Why Dogs Lick

When a dog licks a person it can be irritating and uncomfortable, but it all depends on if you have a liking to dogs because otherwise, it’s a nice feeling. It’s not everybody who would like to be licked by a dog. Dogs also lick other dogs and themselves constantly. It’s best to first know the cause of the licking in order to know how to curb it if it gets out of hand. The following are some of the reasons.

For cleaning purposes.

Dogs lick themselves clean. They will use licking as a way to groom themselves, this is by licking their face clean, their pawns and also the body.

We taste good.

Yes, our bodies have a salty taste that the dogs enjoy licking, this will lead to the dog constant licking so as to enjoy that taste. A dog will lick you when you have a new smell and it wants to taste it.

As a form of communication.

A dog may be licking so as to pass a message; maybe it’s feeding time, grooming time or it may need something. It’s good to check out and see what may be needed and as soon as it’s sorted the licking will stop. If its licking another dog maybe it means that it likes the dog.

Attention seeking.

The dog may be neglected and therefore it’s seeking to be noticed and recognized. As soon as you take note the licking may stop. A dog may simply want to be included in whatever the owner is doing, maybe they are having a talk and the dog is just out watching.

As a form of affection.

The dog uses licking to show its affection towards the owner and other family members and also towards other dogs. When the dog is constantly licking you, it’s a form of affection towards you.

Skin irritation and allergies.

The skin maybe irritable as a result of maybe being dirty and therefore have bred flies which causes constant itching and scratching which the dog will calm down by licking. Allergies also result in a lot of scratching and the dog will resort to licking to calm down. Therefore check the skin so as to be sure.

Injuries and pain.

If the dog has been injured, he will lick the wound constantly to clean it and also because saliva from the dog helps in speeding the healing process. The dog will lick an injured body part to help relieve the pain.

Stress and boredom.

The dog may develop a liking to licking, the reason being bored. When it has nothing to do with its alone, it turns to licking. When the dog has stressed it turns to licking which is good since it helps in relieving stress.

In conclusion, it’s advisable to visit a vet nary officer for consultation and also to ascertain the reason behind the licking. When a dog continuously licks one part it should be stopped so as to avoid it turning to a serious wound and to also avoid hair loss.

Understand and Treat Anal Fissures the Right Way!

Before you treat an anal fissure you should begin by understanding what it is. Medically, rectal fissure is a tear in the lining of the anus or lower rectum that causes pain during bowel movements. Good news is that there are home treatments that can do the job as fast as a few days or weeks if you only have acute anal fissure; but if it is a long-term problem or chronic, it will last more than 6 weeks. In chronic cases, you may need to have medicine intake to completely heal it.

As mentioned, home treatments usually takes 4 to 6 weeks. The pain experienced during bowel movements usually dies within a couple days of treatment. How do you treat anal fissure? Home treatment involves “Sitz” bath or sitting in warm water for 20 minutes twice or thrice a day. You can also increase fiber and fluid intake and use stool softeners or laxatives to experience pain-free bowel movements. Laxatives should be consulted with your personal doctor. Treat rectal fissure by using ointments and creams like zinc oxide, Preparation H or “Anusol“. However, evidence proves that fiber and “Sitz” baths help symptoms better than nonprescription creams. The most effective way is to remember not to separate the buttocks; this might slow the process of healing. Another tip is to avoid using toilet paper; use products that are less irritating to the rectal fissure like baby wipes or medicated pads.

Sometimes, home treatments are not the best way, particularly when it has not healed after 6 weeks. This anal fissure condition is already considered chronic and may already need additional treatment or medication. Medicines are usually used for first-line treatment for chronic fissures. Nitroglycerin cream can reduce the pressure in the internal anal muscle or sphincter. 0.2% of the said cream also allows the fissure to heal through massaging into the fissure and the surrounding area. Avoid using a large amount at one time because the cream causes headaches, “light-headedness”, or fainting from low blood pressure. It is best to use gloves when you treat anal fissure with the cream because it may cause side effects to your skin. Other medicines used to treat anal fissure includes “Nifedipine” and “Diltiazem“, which helps by reducing the pressure in the internal anal sphincter; and the “Botulinum” toxin (Botox), which when injected into the internal anal sphincter reduces muscle tension.

When medicines still do not stop the occurrence of symptoms, then it is best if you consult your doctor for possible surgery so you can treat anal fissure. The procedure usually includes the doctor cutting a part of the internal sphincter to relax the spasm that is causing the anal fissure.

Why Prostate Cancer is Better Than Lots of Other Illnesses

I know if you have just been diagnosed with prostate or any other type of cancer, you are of the opinion that it's the worst thing that can ever happen to you or anyone. I know it can be very traumatic for you and your loved ones. I know how your world may have collapsed with this news of having the condition, but it's still important that I tell you this – Prostate Cancer is BETTER than lots of other illnesses out there.

While conditions like Heart Attack can just take you out immediately without any warnings … prostate cancer does not. It gives you time to try to defeat it. Thankfully, the fact that lots of people all over the world have been able to defeat prostate cancer means that you CAN defeat it as well. The TIME it gives you … no matter how little the prognosis says, is enough time to defeat it, if you do all that is within your power to defeat it.

There are people who were diagnosed by their doctors and given limited prognosis, but such people ended up living far longer than those same doctors thatave them such prognosis. Do not believe me? Les Brown, the popular American motivational speaker, has the exact same thing happened to him. One of the doctors that attended to him when he was diagnosed with prostate cancer ended up dying suddenly of a heart condition – while Les Brown is still alive and well, several years later.

So, if you have been diagnosed with prostate cancer, it does not mean your life has come to an abrupt end. Nope, friend. It simply means that you have the TIME to not only live but you have the time to be healed. The TIME, no matter how little the prognosis says it is, is enough time for you to find a solution and LIVE … just like Les Brown and millions of other people were able to LIVE, despite being diagnosed of the condition. Like I always say – if they could defeat prostate cancer, you CAN, as well!

Checking The Unbridled Sexual Behavior Among The Youths

Everyday young people are exposed to sexual stimuli from magazines, novels, music, television and pornographic films. The influence of “Western Culture” on the youths has done more harm than good. The implications of such exposure are the high incidence of pre-marital sexual activities among the youths as is often reported in the media. More over, that these encounters are unplanned and no precaution taken is obvious from the increasing cases of unwanted pregnancies, induced abortion and cases of sexually transmitted disease (STD)

Basically, the issue of indiscriminate sexual behaviour among the youths in the society has become the major part of a threat to the entire human existence against the backdrop of the HIV/AIDS pandemic. In deed, no disease in human history has threatened mankind as the menace of HIV/AIDS. Today, the disease poses the greatest medical challenge to both scientists and researchers. For this reason, the unbridled sexual behaviour of people has come under close scrutiny in an attempt to control the spread of the disease.

Morality appears to have been undermined, especially among youths in the future hope of the nation, the light of tomorrow and the future leaders of this great country, much is expected from them for the survival and sustenance of this country.

Further more, that our universities produced most of the best graduates in character and learning in our society in time past is no issue for debate anywhere, but can this still be said today of our universities? Your answer is as good as mine. This is a very big and serious challenge that is still plaguing the universities and even other higher institutions of learning in the country. Guess what? Our universities, which are meant to be centers of excellence and the inculcation of good morals and other virtues, have become a haven of immorality. This downturn calls for immediate and serious national attention by the appropriate authorities. In most cases, scandalous dress sense of female students is meant to entice and seduce their male colleagues and even the lecturers.

