) Bamboo (Bambusa bambos)

Bamboo acts as an emmenagogue which stimulates menstruation. Its leaves are prescribed for this purpose. Regular consumption of the leaves of the bamboo is prescribed to promote and regulate the menstrual flow.

e) Bloodwort (Achillea millefolium)

The hot infusion of leaves of the bloodwort is taken as an emmenagogue. A decoction of the herb can correct irregular periods. The herb also yields an oil which can be used in the treatment of female reproductive disorders.

f) Chicory (Chichorium intybus)

Seeds of chicory are prepared into a decoction to treat problems of obstructed menstruation.

g) Dill (Anethum sowa)

This fragrant herb is efficient in stimulating menstrual cycles. It helps women who have delayed periods to get their periods on time. Young anemic girls are prone to spasmodic menstruation, which can be quite painful. A decoction of dill is prepared with the leaves of parsley to treat such problems.

h) Ginger (Zingiber officinale)

Cold climates can sometimes cause painful and irregular periods. An infusion of ginger sweetened with sugar is taken for correcting such problems.

i) Henna (Lawsonia alba)

Henna is a cooling agent. Suppositories of its leaves are made and placed in the vagina for women who have problems of excessive menstruation.

j) Hermal (Peganum harmala)

The hermal is a little-known herb, but in Ayurveda it is prescribed regularly for menstrual problems such as painful menstruation and irregular periods.

k) Indian Aloe (Aloe vera)

The Indian aloe is a stimulant of the uterus. Hence it is given in cases of painful menstruation.

l) Indian Spikenard (Nardostachys jatamansi)

The jatamansi is a very popular Indian herb used in the treatment of painful and irregular periods.

m) Lemon Grass (Cymbopogon citratus)

Lemon grass is used in painful and difficult menstruation. It can be taken in the form of a tea.

(2) Dietary Treatments for Menstruation

The following dietary tips are beneficial to women who have painful or irregular periods:-

1 Avoid all constipating foods, especially in the last week of the menstrual cycle. This includes fried foods, sour foods and protein-rich pulses.

2 Fish is a good dietary indication for painful periods. Fish contain omega-3 fatty acids which help to ease the spasms during menstruation. Meat, poultry and dairy products must be avoided.

3 Among vegetables, white pumpkin, papaya, drumstick, snake gourd, bitter gourd and cucumber are good for dysmenorrhea. Potato, yellow pumpkin and eggplant must be avoided.

(3) Ayurvedic Treatments for Menstruation

Kumari is the drug of choice for menstrual problems in Ayurveda. This is nothing but the aloe vera plant. It is taken in the form of Kumarasava in a dose of six teaspoonfuls twice a day. There is a special preparation called as the Raja Pravartani vati, which contains aloe and asafetida as its main ingredients. This medication is taken in the form of pills – two of them twice a day a week before the periods are due.

(4) Home Remedies for Menstruation

1 Fry asafetida in ghee and add a teaspoonful of it to buttermilk. Have this once a day in case of dysmenorrhea.

2 Mix some sesame seeds in a glassful of water. Drink this twice daily when you have menstrual pains.

3 Have salads with boiled beetroot in them, or have beetroot juice.

The following exercises help in reducing the pain of menstruation:-

a) Take a firm chair and stand behind it holding your hands firmly on the chair’s back. Lift one heel and then the other. Continue this for about ten minutes. You can also do knee-bends.

b) Lie on your back on a firm bed. Fold your legs and bring the knees up to your chin. Repeat this ten times.

Premium Water Filter Vs Chlorine Water Filter

What's the difference between a premium water filter and a chlorine water filter? The answer is; contaminant removal.

When you are shopping for a water filter, compare contaminant reduction first. After all, that's why you want a purifier in the first place. If you do as much research as I have done, you will learn that a chlorine water filter is not actually a "purifier."

There are brands on the market like "Clean & Pure", "PUR" and "Brita" that remove chlorine with granular activated carbon or GAC. That's about all that they do.

GAC can be combined with additional filtering media to reduce other chemical contaminants. For example, PUR will also remove the weed killer, Atrazine and the insecticide, lindane. Brita will remove a number of different pesticides, herbicides and industrial solvents. "Clean & pure" only removes chlorine and odor.

A premium water filter can do more. But, I should inform you that "premium" is a brand name used by Janerotech, Inc. I am not referring to their products. I use the term to refer to systems that include multiple phases to remove the widest range of contaminants.

A Janerotech system is not what I would call a "premium water filter", because their reasonably priced units are single phase carbon block, better than GAC, but not enough. Their countertop design takes up a lot of space in the kitchen. For those of us with smaller kitchens, the units are simply impractical.

Beside, they just do not look good. Instead of running back into your faucet, they have a separate faucet and there is no way that I could get it to be directly over my sink. If the kids went to get a drink, there would inevitably be spills.

But, worst of all, they do not provide the protection that my family needs. There single stage design is nothing more than a big overpriced chlorine water filter.

So, when you are looking for a water filter, compare only multi-stage systems that actually purify. That's my advice.

Whenever chlorine is present in the water supply, they are accompanied by hazardous byproducts called THMs or trihalomethanes. In order to remove them, you need an absorptive step. In most homes, traces of lead and copper are present; you need ion exchange to remove them.

