Top Resources For Academic Research

When you get to college, you are going to engage in some serious acts of research. Be prepared. Know that you have to introduce outside material into your coursework. Being able to easily locate and draw info from numerous sources will help you create quality research assignments.

But where are you supposed to look for information? There are plenty of research resources at your disposal. You just have to know where to start looking.

Start at your university’s library. Look for books and periodicals that you can mine information from. Checkout the online reserves to really get your search going. University databases are huge portals that can link you to important resources. Search through online journals. Familiarize yourself with all that your college library has to offer, and you will have plenty of research info to incorporate.

Use the Internet to gain a basic familiarity with your material. It’s amazing what you can find using a simple search engine. Get an overall view of the topic you need to research, before you start looking for more in depth resources. Discover the common terms and elements of whatever debate or issue you have to ponder. Once you’ve used the Internet to get a basic understanding, you’ll know what exactly you need more in depth coverage on.

Visit research institutes and think tanks on the web. Think tanks always have links to their latest research efforts and studies. Make use of recent studies, and incorporate evidence and conclusions into your own unique take.

Online journals are great sources for scholarly research. You can find in-depth academic papers that are extremely focused in their scope. Draw from these rich sources of scholastic digestion. Read the footnotes and get more information. The more academic papers you read on the subject that you are covering, the more comfortable you will become with the important issues surrounding whatever debate you are investigating.

Consider using the resources of another university. You can access a ton of information over the Internet. Many universities have their own archived material that they make available to the general public. If you need a direct quote from a historical document, chances are you can find the complete document somewhere in an online sourcebook belong to a college or university.

When stringing together all of these diverse perspectives, make sure that you have something original of your own to say. You can built a solid foundation on other peoples’ ideas and research, but the structure that you erect on top of that foundation has to be entirely your own. Bring different perspectives together by marbling your own unique points into the mix. The clearer you can present your argument and supporting evidence, the more convincing your research assignments will be.

Providing Pain Relief For Laminitic Horses With Equine Massage Therapy

Warmer weather brings with it new green grasses and other lush greens for our horse’s to munch on and with that comes an increase in the number of cases of laminitis and founder. The trigger mechanism(s) for this condition in horses has been hotly debated, as well as how to treat it. There are multiple causes for this condition ranging from mechanical to metabolic. The most prevalent cause, particularly in the spring, appears to be dietary/metabolic issues at work and can be triggered by the intake of feed and/or forages with high sugar contents.

What Is Laminitis/Founder?

Laminitis is an extremely painful condition of the sensitive laminae of the horse hoof in which the bonds between the laminae become compromised and breakdown. This condition is characterized by a very tender sole, particularly near the apex of the frog, heat in the hoof and an unwillingness to move. Because of the excruciating pain in the feet, the horse will typically find a soft place to put its front feet on, sometimes in an elevated location such as a pile of hay. In severe cases, the coffin bone detaches from the hoof wall, rotating downward and can even push through the sole of the hoof. This is the condition known commonly as founder.

How Can Equine Massage Help With Laminitis Pain Relief?

As horse owners, it is hard to watch our horses suffer with the pain of laminitis. We want to do whatever we can to make sure that they are as comfortable as we can make them. I’ve had good success in providing pain relief to horses with mild to severe cases of laminitis using equine massage techniques.

The coffin bone is attached to the deep digital flexor tendon, which is in turn attached to the flexor muscles further up the back of the horse’s leg. In horses with laminitic pain, the muscles in the neck, shoulders and down the back of the legs become very tight in response to compensating for the painful feet. The problem ends up compounding on itself as the tight muscles contract and shorten putting more tension on the already compromised coffin bone and causing even more pain. Massaging the triceps and flexor muscles down the backside of the legs helps to relieve tension on the coffin bone by relaxing the associated soft tissue attachments in the leg, as well as the neck and shoulder which have been in a constant state of contraction.

How Do You Massage A Horse’s Legs?

When doing a massage on a horse with laminitis, I will typically start at the top and work my way down. You’ll find the rhomboid and trapezius muscles will be very tight because the horse uses the weight of its head as momentum to move its painful front end by throwing the head upward with each step on the painful limb. I always start with a gentler touch at first, then gradually get firmer, reading the horse to know how much pressure is enough. I will use a variety of strokes ranging from petrissage to effleurage to tapotement. I’ll work each area no more than 5 to 10 minutes. When you get to the muscles at the back of the leg, you can be more effective if the horse’s leg is flexed, and of course do not use tapotement on the lower leg muscles as it can be painful to the horse. You can usually rest the leg on your knee for a minute or so at a time before the horse might need to shift its weight over to the other leg. I massage even the tendons of the lower leg and down to the top of the hoof. Be respectful of your horse’s tolerance for pain. Some horses are more stoic about it than others, but they will all give you signs when they need a break.

You can repeat the massage every day as needed, but usually 2 to 3 times per week is sufficient to see a noticeable difference in your horse’s comfort level. As your horse improves and is less painful, you can also add some extension stretches to the equation to help stretch the soft tissue out.