Another form of sexual behaviour, which is really extreme of human degradation that has invaded our society at large, is the issue of commercial sex also known as prostitution; it is increasingly becoming a way of life among our youths. Many of the female youths do not see anything wrong in having sex with men they hardly know and receiving monetary or material reward from them. Likewise, the males (gigolos) date older women for material gains. The issues of love, care, intimacy and commitment as well as emphasis on personal responsibility are no longer considered vital in most relationships. The slogan; “money for hand, back for ground” encapsulates the degree of moral decadence among the youths.

Not withstanding, the observation that increased unwanted or unplanned pregnancies, abortions and sexually transmitted disease (STD) among the youths has presented evidence of high level of promiscuity among them (youths), not much has been done to arrest this ugly situation. With this high rate of sexual immorality among the youths, the economic and social-cultural life and the future our society is seriously threatened; especially against the backdrop of deadly sexually transmitted disease.

The possible recommendation is the need for us as a people to go back to the traditional altruistic system of our cultural values and what it teaches, so that in our quest for modernity, our cultural values may not be completely lost.

Also, there is a greater need for a more serious moral and sex education to be taught at homes and schools, especially in the secondary schools. Churches and mosques should lay more emphasis on moral preaching and teaching, so as to educate the youths on the consequences of immoral sexual activity

However, it should be noted that a greater percentage of male female youths engage in indiscriminate sexual behaviour in an effort to meet their personal needs. The government should try to address the socio-economic problems of the country by creating employment opportunities and making other basic necessities of life available, affordable and accessible to the people.

Finally, the government should monitor the nature and the kind of information, and cultural values that are being aired on television and radio stations, especially in the area of pornography (blue films) and magazines that are being imported into the country.

With all these in place, indiscriminate sexual behaviour among the youths may be reduced, if not eradicated, to a tolerable level.

Yoga – Origin and Background

Yoga is an age-old science made up of different disciplines of mind and body. It has originated in India 2500 years ago and is still effective in bringing overall health and well being to any person who does it regularly. The word yoga is based upon a Sanskrit verb Yuja. It means to connect, to culminate or to concur. It's the culination of mind and body or the culmination of Jiva and Shiva (soul and the universal spirit). It's also a culmination of Purush and Prakriti (Yin and Yang).

The term Yoga has a very broad scope. There are several schools or systems of Yoga. Dnyanayoga (Yoga through knowledge), Bhaktiyoga (Yoga through devotion), Karmayoga (Yoga through action), Rajayoga (Royal or supreme Yoga) and Hathayoga (Yoga by balancing opposition principles of body). All of these schools of Yoga are not necessarily very different from each other. They are rather like threads of the same cloth, entangled into each other. For thousands of years, Yoga has been looked upon as an effective way of self-improvement and spiritual enlightenment. All these systems have essentially have this same purpose; only the ways of achieving it are little different for each of them. In its most popular form, the term Yoga has come to associate with the last of these systems which is Hathayoga. For the purpose of this article too, the term Yoga is used with the same meaning. Although, when it comes to Philosophy of Yoga, which is at the end of this article, the term Yoga will have a broader scope.

Asana and Pranayama

Let's take a detailed look at the main two components of Hathayoga ie Asana and Pranayama.

a) Asana:
Asana means acquiring a body posture and maintaining it as long as one's body allows. Asana, when done rightly according to the rules discussed above, render vague physical and psychological benefits. Asana are looked upon as the preliminary step to Pranayama. With the practice of Asana there is a balancing of opposition principles in the body and psyche. It also helps to get rid of inertia. Benefits of Asana are enhanced with longer maintenance of it. Asana should be stable, steady and pleasant. Here is the summary of general rules to be followed for doing Asana.

Summary of rules:

1. Normal breathing
2. Focused stretching
3. Stable and pleasant postures (sthiram sukham asanam)
4. Minimal efforts (Prayatnay shaithilyam)
5. No comparisons or competition with others
6. No jerks or rapid actions. Maintain a slow and steady tempo.

Each asana has its own benefits and a few common benefits such as stability, flexibility, better hormonal secretion, feeling refreshed and rejuvenated. It's a misconception that an an Asana (Yoga stretch) has to be difficult to do in order to be beneficial. Many of the easiest Asana render most of the common benefits of Yoga to their fullest. Beside, the beauty of Yoga is in the fact that at a not-so-perfect level most of the benefits are still available. That means even a beginner benefits from Yoga as much as an expert.

In their quest to find a solution to the miseries of human body and mind, the founders of Yoga found part of their answers in the nature. They watched the birds and animals stretching their bodies in particular fashion to get rid of the inertia and malaise. Based upon these observations, they created Yoga stretches and named them after the birds or animals or fish that inspired these stretches. For example, matsyasana (fish pose), makarasana (crocodile pose), shalabhasana (grasshopper pose), bhujangasana (cobra pose), marjarasana (cat pose), mayurasana (peacock pose), vrischikasana (scorpion pose), gomukhasana (cow's mouth pose ), parvatasana (mountain pose), vrikshasana (tree pose) etc.

Many of the Asana can be broadly categorized based upon the type of pressure on the abdomen. Most of the forward bending Asana are positive pressure Asana as they put positive pressure on the stomach by crunching it eg Pashchimatanasana, Yogamudra (Yoga symbol pose), Hastapadasana (hand and feet pose), Pavanmuktasana (wind free pose) etc. The backward bending Asana are the negative pressure Asana as they take pressure away from the abdomen eg Dhanurasana (bow pose), Bhujangasana (cobra pose), Naukasana (boat pose) etc. Both types of Asana give excellent stretch to the back and abdomen and strengthen both these organs. Alternating between positive and negative pressure on the same area of ​​the body intensifies and improvements blood circulation in that area. The muscle group in use gets more supply of oxygen and blood due to the pressure on that spot. Eg in Yogamudra (symbol of Yoga), the lower abdomen gets positive pressure due to which Kundalini is awakened. Hastapadasana refreshes all nerves in the back of the legs and also in the back. As a result you feel fresh and rejuvenated. Vakrasana gives a good massage to the pancreas and liver and hence is recommended for diabetic patients.

2. Pranayama
Practicing Pranayama is one of the ways of getting rid of mental disorders and physical ill health. Pranayama means controlled and prolonged span of breath. Prana means breath. It also means life force. Ayama means controlling or elongation. Just like a pendulum requires twice long to come back to its original position, the exhalations in Pranayama are two longer than the inhalations. The main purpose of Pranayama is to bring mental stability and restrain desires by controlling breathing. Breathing is a function of autonomous nervous system. By bringing the involuntary process of breathing under control of mind, the scope of volition is broadened. Pranayama is a bridge between Bahiranga (exoteric) Yoga and Antaranga (introspective or esoteric) Yoga. A body that has become stable by Asana and has been cleansed by Kriya (cleansing processes) is ready for Pranayama. On the other hand Pranayama prepares the mind and body for meditational and spiritual practice of Yoga such as Dhyana, Dharana and Samadhi. On physical level, practice of Pranayama increases blood in oxygen, subsequently refreshing and rejuvenating the brain and the nerves. Here are a few physical benefits of Pranayama.
a. Lungs, chest, diaphragm become stronger and healthier.
b. Capacity of lungs is increased.
c. Slow changing pressure creates a form of massage to all organs in the stomach cavity.
d. Purifies blood by increasing blood's capacity to absorb more oxygen.
e. Brain functions better with more oxygen in the blood.
f. Neuromuscular coordination improvements.
g. Body becomes lean and the skin glows.