So, in my opinion, a premium water filter is one that includes a carbon block, adsorption for THMs and volatile organic compounds like perchlorate, and ion exchange. When you look for a water filter, compare prices last, once you know exactly what steps that you need.

A chlorine water filter can cost as much as $ 150 and as little as $ 35. But, purifiers with a multi-stage design cost anywhere between $ 125 and $ 650. The most expensive designs include reverse osmosis, which is not necessary in most homes.

If you are concerned about cysts, a carbon block with a submicron porous structure will remove them. It turns out that you can get a premium water filter that takes up just a little space on your counter and runs the purified water back through your own faucet for $ 125. That's a real bargain!

Put Your Best Foot Forward!

It seems more and more that so many of these online articles we view are very academic, list-oriented, or they just plain read like high school calculus textbooks. While many of these articles are indeed very helpful and beneficial and leave us having no doubt that the writer was extremely qualified; they read too often like a how-to-do-it-yourself blueprint.

What is missing is some character and personality or better yet what is needed is the writer leaving his / her indelible stamp of life experiences, funny argentotes and short stories. I, for one, find it both refreshing and provocative to read something that has a very personal spin from the author's point of view typically based on their encounterers.

Picture the approach to your article as if you were giving a speech. Even if the topic is a sobering one that will require an overtone of seriousness, there is always room for a few humourous junctures that can often be critical in capturing your audience and wowing them let alone keeping them awake. This is crucial no matter how eloquent a speaker or how much of a possible expert you may be on your topic / essay / lecture, etc. It is also important to consider that your audience may have had a trying day and their level of focus and attention may already have been well tested by the time you get to them.

For example, I wrote an article during while back entitled "Conventional management vs. Out-of-the-box thinking." [http://ezinearticles.com/?id=238698] It referred to managerial styles in small business (not corporate) back in the late 80's and early 90's. At the time, I ran a couple of small offices with about 15-20 personnel each and being a predominately sales oriented business, it was required to shake things up a bit from time to time or they got stale and boring. Two ideas that I came up with at the time. Bare in mind that I was still in my 20's so they may seem a bit off the wall. One was to use a block and tackle and raise all of the desks and chairs through the skylights and onto the roof for a cloudless week of salesmanship while drinking in the North Vancouver mountains and the staff really responded and their spirits rose considerably. The other was a bit crazy but my people certainly knew to never know what to expect after I called a staff meeting on a nude beach and they, of course, had a choice of being clothing optional.

Whatever the call of the day when writing an article or delivering a speech – keep it light and frivolic where possible – and that will keep your audience in the game. Remember, short is better especially if in doubt and you only get 15 or less seconds to make a good impression – even less on paper – so put your best foot forward!

Copyright 2006 New World Opportunities Inc.

Understanding Inflammatory Bowel Disease And GERD

IBD (Inflammatory Bowel Disease) is becoming more common each year. It is estimated that 600,000 people within the US have this condition. It is commonly found in those over thirty, but occasionally children receive the same diagnosis. Because IBD affects the digestive tract, it can lead to other types of problems as well leaving some people having to deal with Inflammatory Bowel Disease and GERD at the same time. Although they effect different areas of the digestive tract with IBD effecting the intestines and GERD the stomach and esophagus, they can be related to one another.

Because IBD is not the same type of condition as acid reflux, many don’t make the connection. This disease affects the tissues of the intestines and can cause a host of troubling symptoms. A person with Inflammatory Bowel Disease might have problems with diarrhea, vomiting, bowel blockage, pain, bloating, and other related events. IBD is classed as an auto-immune condition, so it can be found in those who might have something like Lupus or CDS (Chronic Fatigue Syndrome). However, many with IBD also have problems with GERD.

It would stand to reason that one upset in the digestive system would mean the rest of the system might be out of whack too. Someone with unexplained GERD might find that this is not their main problem, but rather the symptom of a larger problem that might be diagnosed as IBD.

When problems with GERD that are related to Inflammatory Bowel Disease arise, one option is to try and treat the GERD, but the better approach would be treating the underlying issue. Medications can also help IBD, along with some lifestyle modifications that may prove beneficial. If the condition of IBD can be controlled to some extent, it is possible that the acid reflux related pain and discomfort would disappear without specific treatment for that problem.

When dealing with either of these two health issues one of the best forms of treatment is to amend your diet. Thankfully following a diet for IBD will help reduce and soothe GERD symptoms too with just a few exceptions to watch out for.

Keep reading for tips on tackling IBD with GERD and sign up for the free Acid Reflux, Heartburn and GERD newsletter below.

Generally the low fat, high soluble diet that is recommended for IBD also reduces GERD. High fat foods are a trigger for both conditions so avoid these wherever possible.

Acidic foods such as citrus, tomatoes and vinegar are known triggers for reflux so they should be avoided. Coffee, as well as being acidic is also a powerful stimulant, creating a host of problems for both the upper and lower digestive system, so again best to avoid. If you’re looking for a replacement for coffee avoid green and black teas as they also contain caffeine and try herbal teas such as chamomile instead.

