Top 10 Best-Selling Motorcycle Brands

In addition to the Japanese Big Four (Honda, Suzuki, Kawasaki, and Yamaha), the list of top-selling motorcycle manufacturers includes companies based in Italy, the U.S., Austria, and the UK.


Honda’s motorcycle division sells more than 15 million motorcycles annually, which makes it world’s leading manufacturer. One of the factors driving the company’s sales is its popularity in Asian markets. Yet Honda also dominates in North America.


The Italian brand headquartered in Bologna manufactures motorcycles since 1935. Ducati is known for its powerful sport bikes. The company has a long and successful racing history, which started in 1951. Today it spends over 7% of its revenues on racing business. The brand belongs to Audi through its subsidiary Lamborghini.


Great 20th-21st century history and exhilarating riding experience give Harley-Davidson the status of the legend bike company. This brand is familiar almost to everybody, even those who have never ridden a bike in their lives.


Yamaha bikes are known for excellent performance, ride quality and comparatively easy handling. Yamaha is almost as successful as another famous Japanese manufacturer, Honda. Moreover, the number of dirt bikes it sells exceeds Honda and Yamaha combined.


The Motorcycle & Engine division of Kawasaki Heavy Industries gained recognition as a manufacturer of a wide range of bikes, from very small to sport ones. These motorcycles are loved all over the world for their powerful and reliable engines, capable of developing great speed. There are production sites in Japan, North America, Philippines, Indonesia, and Thailand.


One more representative of the Japanese Big Four. The GSXR 750 and the DR 400 are among the most popular Suzuki motorcycles. The company has over 35 production facilities in more than 20 countries.


During its first years the Austrian motorcycle manufacturer specialized in 2-stroke and 4-stroke off-road motorcycles, but in the course of time its product range grew wider. In addition to dirt bikes, it now includes street motorcycles and sports cars. The brand belongs to CROSS Industries AG and Bajaj Auto Limited.

BMW Motorrad

BMW is one of the oldest motorcycles manufacturers. The company’s first bike was made in 1923. BMW Motorrad is famous for its road bikes, sports-touring bikes and sport bikes. Some of the most well-known models are the GS Adventure, the S 1000 REFRIGERATORS, and the K1600.


The largest motorcycle maker in the UK, Triumph specializes in road bikes that belong to the cruiser, naked, and sport classes. The Triumph brand is owned by BMW.


Victory is a comparatively new brand, it started production of motorcycles in 1998. Its large-displacement cruisers are famous all over the world. The company based in the U.S. has its final assembly facility in Iowa.

Migraines Are Frequently Misdiagnosed or Undiagnosed

Migraine headaches affect about 18% of women and 9% of men at some point in their lives. However, this common illness is often misdiagnosed as "tension headache", "sinus headache", or allergy. Children and teens are not only misdiagnosed, but are susceptible to going undiagnosed. Very often, it is during these formative years that migraine developments – it afflicts an estimated 10% of young children and up to 28% of teens. Children may especially complain about headache during the school year, which may in fact be migraine, due to the lack of sleep and / or added stress.

Here are some of the characteristics of migraines in both adults and children that help differentiate them from other headache syndromes:

  1. Unilateral headache A headache that is primarily on one side only, or "unilateral", is very typical of migraine, but not typical of other head types. In children, however, headache may manifest across the forehead or in the temples. Some children do not experience head pain, but instead experience abdominal or stomach pain, called an abdominal migraine.
  2. Throbbing Headaches that throb, or pulse with the heartbeat are more often migraine
  3. Photophobia Light sensitivity is very common in migraine, but very uncommon in other headings. Sufferers often report that light, especially outdoor light and non-incandescent light, is veryothersome during an attack. Many sufferers report that light sensitivity can even trigger an attack
  4. Phonophobia Sound sensitivity is also common during a migraine. Even the sound of the TV or music can be irritating during an attack
  5. Nausea and Vomiting Nausea, even if mild, is more likely to be associated with a migraine than with other head types
  6. Car Sickness Adults with migraine often have a history of being carsick or motion sick as children.
  7. Aura About a third of the migraine sufferers in the US experience migraine with aura. Aura reiter to the visual warning signs of a migraine.