There are 8 main Pranayama namely, Ujjayi, Suryabhedan, Sitkari, Shitali, Bhastrika, Bhramari, Murchha, Plavini. Among these, Ujjayi is the most popular Pranayama. Pranayama consist of 4 parts in the following order:
1) Puraka (Controlled inhalation)
2) Abhyantara Kumbhaka (Holding breath in)
3) Rechaka (Controlled exhalation)
4) Bahya Kumbhaka (Holding breath out).

The ratio of these parts to each other is generally 1: 4: 2: 4 with a few exceptions. Patanjali's Yogasutra agreements with this ratio along with many other scripts. For the purpose of overall well-being, practicing the first three parts is sufficient. A spiritual practitioner generally practices all four parts including the last one ie Bahya Kumbhaka. Such a practiceer also does many more repetitions than someone who does it for general health and well-being. Out of the four parts of Pranayama, it's the Abhyantara Kumbhaka that is essentially identified with Pranayama. There is one more Kumbhaka that happens spontaneously and is called Keval Kumbhaka.

Bandha (Locks) are very serious to the practice of Pranayama. Mulabandha (locking the anus), Jalandharbandha (locking the throat area or jugular notch), Udiyanabandha (locking the abdomen or diaphragm) and Jivhabandha (locking the tongue) are the four locks that are performed during Pranayama. Depending upon the purpose of Pranayama (spiritual or general health), locks are performed. Mulabandha, Jalandharbandha and Udiyanabandha are the common Bandha performed by everyone. Jivhabandha is mandatory only if done for spiritual purposes.

Characteristics of Yoga

Let's take a look at some of the chief characteristics of Yoga.

1) Yoga is not an exercise.

To understand the concept of Yoga one must keep in mind that the positions in Yoga are not exercises but bodily stretches and maintenance of stretches. You may describe Yoga in terms of Yogic stretches or Yogic practices. Acquiring a body position by stretching the muscles and then maintaining this position as long as one's body allows, that is what Yogic stretches are. Yoga requires very smooth and controlled motions and a slow steady tempo. To achieve this one needs to have total concentration of mind while doing Yoga. The movements in Yoga are smooth, slow and controlled. Comparison with others is very discouraged. Doing something beyond one's capacity just out of competition generally results in hurting one's body and hence is very discouraged. Breathing in Yoga remains steady unlike many aerobic exercises. Yoga is also Isotonic unlike bodybuilding exercises, which are isometric in nature. In isotonic stretches, length of the muscles increases while tone stays the same as opposed to the isometric exercises in which length of the muscles stays the same while the tone changes. In Isotonic stretches, body is stretched in a particular manner and maintained that way for some time.

2) Longer maintenance and fewer repetitions (as per the body's capacity).

Benefits of Yoga are enhanced with the maintenance of a body stretch. Longer the maintenance better will be the effect. However one can not force itself into maintaining the stretch longer than the body can bear. Each and every position is pleasant and stable (Sthiram Sukham Asanam). Sthiram means steady. Sukham means pleasant and Asanam means a body posture or position. The right position for you is that in which your body remains steady (sthiram) and which is pleasant and comfortable to you (sukham). The moment a stretch becomes unbearable and uncomfortable and the body starts shaking, one needs to come out of that position in a very slow, smooth and controlled manner. There will be more repetitions and shorter maintenance for a beginner. With more practice, the repetitions will be fewer and maintenance will be longer. After doing Yoga one should only feel pleasant and fresh and nothing else. If you feel tired or fatigued or any part of your body aches, it only means that you have tried beyond your capacity.

3) Trust your body. Apply minimum efforts:

With the practice of Yoga, you also learn to trust your body's capacity to progress in terms of flexibility without conscious efforts. As long as the aim is in mind and the body is stretched only to its current capacity, the flexibility develops on its own. One needs to just focus on breath, focus on the present state of the body pose and enjoy that pose as long as it feels comfortable. 'Prayatnay Shaithilyam' means minimum efforts. Although there is an ideal position described and desired for each asana, no one is forced into attaining the ideal position. Yoga is done with the trust that flexibility is acquired after a continuous and regular practice. There is a message here and that is to have faith in the unknown. This message along with the improved endocrine function, better muscle tone, calmer mind and increased positive outlook can be warmly beneficial for recovery from any illness.

4) Focused stretching:
The ability to stretch or pressure one muscle group while relaxing the rest of the body is called focused stretching. For example if a particular Asana is based upon stretching the stomach as the main muscle group (the pivotal muscles), then the rest of the body is relaxed while the stomach is stretched or pressured. One has to watch for unnecessary training of those muscles that are supposedly to be relaxed. Initially this is hard to follow overtheless it becomes easier with some practice. This habit of differentiating between different muscles for the pressure becomes very useful in other areas of life too. It enables you to relax better while driving during rush hour. While doing normal daily tasks it makes you aware of the unnecessary tension on different parts of your body. You are watchful even while talking to someone or while brushing your teeth or when stuck in a traffic jam. You learn to ask yourself, 'Am I holding my breath, are my shoulders tense, is my neck stiff, are my fingers curled?' etc. etc. These acts are unnecessary and they dissipate energy. Yoga teachers you how to relax and gives you time free of worries and regrets, impatience and anxieties.

5) Breathing:
Monitoring your breathing is an integral part of Yoga. Common mistakes such as holding of breath or breathing deliberately during during Yoga. Both these mistakes must be avoided. Holding back on breath gives headaches, fatigue and thus the benefits of Yoga are lost by improper or inadequate breathing.

6) Anantha Samapatti (Merging with the Infinite):

Ultimate goal of Yoga is the amalgamation of self into the greater self. Yuja means to combine or connect to. A connection of Atma and Parmatma is the merger of the body and the spirit. Yoga is a way of life. It's a total integration. According to Patanjali (founder of Yoga), two things define Yoga postures; a stable and comfortable body posture and Anantha Samapatti. Therefore you can not separate bodily postures from meditation. In fact a body that has become flexible and steady through practice of various positions becomes a good basis for the ultimate transcendental state of mind (Samadhi). The kriya (cleansing processes) purify the body. Mudra and bandha bring the necessary stability of mind and concentration, initially on one's breath (pranadharana) and then on God (Ishwarpranidhana). Initially the mind wanders a lot and that's ok One should let it wander. Later one should count his breaths and should observe the inner and outer flow of air through the air passes. (pranadharna). This will enable him to concentrate better on himself (sakshibhavana). In the beginning it will be difficult to concentrate since the body postures are not that steady. But with practice it becomes better and better. For this one must purposely take away his mind from body posture and focus it on to the breathing process (pranadharana).

Benefits of Yoga

If you follow the basic rules, several benefits can be reaped. Maintenance of body stretches makes the body supple, lean, flexible and stable. Breathing techniques purify the blood and cleanse nasal passages and sinuses. Stress relief is the greatest of all the benefits. Relaxing positions in Yoga teach you to relax your muscles and let the gravity work on your body. The ability to differentiate between tension on different parts of the body, ie to stretch one muscle group while relaxing all the others teachers you to relax and not waste energy during your daily routine. The part about concentration is important in providing relief to your mind from worry and stress of everyday activities. Here is a detailed look at some of the major benefits of Yoga.