Chocolate is another favorite that is off the menu for both IBD and GERD as it is both high in fat and contains theobromine, a muscle relaxant, which relaxes the Lower Esophagal sphincter allow acid to reflux up and out of the stomach.

As a general rule eating smaller meals more often is helpful for both conditions as it doesn’t overload the digestive system, giving it time to process the food, nor does is leave long periods of time between eating.

When trying to treat GERD and IBD, it is important to keep a note of what treatments are working and what aren’t. If someone has symptoms of both Inflammatory Bowel Disease and GERD, they should chose a treatment plan that takes into account both conditions rather than trying to treat them singularly. Speak to your doctor if you think you are displaying signs of either of these conditions.

The Issue of Safety and Homemade Baby Food

Our web site receives considerable E-mail concerning whether or not homemade baby food is safe to use and parents should rightfully be concerned about this issue. With all the e-coli poisoning going around these days one can not be too careful. Often these letters merely request additional information such as how are the foods processed, what are the advantages and disadvantages of making your own, etc.

Canning your own baby food is both practical and cost effective however you must remember certain rules when canning the food. As any home canner will tell you the best foods to employ for canning are those that are high in acid. It is this high acid level which helps to eliminate the conditions which are conducive for bacteria to thrive and prosper in. Many beginners to the art of home canning fail to realize that some strains of bacteria prefer these lower acidic environments over the aerobic ones. This is particularly true for the highly dangerous botulism spores.

Since boiling water bath methods are traditionally considered best for the high acid foods like tomatoes and fruits you would do well to keep in mind that now BWB is not considered adequate for all tomato products. With the great evolution that has been taking place with our modern tomato varieties, there are many that are now not as acidic as they once were. These products have pH values of slightly higher then 4.6 which makes them low acid. To safely can these types of tomatoes in a boiling water bath canner you will need to add either citric acid or lemon juice to the batch.

I recommend that you follow these basic canning rules to be safe.

1. Follow very strict home canning hygiene to eliminate un-necessary risks.

2. Use a pressure canner for all low acid type foods. Make sure to boil the foods for 20 minutes before eating your canned foods. With the large loss of the nutrients resulting from cooking so long it tends to discourages canning your own baby food.

You must remember that the dangerous Botulism spores are able to be killed only by the super high heat found in a pressure canner. These are reasons that the authorities offer for their recommendation that you not can your own baby food.

For those who still want to do some home baby food creation you should rely upon what is known as the “Ice cube tray” method. This method appears to offer you the greatest safety and it the most convenient of the methods available for properly storing your homemade baby food. Please for your babies sake we caution you against using any home canned baby foods to fed your baby with due to the risk from potentially fatal botulism contamination.

Once your infant has reached beyond the age of one their digestive system can better fight off botulism and they are no longer in danger of spores growing and thriving.

Copyright @2010 Joseph Parish

www.survival-training.info

Pacemakers and Internal Defibrillators – What Is The Difference?

When it comes to heart rhythm problems, there are two main issues a person can have. The first problem is that a person’s heart could beat too slowly. This problem is treated by a pacemaker device. The second possible problem is that a person’s heart could have a tendency to beat too quickly. This issue is regularly corrected by an implantable defibrillator. Many people falsely feel that an implanted defibrillator is the same thing as a pacemaker. While they are both designed to correct the rhythm of the heart, the two devices fix different problems.

An internal defibrillator is an internal version of the large paddle things shown in use by TV shows. An internal defibrillator is programmed to correct a heart beat that is beating too quickly. When a heart beats too quickly, it does not give the blood enough time to move out of the heart and into the body. A shock is necessary to make the heart beat at the correct tempo. The leads that are used as one of three parts to the defibrillator monitor the heart’s rhythm. When they detect a problem, the batteries issue a shock that travels through the leads to the heart to return the heart to its normal rhythm. An internal defibrillator is programmed to correct the rhythm of the heart if the heart is beating too quickly, with no detectable rhythm, or if it has stopped completely.

A pacemaker, while a useful tool, is programmed to correct the heart’s rhythm only if the heart is beating too slowly. It is not designed to correct any problems involving too quick of a heartbeat or no rhythm at all. In fact, many types of pacemakers turn themselves completely off whenever the heart reaches a specific beats per minute threshold. It turns itself back on again when the beats per minute drop below the threshold. The same leads that are involved in monitoring the heart’s rhythm in the internal defibrillator also monitor the heart’s rhythm in a pacemaker. These same leads tell the battery pack when to issue a shock and then convey the shock to the heart.

Unfortunately, many leads have had problems in the recent past. Medtronic, Inc., one of the big three medical device makers, recalled their Sprint Fidelis leads in October. These leads were breaking and issuing shocks when none was necessary. This occurrence is extremely painful.

How to Overcome Panic Attacks Explained

When we panic, we almost lose control of ourselves and we are unable to think clearly and then we are not able to do right thing. It is usual for people to panic when faced with great danger. However, if you experience it frequently and at high levels, then you are most likely suffering from a type of anxiety disorder known as panic attacks disorder.

Panic disorder, as said earlier, is a type of anxiety disorder. Anxiety disorder is a mental disorder where the most common symptom is extreme anxiety. This means that it is a mental disorder characterized by severe periodic and repeated panic attacks.

So are you suffering from panic attacks every now and then? Try to bypass them by following these simple steps.