Note that headache severity is not one of the criteria! Although migraines can be severe, they vary across a wide spectrum – some people have migraines that are mild enough that they might not even need an aspirin for it. Others have headaches sufficient enough to land them in the emergency room. Most migraines fall somewhere in between.

If you think you, or your children, have migraines, you should discuss it with your primary care physician or neurologist. Children especially may need to see a pediatric neurologist. Your doctor can help make the correct diagnosis and guide you towards appropriate medical and non-medical therapy.

Sources for further information:

  • Migraine Research Foundation
  • Headache Classification Committee of the International Headache Society. Classification and diagnostic criteria for headache disorders, cranial neuralgia and facial pain. Cephalgia 1988; 8 (Suppl. 7): 1-9
  • Headache in Clinical Practice. SD Silberstein, RB Lipton, PJ Goadsby (eds). Mosby-Year Book Inc., St Louis, MO. 1998
  • Cuomo-Granston A, Drummond PD. Migraine and motion sickness: Prog Neurobiol 2010. 91: 300-12
  • Wessman. Cortical spreading depression-Migraine: a complex genetic disorder; Lancet Neurology, 2007

Types of Sleep Disorders & What Not to Do If You Are Looking to Get More Sleep

There are a number of factors that cause sleep to be disrupted. There are also many different types of sleeping disorders, and the causes and the symptoms can vary. Sleep disorders usually occur because of stress and anxiety, sadness, grief, alcohol and caffeine use, and other environmental factors.

Other types of sleeping disorders have to do with your health. If you are suffering from depression, chronic diseases, pain and alcoholism, you are at risk for insomnia. Many when have certain types of sleep disorders because of problems related to menstruation and pregnancy.

There are four types of sleeping disorders. The first is dyssomnia. It occurs when the body's natural resting is interrupted. This can be caused by external factors such as noise and light.

Parasomnia is caused when you have trouble with arousal or sleeping stage changeover. In these instances, bed wetting, grinding of teeth, night terrors, and sleep talking or walking can disturb your sleep. Medical or psychiatric problems are also among the different types of sleeping disorders. They disturb sleep often come from alcoholism, ulcers, asthma and anxiety.

The final entry in our list of the types of sleeping disorders is proposed disorders, which are rest-related discrepancies. Some people need to sleep more than others. But if these sleep periods are unusual, then it is a sleeping disorder. This goes for people who do not get enough sleep, and those who get too much sleep.

If you are not getting enough sleep, you need to look for some natural cures. You do not want to rely on sleep medication in order to get more rest. Sleeping pills are highly addictive, and they really are just muscle relaxants. They do not give you the rest you need.

Type 2 Diabetes – How Best to Predict Overweight Newborns?

A significant concern in Gestational or pregnancy induced diabetes is the likelihood the baby will be born overweight. This can lead to the need for…

  • a cesarean or C-section,
  • a broken shoulder during a vaginal birth, and
  • an increased risk of developing Type 2 diabetes down the track in both the mother and the child.

Obstetricians and midwives check for Gestational diabetes with the oral glucose tolerance test or OGTT, usually at between 24 and 28 weeks of pregnancy. According to work published in July of 2017 in the journal Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, the body mass index (BMI) could be better than carrying out the oral glucose tolerance test for predicting overweight or large for gestational age (LGA) newborns.

Investigators at Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine in Miyagi and several other research institutions in Japan, included 966 pregnant women in their study. They looked at…

  • the woman’s BMI before pregnancy,
  • fasting blood sugar, and
  • OGTT results at 22 weeks’ gestation.

Then they compared earlier findings with the birth weight of the infants. More infants whose mothers were overweight or obese before pregnancy were larger than those whose mothers had Gestational Diabetes. From this information, the researchers concluded the mother being overweight or obese predicted a large for gestational age newborn more accurately than testing for Gestational diabetes.

This is not to say Gestational diabetes is not a concern. Women diagnosed with diabetes during their pregnancy have a higher risk of producing a larger baby than those born to healthy mothers. The two conditions often go together. One way of avoiding developing diabetes during pregnancy is to reach and maintain a healthy weight before and during pregnancy and gain only the amount recommended.

Average birth weight ranges from 5.5 pounds to 8.0 pounds. Large for gestational age at birth is defined at 8 pounds 13 ounces, or 4,000 grams. Most large for gestational age infants are born at 37 to 41 weeks of pregnancy or gestation, but some may be born earlier or later. Premature babies can be large for gestational age at lower weights than those born at the normal pregnancy duration. At any given stage of pregnancy, newborns are classed as being large if they are born at the 90th percentile for weight.