1. Stress relief

Stress, tension, anxiety are the inevitable features of modern day life. Yoga offers many techniques to cope up with the stress and anxiety. A stress free mind reduces the chances of catching a disease to half, this has been widely known by now. Yoga teachers very effective breathing and relaxation techniques to achieve this. Yoga also helps you to feel relaxed quick and raise your energy reserve by teaching you how to let the gravity work on your body. Half of the fatigue in any activity comes from improper and inadequate breathing and by holding breath unnecessarily. Yoga teachers you how to breathe adequately and how not to make your body tense and stiff while doing other daily tasks too. The principle of focused stretching lectures you how to not waste energy during your daily routine. It makes you aware of the unnecessary tension on different parts of your body. Yoga teachers you to relax fully and gives you time free of worries and regrets and impatience and anxieties. People having busy schedules who are used to being in action all the time, must understand that relaxing is not a crime or not a waste of time. On the contrary it gives you new energy to do your tasks better.

2. Feeling energized and refreshed

Adequate breathing plays a great role in rejuvenating and refreshing mind and body. Breathing techniques in Yoga provide abundant supply of oxygen to the lungs, cleanse nasal passages and sinuses and thus help feel refreshed. A body that has become lean and flexible with stretches and maintenance of the stretches gets purified by breathing techniques and becomes energized. Various Yoga stretches induces a balanced secretion of hormones, which subsequently rejuvenates the whole body and one feels refreshed and energized as a result.

3. Flexibility of mind and body

Apart from the relaxing effect, yoga also consists of many body stretches which when maintained for a few minutes give a wonderful flexibility to our muscles. One starts wondering, 'Am I the same person who used to be so stiff?' In many chronic disorders of the spine, Yoga has helped many people to reduce the frequency and intensity of the disorder such as spondylitis, arthritis etc. Maintenance of body stretches makes the body supple, lean, flexible and stable. In the process, not only your body but also your mind becomes flexible. The mind acquires faith that things can change favorably given enough time.

4. Relief from chronic disorders

Yoga is particularly good for having control over breath and spine. Breath and spinal are like wild animals. You force them to do something they pounce on you. You coax them, being patient with them, they can be tamed to any extent. Many Yoga stretches make the spain strong and flexible. Time and again Yoga has proved to be a blessing for all kinds of disorders of the back. The technique of exhaling twice longer than inhaling (Pranayama) gives abundant supply of oxygen to blood and many impurities of blood are cured. The deliberate exhaling technique (Shwasanmargshuddhi) cleansse the nasal passage and the sinuses. They help get rid of chronic sinus trouble or clogging of nasal passage for many people. That makes the lungs and respiratory organs stronger. The abdominal breathing technique (Kapalbhati) helps people with asthma or weak diaphragm to breathe easily.

5. Focus of mind

Practice of Yoga helps in getting better focus of mind. Meditation, being part of Yoga, teachers you how to focus better and achieve more from any activity. Dharana, which means narrowed focus on a subject by restricting Chitta (mind) is one of the 8 limbs of Ashtangayoga. It teaches you to get rid of all other thoughts from the mind and focus on the target. People have benefited enthusiastically in terms of focus of mind by doing meditation (Dhyana) and Dharana through all ages.

6. Benefits at not-so-perfect level

Even if one can not achieve perfection in an Asana, the benefits of an Asana are still available at a not-so-perfect level such as calmer mind, better flexibility, better blood pressure, lower pulse rate and better endocrine function. Whatever state of Asana one is in, if one meets the pose comfortably, body gets the necessary massage and stretch. There is a better secretion of endocrine glands as a result of the steady and sufficient stretch. The brain cells get the necessary signals and mind becomes calmer. Breath is more controlled and as a result feet refreshed. All of this happens regardless of the level of perfection. It's the steadiness and level of comfort that's more important than perfection.

Origin and philosophy of Yoga:


Among the many proponents of Yoga, Patanjali (2nd century BC) is the most well known and most revered of all and is well accepted as the founder of Yoga. His book Shripatanjali Darshan which is a collection of hymns (also called as Patanjali's Yoga Sutras) is held in high esteem by the experts and practitioners and is known as one of the most revered reference book (a workbook for actual practice) on Yoga. Patanjali's Yoga is called Patanjala (that of Patanjali) and is also considered as Rajayoga, which means the royal Yoga or the supreme, sublime Yoga since it consists of practices that lead to spiritual liberation (Moksha). Rajayoga is a part of Sankhya philosophy and is known to awaken Kundalini (Complete opening of Chakra when reached in transcendental state of meditation) and results into complete spiritual enlightenment if practiced regularly.

Patanjalayoga is also called Ashtangayoga since it has 8 dimensions or 8 limbs. Ashta means 8 and Anga means dimension or a limit in Sanskrit. Yama (Rules for the social life), Niyama (Rules for personal development), Asana (Yoga Posture), Pranayama (Prolonged and controlled breathing), Pratyahara (withdrawal of senses), Dharana (narrowed focusing on a subject), Dhyana (continued) experience of meditation), Samadhi (transcendental state in which there is only an essence of pure existence) are the 8 limbs of Ashtangayoga. The first four dimensions make up the exoteric (Bahiranga) part of Ashtangayoga while the last four dimensions make up the esoteric (Antaranga) part of Ashtangayoga. Out of the 8 limbs of Ashtangayoga, Asana and Pranayama are the only two limbs that generally stand for the term Yoga in its most popular form.


In the 15th century AD Yogi Swatmaram founded one of the six systems of Yoga called Hathayoga. Although the term Hatha in Sanskrit means being forceful, Hathayoga is not about Hatha but is about the balance between the two principles of the body. Ha and Tha are essentially symbols. Ha means surya (sun). Tha means chandra (moon). Right nostril (Pingala) is the Surya nadi while the left nostril (Ida) is the Chandra nadi. Just the way the sun and the moon balance the life cycle of the world; the two nostrils balance the life cycle of the body. Nadi is a channel through which the life force flows. Hathayoga helps to maintain this balance by correcting the functional disorders of the body and bringing mental peace. Hathayogapradipika is the standard textbook on Hathayoga written by Yogi Swatmaram. Hathayoga accepts Patanjala Yoga as standard. Although it's a completely independent school of philosophy in its own right, it's essentially based upon the philosophy of Rajayoga expounded in Patanjali's Yogasutra.

In fact, every school of philosophy culminates into Rajayoga since the aim of every school is the same as Rajayoga ie to attain ever-lasting peace and happiness.

Hathayoga consistors of
a. Asana (body positions or stretches eg mountain pose, cobra pose)
b. Pranayama (controlled breathing techniques eg Ujjayi, Anuloma Viloma)
c. Kriya (cleansing processes eg Kapalbhati)
d. Bandha and Mudra (Locks and symbol posts eg Udiyana bandha, Jivha bandha, Simhamudra)

As per Hathayoga, Asana, Pranayama, Kriya, Bandha and Mudra are stepping stones to achieve the ultimate psycho spiritual effect of Rajayoga. They create the necessary foundation of stable and calm mind and body for Rajayoga. There are however subtle differences between Patanjala Yoga and Hathayoga. Patanjali emphasizes more on the psycho spiritual effect of Yoga rather than the physical aspects and actual techniques of Asana and Pranayama. His Asana and Pranayama are also much simpler and easier to do than the ones in Hathayoga. For this he recommends least amount of efforts (Prayatnay Shaithilyam) and maintaining a steady, rhythmic tempo and a stable, comfortable body position. Patanjali's Yogasutra discuss Asana and Pranayama only in the chapter of Kriyayoga (part of Sadhana pada) as the tool to achieve physical and mental health. On the other hand, the emphasis of Hathayoga is more on the techniques of Asana and Pranayama, Kriya, Bandha and Mudra.