Always consult your veterinarian before starting any therapy on your horse to make sure there are no contraindications. If you suspect your horse may have laminitis, you should contact your veterinarian immediately.

PCOS and Weight Loss Are Not an Impossible Combination

PCOS is an imbalance in the female sex hormones, which can cause many issues for women. It usually causes infertility, fatigue, cysts on ovaries, male hair growth, and obesity. Many women begin to have the symptoms before they realize what they have and what is causing the problems. The biggest issue women face with PCOS is weight gain. There have been many women who have PCOS and weight loss success. Many doctors have solutions of keeping weight even while dealing with PCOS.

One solution is a diet that will help PCOS and weight loss success. Many women have certain things they need to change in order to lose weight and keep it off even with having PCOS. You have to eat more often to keep up your metabolism. Your metabolism will burn the fat that is in your foods and will keep your weight off. You also have to stay away from artificial sweeteners.

Many women think they can drink diet drinks and that it will make a difference when actually many diet drinks can slow fat loss and make you gain weight. In fact, women with PCOS should stick to a low carb diet.

Another thing you need to do in order to lose weight with PCOS is to take vitamins. Most women with PCOS need magnesium to help with their weight loss. You also need a diet high in B vitamins as well as vitamin C. The best solution is take a multi-vitamin tailored to women’s health needs. Your doctor can suggest the best vitamin for you.

Another solution to for women who want to lose weight with PCOS is to get enough exercise. It cannot just be any exercise but the right exercise. Many women think they have to workout 5 days a week for an hour. Exercising 3 times a week for 45 minutes does exactly what working out 5 days will do. Women with PCOS and weight loss success do a lot of strength training and building muscles. This is very important for women with PCOS. Their muscles need extra strength because PCOS can cause fatigue.

There are so many women with PCOS that have had amazing results with weight loss and feeling better. These are some solutions that may work for women that are struggling through this imbalance and just need some extra help. PCOS and weight loss success can work at the same time as long as you are doing all the things necessary to see it happen. Weight loss is hard for a healthy woman and even harder for a woman with PCOS.

Roopkund Trek

Roopkund trek is one of the most popular routes for trekking in North India. Sitting in the laps of the majestic Greater Himalayas is the small and yet important lake called Roopkund. The whole trek borrows its name from this lake. The lake stretches for not too far and is not very deep either. At no point does it get deeper than 2 meters.

Roopkund trek is popular for both summer as well as winter trekking. In fact, the truth is that for most parts of the year it can be considered as a winter trek. It remains cold for about 9 months and during this time the lake remains frozen.

Those who come to Roopkund for the very first often question at the first sight as to what this trek could possible offer them. Yes, it is true. The first look of it may give you a picture of bland place denuded of any adventure or fun. It is a long journey from New Delhi to this place, which is followed by nearly 4 days of trekking.

However, invariably, every trekker’s opinion changes dramatically after embarking on the trekking journey on the Roopkund trek Uttarakhand. Even those who are highly sceptical of this trek often end up calling it one of the best experiences of trekking in Uttarakhand. There is a lot that this trek has to offer. The forests, Burans, long stretches of green clearings, meadows, the climb up the snowy slopes, and the nights under the glittering stars is something that overwhelms everyone.

The Trekking Experience

Trekking in North India is usually available in two seasons – summer and winter. For the Roopkund trek Uttarakhand, there are two big windows where you can have and fun-filled trekking experience.

A lot of adventurers like to trail the treks anytime between May and June. This is the time of the year which is warmer and thus you can be the witness to loads of greenery all around. The long climb of the foliage up the hills and the green landscapes as far as your eyes can see are some of the images that generate the sense of instant euphoria.

The lake is also not frozen at this time and thus you can spend some really quality time by it. But, one of the most amazing experiences of the trek during this time is the sight of the human skeletons. In fact, a lot of people go for the Roopkund trek in summers just to be able to see the skeletons. You will be surprised to know that some of these skeletons are thousands of years old.

If you love snow and human skeletons, however old they may be, do not interest you much, you would like to for the winter trekking in Uttarakhand here. Starting from mid September, you can start witnessing snow during the trek. This is the time when the summer is giving way to the winter. There is a mix of both snow and greenery during this time. But, if it is just the snow you want, trek somewhere after mid of October.

Revealed – What Does a Controller Really Do? Best Practice Secrets Highlighted

Once the mission and vision are tweaked, Chief Executive Officers (CEO) and other executives are faced with the issue of implementing the new plan. Often that requires extensive help from accounting or finance. Since a number of CEOs, panel creators, and others ask what is the difference between a Chief Financial Officer (CFO) and controller and bookkeeper, you can start with a look at a more detailed definition of a controller.

We will begin with what to expect from the levels of the accounting staff. For the purposes of this discussion, the following will serve as definitions of two of the top players in the accounting department:

Chief Financial Officer -Person who makes the financial statements understandable. This person ranges from a true business partner to a technician.