In 2015…

  • approximately 7 percent of infants born in the United States weighed over 4000 grams.
  • one percent weighed over 4500 grams, and
  • 0.1 percent weighed more than 5000 grams.

Throughout the world, birth weight differs by socioeconomic factors. Different standards for a large for gestational age (LGA) newborn, make it difficult to compare numbers from one country to the next.

What You Can Do If Your Child is Overweight

Weight problems and obesity in children have been on the rise for many years now, and it is estimated that 80% of overweight kids will go on to be overweight adults. By allowing your kids to remain overweight, you could be lining them up for an adult life fraught with health problems such as high cholesterol, high blood pressure, diabetes and coronary heart disease.

If you do not take action now with your child's weight problems, you will be sending a message to them that it is OK to be overweight and unhealthy.

Set Realistic Goals

If your child has initially been putting on weight, then your first goal should be to alter their diet and lifestyle to just stop more weight being put on.

Once their weight has discharged out and they have become accredited to more sensible eating and exercise, you can take it a step further and set a goal of achievable weight loss.

Do not Let Them Go It Alone

The best way you can motivate your child to become healthy is if the whole family joins in. To single out the one fat kid and put them on a different diet than the rest of your family would harm their self esteem, and this would make them prone to secret snacking on comfort food.

Remember, as a parent you are your child's biggest role model, set a good example by deciding to eat healthier and exercise more yourself.

Healthier Eating

It is important that your child still gets all the nutrients they need, as well as being able to lose weight. They should be getting 3 well balanced meals each day, with plenty of fresh vegetables that will help them feel full without piling on the pounds.

Always try to read the nutrition labels of the food you are giving your family to check the calorie and fat content, and avoid those that are too high in either. Encouraging your child to drink plenty of water will help too, as this will also help them feel full and they can avoid the sugary fizzy drinks that only add to the calorie intake.

Get Them Exercising

One way to get your child to start exercising is to encourage them to take up an active sport, perhaps after school. Make sure it is something your child enjoys doing. Another option could be to get your child to cycle or walk to school, instead of taking them by car.

Preventing Diabetic Foot Complications

A recent study performed by the American Podiatric Medicine Association, (APMA) determined that diabetes affects more than 26 million Americans. That is an astounding number! Whether due to genetics, diet, or other health issues, the number of diabetics is increasing. Diabetes causes a variety of serious health issues, especially in the feet. Diabetic wounds on the feet are serious and can eventually lead to amputation. Problems in the diabetic foot are typically caused by one or two things, peripheral vascular compromise (poor circulation) and/or neuropathy (loss of feeling). Proper foot care is essential for diabetics and may mean the difference between remaining active and or being hospitalized, or between keeping or losing a limb. The APMA recently issued a statement predicting that if every person who might be at risk for developing diabetic foot ulcers would visit a podiatrist BEFORE the occurrence of a foot ulcer, the US would save over $3.5 billion/year in health costs. Diabetic patients may read this and ask themselves, “why visit a podiatrist without a tangible problem?”, “What will the podiatrist do to help me?”, “How do I tell if I am at risk of developing ulcers?” or “What can I do at home to prevent formation of ulcers?”The following may help answer some of those questions.

“Why visit a podiatrist without a foot problem?” Because foot complications are the most common reason for hospitalization of diabetic patients, it is recommended that diabetics see a podiatrist on a yearly basis. In cases where foot complications are already present, it may be necessary to see a podiatrist more regularly. Diabetics, especially those with diabetic neuropathy, structural foot deformities, and peripheral vascular compromise, are at risk of developing foot ulcerations. A simple visit to a podiatrist will give the doctor the opportunity to perform a complete foot examination, thus identifying potential risks and properly treating any identified complications. A podiatrist can also educate the diabetic patient, giving important instructions regarding proper foot and nail care, as well as proper foot wear. Proper care in these areas will decrease and possibly even eliminate the risk of foot ulcerations, hospitalization, and even amputation.