Philosophy of Yogasutra:

Patanjali's Yogasutra consist of 195 sutra and 4 Pada (sections or chapters): Samadhi pada, Sadhana Pada, Vibhuti Pada and Kaivalya pada. Kriyayoga, the chapter on the actual practice of Yoga is a part of Sadhana Pada (section about the means of study and practice of Yoga). Kriyayoga discusses Asana and Pranayama viz. the physical part of Yoga. Just to give a glimpse of Patanjali's philosophy, here are a few thoughts from the Samadhi Pada and Sadhana Pada of Yogasutra:

According to Patanjali, meaning and purpose of Yoga is to attain Samadhi (ultimate transcendental state in which there is a sense of pure existence and nothing else). Yoga is a union of mind and body. It's compared with a calm river, which flows down towards its inclined bed without efforts. Thus Yoga is more than a physical exercise. To be able to concentrate your mind is the greatest benefit of Yoga. Yoga is nothing but self-study. Purpose of Yoga is to be self-aware. Yoga teachers you to be nearer to nature and lead a healthy life. For this you need determination and faith in Yoga.

Tapaswadhyayeshwarpranidhanani Kriyayogah

Tapa (austerities), Swadhyaya (reading of scriptures), Ishwarpranidhana. Tapa is to make body alert and active glowing with health. Swadhyaya is the continuous study to sharpen the intellect. These sadhanas are to be used to wipe out faults of human nature. There are five kleshas (bad tendencies) such as avidya (ignoreance), asmita (ego), rag (attraction-affection), dwesh (hatred) and abhinivesh (self insistence, stubbornness). These five vrittis disappear by Dhyana.

Yogaschittavrittinirodhah. By practice of Yoga, all the functional modalities of the mind completely cease.

Control of your mind is what Yoga is about. You have to involve your mind in the Asana. Asana is an instrument to Yoga. Body postures, maintenance and rounds of an asana are to be done according to one's own capacity. Retention is more desirable than repetition. Meditation can not be separated from Yoga.

Prayatne Shaithilyam anantha samapatti. While doing Yogasana (Yogic postures), two things need to be observed. One is to be relaxed mentally and physically. The second one is Anantha samapatti. It means to merge with something infinite. Patanjali says that all good things happen when you stop trying hard. You become one with Ishwara, you let go your control and forget that you are in particular body posture. Yoga should be the way of life.

Yoga chitasya malam apakarot, Padena vachanam malam, sharirasya cha vaidyaken yo apakarot. The speech is improved by reading loud a Pada (stanza of a poem) and a physician cures the diseases of body. Similarly, Yoga cures and cleans an ill mind.

According to Samadhipada, all kinds of mental and physical problems such as disease, laziness, doubts and suspensions, disobedience, misunderstandings, temptations, unhealthy thoughts are the modifications of Chitta (mind). Consequences of these modifications are unease, instability, shakiness and distortions of inhalations and exhalations. Patanjali says that through total concentration and steadfastness and a regular practice of Yoga, one can get rid of all these problems.

Ishwarpranidhanadva However if that is very difficult for someone, there is another way to achieve total health and peace and that is to surrender to God (Ishwarpranidhanadva). According to Samadhi pada, when you have no knowledge whatever, surrender to God completely and you will gain knowledge.

Classroom Charts – A Sure Way To Increasing General Knowledge of Kids

The ways we use space in our classrooms is extremely important. Teachers are starting to realize that the way charts are placed all around the classroom has a deep impact on the kids’ learning processes. Many educational experts and psychologists have sworn by this fact for years and now their theory is being placed into widespread use with outstanding results. Prospective and upcoming teachers should heed to the following tips which will help them to know how to optimize their classrooms, by leveraging the link between their wall chart displays in imparting and promoting great learning techniques.

Since time immemorial, humans have had intuitive relationship with the spaces that surround us directly and their effect on us. But very few people are aware of how much of an impact our surroundings have on human behavioral patterns and feelings. Many of the cafe, shops and restaurants you visit draws you in regularly because of their expert utilization of spaces and objects. You feel comfortable, excited, interested or inspired depending on the place in question.

In the same way, if your classroom layout is arranged in a good and easy way, the kids will learn to love the place. In another way, the placement of charts around the room will also have a positive or negative effect, depending on many factors. Badly placed wall chart and poster displays which are either distracting or unreadable will have adverse effect on the students’ learning environment because the teacher doesn’t take into consideration the expectations of these students. Yet it does not have to be this way. There are many available space solutions that can turn your classroom into a learning paradise.

The ‘less is more’ philosophy works wonders when we consider the creation of our chart space in the classroom. A bright and colorful classroom work wonders on the kids psyche. A muddled mess on the wall should be avoided at all costs since they hurt concentration levels and promote a disorganized approach to learning. Using only one wall chart in its own space at a time will make it easier for students to grasp the information on display easily and quickly. You can then change a chart after a set period of time to facilitate more learning. A chart display that is cluttered or confused has a negative impact that distracts attention from a lesson’s focal point.

Use each chart to present information clearly and simply in each area of the room and you will dramatically boost the effect that each informational wall chart has in the room. Remember that well placed charts enhance general knowledge in the classroom.

Sinusitis and Dizziness – Are Clogged Sinuses Making Your Head Spin?

Sinusitis sufferers experience a symphony of symptoms. Dizziness, stuffy nose, post nasal drip, stopped up ears, thick mucus and a scratchy throat are the most common. Ultimately, the goal of treatment is to eliminate the infection, but it helps to alleviate the symptoms along the way, especially in the case of sinusitis and dizziness, which can interfere with your ability to function.

Sinus cavities are air pockets in your skull located in your forehead, around the nose and cheeks. When these cavities get filled with thick mucus that doesn’t drain properly, a sinus infection can result. The congestion can be caused by allergies, viral, fungal or bacterial infection. These instigators of sinus misery can work alone or together, making decisions about treatment a challenge.

When you are dizzy, you feel light headed and/or physically off-balance. Maintaining balance is a complex process involving several difference structures in the body.

Your inner ears contain structures that sense directions. They function whether your eyes are open and closed, but work with the eyes which send signals to let your brain know where your body is in space, such as upside down or right side up. There are receptors in the skin and other tissues called proprioceptors that tell the brain where each part of the body is and sense when you are touching the ground or in motion. Your brain processes all of this information and makes sense of it, which keeps us in balance.

If the brain receives conflicting information, you get dizzy. A sinus infection can alter the pressure of the inner ear and cause a change in the cochlea (the primary structure that deals with balance). The cochlea, in turn sends a different signal to the brain, which results in dizziness.

While most symptoms of sinusitis are a nuisance, dizziness can create problems driving or performing other tasks. So it is important to seek treatment quickly. Doctors can prescribe medication to treat sinus infections, but there are also effective alternative treatments.

There is no treatment for sinusitis that works for everyone. For example, you may need to change antibiotics if the first one doesn’t work or you might find that an alternative treatment that never fails for a friend doesn’t work for you at all.

Preventing sinusitis is the best way to eliminate the dizziness and other symptoms. Here are a few suggestions:

  • Stay well hydrated. Drink lots of water. It makes a difference.
  • Avoid heavily processed foods with lots of chemicals added
  • Pay attention to your body when you eat. If your nose gets stopped up after you eat something, avoid that food. You are probably allergic to it.
  • If the air gets too dry, use a humidifier or vaporizer.
  • If you suffer from nasal allergies, use an air conditioner (remember to keep the filter clean) or air purifier.