Step 1:
The first and foremost step in treating and overcoming panic attacks is to know and understand what it is and how it works.

A panic attack is an event where a person feels extreme fear and anxiety. It is very mysterious and lasts from several minutes to at most 30 minutes. The person who experiences the attack typically feels (and thinks) like he is dying. Some feel weak and pale and some feel like they are having a heart attack. Others hyperventilate while some feel numb all over their body. Due to these effects, those who experience it for the first-time call for emergency services.

Panic disorders are said to be hereditary. Nonetheless, it can also be caused by several other factors like stressful events and lifestyle, psychological factors, and life transitions. The most common symptoms of an attack include perspiration, rapid heartbeat, vertigo, and irrepressible fear.

Step 2:
Now that we know what panic attacks are, the next step is to take measures to overcoming the problem. There are several things that you can do to prevent and overcome a panic disorder. First and foremost is to accept and understand that you are suffering from the disorder. Realize that you are going through a panic attack and not an actual physical attack on your body.

Stress is a factor that can cause it. And for that matter, you should avoid stress as much as possible. Avoid stressful activities and lifestyle. Develop your own stress buster. Some people use stress balls while some use deep breathing to lessen stress. Pick your own stress buster and use it. Have an active lifestyle. An active lifestyle not only strengthens your body, it also strengthens your mind. Having an active lifestyle increases your body's ability to handle stress and also take way time to think negative things. It also increases supply of oxygen to parts of the body such as the brain so that the body as a whole can work well.

Step 3:
The last step is to be able to maintain what you have planned in step 2. Everything would be a waste if you do not regularly do it. No one can achieve anything if he enthusiastically starts this hour and give up after two hours. Be determined to overcome your problem.

Ways to Lower Cholesterol

The need to lower cholesterol arises because of the presence of excess cholesterol in blood serum can lead to a whole range of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. These diseases include high blood pressure, narrowing and hardening of arteries, heart disease, stroke, and paralysis.

These diseases spring up because the liver dumps excess cholesterol on the inner arterial walls. Later, these fatty deposits harden up to form a plaque, thus narrowing the arteries and obstruction blood flow to the heart and other organs. Other diseases can also result if the affected arteries normally supply blood to organs other than the heart and brain.

Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes (TLC)

The good news, however, is that it is possible to lower cholesterol simply by making some therapeutic lifestyle changes (TLC) and following a healthy TLC diet. In fact, these measures are the first line of defense against hyperlipidemia (high cholesterol). If the TLC measures do not reduce your cholesterol level enough, then your doctor could prescribe cholesterol-lowering drugs like statins.

The most important lifestyle changes you must make to lower your cholesterol are:

  • Reduce excess body weight
  • Exercise regularly
  • Follow the TLC diet
  • Quit smoking

Excess Body Weight

Excess body weight because of obesity not only increases the overall cholesterol level but also reduces the protective HDL (high-density lipoproteins) cholesterol, making the problem of high cholesterol worse. HDL is responsible for the transport of excess cholesterol from the tissues and arteries back to the liver for break and disposal and there before some people call it the good cholesterol.

Physical Exercise

Regular physical activity, especially aerobics, plays a twofold role in lowering cholesterol. First, it decreases obesity; second, it increases the HDL level. In other words, fat loss causes a drop in the total cholesterol, and your body does a better job of lowering your cholesterol because of the higher HDL level. A moderate-intensity aerobic activity like walking, cycling, dancing or swimming for 30-40 minutes, 5 days a week is an effective way to lower cholesterol.

Diet

Your diet plays a direct role in keeping your cholesterol levels. The richer the diet is in cholesterol, saturated fats and trans fats, the higher will be the cholesterol levels. While the liver makes most of the cholesterol in your body, cholesterol that comes from the foods you eat does play an important role.

In fact, for many people, a diet rich in soluble fiber and omega-3 fatty acids, when combined with regular exercise, can just as effectively lower cholesterol as do statin drugs. You would normally get these healthy nutrients from like oats, walnuts, almonds, fresh fruits and vegetables, beans, whole grains, cold-water fish, olive oil, peanut oil, and canola oil. On the other hand, this diet would exclude red meats, alcohol, fried foods, whole-cream dairy products, refined foods, and commercial bakery items.

Smoking and Cholesterol

Today, everyone knows smoking causes a whole range of deadly diseases affecting almost every organ of the body. Smoking is a major cause of cardiovascular diseases because of its role in hardening of the arteries and reducing HDL levels. So, quitting smoking will not only lower your cholesterol levels and raise the HDL level, it will also reduce the risk of getting other deadly diseases.

It is perhaps better to have several different avenues to lower cholesterol because high cholesterol could show up for different reasons in different people. So, you could, in addition, also resort to natural remedies like Guggul, Pantethine, Beta-Sitosterol, Policosanol, Curcumin, red yeast rice, and so on. You can get these supplements at health food stores at a lower price compared to prescription drugs.

Presidential Trivia – Ten Fun Trivia Questions (And Answers) About US Presidents

So, how well do you know your presidential history? American presidents may be well known in history, but what about presidential trivia? Here are ten fun trivia questions and answers about America’s presidents…

Who was the first president to throw out a ceremonial first pitch at a major league baseball game? The honor goes to our 27th president, William Howard Taft. He started the tradition at the 1910 home opener of the Washington Senators.