“How do I know if I am at risk?” If you are a diabetic, you are at an increased risk and a visit to your podiatrist will prove beneficial. In addition to merely being diabetic, early signs of vascular compromise or ischemia,(poor circulation) include pain in the foot at rest or at night, no pulses in the foot, thin or shiny skin, decreased or absent hair growth on the feet, thickened toenails, increased redness to skin color when legs are dependent/down and increased whiteness to skin when legs are elevated/raised. A podiatrist can perform additional non-invasive vascular tests to help diagnose vascular concerns including, ankle brachial index (abi), absolute toe systolic pressure, and transcutaneuos oxygen measurements. These tests are simple and non-invasive. If clinical and non-invasive tests indicate vascular ischemia, the podiatrist can consult a vascular doctor for further vascular studies and testing. Poor circulation leads to many complications and decreases healing in the feet. Simple cuts or scrapes can become ulcers that will not heal. The feet become more dry and brittle. A simple crack from dryness can turn into a wound that will not heal. Knowing the risks and knowing the how to properly care for the feet will help the patient prevent potential complications with serious consequences.

A podiatrist will often diagnose in a diabetic, a nerve disease called peripheral neuropathy, in which the nerves to the feet have a decrease in function. This can also result in dry and fissured skin, predisposing the skin to infection. Neuropathy causes loss of feeling, resulting in injuries and sores that go unnoticed. Decreased sensation leaves the diabetic foot vulnerable to puncture wounds and thermal injury. These wounds may also go untreated and can result in ulcerations and infection. Seemingly simple things like corns and calluses,and bunions and hammertoes, if left untreated, can cause ulcers and infections. Simple tests can be performed by the podiatrist to help diagnosis the presence of peripheral neuropathy including monofilament tests, two-point discrimination and sharp vs dull. If clinical and non-invasive tests indicate nerve disease the podiatrist can consult a neurologist for further nerve studies and testing.

A podiatrist can help identify and treat these common occurrences related to diabetes and work with you to prevent serious complications. Your podiatrist will teach you about proper foot care, including how to perform helpful foot inspections and foot cleaning, as well as the proper way to treat minor foot injuries. The podiatrist will ask you to inspect your feet daily and will teach you what signs indicate problems. He/she will teach you how to properly trim nails. Because diabetes also brings a compromise in immune response, decreasing the ability to fight infection, a diabetic it should have a trained podiatric specialist address any nail concerns or problems.

A podiatrist will recommend that you always wear socks or shoes, thus preventing scrapes or puncture wounds from objects on the floor. Your podiatrist will also evaluate shoe gear and socks and assess proper support and fit. Patients with foot deformities or special support needs may benefit from custom inserts and or shoes.

If you or someone you know suffers from diabetes, schedule an appointment with your podiatrist today. Regular checkups will prevent major complications and can improve quality of life. Whether you are a diabetic with existing foot complications or someone that has not yet experienced foot problems, a visit with your podiatrist will improve your overall health and may save you from ulcers, infection and possible amputation in the future.

Free Adult Diapers

Adult diapers, as is obvious by the name, are ‘diapers’ for adults who deal with urinary problems and bowel weaknesses. Many individuals who cannot control their bowels and their urine cycles use adult diapers. They are also used by pregnant women who feel like urinating urgently and frequently. Basically, adult diapers are mostly used by people who have less or no control over their bowel movements or urine control.

There are many diaper brands selling diapers specifically designed and targeted for grown-ups. Many of these brands often send a supply of adult diapers to users as free samples; so that their brand gains momentum and diaper users are aware of that particular brand. Often when a new type of adult diaper is introduced, the company that is marketing it will send out a few free diapers to adults who use them and are on their marketing database. In this way, customers are aware of the new brands, and if the particular brand is comfortable and easy to use, the sales of that brand pick up quickly, thanks to the free sampling method of marketing.

Many manufacturers of adult diapers also engage in another way of giving out free samples. They publish a catalog featuring their entire range of adult diaper products and distribute these catalogs among many potential customers featured on their database. The customers can then request a particular type of diaper be sent to them as a free sample. On trying the free sample, they review it; gauge its comfort, its quality, as well as its level of absorbency. It they are satisfied with the product, they will order more from the catalog at the quoted price.

Therefore, we see that users often buy products like adult diapers only after trying the free samples.

Sensitive Skin Types & Paraben-Free Skincare

It is frequently a challenge to see which product is best for your skin because of the large number of cosmetic products available. For those who are sensitive or allergic to ingredients commonly used by cosmetic companies, this problem is aggravated. You can avoid serious harmful reactions if you are aware of which ingredients are most problematic.