Controller – Is the working manager for the accounting department. This person ranges from someone on the CFO track to a technician.

Controllers also have highly specialized duties that require a variety of multitasking skills. Again, a person in this position should be able to cover but is not limited to the following tasks:

Controller Duties:

o Manages bookkeeper

o Handles Executive Payroll

o Can sign checks prepared by bookkeeper

o Signs Sales Tax returns

o Creates the more difficult journal entries

o Prepares Financial Statements

o Approves customer credit limits

o Is responsible for payroll processing

o Implements basic financial and accounting systems

o Can coordinate with external Certified Public Accountant (CPA) on tax returns, compilations or audits

o Implements polices and procedures

o Creates non standard reports, including variance reviews

o Handles insurance and risk management with assistance

o Begins safeguarding assets

o Creates budgets

o Inventory overview with assistance

Think of this as a common sense list of how you want to see how this key team member will help you execute strategic programs or processes like: risk management process, enterprise risk management ( ERM), strategic planning, risk assessment, risk management assessment, entire enterprise risk management assessment, operational review, due diligence, or scenario budgeting.

The opportunities you may create from improving your company resources may open up some incredible opportunities for you with competitors whose companies have a weaker management team.

When Can Patients Sue a Hospital for Negligence?

When can you sue the hospital or its employees for negligence?

A hospital can be sued for negligence for mistakes that harm or kill a patient. When an employee of the hospital is guilty of negligence, you can sue the hospital. When a doctor working for a hospital makes a mistake, both the doctor personally and the hospital as a whole can be sued. However, doctors can only be sued if they were present and could have prevented the negligence. You cannot sue every doctor in the Emergency Room or surgical floor, only the one who administered or oversaw your treatment. Hospitals can also be sued when a doctor with a history of negligence and medical mistakes was kept on the payroll, thus enabling them to continue harming patients.

What constitutes neglect?

Neglect occurs when someone does not do their job as a normal and competent professional would. Negligence includes not verifying instructions, not following checklists, failing to assist patients in need and not take immediate action in an emergency. There are greater tolerances for mistakes made in life threatening emergencies than general care situations. Malpractice and negligence can arise from a failure to properly diagnose a condition or injury. Negligence can occur when someone is given the improper treatment or the correct treatment is administered incorrectly. Nurses administering the wrong medication and therapists following the wrong protocols are examples of this.

Failing to risk patients of negative outcomes from a medical treatment or side effects of the treatment is also negligence. Recommending a surgery to cure cataracts that can also leave a patient blind is an example of this concept. To sue for negligence, the risk must be significant enough that the patient might have chosen not to have the procedure or treatment if they had known and must have suffered that negative outcome.

Can you sue medical professionals other than doctors at the hospital?

Yes. Any medical professional affiliated with a hospital can be sued for negligence. This includes nurses, physical therapists, medical technicians and pharmacists. First responders such as paramedics and firefighters have broad protection from medical negligence claims, due to the difficulty of acting during emergencies, unless they are employees of the hospital and provide care at the facility. Good Samaritans are rarely sued for negligence unless their actions are reckless.

What types of damages are available when someone sues a hospital for negligence?

There must be a specific injury as well as actual damage to sue for negligence. You cannot sue a hospital because you were unhappy with the level of service.

  • Physical pain and suffering
  • Medical bills with other medical facilities or practitioners to treat the condition caused by the hospital’s neglect, injuries caused by the hospital or diagnose what the hospital failed to find.
  • Lost income due to the inability to work or lost income of the individual who died
  • Medical bills resulting from additional treatment at the hospital if the patient had received the proper course of treatment.
  • Costs of physical therapy or assisted care while recovering

The Many Benefits of Turmeric

Turmeric is a member of the ginger family, and it has blessed mankind with its manifold uses since times ancient. One will find turmeric in almost every household of the Oriental countries. Turmeric being easily available in Asia, the Asians are quite aware of the benefits of turmeric.

The rhizome of the turmeric is first boiled, then dried and ground into an orange powder – which is the most common form of turmeric available.

Mainly used as a culinary spice in South Asian and Middle-Eastern cuisines, there are many other benefits of turmeric when it comes to food. Turmeric holds its significance since the Medieval period where it was used as a substitute of expensive Indian saffron. Turmeric imparts rich yellow color to food stuff. To give boiled rice a golden color, rice is heated with turmeric in South Africa. E-100 is what its called when turmeric is used as a food additive. The pigment in turmeric is curcumic. Turmeric is an important ingredient in curry powder. Pickles are also made out of turmeric. Momos (dumplings) a hot-favorite in the Chinese and Nepalese cuisine is also spiced with turmeric. Turmeric gives flavor to numerous recipes. It is used to make a special sweet in Karnataka.

Turmeric possesses a lot of nutritional value – 6.3g protein, 3.5g minerals, 6.94g carbohydrates, 2.6g fibre, 349 kcal.

