Ringing One Ear – Tinnitus Causes and Treatment

Ringing one ear, or unilateral tinnitus is also identified with other names such as tinnitus in one ear or buzzing in one ear. There is also the bilateral ringing in ears which means that the buzzing sound is heard in both ears. In unilateral ringing in the ear, the victim hears the disturbing noise only on one ear – usually the left ear. The distressing sound or noise is usually hissing, buzzing, roaring or ticking in nature.

Both ringing in one ear and bilateral tinnitus are subjective in nature, and normally, only the patient hears the distressing sound. If a second person must hear the sound, a medical gadget such as stethoscope is used. This is usually the case when the physician is trying to diagnose and identify cases of tinnitus in the affected person. But in the pulsating type of tinnitus, a nearby person hears the noise also; however, this is rarely occurring.

Why Does Ringing in One Ear Occur?

Ringing one ear, as well as other type of tinnitus could be caused by either serious or mild factors. For instance, impacted ear wax can result to tinnitus as simple as it may seem. This is why a lot of people are usually checked first for impacted ear wax when they complain of being affected by ringing in the ear. In a condition of impacted ear wax, it is best to see a medical practitioner for its removal. Acute ear infections could also result to tinnitus, alongside with the medication being administered to the infection. A typical example of such medications is antibiotics. The reason is that such drugs, which also include anti-depressants, anti-malarial, ibuprofen and others, may likely be ototoxic.

Also, the condition can rise from an unusually low level of serotonin activity. A lot of medications numbering over two hundred and sixty have been reported to cause ear ringing as a result of their side effects. But in several cases, there is no identifiable underlying physical cause of the condition. Ear ringing could also result from side-effects of certain oral medications like aspirin. However, the most common cause of tinnitus is otologic disorders.

It has also been said that serious head injuries resulting from accidents can also lead to ringing one ear or general tinnitus. This has been confirmed from certain patients who were able to trace their tinnitus condition to a head injury; as they noted that the condition commenced shortly after the accident. There are other factors associated with tinnitus such as stress, high consumption of alcohol and/or caffeine, salty diet nicotine (these factors are generally known to make the condition more severe).

Treatment Options

Usually, patients respond differently to different treatment options. However, the first thing to do when you have ringing in the ear is to visit a physician for proper diagnosis. On the other hand, there are alternative treatments to tinnitus such as the use of herbs, or embarking on acupuncture treatment.

Discuss with your physician to work out the best treatment option for your tinnitus.

Demand For Diagnostic Imaging Systems Growing Rapidly – Will The Systems Be Purchased?

Demand For Diagnostic Imaging Systems Growing Rapidly In Africa, The Middle East And Eastern Europe – Will The Systems Be Purchased?

The demand for medical facilities and related diagnostic imaging systems is growing at a tremendous rate. There is a strong need for x-ray and fluoroscopic systems as well as CT, MRI and ultrasound systems. There is an adequate supply of used and / or refurbished systems worldwide to meet the demand, however there are two major problems – available budgets and distribution sources. Although it appears funding is becoming more available, little can be done to improve funds availability.

The real problem lies with the growing number of potential suppliers in these areas. Many inexperienced players in Africa, the Middle East and Eastern Europe also have recognized the potential of this growing market and are attempting to jump in and become suppliers. Unfortunately very few understand the systems, the market or the concept of sales. They believe a sale can occur if they identify a general need, inquire as to what general equipment is available inexpensively and then present this inexpensive solution regardless if it accommodates the buyer's specific need. Generally, what then occurs is that the buyer lets the sales representative know what he has offered is too expensive and does not meet requirements that were not discussed previously in detail.

The reason the system and application were not discussed in detail initially is that the sales representative is not familiar with the application or system and therefore can not discuss the details associated with the requirement. We get many inquiries from representatives from these areas. Their initial request is usually so general, we can not offer a response. For example, a request will be "Please send price for an x-ray system CIF Nigeria". This is like writing, "Please send price for a car CIF Nigeria". Without make, model, year, features, condition and available budget, we have no idea of ​​what is required and unfortunately neither does the requesting sales representative. He simply spoke with a physician at a medical facility and the physician indicated they needed an x-ray system and they had funds. The sales representative immediately runs out and begins emailing agents around the world, hoping to identify a system he can purchase inexpensively, inflate the price drastically and then sell to the medical facility. He can not discuss the details of the x-ray system because he knows nothing about x-ray systems. He believes if enough resellers provide him systems to offer, he will present them and his prospect will purchase one allowing him to make a handsome profit. He is hiring, like a novice car salesman, if you put enough cars in front of someone they may buy one eventually.