Hypoallergenic products are a good choice in protecting yourself as they do not contain ingredients found to irritate sensitive skins. These products have good availability range in creams and lotions, and are identifiable because they are labeled 'Hypoallergenic'.

A conservative called paraben is often used in products to inhibit bacteria and mold formations. Avoid these types of products. Skincare products that are paraben-free are lessothersome to a wider range of skin types. Numbers of Paraben varieties can be added to cosmetic products. These ingredients copy the female hormone estrogen, which is implicated in the forming of breast cancer. Irrespective of your own skin's sensitivity, paraben-free skincare is good advice for everyone.

Manufacturers that exclude paraben are now labeling their cosmetics 'paraben-free' to advertise this move due to adverse publicity. Choosing products has become an easier task for consumers because of this. Other nasty effects of paraben are:

  • Potential dangers to the fetus in pregnant females.
  • Sterility in males.
  • Mothers breast-feeding male children risk giving their child too much estrogen as paraben is analogous to it.

Products made with plant based ingredients are the most hypoallergenic products. Below are some added measures you can take to make sure products are safer to use:

  • Avoid: Methylparaben, propylparaben, isoparaben, and butylparaben (all parabens).
  • Go to the manufacturer's website to check it out if parabens are not mentioned on the label.
  • Question the manufacturer about their ingredients if you continue to have concerns.

A handful of responsibly minded companies who produce hypoallergenic skincare products are out there for you. These companies use less damaging preservatives and have improved packaging to make sure their products are safe to use and have a good shelf-life. If you need more information about paraben-free skincare, go to: . You will find more information about the above and other skincare topics.

Stress-Psoriasis Interconnection – Is There Stress Associated Psoriasis?

Stress is when our body or nervous system is in a distress resulting from different unfavorable factors, such as any kind of a mental trauma, physical trauma, bad news, feeling cold or being hungry, etc.).

Human's nervous system is directly connected with the activity of the human's brain. The brain is a very important organ, which maintains control over numerous functions of the human body, brain controls the emotions and the intellect. Emotions express the individual attitude of a person towards all sorts of experiences, including the sad and the happy.

When human being experiences negative emotions, our body starts to experience various chemicals, for example, the amount of adrenaline levels in the blood may start to rise, when we feel fear or anger.

Such emotions used to appear in people for many millennia, at the time of a real danger. Wise mother-nature supplied us with strong protective reactions. Increasing adrenaline in the body immediately leads to the increased blood coagulation, as well as it starts to contract the blood vessels. Such reactions were vital for our remote ancestors, to less the blood loss with injuries, to come to be more alert at the time of threat, and so on.

The 20th century thought major changes to such situations. Nowadays, a person would hardly ever "fight or flight" in any kind of a negative situation, unless it was life threatening. Instead, people do their best to look calm within the negative event, only to afterward think that event repeatedly.

The socially accepted behavior has gone through changes, but our genetic makeup practically did not change. Stress still makes our bodies to excrete adrenalin into the blood.

However, the excess blood adrenaline is not being used up along the "fight or flight" reaction. Adrenalin stays in the blood and starts deteriorating internal organs of a human. This event leads to various disorders of the internal organs (eg, kidneys, liver, intestines, and so on), and also leads to the nervous system disorders.

Stress historically triggers the pathologic psoriasis mechanisms, and that's the nature of stress-psoriasis interconnection. Thus, learning to manage your stress is essential for effective psoriasis management.

Toenail Fungus Cures – How to Cure Toenail Fungus

If you are one of those millions of people suffering with toenail fungus, you will be able to relate to my story and how i cured my own toenail fungus problem.

I was a toenail fungus sufferer for over 2 years and really had a tough time trying to clear up my nails. My condition was the usual, yellowing of the nails, sometimes looking green in color with rough and uneven edges with a bumpy appearance. More than anything, it just looked ugly, out of place on my feet and I hated people asking me, "what's that" or "what's wrong with your nails"?

So i sat out to find some answers and a cure. At first i was overwhelmed with all the information available but after narrowing down some of the things that looked like they would work, I got down to business of clearing up my toes.