When it comes to Ayurveda, turmeric plays a dominant role there too. It is applied as an antiseptic for cuts, burns, and bruises. It can also be used as an antibacterial. Researches have revealed that in some particular cases turmeric can be taken as a dietary supplement.

There are numerous benefits of turmeric when it comes to the medicinal arena. It has the ability to cure stomach aches, skin problems, gastro-intestinal problems. Medicinal experiments depict that turmeric can show possible benefits in Alzheimer’s disease, arthritis, childhood leukaemia.

Turmeric is nature’s most powerful healer since 2500 years. When combined with cauliflower it prevents prostrate cancer and prevents advancing of breast cancer. It helps in weight management, and for this reason is consumed as a tea in Japan. It is a natural liver detoxifier, a natural pain-killer and has shown considerable results in reducing the side-effects of a chemo drug – Paclitayel.

Where health is considered an asset for a nation, turmeric comes with immense medicinal value to help man. It can be taken either in powder or in pill form. The most recently found out advantage of the turmeric is that it enhances brain derived neutrophic (BDN) factor, which supports nerve growth.

Beauty – the feminine world considers it an asset and is constantly striving to enhance it and maintain it. When it comes to beauty care and cosmetics turmeric is no less in that field too. Juice of raw turmeric enhances glow of skin. It reduces the growth of body hair, and gives a soft, fair, smooth skin texture. It reduces spots, blotches and pigmentation. It acts as a natural sunscreen, as it contains THC (tetrahydrocurocuminoids) – which is a powerful antioxidant.

It has a lot of traditional value too – a Bengali marriage is incomplete without the ritual of ‘gaye holud’ – where the bride and the groom are bathed with turmeric paste and water. For Pongal turmeric is used as a decorative purpose. In the south the poor families use dried turmeric tied in a string as the ‘thali’ necklace for their marriage.

Turmeric is a poor fabric dye used in coloring mainly Indian saris. It helps deter ants, it helps keep crocodiles and snakes away. It can be used as an effective medication at times of snake-bites. It is used for Chemical Acid Alkali tests and Boric Acid test. In fact, turmeric is even used to plug radiator leaks in water-cooled radiators. Turmeric Benefits are innumerable!!!

Is a Pet Raccoon a Good Idea?

If you or your family is considering having a raccoon as a pet, there are numerous factors that you need to consider. Raccoons can be very complicated animals and will require a lot to be content in your home.

Raccoons can be a great pet for your family to have because of the amount of attention that they require from you, but this can also be a downside. One of the first factors that you should consider is if it will be legal to have a raccoon as a pet. In most states, it is illegal to own a raccoon, and keep it in your domesticated home. While it is illegal, there are also many states that will allow you to keep a raccoon in your home under certain conditions. When caring for an abandoned raccoon, you are required to apply for a permission from the city.

The next factor that you should consider is that you must find a local San Francisco vet clinic that will be willing to treat and care for a raccoon. Most vets are not willing to care for animals that are not domesticated such as cats and dogs. Once you have taken care of all the appropriate documentation, you can begin to create a home for your new pet raccoon.

Raccoons are the type of animal that likes to burrow in its home, so you will need to provide ample bedding for the raccoon to use. If you give the raccoon its own space to use, it will leave your furniture and beds alone. Raccoons are also needy pets, so you need to be prepared to spend a lot of play time with a pet such as this. Filling your bath tub up with water on a regular basis will provide ample play time as well as reducing its body odor.

Another important factor would be having your raccoon vaccinated appropriately. Rabies is always a big worry in animals that have been domesticated for pets. Once you have found a veterinarian clinic that is willing to take care of your raccoon, you will need to have your raccoon vaccinated. Most veterinarians will require that you get rabies and distemper shot for your pet raccoon. This will help to prevent any spread of rabies if your raccoon happens to bite anyone. This can be preventative measure to help protect your family in case something was to happen.

Microdermabrasion Acne Treatment

A microdermabrasion acne procedure is one to consider if your facial skin has suffered scarring due to nodules, cysts or other severe forms of acne. The treatment will remove the skin's top layer of dead cells and smooth scarred tissue. This procedure works especially well for those who have suffered rare, disfiguring acne conditions. Microdermabrasion smooths the surface of the skin, removes very fine lines, stimulates collagen production, and reduces skin imperfections.

Microdermabrasion acne scars removal is an option for people who sever breakouts result in scars on the face. However it will not work on acne scars that are very deeply imbedded in the skin; it is for scars that have not extremely deep, but are close to the outer layer of skin. It is important to note that acne microdermabrasion is not a good choice for those individuals with the following conditions: rosacea, herpes, warts, eczema, lupus, and diabetes. Other conditions may also influence the safety of the treatment and a dermatologist will help to determine what is best for each patient.

Acne microdermabrasion will further promote new skin cell production in the deepest layer of the skin as it clears dull and congested skin. The procedure takes about 30 minutes and maximum results are achieved between 4 to 12 visits, depending on the severity of the skin in the area. Skin in the acne dermabrasion area will be very pink for a couple of weeks afterwards.