If it’s too late and you already suffer from clogged sinuses and dizziness, treatments such as eucalyptus vapor, over-the-counter nasal sprays, decongestants, and cayenne pepper can relieve pressure and help you regain your balance quickly.

Even if you are sure your dizziness is caused by sinus problems, see your doctor right away. It may be your sinuses, or it may be something else. Whatever the cause, dizziness can interfere with your daily activities. Deal with it quickly.

High Thyroid Levels – Causes and Treatments

The human thyroid gland stimulates the necessary hormones that control the metabolism of our cells. The thyroid gland controls how our body uses energy by removing iodine from the blood (The result of consumption of foods such as bread, salt and seafood) and uses it to produce thyroid hormones. Sometimes you can have overactive tissue within the thyroid gland and this can result in overproduction of thyroid hormones and consequently you develop an excess of circulating free thyroid hormones called hyperthyroidism.

The excessive production of free thyroid hormones overstimulates metabolism. The result is that it exacerbates the effect of the nervous system, causing acceleration of various body systems. One of the early symptoms is the feeling like an overdose of epinephrine (adrenalin). Other symptoms include excessive sweating, fast heart beat,Increased bowel movements, nervousness and agitation. In severe cases a patient can experience gradual weight loss and fatigue. Irregular and scanty menstrual flow can occur in women.

Early symptoms of high thyroid levels, especially in the elderly women, may not be conspicuous. Advanced symptoms are easy to detect. However, in all cases, a blood test is needed to confirm the diagnosis. A visible symptom is an enlarged thyroid gland. Some patient can also have smooth velvety skin and fine hair. It is advisable to see your doctor for proper diagnosis and possible treatment.

High thyroid levels is not a common disease, only an insignificant percentage of the population suffer from this disease, however, it can cause death if not treated early enough. The major treatment and general modalities employed by doctors involve initial use of suppressive thyrostatics medication, and possibly later use of permanent surgical or radioisotope therapy. The major classes of drugs used to treat these symptoms include the beta-blockers, in this class are (propranolol, metoprolo and atenolol (Tenormin).

These medications are made to counteract the effect of thyroid hormone and increase metabolism, however, they do not alter the levels of thyroid hormones in the blood. Some drugs can have harmful side effect, that’s why it is good to see a doctor for proper diagnosis and treatment. Your doctor may decide that the best treatment for you is surgery. Surgery is to partially remove the thyroid gland (partial thyroidectomy) with the goal to remove the thyroid tissue that was producing the excessive thyroid hormone.

Benefits of Debilitated Planets in Astrology

What are debilitated planets?

The planets are in the state of weakness if occupying a specific sign and fail to promote/protect the characteristics and specifications ruled by them. In the state of debilitation, the planets are not capable of producing results expected to them. For e.g. Moon is debilitated in the sign Scorpio, restrict the characteristic of Moon and the house governed by the Moon.

The misconception is that the debilitated planets always give the results of miseries, delays, denial and losses. But the truth is that in some special circumstances the debilitated planets give the most desirable results as compared to other planets.

When the debilitated planets are beneficial:

Neech-bhang raj yoga:

  • If the lord of debilitated sign is in its own /exaltation sign, and placed in quadrant/trine to ascendant/Moon sign, causes Neech-bhang raj yoga.
  • In this case the debilitated qualities of the planet gets cancelled and become raj yoga. The native will be able to enjoy all good things in his life as per quality of such debilitated planet.
  • For e.g. if in a horoscope the Moon is in Scorpio, in the sign of its debilitation, but The Mars as the lord of Scorpio is in the signs Aries/Scorpio/Capricorn and placed in quadrant/trine from ascendant/Moon, cancelled the negativity of debilitation of Moon, and gives very favourable and positive results of the Moon.

Vipareet raj yoga:

  • Lord of 6th/8th/12th houses are posited in 6th/8th/12th houses, make Vipareet raj yoga. This makes high class raj yoga, and can able to providing good and favourable results.
  • Any debilitated planet as the lord of inauspicious house like 6th/8th/12th is placed again in an inauspicious house like 6th/8th/12th gives benefice results.
  • Due to this yoga a person will have long life, sound health, wealthy, prosperous and influencing personality.
  • For e.g. in Virgo Ascendant, if Saturn as the lord of 5th and 6th house is being posited in 8th house in its sign of debilitation [Aries], then the Saturn may cause problems with progeny, education, and speculations, but it offers favourable and positive result and relief regarding diseases, enemies, maternal uncles, debts, employees, litigation, disputes etc.
  • If the lord of 8th is placed in 12th house the person diseases will be destroyed, and he might have exceptional developed psychic powers.

Parivartan yoga:

  • Exchange of signs between two planets causes Parivartan yoga.
  • This yoga indicates rapid rise in life and the adversities of theses planets/houses turn into benefits especially in the transition period/sub periods of these two planets.
  • For e.g. in a horoscope though Moon [in sign Scorpio] and Mars [in sign Cancer] are in their debilitated signs, gives good results because of their inter exchange yoga.


  • In a horoscope the debilitation is relived by good and benefice aspect/transits.
  • The placement of planets in the sign of its debilitation is only indicator of the strength of the planet.
  • A debilitated planet can produce great yoga in a horoscope, if it is a natural functional positive planet. For e.g. Venus placed in 8th house in the Virgo sign can gives enormous prosperity and luxurious life to the native, besides being in the sign of debilitation and sitting in an inauspicious house.
  • The favourable or unfavourable results produced by a debilitated planet generally lack the strength and significance which is needed to generate significant results, so they are called debilitated or WEAK. It should never be mistaken for the functional nature of the planet. Even a debilitated planet can give excellent results if it is a functional benefice and positive in nature and on other side, an exalted, malefic and negative planet can do four times more damage than a normal planet.
  • Major planets like Jupiter and Saturn remains in a sign for a longer time, as compare to other planets. Like Saturn remains in the sign Aries for almost two and the half years. So we cannot judge the fate of all natives born in these two and half years all over the world, as negative and bad, due to the debilitation of the Saturn over this period.

The History of Leisure and Recreation

When you stop to think about it, humankind has always enjoyed some type of leisure and recreation, so the history of leisure and recreation goes back a very long way. The Romans had the Coliseum, where they watched chariot races and other entertainment. The Greeks had amphitheaters where they viewed drama and comedy, and of course they invented the Olympics, one of the greatest entertainment sport spectacles on earth. The list goes on. Even the Bible discusses singing, dancing, music, and other forms of acceptable recreation, so even the most ancient civilizations enjoyed entertainment and recreation of some sort.

The Middle Ages

Life for most people in the Middle Ages was dark and difficult. More emphasis was put on work, and there was little time for leisure. However, jousting tournaments, hunting tournaments, and the earliest forms of chess, checkers, and other games developed during this time. The people worked hard, the Church forbade many forms of entertainment, but there were still leisure pastimes to help develop the growing history of leisure and recreation.

The Industrial Revolution

This history of leisure and recreation goes far back in time, but leisure and recreation really took off when the Industrial Revolution hit Great Britain in the 1700s. The Industrial Revolution revolutionized work in the modern world, and helped create the modern factory environment. Machines mechanized the manufacture of fabric and fibers, and this ultimately led to more leisure time for the workers. They worked long hours in the factories, but they also had time off, and most employers gave at least some holidays off. Thus, people who had labored from dawn to dusk on farms in rural England, moved to the big city, got jobs in factories, and had leisure time away from their jobs. The Industrial Revolution helped create the notion of leisure time, and it helped create a different view of work and leisure.