I read a lot of medical journals and searched the library. A wealth of information on toenail fungus cures, remedies, natural cures and every thing else. I was only interested in doing this the natural way, or at least as natural as possible, without having to take a prescription as I've heard the treatment is very expensive and not guaranteed.

How To Cure Toenail Fungus

Whatever treatment you try, hopefully the natural way, be sure that your treatment includes three or more of these ingredients, preferably all of them if possible if you can find a topical that includes it;

Tea Tree Oil
Almond Oil
Jojoba Oil
Vitamin E Oil
Lemongrass Oil
Undecylenic Acid
and Clove Oil.

Let me stress the importance of consistency. Nail, toenail fungus can be difficult to treat and it does take a long time. This is because the affected nail grows so slowly. As you apply your treatment, the cured nail will appear from the nail bed, not from the end of the nail. So do not be discouraged if you do not see results immediately. As the new nail appears you should see the disease free portion of the nail appearing.

Most importantly, do not skip on your applications. If your treatment requires 3 applications a day, make sure that you apply the topical as directed. If you have to take it too work, do so but wear breathable shoes during your treatment. If you must wear socks (men), wear cotton.

Being consistent with your application is probably the most important part of your treatment.

Finding Natural Allergy Remedies

Today's world has seen the increased use of chemicals in food, other products and in our air and water. This weakens the body's immune system. Over time, we become susceptible to various diseases and other health problems. Among the problems we and our children face are allergies.

What Is An Allergy?

An allergy is a reaction of the immune system to what is a normal substance in the environment. Common allergens are

  • Pollen
  • Dander of cats and dogs
  • Grasses
  • Milk
  • Wheat
  • Corn
  • Eggs

Treatments For Allergies

There are several ways to control allergies. The marketplace is full of different products. As treatments for allergies, they promise relief from your allergy problem. Many brand name products do provide temporary allergy relief, but at what cost? The ingredients within these substances can cause side effects making you feel tired, listless and sleepy. This is not true with natural allergy remedies. Natural allergy remedies consist of a multifaceted approach. This involves the following aspects of your life style:

  • Diet and Nutrition – select only high quality whole foods. This includes grains, legumes and vegetables. Steam instead of boiling or frying your food. Eat your food raw. This provides the enzymes you find your body will need to help digest your food completely
  • Consider nutritional supplements as beneficial in helping your body fight against an allergy problem
  • Get plenty of rest. Lack of sleep makes you more susceptible to allergies
  • Spend time out of doors in the sunshine and fresh air
  • Avoid stress, worry and other forms of anxiety. These contribute to the breakdown of your immune system and open you up to suffering from an allergy.
  • Do not sleep on bedding made up of down
  • Consider hydrotherapy

These methods may prove to be helpful. However, there are times when you may find you need to use a natural product.

Natural Allergy Treatments

Natural allergy remedies are those containing all-natural substances. The most common ingredients in these products are

  • Quercitin – a flavonoid found in apples and onions
  • Eyebright – this small, perennial plant has a long history in herbal treatments. Its anti-inflammatory and mild decongestant properties act together to reduce the response of your body to an allergen. Eyebright reduces eye irritation, sinus infections and the symptoms of hay fever
  • Arsen Alb
  • Nat Mur – a biochemical tissue salt that helps eliminate and control itching, hives, colds and hay fever resulting from exposure to allergens
  • Kali Mur – a tissue salt that helps control head colds and digestive weaknesses

Natural allergy remedies ensure your body does not suffer any side effects if taken according to instructions. The treatment is gentle.


A commercial treatment for allergies tend to have undesirable side effects. To avoid these consider taking natural allergy remedies. If you combine such products with a sensible diet, you can help improve your immune system. In turn, this will help control and prevent any future allergy problem.

Psychiatry for Physicians- Delirium

It is the first psychiatric disorder that took place in medical practice. As a result, cases of delirium are mostly treated by doctors. The syndrome, delirium, can be defined as a transient, usually reversible dysfunction in the cerebral nervous system that has an acute or subacute injury and is manifest clinically by wide array of neuropsychiatric abnormalities.