Patients find the skin from acne dermabrasion to be tight for the first 24-48 hours. One's skin may feel like a mild sunburn or windburn, but any further pain is not common. Using a good moisturizer along with a high SPF will help soothe skin after the microdermabrasion acne scars treatment. Also, some peeling and light crusting may be expected in the area. No anesthesia is needed for the procedure, since it is non-invasive. Patients can drive home right after. Patients will see results for up to a year and as such maintenance will be required.

Microdermabrasion acne scar treatment is a good option for those who wish to unclog pores and reduce fine acne scarring. It may be the answer for some individuals, but a trip to the dermatologist is the first step to consider before this procedure. Acne microdermabrasion results will last if done properly and the healing of skin proves to heal acne scars, as well as the individual's overall appearance.

Two Recommended Hospitals in Frankfurt, Germany

Frankfurt, officially known as Frankfurt am Main is the second largest metropolitan area in the country of Germany. Frankfurt is a globally renowned center for commerce, transportation, finance, education, culture and tourism. It is regarded as the second most expensive city of Germany and one of the top 10 most livable cities in the world. This city is very multicultural as 30% of its residents are immigrants. It was also the former headquarter of the U.S. Army in Germany. Visitors can find many modern hospitals in Frankfurt that offer high quality health care at global standards. All the leading hospitals accept major health insurances and provide special accommodations for international patients. Here is a note on some of the better hospitals in Frankfurt.

The University Hospital of Frankfurt located at Theodor-Stern-Kai 7 is a major health care facility in Frankfurt. The hospital offers comprehensive medical service to a large number of patients. Founded in 1914, the hospital now has 25 medical clinics and 25 research institutes. It is one of the most well known centers for various types of transplant and the only designated center for liver and pancreas transplants in the area. The central laboratory performs every kind of test for hematology, immunology and coagulation analysis. Its ISO 9001:2000 certified Institute of diagnostic and interventional radiology is remarkable and offers service in many areas. This is a premier institute for medical education and research. Tel: + 49 69 630 10

Hospital of the Holy Spirit GmbH (Hospital zum heiligen Geist) is another popular hospital in Frankfurt that offers modern and effective health care at an affordable cost. This hospital is regarded as the oldest health care facility in the city with its glorious history of about 800 years. The center offers the complete range of medical services including internal medicine, gynecology, obstetrics, surgery, aesthesia, psychosomatic medicine and pain therapy. The surgical clinic employs some well known surgeons and works under and interdisciplinary consensus. The Women’s Hospital features four birth rooms with a birthing pool, a birth stool, and a waterbed. The hospital has the best emergency care unit and ICUs. The emergency section has 20 beds and features many specialized units for heart attack, renal failure, poisoning, acute abdominal problems and shock. Tel: 069/2196-0

Where To Go For Medical Treatments in Warsaw, Poland

Warsaw is the capital and largest city of Poland, a prominent country in Central Europe. The city is often called the ‘phoenix city’ as it recovered from severe damage during World War II just as the legendary phoenix reemerges from the ashes. This sparkling city has many historical buildings, museums, theaters, monuments and parks which attract large number of tourists. Warsaw houses many of the leading health care facilities in Poland and some of these major hospitals offer medical services in line with global standards. They provide excellent service through their eminent doctors and with assistance from English speaking staff.

The Medicover Hospital is one of the best hospitals in the country and is found at al. Rzeczypospolitej 5, 02-972 in Warsaw. The Medicover Hospital has an area of 16 000 square meters and has utilized an investment of 40 million Euros to design the hospital according to the latest architectural standards. This 270 bed hospital has five operating rooms and well equipped diagnostic, consulting and rehabilitation centers. The hospital offers medical care in all medical specialties. The surgery clinic performs operations in general surgery, vascular surgery, plastic surgery, thoracic surgery and many other types of surgery. The hospital is certified as a ‘painless hospital’ is a major center of minimally invasive surgeries being equipped with modern endoscopic surgical systems. The modern anesthesiology and intensive care units have postoperative care units, intensive care units and preoperative sections. The hospital also has laboratories and an onsite Medicopharma Pharmacy. Comfortable accommodations and client facilities are also available in the hospital. Tel: +48 22 857 20 00

The address for the Infant Jesus Hospital (Szpital Kliniczny Dziecitka Jezus Centrum) is Warsaw 02-005, ul. Lindley 4. This multidisciplinary hospital was established by the Congregation of St. Vincent de Paul missionaries. This ISO 9001-2000 health care facility has full fledged departments in all branches of medicine and its orthopedic clinic is the largest in Poland. Its trauma treatment center has also achieved wide recognition. The surgery division of Infant Jesus Hospital offers service in both general and specialized surgery. The anesthesiology department, intensive care units and the emergency medicine division are well equipped with latest devices. The modern dental clinic includes conservative dentistry, pediatric dentistry and dental radiology sections. Good service pharmaceutical and central laboratory services are also available. Tel: 022 502-20-00