Who is the only president to serve two non consecutive terms? That would be Grover Cleveland, who was the 22nd and 24th president. His two terms were separated by the 23rd president, Benjamin Harrison.

And speaking of Benjamin Harrison, what family trait distinguishes him from all other presidents? Benjamin Harrison is the only president whose grandfather also served as president. There have been two sets of father and son presidents though. John Adams and John Quincy Adams were father and son, as are George H.W. Bush and George W. Bush.

Who was our only bachelor president? America’s 15th president, James Buchanan, never married. His niece served as First Lady during his administration.

Which president served the shortest term in office? The 9th president, William Henry Harrison, served only one month in office. On his inauguration day, he gave a long speech in cold, blustery weather. He caught a severe cold, which then developed into pneumonia, which led to his death.

Who was the oldest president on his inauguration day? Ronald Reagan was 70 years old when he took the oath of office in January, 1981.

Conversely, who was the youngest president when he assumed office? Theodore Roosevelt was only 42 years of age when he ascended to the presidency in 1901 after the death of William McKinley.

Which two presidents died on the same day? In an interesting twist of fate, two Founding Fathers died on July 4, 1826, fifty years to the day of the Declaration of Independence. John Adams, age 90, and Thomas Jefferson, age 83, died within hours of each other. The two men were friends and shared the unique bond of being former presidents.

It is said that John Adams last words were, “Jefferson still survives”. But unbeknownst to him, Jefferson had passed away in Virginia a few hours before.

Which president is credited with coining the popular slang term “OK”? Martin Van Buren, the 8th president, was from Kinderhook, New York. His nickname was “Old Kinderhook”, and Van Buren took to signing off on letters and memos with a simple “OK”. Eventually, the term morphed into its present meaning.

And finally, who was the tallest president? Lyndon Johnson stood a towering six feet four. The shortest? James Madison, who was exactly a foot shorter than Johnson.

Shocking Flouride Facts

When I first read about the dumping of fluoride into our water system and the serious side effects, I was not surprised. But as decades have passed and the evidence of the toxic effect on our body mounts, you must be proactive and take action to avoid fluoride.

Did you know that the Americans drink more fluoride than the rest of the world combined?? Mass medication with fluoride has caused innumerable problems with our health.

But wait… I thought Fluoride prevented tooth decay? WRONG! Did you know that countries in Europe that opposed water fluoridation because of the toxic side effects actually have up to 80%-90% fewer cavities compared to American children?

Fluoride is NOT an essential nutrient which means that NO disease, including tooth decay, will result from a “fluoride deficiency”. Silico-fluorides are the byproducts of the fertilizer industry and aluminum factories that somehow ended up in our water treatment plants because of industry pressure on the government… nothing new there.

These by-products are classified as hazardous wastes by the EPA, but they are supposedly safe enough for us to drink??

Sources of fluoride that you should avoid:

1.) Fluoridated toothpastes and mouthwashes. Read the small print on the back of the tube: Call Poison Control Center if swallowed.

2.) Tap water (use filters that remove fluoride like the Berkey Water Filter)

3.) Do NOT get Fluoride treatments at the dentist

4.) Grape juice and wine have very high levels because of pesticide residues of fluoride – drink organic varieties

5.) Don’t use Teflon or non-stick pans

6.) The EPA allows food processors to use sulfuryl fluoride as a fumigant of foods such as beans, nuts and dried fruits. (choose organic)

Here are a few Fluoride Facts to be aware of:

1.) Fluoride accumulates in the pineal gland in the brain and causes it to harden, reducing the production of Melatonin, a powerful large breasts Follow Me on Pinterest Breast Cancer inhibitor.

2.) Fluoride increases sexual maturation of young females.

3.) Fluoride was once prescribed as an Anti-Thyroid drug!! It is of NO coincidence that more and more people have sluggish and weak thyroids. There is a clear correlation between a weak thyroid and Breast Cancer.

4.) Established studies in China and Russia have found reduced T3 and increased TSH in populations exposed to fluoridated water.

5.) Fluoride increases the oxidative stress in your body, which increases your risk of cancer.

6.) Fluoride has been linked to a reduce IQ in children as well as increased plaques of the brain which leads to Alzheimer’s.

7.) It increases the likelihood of bone fractures in adults, pain in the bones as well as increased risk of dental issues.

So how do you protect yourself from the onslaught of this toxin? The good news is there are many steps that you can take in reducing the effects of Fluoride.

Make an effort to eat organic produce and drink organic wine. If that is not possible, thoroughly spray your produce with vinegar and the hydrogen peroxide. Rinse well.

Fluoride and other halides like Chloride displace Iodine in the thyroid, breast tissue and reproductive glands. Make sure that you have sufficient amounts of iodine in your body and that you are not deficient. Everyone I have ever tested, including myself, has been iodine deficient. A simple urine test can determine how much Iodine you need.

Use a water filter that removes the fluoride from the water. Most simple carbon filters like Brita, do not remove fluoride. The Berkey filtration system has specific filters for fluoride.