Some patients are considered to be high risk group for developing delirium. They are –

1) Elderly patients

2) Post cardiotomy patients

3) Burn patients

4) Patient with cognitive dysfunction

5) Patients with drug withdrawal

6) Patients with AIDS

7) Patients with a high illness burden

The diagnostic criteria for delirium according to the DSM-IV are –

1. Disturbance of consciousness with reduced ability to focus, sustain or shift attention.

2. Change in cognition that is not better accounted for by preexisting, established or evolving dementia.

3. The disturbance develops over a short period of time and tendencies to fluctuate during the course of the day.

4. There is evidence from the history, physical examination, or laboratory findings of a general medical condition judged to be etiologically related to the disturbance.

Clinical features of delirium are –

1) Prodrome (restlessness, anxiety, sleep disturbance, irritability) and rapid onset.

2) Rapidly fluctuating course.

3) Attention decreased (easily distractible).

4) Altered arousal and psychomotor abnormality.

5) Disturbance of sleep-wake cycle.

6) Impaired memory.

7) Disorganized thinking and speech.

8) Disorientation (very rarely in case of person).

9) Perceptions altered.

10) Neurological abnormalities like dysgraphia, constructional apraxia, dystonic aphasia, motor abnormalities (tremor, asterixis, myoclonus, reflex and tone changes), and EEG abnormalities.

11) Other features like sadness, irritability, anger or euphoria.

A significant research on the etiology of delirium proposed that derangement in functional metabolism, identified by cognitive disorders and slowing of EEG, is the main stem of etiology for delirium. Differential diagnoses for delirium are –

1. Wernicke's encephalopathy or withdrawal.

2. Hypertensive encephalopathy.

3. Hypotoglycemia

4. Hypoperfusion of CNS.

5. Hypoxemia.

6. Intracranial bleeding or infection.

7. Meningitis or encephalitis.

8. Poisons or medication.

Delirium can extremely result in full recovery, progress to stupor and / or coma, development of seizure, progress to chronic brain syndrome, death or any morbidity. But most of the cases of delirium end up in recovery. For the purpose of treatment there are two main steps to take –

1) Treat the undering cause.

2) Treat the behavioral symptoms.

One of the most widely used groups of pharmacological agents prescribed for the treatment of behavioral symptoms in delirium is antipsychotic. Psychological and environmental supports are also important.

Depression And Other Mood Disorders

Doctors used to believe that depression was a disease of late life, affecting older people more frequently than younger ones. In fact, recent studies have shown that quite the opposite is true. Depression is slightly more common in people between the ages of 18 and 64 than it is among those over 65.

Even so, depression remains the most common psychiatric disorder among older adults, and it's particularly common among those who are hospitalized for illness or who are living in long-term care facilities. Depression causes untold misery for sufferers and their families alike, and in extreme cases it's so painful and debilitating that people consider and attempt suicide.

The most common type of depressive illness is major depression. Other types of depression that affect older adults include bipolar disorder (also known as "manic depression") and dysthymia. Depression can be a special problem in people over age 65 for several reasons:

* While young people who are depressed tend to have classic symptoms of depression sleep and appetite disorders, crying, depressed mood older people often develop physical symptoms that may mask the disorder. These include aches and pains, intestinal complaints, breathing problems and feelings of anxiety.

* When asked by a doctor if they feel depressed, older people are more likely to deny feelings of hopelessness and despair.

* Doctors who lack experience with older patients may misdiagnose and mistreat depression, or they may believe it's a normal response to the pressures and losses of old age rather than an illness that can be treated.

* It's often easier for older people who no longer work or care for families to conceive their depression than it is for youngger people, who must still show up at the office or take their children to school.

* Because of the stigma associated with depression and other mental illnesses, older people may be related to seek help. They tend to turn their distress in to physical symptoms and then seek medical attention for unexplained headaches, back pain and intestinal problems.

Family History

If a close relative (a grandparent, parent or sibling) has suffered from depression, you are at increased risk. Although this suggests a genetic component to the illness, it's also possible that depression runs in families for other reasons for example, children who are raised by a depressed parent may fail to learn healthy ways of coping with stress, and this can leave them vulnerable to depression. But this does not explain why depression is more likely to affect someone who aunt, uncle or a distant grandparent suffered from it than someone who has no family history of depression.

Early Loss

Researchers have noted a striking pattern of childhood loss among people who suffer from depression for example, the early loss of a parent because of death, divorce or serious illness. This may cause deep-rooted emotional problems that leave them open to depression later in life, especially when they experience other losses.