Damian Medical Centre located at Walbrzyska 46 in Warsaw is another modern hospital that offers quality health care service at international standards. The Damian Medical Center- the first private hospital in Warsaw- was founded in 1994 by Damian Poszczyski. The hospital has received many awards including the European Medal by the European Integration Committee, and the “Hospital without Pain” certificate by the Polish Society for the Study of Pain. The hospital offers diagnostic and clinical services in all major medical specialties and has three operation theatres and two outpatient clinics. DMC is estimated to perform over 3,000 operations, 8,000 outpatient procedures and about 200,000 consultations every year. This hospital is well known for its technological edge as it possesses all the latest equipment including echocardiography, RTG and stress test. It also has mammography, X-rays, CTG, arthroscopy and hysteroscopy procedures. DMC is marked as a major center for medical tourism. T: (+48 22) 566 2222

The Attraction Of Cocaine and Frightening Consequences

Why is cocaine attractive to so many people? The answer depends on who you ask. At Harvard, some researched researchers conducted a brain-imaging study, and it revealed that a lovely female visage sets off the "reward centers" of a male brain. The "reward center" was also set off by certain foods, money, and drugs such as cocaine. The mind is a very strong force in our lives.

Many women turn to using cocaine because they need a boost in self-esteem. Some are less interested in the thrills of the drug, and see it more as a way of coping with job pressures or nagging problems of low self-esteem and competency. Approximately two-thirds of the nation's 4.1 million cocaine users are male. However, the number of females now using the drug is growing at a rapid pace.

Regardless of whether the user is male or female, why is cocaine attractive? It has been dubbed the "employment drug" by many users because they see it as a cure to their depression. Some believe it causes better orgasms. Others think that cocaine is the "champagne of drugs," meaning it is the best to use on a regular basis. People feel invincible and they delude into thinking that they are working more productively.

The bottom line is many think that coke is the best drug to take, and some actually believe it is the safest of all drugs to abuse. The facts are that though abuse can lead to very serious medical issues. The powder, sometimes called "angel dust," is usually snorted or inhaled in vapor form. It causes constriction of the body's blood vessels, dilated pupils, increased body temperature, can cause rapid heart beats, and elevate the blood pressure. Frequent headaches and gastrointestinal problems, such as nausea and abdominal pain, can result. Injecting or ingesting the drug can result in a severe allergic reaction. The other risks are that one's family life and work are jeapordized. Many people ruin their financial situation as well due to the expense of this.

Why is cocaine attractive? Some think it is an easy fix to their problem. However, although it may appear alluring, the consequences of using far outweigh any temporary attraction it presents.

Cosmetic Medicines Ordering, Storage, Supply and Incident Reporting

This article gives an overview of the systems and processes that must be followed by cosmetic clinics when supplying prescription medicines.

A prescription medicine or drug legally requires a qualified doctor, dentist, nurse or pharmacist to write a prescription for a named patient. The list of drugs and prescribing qualifications may vary in different countries.

A cosmetic clinic must ensure that all medicines are ordered, stored and supplied within the legislative and other relevant pharmaceutical guidelines available.

Therefore ordering, storage and supply of medicines for use within the practice must be undertaken according to appropriate procedures and guidelines to ensure all relevant legislation and pharmaceutical information is adhered to.

Any medicines stored within a typical cosmetic clinic are those used for aesthetic purposes, this includes drugs such as Botox ® and Hyaluronidase. These must be stored according to manufacturer’s guidelines in a locked refrigerator or locked cabinet as appropriate. The temperature of the refrigerator should be monitored and documented daily. If the temperature is found to be outside the recommended range the pharmacy supplier must be informed as soon as possible and if necessary the medicines are returned to the supplier and a new supply obtained.

Supply of Medicines and Maintaining Patient Records for Cosmetic Clinics

The Medical Practitioner is responsible for maintaining a record of medicines obtained from the supplier for use during treatment. A copy of the prescription is retained in the patient’s notes and the following information is noted in the Medicines IN register. The Medical practitioner must include the following details:

– the name of the medicine (generic)

– the dose provided by the pharmacy

– the amount provided by the pharmacy

– the format of the medicine (oral I IM etc)

– the batch numbers and expiry dates

The Medical Practitioner is responsible for ensuring that details of the medicines administered are recorded in the patient notes, including:

– the name of the medicine (generic)

– the dose provided

– the route of administration

– the batch number and expiry date of the medicine

– the date and time of administration

The Medical Practitioner must also document in the Medicines OUT register the name of the patient the medicine was administered to and the date and time of administration. This will ensure an audit trail is available for each practitioner.

All medicines not used or expired must be returned to the pharmacy.

In conclusion only a medical professional should be accepted on a cosmetic training course. This will ensure all practitioners have experience with the use of prescription only medicines and record keeping. The medical practitioner who facilitates a cosmetic intervention should be a qualified doctor, dentist, nurse or pharmacist. These specialists have the prerequisite medical experience plus understand their legal and ethical requirements in prescribing, dispensing and administration of such drugs.