An excellent web site that can give you more detailed information about the effects of fluoride is http://FluorideAlert.org

Inline Skates – Great Tips For Their Use And Care

OK, so you've got your skates and, hopefully, full protective gear. Now, how 'bout some tips for their use and care?

First off, newer contemporary blades have much better components than old ones. However, if you tried your new skates out in the sports store, chances are you skated on a carpet which compressed and slowed you down. ERGO, when you get out into the real world, you'll find that your skates go much smoother and MUCH FASTER because you're now skating on pavement's hard surface.

So, now that your skates GO much more easily, the first thing you'll want to do to stay safe and under control is practice how to STOP. A quiet street or the back of a mall or supermarket parking lot is a great place to practice undisturbed. Once you've mastered stopping and speed-control, you're good to go.

But, keep in mind that gravity always wins. So, any significant downgrade can make you pick up more velocity than you might find comfortable. In this connection, there are multiple ways to slow down and stop. A number of skate schools offer excellent training, and availing yourself of them will help you discover which techniques you're most comfortable using.

Finally, a few short tips on maintenance. As you skate, your wheels wear down, but they do not wear evenly. In fact, it's just the opposite: Most skaters will find that their lead wheels wear faster, although it does depend on your skating style.

Looking at your wheels, they're round from two perspectives: around the periphery as you look from the side, and also in profile as viewed from the front of the skate. As you use your wheels, the front profile will begin to become asymmetric, sporting a somewhat chisel-shape from accelerated wear on one side.

When this becomes apparent, you'll want to do what car owners do to maximize their car tire life … they rotate their tires. And so, you'll want to rotate your wheels as well.

If you imagine your wheels numbered one to four from front to back, here's what you do. On both skates, swap wheels in position 1 with those in position 3, and also swap wheels in position 2 with those in position 4. At the same time you change your wheels' positions, also turn each wheel 180-degrees so it rotates in the opposite direction. If you do this periodically, you'll get the longest life from your wheels.

Note that after any service work involving removing and re-installing your wheels, you should tighten the axle hardware enough so that the wheels will not spin freely. Then, back off them enough so that they do. First excursion out after service, you may want to bring your blade tool and recheck that everything's secure after you've skated a mile or so. If you feel uncomfortable performing this service yourself, most skate shops will take care of what you need for a modest fee.

Bearings – These are the little metal things in the inside hub of each wheel which are responsible for you getting a great glide with each stride. They're said to be "sealed", but seals have limited strength. So, if you use your skates on dirt or grass, or say at the beach where there's blowing sand or sand kicking up as you skate, some of that contamination will eventually penetrate the seal and WHOA, all of a sudden your skates do not glide the way you remember.

And, heed this: There's an immutable chemical reaction that says IRON + WATER = RUST. So, even though it leaves cool-looking tracks in the pavement, DO NOT skate through puddles, or when it's raining, or after it rains and the pavement is still wet.

If you've ever driven your car down a wet highway after the rain stopped, you know that getting too close to the car in front of you means you'll get a spray of mist on your windshield. Likewise, skating on a wet surface will result in each wheel spraying the one behind it, much to their detriment.

So, there you have some recipes for safe, fun in-line skating along with tips to get you the best use of your blades. Now, go out there and skate up a storm!

Primera Ink 53321 – Changed My Conception For Disc Printing

Primera Tech. is globally accepted pioneer for innovating and offering automated comprehensive DVD, CD and BD duplication and / or printing systems. Award winning Bravo disc Publishing solutions have become the most preferred choice of professionals, who are cost conscious but do not want to compromise with quality. The company designs its products to perform in the roughest working conditions. Today, almost 80% of Fortune 500 companies and organizations in 85 countries use Primera discs printing solutions. The major contribution to this success story comes from a wide range of trustworthy Primera ink cartridges. Primera 53321 is one of those ink cartridges, which is among the top choices of experienced professionals.

I replaced my old disc printer with Pro / Z6 Printer two years back. The printer came with ink 53321. The very first disc print was so good that my entire experience with my old variant changed completely. Even, my business partners started to inquire about the change in the disc printing process. The 35% instant increase in revenue was the result of my right planning. Since then I have recommended Primera 53321 ink to many of my friends and most of them are recommending this most cost effective ink cartridge in their circles. This chain business is the true award for R & D dept. of Primera Tech.

Why should we use Primera 53321? This is the very first question many newbie ask. The answer is quite simple as there are various reasons. It is a CMY color (Cyan, Magenta, Yellow) standard ink cartridge. The perfect match of advanced technology of Primera printers and 53321 ink cartridge adjusts the ink output as per specific requirements. The customization of ink usage delivers more prints per cartridge. Special print head design reduces the rejection considerably. Each Primera ink 53331 may deliver up to 130 discs prints. When you use 53321 Primera ink cartridge, you do not need to wait for hours for complete drying of prints. The installation of Primera 53321 ink is quite simple. From the very first CD / DVD print, you feel the difference. The long shelf life and wide range of packs allow to get more discounts on bulk purchase. Availability of 1, 2-4 and 5+ packs makes it easy to place the order to meet out immediate and future requirements. Although the associated brand name Primera is the seal of tested quality but even then users may get 24X7 hrs help through its wide dealer network spread across the world.