The 20th Century

If the Industrial Revolution helped create the history of leisure and recreation, the 20th century helped cement it. Workers demanded shorter working hours, paid vacations and holidays, and weekends off, leading to even more leisure time for the world’s workforce. Today, work and leisure are still strictly separated, but leisure time and recreation are some of the most important aspect of modern life, showing how the history of leisure and recreation has altered throughout time, and become increasingly popular as people gain more freedom from work and toil.

Tribal Warfare

It’s interesting to note that the wide separation between work and leisure in our modern society is something that wasn’t necessary in early, tribal cultures. Early man (and woman), worked when it was necessary to find food or to create items they needed to live, but they did not work continually, they interspersed work with pleasure or leisure, something our society not longer enjoys. For example, in Native American societies, boys “played” at war and warfare, but this play taught them how to use a bow and arrow, useful for hunting as well as defending the tribe. Work became play, while today, the two terms are decidedly distinct.

Parkinson and Other Movement Syndromes

Parkinson is a progressive neurodegenerative disease of unknown cause that produces a malfunction of basal ganglia and other movement centers of the brain that is characterized by the trial of tremor, bradykinesia and rigidity. There are other syndromes that can look like Parkinson that also cause cognitive disorders and have been classified as Parkinson plus syndromes.

  • In a normal brain, dopamine (inhibitory) and acetylcholine (excitatory) levels have a very tight equilibrium. When dopamine levels are reduced, the excitatory activity predominates and causes abnormal movements which translate into the 4 to 6 Hz tremor we see.
  • A loss of about 80% of the neurons (brain cells) of the "substantia nigra" that produce dopamine leads to the symptoms of Parkinson.
  • Rigidity results from the contracting of agonist and antagonist muscles at the same time.
  • When seen through the microscope the substantia nigra has "Lewy bodies" that characterize this disease from an histological point of view.

    Parkinson Symptoms

  • Bradykinesia: slowness in movement because of delayed transmission signals from the brain to the muscles.
  • Tremors: Shakiness often occurs in the hands. It is seen at rest and it disappears with movement.
  • Rigidity: Stiffness that produces muscle pain that increase during movement.
  • Poor Balance: the loss of reflexes that help posture can cause falls and walking problems.
  • Parkinson's Gait: Head down, no arm swing, body leans forward (remember our last Pope?).

    Associated Symptoms

    Symptoms that are related to disautomy

  • Dysphagia
  • Sialorrhea
  • Diaphoresis
  • Dry skin
  • Constipation
  • Loss of sphincter control
  • Anxiety
  • depression
  • Problems with handwriting

    What is a Parkinson plus syndrome?
    When Parkinson symptoms are associated with memory loss, cognitive disorders, dementia, orthostatic hypotension, etc.
    This Parkinson plus syndromes can include Multiple Systems Atrophy, Shy Drager disease, and other parkinsonisms.

  • Cataract Surgery Is Nothing To Fear

    The eye is like a camera. The natural lens of the eye lies immediately behind the pupil. It focuses incoming light on the retina, located at the back of the eye. It also acts like a regulator for the eye and lets us see things which are both far away and close.

    The lens is composed of some protein and water. When we age, this protein content may form small lumps and cloud the lens. This is known as cataract and with time, the clouding can become larger and cause more construction in our line of vision.

    Cataract starts in the most innuous way. You might not even notice its existence, except perhaps a slight blurring of vision. Sunlight or any bright light might seem too glaring. Cataract once detected, does not immediately require surgical intervention for its removal. The doctor may suggest some enhanced aids for visual assistance, like more powerful bifocals, magnifying glasses or adequate lighting for your convenience. Cataract surgery becomes imminent when the disorder has progressed significantly and is causing serious problems with your vision.

    There are many who believe that cataract is a normal phenomenon associated with aging – but cataract surgery is very common and an otherwise simple and painless way to get back your normal vision. It is also one of the most frequently-performed eye surgeries in the United States, with over 1.5 million procedures done annually. Ninety percent of the people who have undergone cataract surgery get back their vision.

    Since cataract is caused by a cloudy vision, the objective of a cataract surgery is to remove the cloudy lens and replace the same with an artificial lens, which is made of silicone or plastic. These lenses are called intraocular lens or IOL. There has been significant research and developments in the field of IOL manufacture and today, thanks to the state-of-the art IOL available, cataract surgery has become easier for the surgeon and convenient for the patient. The different types of IOL available are the presbyopia correcting IOL which enables you to see things which are located at varying distances. Another type of IOL creates a barrier for ultraviolet and blue light, which according to research, damages the retina.

    During cataract surgery the natural lens of the eye can be replaced with a permanent IOL implant. The surgery involves breaking up the cloudy lens, or cataract, using the process of ultrasound. The process is called phacoemulsification, where the cloudy lens, after being broken down, is suctioned out of the eye. In another process called phacofracture, the broken-down cloudy lens is taken out of the eye through a small ut made in the eye.

    Night Blindness And Vitamin A

    Night blindness, also known as nyctalopia, is the inability to acclimatize to dim lighting conditions. Some people become more nearsighted at night as the pupil dilates in dark conditions, a condition called spherical aberration. When a person is unable to see well enough to distinguish distinct images in low lighting conditions, night blindness results.

    People with night blindness (also called impaired dark adaptation) have poor vision in the darkness, but see normally when adequate light is present.

    Night blindness is mostly a symptom of several underlying diseases or conditions, especially untreated nearsightedness.

    This occurs because an individual with myopia will become even more nearsighted as the pupil dilates at night. On the other hand, patients being treated with glaucoma medicines, which constrict the pupil, will also frequently have night blindness, because the small pupil allows minimal light to enter the eye. Retinitis pigmentosa, a retinal degenerative disorder, may also be associated with night blindness.
    Some other less common causes of night blindness include the retinal disorders such as gyrate atrophy.

    Types of night blindness –

    o Congenital stationary night blindness – This type of night blindness, present at birth, is mostly due to inherited disorders.

    o Progressive night blindness – This type of night blindness continues to gradually worsen over time.

    Causes can include a myriad of factors such as retinol or vitamin A deficiency, any disease, and toxic effects of drugs like quinine.

    o Night Blindness due to compliance of obesity related surgery – Individuals who undergo obesity surgery can develop night blindness, mainly because important nutrients such as vitamin A may be missing if patients fail in the intake of nutritional supplements following surgery.

    What are the causes of Night Blindness?

    Night blindness is caused due to a disorder of the cells in the retina of the eye, which are responsible for vision in dim light. This may be caused due to:

    o Nearsightedness.

    o Glaucoma medicines that work by constricting the pupil.

    o Presence of cataracts.

    o Retinitis pigmentosa – a retinal degenerative disorder

    o Vitamin A deficiency

    o Malabsorption – if it affects vitamin A absorption

    o Celiac disease

    o Cystic fibrosis

    o Bile duct obstruction

    o Diabetes

    o Macular degeneration

    o Birth defect

    What are the symptoms of night blindness?

    Common symptoms include difficulty in vision when driving in the evening or at night, poor vision in reduced light, and feeling that the eyes take longer to "adjust" to seeing in the dark.

    Associated symptoms include:

    # Dry eyes

    # Blurred vision

    How is Night Blindness treated?

    Treatment for night blindness will depend upon its cause. Treatment may be quite simple as a new prescription eyeglasses or changing glaucoma medications, or it may be complex requiring surgery in cases of cataracts.