Any errors with the medication must be recorded and reported.

Reporting a Medication Incident

A cosmetic clinic must ensure that all medication incidents follow local legislative and other guidelines for your country of practice. The following is based on the UK CQC guidelines.

All practitioners involved with medication prescribing, dispensing or administration must be aware of the procedures to be followed in the event of a medication error or near miss.

Medication errors or near misses will occur despite having risk procedures in place, and all personnel involved in medication prescribing, dispensing or administration are at risk of being involved an error or a near miss. Because of this, comprehensive reporting of all medication incidents is crucial to enable the organisation to learn from mistakes and improve practice wherever possible.

All incidents involving medication prescribing, dispensing or administration, ‘near misses’ and serious drug reactions must be documented on the Incident Report Form. A medication error is a preventable incident or omission that results in an increase in the risk of patient harm. A ‘near miss’ is a medication error that is discovered before it reaches the patient, thus preventing harm to the patient.

What to Report

The following are some of the issues that require an incident report:

– incorrect dose administered (both over and under dosing)

– incorrect route of administration

– incorrect rate of administration

– incorrect drug administered

– administration to the wrong patient

– failure to document administration in the patient’s medical notes

– administration of an expired drug

– prescribing errors

– incorrect labels

– allergies not recorded

– serious adverse effects including allergic reactions

Near Misses will also be recorded on the Incident Report form.

How to Report Medication errors

Medication errors involving administration to a patient will be documented in the patient’s notes. The Medical Practitioner should inform the patient.

The incident should be documented fully before the end of the day. This report form must be completed by the Medical Practitioner and given to the Practice Manager without delay.

Follow Up Procedures for Medication Errors

A follow-up is undertaken by the Medical Practitioner to ensure the safety of the patient. If necessary the patient must be referred to the nearest Emergency department for further review. The Practice Manager must undertake an investigation into the event ensuring a statement is taken from those involved.

The incident must be discussed at the next Clinical Governance meeting and an action plan developed to aim to prevent recurrence; this may include further training for the personnel involved.

Any severe medication incident must be reported to the within 24 hours of it occurring.

I hope you enjoyed the article. For more information about medicines and their regulations you can check with the Department of Health and MRHA in the UK. In the USA please refer to The Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

Cold Sore Remedies That Actually Work

Cold sores are red, painful, fluid-filled blisters found around the mouth and nose. They are contagious and are caused by herpes simplex virus type 1. If the sore is burst open and the fluid oozes out of the blister, it becomes highly contagious. They can be treated easily by use of natural remedies. Given below are some easy to use home remedies and you can get relief from your sores by following them.

Use of lysine

Lysine is an amino acid and is used to make protein. It can be obtained from supplements and various food sources, such as eggs, milk, cheese and fish. Lysine supplements are necessary for the duration of the sores.

Lip balms

Lemon balm is enriched with anti-viral properties. It also reduces the chances of recurrence of these sores.

The use of petroleum jelly is also beneficial against the sores. It also prevents any kind of secondary infection and accelerates healing.

Ayurvedic treatment

An ancient Asian medicine like Reishi, also known as Ganoderma lucidum, is used to strengthen the immune system. Reishi stalls the spread of herpes virus. It is available as a supplement and is known to treat the sores efficiently.

Resveratrol treatment

This is found abundantly in red grapes and is actively used to treat herpes simplex virus. Resveratrol cream suppresses the sore and stops it from developing.

Avoid rubbing

Do not rub, scratch and touch the infected area. This may spread the virus to other parts of your face and also infect other people nearby. Clean the sores with a soft cloth and use warm water to reduce the itching.

Vitamins and diet

Vitamin B and other vitamins rich in antioxidants help fight cold sores. A deficiency of vitamin B may lead to the outbreak of sores. Use vitamin B supplements to avoid such a condition.

Avoid salty and acidic foods like lemon. It may aggravate the condition and make the sore painful.

Zinc is considered to be useful in treating cold sores. Wash the sore affected area with zinc solution.

Ice treatment

Use ice on the sores to relieve the itch. Ice brings down the inflammation and treats severe sores.

Avoid stress

It is important to stay happy and avoid any kind of tension. Exercise and meditate to boost your immune system. A healthy body has less chance of getting infections.

By following the above mentioned home remedies, you can easily cure your cold sores in quick period of time.

Drawing and Painting Tips – The Layout Sketch

A layout sketch is the process of faintly outlining the key elements of an image on to paper (or canvas). The aim should be to get each component the correct size and in the right position before moving forward. However, this first stage is where most amateur artworks go wrong!

In a portrait for example, the layout sketch would merely ensure that the outline of the eyes (nose, mouth, etc) are the precise shape, correct size, accurately aligned and the right distance apart. The layout sketch requires no further detail, but get this wrong, and your artwork will be doomed to failure, no matter how good your painting or drawing technique is.

It is possible with a great deal of practise and care, to complete a layout sketch by eye alone, but is that how professional artists work? No they don’t! Time is money and professional artists use techniques and tools to get precise layout work done quickly.