My decision of buying Bravo XR Disc Publisher equipped with Primera ink 53321 is still appreciated in my office. I think it will remain the most thoughtful ink cartridge in the coming years too.

Treating Cold Sores

A cold sore or fever blisters as they are also known are caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). Now as you may be well aware this is a very common viral infection, and as with most subjects like this it can create a great deal of distress for the sufferer, as not only is the cold sore painful, but it is also embarrassing and very frustrating. Now although the word Herpes is mentioned, cold sores are not necessarily caught through sexual activity. In fact, cold sores are very contagious and can be can spread by direct contact or through indirect contact by doing something such as using an infected towel or food appliance for example.

Cold Sores

As mentioned, cold sores are caused by herpes simplex types 1 and 2. Now although both of these herpes virus cause herpes on the lips or genitals, in general most often cold sores are caused by the type 1. Because this type of herpes does not come from sexual contact and because it is highly contagious and can come from indirect contact, then it stands to reason that is why a majority of people who have had cold sores became infected before the age of 10. There is no real timescale on how long a cold sore will last, but on average they are usually gone within two weeks or so. And although you may be carrying the virus, if you do not have any symptoms of your cold sore, that can mean the virus is dormant and you are not infectious at that time.

Treatment Of Cold Sores

Unfortunately, it is not really possible to 100% cure or prevent the outbreak of cold sores. However, the good news is that there are certain steps you can take to reduce how often they occur and shorten the length of an outbreak. The most common treatment of cold sores and fever blisters is to use an antiviral medication. Also if you treat the cold sore with an antiviral cream then this in turn will also help prevent the spread of the virus. When you apply an antiviral cream you may find that you have a slight stinging for a few minutes, but do not worry as this can be quite normal. If you are uncertain about using this kind of medication then make sure you seek the advice of your physician or another qualified health professional before starting a treatment, but on the whole you should be okay with an over the counter remedy.

Other Cold Sore Remedies

As with most things in life these days, there are so many different remedies to treat your cold sore with, from over the counter to natural remedies. When it comes to home remedies, there are probably as many of these as there are over the counter remedies, with cures ranging from cold compresses, tea bag application, applying moisturizers and petroleum jelly, right the way through to mother natures remedies with things like tea tree oil or sage. Now as with most of these kind of natural cures none of them have really been scientifically proven to help speed up the time cold sores last for, but many people do feel that they find them to be beneficial. And I suppose the good thing about using natural treatments for a cold sore is that you are less likely to suffer from any dangerous side effects.

So a cold sore is highly contagious, unsightly and can be very distressing for the sufferer, and whilst it cannot be 100% cured outright it can be managed. What you will probably find is that a cold sore can be likened to an allergy, in that you may experience more at certain stage of life, and you may also be free of them for years. Then good news is that there are treatments available to help you deal with your cold sore, both medicinal and natural so you are bound to be able to find a treatment that suits you.

Can a Person Have Different Identities?

Dissociative identity disorder or DID is a psychiatric condition where an individual shows multiple distinct identities coupled with its own specific pattern of perceiving and interacting with the environment. The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems call this type of condition as multiple personality disorder. Dissociative identity disorder is less frequent in comparison to other dissociative disorders and is known to affect about 1% of human population. It is often comorbid when compared with other dissociative disorders. The individual also saves from memory loss or temporary forgetfulness. The disorder is often characterized by identity fragment rather than a proliferation of separate personalities. Once the disease comes into action the diagnosis acquires the label of controversy. Some people believe that the patients suffering from this disease are hypnotized as their symptoms are iatrogenic while brain imaging studies indicate identity transitions.

History

Before the nineteenth century individuals suffering from the dissociative identity disorder were placed in the category of possessed. The deep interest of people in spiritualism, parapsychology and hypnosis continued throughout the nineteenth and early twentieth century and the views of John Locke were very famous. The views suggested that there is an association of ideas that require co-existence of feelings along with the awareness of feelings. Hypnosis came into existence late in the eighteenth century by Franz Mesmer and Armand-Marie Jacques de Chastenet, Marques de Puvsegur who had a hard blow to John Locke's association of ideas. Hypnotists reported how two separate entities can co-exist together. During the nineteenth century Rieber estimated that there are about 100 cases of dissociative personality disorder among human population. Epilepsy was also considered as one of factors associated with the personality disorders. By the end of the nineteenth century critiques as well as researchers gave an accepted view that emotionally traumatic experiences can also cause this type of disorder. The disorder can occur at any stage for example, Louis Vive experienced a dangerous encounter with viper at the age of 13 and he remains a subject of medical study for many years.

Between 1880 and 1920 many international conferences on medical science devoted their time on the topic of dissociation. Jean-Martin Charcot was the first to state that nervous system actively participates in the emergence of personality disorders. Pierre Janet, one of the students of Charcot used his ideas in generating theory of dissociation. The first individual identified and studied scientifically with multiple personality disorder was Clara Norton Fowler. American neurologist Morton Prince studied Fowler during 1898-1904 and described details of case of Clara in his monograph, Dissociation of a Personality published in 1906. In 1910, Eugen Bleuler introduced the term Schizophrenia to replace dementia praecox. A review published in Index Medicus brought a dramatic reduction in the number of cases reported for multiple personality disorders especially in the United States for a period of 1903 to 1978. In 1927, the number of cases of schizophrenia was reported that had symptoms similar to those occurring in multiple personality disorder. Bleuler also included multiple personality disorder while classifying schizophrenia. During 1980s it became clear that the individuals suffering from multiple personality disorder are often misdiagnosed and are termed as schizophrenic.