    If night blindness is caused by nearsightedness, the patient may need to wear glasses at night. Night blindness if caused by a loss of some of the function of the rods, then a visual field examination is performed. Tests would need to be performed to determine whether the receptor cells in the retina are functioning properly, or if the problem is somewhere else. But most times there's nothing that can be done if these cells are damaged.

    If a doctor determinates that there is simply a need for vitamin A to help the night blindness, then that would be recommended. For those patients who have retinitis pigmentosa, vitamin A is being used to help.

    Thus, treatments for night blindness include:

    # Vitamin A supplements

    # Treatment of any undering cause

    Vitamins that may be helpful in case of night blindness –

    Night blindness may be an early sign of Vitamin A deficiency. Such a deficiency may result due to a diet low in animal foods, such as eggs, dairy products, meat and fish. Low intake of fruits and vegetables containing beta-carotene, such as carrots, mango, spinach, sweet potato, which the body converts into vitamin A, may also contribute to a vitamin A deficiency. Doctors often recommend Vitamin A dietary supplements per day to correct a deficiency. Beta-carotene is less successful at correcting vitamin A deficiency than vitamin A itself, because it is not reliably well-absorbed into the body, and is only slowly converted by the body into vitamin A.

    Zinc deficiency in diet is common, and a lack of zinc may reduce the activity of retinol dehydrogenase – the enzyme needed to help vitamin A work in the eye. Zinc is helpful in people whose night blindness is caused due to zinc-deficiency; therefore, many doctors suggest 15 to 30 mg of zinc per day to support healthy vision. As long-term zinc supplementation may reduce copper levels in the body, 1 to 2 mg of copper per day is also recommended for people who are on zinc supplements for more than a few weeks.

    Blindness In Part Has Happened To "Christians"

    For those who know the scriptures, the above title is a spin of a text in Romans 11:25, which reads, "Blindness in part has happened to Israel until the fullness of the Gentiles has come in." First century Israel, who knew not the time of her visitation, (Luke 19: 41-44), rejected their Messiah, Jesus Christ of Nazareth, desired a robber, Barabbas in his place, and pledged their allegiance to the Gentile king, Caesar.

    The LA Times reported today that "mega-church pastors recently met in Inglewood, California, to buff their strategies for using global communications and aircraft to transport missionaries through the world to fulfill the Great Commission. rest, and brow beat him into bringing about a destruction of the world within the next two decades.

    They are motivated by a misunderstanding of Matthew 24:14, which states that the Gospel must be preached in all the world as a witness to all the nations then the end would come. What can we say? The blindness has now happened to "Christians."

    The end time message of the Bible is really quite simple. In short, that movie is over. The prophecy pundits of today have missed it. They are watching re-runs, believing that they are viewing a live play.

    The world-mission of preaching the Gospel to all the nations, in all the world, to all the creation, etc. was completed in the first century. The Bible clearly affirms it. The end prophesied to come following its completion came, right on schedule as the Christ and the apostles predicted. Jesus said, "Assuredly I say to you, this [first century] generation would by no means pass away till all these things take place." Matthew 24:34. The world wide evangelical mission was included in "all these things." .

    The Proof is in the Pudding.

    "But I say, have they not heard? Yes indeed, Their sound has gone out to all the earth, and their words to the end of the world." (Romans 10:18).

    To the Colossians Paul wrote, "If indeed you continue in the faith, grounded and steadfast, and are not moved away from the hope of the Gospel which you heard, which was preached to every creature under heaven, of which I, Paul, became a minister. (Colossians 1:23)

    The apostles accomplished the world-wide evangelical mission in less than 40 years without modern global communication technology and without bomb-carrying aircraft. What a horror it is to hear of "Christians" who want to bring about global war and destruction in the name of Christ, –all because they are blinded to their own bibles.

    Further, in their folly, they are rushing to support an unbelieving Israel who denies the Messiah, seeking to raise red heifers in hopes of rebuilding an earthly temple, intricate of the fact that the Most High does not dwell in temples made with hands, ( Acts 7: 48-50), and the law of Moses which required the "red-heifer" is no longer in force.

    Blindness in part happened to Israel because they rejected the Messiah's first coming in the flesh (Matthew 1:23; John 1: 9, 14). Blindness is happening in part to "Christians" because they have rejected the Messiah's second coming, an event that occurred within the first century generation. This by the way, is why the bible uses imminent, at hand, very soon language to describe it. (See Romans 13: 11,12, Philippians 4: 5; Hebrews 10:37; James 5: 7,8; ​​1 Peter 4: 7, 17; Revelation 1: 1, 3; 22: 6, 10, 12.

    Copyright (c) 2006 by William Bell, Jr.

    Why Custom Lasik Is Even Better Today

    Many patients do not realize that the eye is really an imperfect optical system. As light rays from distant objects pass through the individual optical components of the eye, they are subjected to distortion by these imperfections which are found in the cornea and the eyes' crystalline lens.

    These distortions create what are called "aberrations." 90% of these aberrations create common refractive errors such as farsightedness, astigmatism and nearsightedness which are typically treated by optical devices like contact lenses, laser eye surgery, using PRK, LASIK (or LASEK) or basic eyeglasses. But if these options do not fully correct the problem, then you should get a customized corneal shaping because each of our eyes is unique. So you can not just go to your eye doctor in a snap and say, "I want the surgery this girl in front of me is taking," because it's simply not as easy as that.

    Custom Lasik is done in the same way as conventional Lasik surgery. However, the computer in the VISX laser is programmed with digital data from a special Wave Scan Device. Then, a personal treatment or correction is specifically designed for just your eyes.

    The other 10% optical aberrations create images that are detected by chromatic aberration diffraction, spherical aberration, coma, curvature of field, trefoils and quadrifoils, which are also known as "higher order aberrations."

    To achieve a customized corneal shaping, you will have to undergo wavefront analysis. This requires measurement of the higher optical aberrations using the Aberrometer, and interfacing it with the laser, digitally using a high speed computer to control directing the microscopic focus of a tiny laser beam across the cornea.

    Custom LASIK or Custom Lasik surgery also known as wavefront or wavefront-guided LASIK makes use of 3-dimensional measurements on exactly how your eye processes images to guide the laser in re-shaping of the front part area, which is the cornea.

    With the wavefront measurement system, some extremely accurate, individualized vision correction results may be achieved that is impossible from the traditional LASIK surgery, eyeglasses or with contact lenses.

    Custom LASIK is the next step forward in Lasik technology. Because each person's vision is unique, it is like a one of a kind fingerprint. Through Wave Scan Technology, unique imperfections can be captured in each individual's vision that can not be measured by the current standard methods.

    It is important to remember that Custom Wavefront Guided Lasik should not be confused with the Wavefront Optimized Laser Eye Surgery. To have a truly Custom LASIK procedure needs a measurement by the aberrometer, as indicated above, and then the Excimer Laser is directly programmed using the collected measurements. These measurements will act as an ultra-detailed map for the Excimer Laser.

    For some less complex eye conditions, Custom Wavefront Optimized LASIK will be sufficient. However, for the more complex eye problems, a true Custom Wavefront Guided Lasik will be the procedure of choice.

    According to many research websites, the Custom Lasik's performance is very impressive. Most participants (in a particular study concerned Custom LASIK) were very satisfied with their night vision after the procedure as compared to the night vision they had before even when using top notch glasses or contact lenses.

    To make Custom Lasik even more accurate, the so-called Custom Vue Laser now includes Iris Registration. This is just the latest advancement in the industry that allows the laser to account for any eye movements that may occur when laying flat on your back. This kind of innovation makes your tailor-made procedure even better then before.