Here are the most common tools and techniques for working from a photograph.


The simplest tool is use of a pencil as a ruler and protractor. For example, when drawing a face, the pencil can be used to measure the relative size of an eye, the distance between the ear lobe and the corner of an eye, or the angle of the nose. This works best when copying from a large photograph, and reproducing an image at the same size.

The technique is simple: lay the pencil flat on the photograph. Place the point of the pencil where you want to measure from, and grasp the other end of the pencil at the exact point you wish to measure to. Without changing your grip, move the pencil to the paper and make a mark on the paper at the tip and point of your grasp.

Similarly, angles can be duplicated by laying the pencil on the photograph, say a roof line in a landscape, and carefully moving the pencil to the paper while retaining that angle. An easier method is to place you reference photo over your paper, so that the pencil can be rolled from one surface to the other without altering its angle significantly.

A slightly easier method is to use a ruler, and take absolute measurements. If you need to re-scale an image, the use of a ruler is preferable. For example, when scaling up to twice the size, you simply double the measurement (etc). But, this technique has become outdated.

Alternatively, it is possible to buy dividers that achieve the same measuring effect. Some even have a limited re-scaling function.

Most people now have access to a PC with peripherals, so it is easier to scan and re-print a photograph at the same size you want to draw or painting, rather than re-scale as you go.

The use of a pencil (or anything else) as a ruler is best employed for checking minor detail dimensions and angles.

Grid method

Another slightly outdated but effective method of laying-out is the grid. Briefly, you need to draw a grid over the reference image, and a grid on your paper. The layout is achieved by separately copying the contents of each box of the grid. In effect, your layout will comprise lots of tiny drawings that all fit together to make the whole.

Using a grid limits the potential for error, and the smaller your grid boxes, the more accurate your copy will be. If your grid is say 1cm squares, then your layout lines can never be inaccurate by more than 1cm (unless your grid is inaccurate, or you draw something in the wrong square), but the chances are your sketch will be pretty close to millimetre perfect.

You can use grids of different sizes for the reference photograph and the artwork. In this way, re-scaling (if you need to) is easy. For example, to double the size of your drawing, use a 1cm grid on the photo, and a 2cm grid on the drawing paper. However, for the system to work, both parts must have the same number of grid boxes.

Grids take a good deal of effort to use. The other down side is that the reference photograph must be expendable (you need to be able to draw lines all over it), and you need to remove the grid lines on your art paper when you have finished the layout. Grids are good for oil paintings, since they can be painted over.

Tracing Paper

Many professional artists use tracing paper. It is a really accurate way of completing a layout. I recently read an instructional article on the use of tracing paper, published on a major UK artist site. My recommended method of use is very different.

The first thing is to lay the tracing paper over the image to be copied, and mark its position. This is so that you can place the tracing paper over the image time and time again, and always in exactly the same place.

Although tracing paper is very transparent, it can be hard to see detail in darker tones. The best way to use it is with back illumination; do your tracing on against a windowpane (in the day time!), rather than on a desk or table.

Draw carefully around the key elements with a sharp pencil (step 1). Reverse the tracing paper and draw accurately over your pencil lines, to create a mirror image on the backside (step 2). Use a sharp soft pencil for this, and remember that an outline with be transferred to whatever your tracing paper is resting on (so use some scrap paper). Now place the tracing paper right side up on your art paper. Mark its position, so you can put it back in exactly the same place if you need to. Draw over your pencil lines again to transfer the image (step 3). At no point should you scribble. Use the minimum pressure on your pencil marks; the aim is to transfer a light (temporary) pencil mark, not engrave an outline into your art paper.

It takes some time, but you should end up with faint, but very accurate layout lines. Obviously, you cannot re-scale an image using tracing paper. Tracing paper works best on a smooth surface. You may struggle to achieve a transfer on watercolour paper, and toothed pastel papers, so aim to transfer the minimum detail you need for a layout.

When working with darker papers, a white pencil at step 2 gives better results. A white pencil also often gives better results with coloured pastel papers.

Tracedown Paper

Tracedown paper is a form of carbon paper for artists. I have never personally used it, but it works like tracing paper with steps 1 and 3 being performed simultaneously, and step 2 omitted completely. Briefly, you place the transfer down paper on your art paper, the photograph on top, and you draw around the key elements directly on to the photo. The pressure of your pencil makes a faint line on your art paper.

As with tracing paper, re-scaling is impossible, and I imagine the reference photo takes a bit of a battering.


There are a number of specialist projectors that can be purchased. Briefly, this tool projects an image on to art paper, and allows layout lines to be drawn directly on to the paper (or canvas), using the projected image as a guide. They are fast, and designed to accommodate re-scaling, but they are expensive and aimed at professional artists. The projector is a modern take on a system of layout transfer used by the old Masters.

Finally: trying to do everything by eye alone is foolish and unprofessional. Get an accurate layout down using any technique or device available to you.