Physical Illness

Depression often companies physical illness, although researchers are not sure why. It's possible that the stress of illness triggers depression, but in some cases specifically with depression after stroke biochemical changes in the brain may occur that cause depression.

Certain diseases and conditions that seem to trigger depression are more common in older adults for example, cancer, chronic pain, stroke, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, thyroid failure and vitamin B 12 deficiency. One study found that about half of all people who suffered a heart attack became clinically depressed, and more than 70 percent of them remained that way for at least a year.


Certain drugs that older people take to treat other illnesses are known to cause mood changes as a side effect. If you think your depressed mood may be related to a medication, tell your doctor. She may decide to switch you to a different class of drug.

Flying Phobias and How to Approach Them

What happens to you when you get on a plane? Do you walk calmly to your seat and enjoy the flight? Or do you agonise about the journey for days beforehand, become all hot and sweaty at the boarding gate, then have a full blown panic attack when the plane starts to taxi up the runway? If you fall in the latter category, you're not alone. Around 35% of people are 'nervous flyers' with about 5% having severe panic attacks so bad that they will not even set foot on a plane.

A fear of flying can be called many things including aerophobia and aviophobia. Not only that but it can actually be a combination of several phobias like the fear of small spaces, the fear of heights and the fear of crowds. Due to the nature of the different combinations it can be hard to treat a common cause for flight phobia though there are some products out there that try and seem to have a high success rate.

Life can be miserable for those who suffer from a severe flying phobia and sufferers tend to be extremely embarrassed about their problem, refusing to talk about it with friends and family. This social withdrawal and isolation from not being able to take part in family holiday can cause a lot of stress in a person and make them feel low.

There are a few tricks you can try to try to get over your fear of flying. Firstly, try to think back to the first time you ever suffered a reaction to flying. Did something happen on that day or on the flight that upset you? Are you normally afraid of enclosed spaces or of large crowds of people? Visualization can be a great tool to helping you overcome your fears.

In the weeks building up to a flight, try to take half an hour out of your day to relax and close your eyes. Breathe deeply in and out, imagining yourself to be on a plane – warm, happy and safe. Do this for about 30 minutes a day, it's all about tricking your mind into changing its ways. You want to change your subconscious way of thinking about flying and force your mind to accept that it is a pleasant experience! The more severe your phobia, the more time you should do this before a flight. If you are utterly terrified and vomit even at the thought of going on a plane you may have to do this for a bit longer.

Public Speaking Anxiety – 5 Things to Ensure When Delivering Your Presentation

Delivering an exciting content filled presentation to an enthusiastic audience will fail in its purpose if the audience miss the important points of your delivery.

Delivery of your presentation requires you to address 5 important points before and during the presentation.

1. The audience must be able to hear you. If you are using a microphone check it before the audience arrive. Many fail to work when required or suffer irritating feed back. Your pre-address preparations includes checking equipment. If you are speaking without amplification ensure that everyone in the room can hear you. The easiest way is to ask them. This will also help you with any anxiety you have as it breaks the ice and shows you care about them hearing you. You have also made audience contact without starting your delivery.

2. If you are using any equipment make sure it works. Check everything at least twice and have some sort of back up plan if it fails while using it.

3. Dress comfortably. Your presentation will not be smooth if you do not feel comfortable. This includes being smart or appropriately dressed for your audience. If you like a table or lectern to speak from or by. Make sure you get one. You will be speaking for some time. The room may be hot or stuffy. Ensure you have water to hand to keep your throat from drying and the resultant loss of voice.

4. Watch the audience. By observing the responses of the audience you will get a feel for how your presentation is going. Nodding heads of approval is very different from nodding heads of sleepiness. Watch the audience and keep them interested by changing your delivery accordingly.

5. This is the most important point. The audience must be able to hear you. If you do not stop talking your audience will not hear what you are saying. If this article had no punctuation and was one continuous sentence your understanding of it would be poor. If you do not stop talking in your presentation your interests understanding will be poor. Speak in phrases or sentences followed by a short break. This does not mean speak in a stuttering way. Your speech should be natural but allow time for the audience to hear your words or your address will be of no value to them at all.

Delivering a presentation is similar to any task you do. With careful preparation and observation any tasks will be executed with few mishaps. Delivering a presentation is no different to any other task. Be in control of your presentation, prepare and claim your presentation as your own by following these 5 simple steps.