Signs and symptoms

Individuals suffering from dissociative identity disorder exhibit a wide variety of symptoms that fluctuate broadly across time. The symptoms may impair the functioning of normal day to day activities. The common symptoms are multiple mannerisms, attitudes and beliefs that do not resemble each other. Somatic symptoms, loss of subjective time, depersonalization, de-realization and depression are other symptoms. Memory loss, trauma, sudden anger without any cause, anxiety attacks and unexplainable phobias are also considered as chief symptoms. Individuals also show symptoms that resemble those appearing in epilepsy, schizophrenia, anxiety disorders, mood disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder, personality disorders and eating disorders. Other common symptoms of this disorder include headache, amnesia and some individuals often exhibiting a tension of self violence.

Physiological conclusions

Literature is loaded with many psychophysiological investigations about dissociative identity disorder. Many investigations have been carried out on single individuals by considering different aspects at different time intervals. Different states have shown distinct physiological symptoms. Studies carried out by using electroencephalogram showed different symptoms. Neuroimaging studies have found that individuals with this disorder have higher levels of memory encoding than the normal individuals as well as smaller parietal lobe. One study has found alterations in the intensity of concentration, mood changes, and degree of muscle tension with some inherent differences in brains of such individuals. Although a link between epilepsy and this disorder was also postulated but it is still controversial. Some brain imaging studies have shown differences in the cerebral blood flow in the sufferers. A different imaging study has also shown smaller hippocampal and amygdala volumes in patients of this disorder. One study carried out on twin individuals showed that heredity also plays an important role in appearance of dissociative identity disorder.

Causes

Theoretically dissociative identity disorder is coupled with the attacks of stress, traumatic antecedents, child abuse and an innate property to dissociate memories. Child abuse is very much responsible for this order and the percentage of individuals is somewhat higher. Physical and sexual abuse received by the individuals during early to mild childhood also results in this disorder. Some believe that the symptoms appear due to iatrogenic treatments. A development theory is generally postulated while studying the dissociative identity disorder sequentially as physical or sexual abuse received by the child in the childhood is responsible the appearance of symptoms. If the child is harmed intensely by a trusted caregiver it results in splitting off the awareness and memory of the child to survive in relationship with that person. These events enter the subconscious mind of the child resulting in emergence of a separate personality. The events reoccur if the individual receives traumatic events again. Dissociation becomes a coping mechanism for such individual if he or she faces stressful situations again and again.

Diagnosis

The American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) has described certain criteria while diagnosing this disorder. The DSM-II has used the term multiple personality disorder while DSM-III has identified four types of dissociative disorders and DSM-IV-TR uses the term dissociative identity disorder. The ICD-10 however, uses the term multiple personality disorder. The diagnostic criterion described in section 300.14 of DSM-IV is based on the non-physiological reasons where the individual sufferers from intensive memory lapses but while dealing with children the criterion focuses on other matters. The diagnosis of dissociative identity disorder can be performed by therapist, psychiatrist and psychologist by using personality assessment tools.

The diagnostic criterion given in DSM-V suggests that if there is a disruption in the identity of an individual due to the presence of two or more personality states or an experience of possession that alters cognition, behavior or memory then the individual may suffer from this disorder . Other criterion says that if the individual finds difficulty in recalling day to day information or traumatic events that are coupled with forgetfulness or social impairment he or she may suffer from personality disorders. Certain religious practices or general medical conditions may also be coupled with this disorder. The SCID-D can be used while diagnosing the disorder where an interview is carried out for 30-90 minutes depending upon the experiences of the subject. The Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule (DDIS) is strictly based on the criteria given in DSM-IV and may last from 30-45 minutes. The Dissociative Experience Scale (DES) is a simple, quick and rapid questionnaire used to screen the symptoms of the dissociative disorder. The DES scale is constructed differently for children as well as adults.

Treatment

The treatment of dissociative identity disorder attempts to join the different identities into one single identity with intact memory and functioning like normal brain. The treatment also focuses on relieving the symptoms of the disease for the benefit and safety of the patient. Treatment strategies may combine psychotherapy and meditation in order to provide relief to the individual. Some behavior experts while dealing with the individuals of personality disorders use the method of responding to one only type of identity and then use some of the conventional methods for faster recovery of the patient.

Prospects and Epidemiology

Dissociative identity disorder does not suddenly cause and the symptoms also vary with time. Individuals with symptoms of post traumatic stress however recover earlier with treatment. Patients with comorbid addictions, mood and eating disorders however take longer time to recover. Individuals still attached with the abusers show worst results with treatment. Changes in personality and memory loss may sometimes lead the individual to commit suicide. Studies do not clearly indicate the exact frequency of occurrence of this disorder but the number has significantly increased in the last few years. A possible explanation for increase in the number of cases is generally due to wrong diagnosis by confusing it as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or other mental disorders.