As diagnostic imaging system resellers, we continuously receive these inquiries from international agents attempting to sell equipment. But as soon as we respond back and ask for specifications, application details and / or available budget, most disappear. Solving the problem is not that difficult. First and foremost these representative need to learn and understand basic sales. The key to working with a legitimate prospect is communication. If the representative is able to engage in a dialogue where his prospect will discuss details of the acquisition, then the chances of making a sale increase significantly. The most important questions are: When does the system need to be delivered? Is the funding available now? How much is being budgeted for this purchase? If the prospect will not or can not answer these questions, then he will not or can not make a decision to purchase. A lot of time will be wasted and most suppliers like ourselves will not respond with an offering because we are also convinced a sale will not occur. There is no reason to get into a discussion about system specs or applications, if the prospect will not discuss basic purchasing information.

Let's assume for a moment that the prospect has cooperated and provided delivery, funding availability and budget information. How do you now engage in a discussion about technology, applications and system nomenclatures of which you are totally unfamiliar? There are a number of general questions that can help you understand what is needed. Age – how old of a system will they consider purchasing? Used systems can range in age from 5-25 years old and most facilities have a threshold as to how old of a system they will consider. Features- what specific features are required? Often facilities want to have certain features that are important to them. High powered system, digital system, analog (film) system, etc. Preferred manufacture – like GE, Philips, Siemens or that's not important. Condition – as-is in good working condition or fully refurbished or new, each has its own price level. Shipping – air (fast and expensive) or sea (slow and less expensive), import clearance and destination ground transportation.

If the majority of this information is obtained, the chances of a reseller working with an international agent will increase significantly as will the chances of a successful sale occurring.

Get Rid of Hemorrhoids – Is a Natural Hemorrhoid Remedy Your Best Option?

If you’ve ever been afflicted by hemorrhoids (also known as piles) or are suffering from them right now, you know first hand just how dreadful they can be.  All you want to do is get rid of hemorrhoids,  but is a natural hemorrhoid remedy your best option?

Painful bowel movements, constipation, blood on the toilet paper, having a sore butt when sitting down – these can all be symptoms of hemorrhoids.  That may be when you start thinking about a natural treatment for piles.

Sometimes piles go away on their own which can be a great relief.  Unfortunately, a lot of the time they can come back, just like that! Then you’re suffering all over again.  Sometimes it seems as if there’s no end in sight.  But what exactly can you do to get rid of hemorrhoids?

There are quite a few different natural treatments for piles.  Just like non herbal treatments, they may work for one person but not another.  Addressing the reason why you got hemorrhoids in the first place is very important.  Otherwise, the natural hemorrhoid remedy will just address the painful symptoms but not actually get rid of hemorrhoids.  And if you stop that particular treatment, then you may start suffering from your hemorrhoidal condition all over again.

Over the counter creams from the pharmacy may cause headaches and dizziness.  So no wonder so many sufferers want to try a natural hemorrhoid remedy.

One natural treatment for piles that I know of is to eat a kiwi fruit every day.  A kiwi fruit is a small oblong fruit with a brown furry skin and delicious green flesh inside.  Just cut it in half and scoop out the flesh.  Eating the flesh of a kiwi fruit daily will help with soft bowel movements, therefore putting less strain on your hemorrhoids when you go to the toilet.

Acne Medicine – What’s Your Best Options?

Acne Medicine

If you do your research you’ll find many different types of acne medicine either OTC (Over the Counter) or available from your doctor or dermatologist. Generally you’ll find that most acne is treated with topical solutions. However in some instances an antibiotic can be used.

Typically topical solution application is usually the simplest and only involves applying the acne medicine to the affected area. Antibiotic products work by killing the unwanted bacteria that live on the scan and could be associated with the acne outbreak. Additionally they reduce the potential for infection related to the condition.

Topical solutions have been successfully treating acne for many years without significant changes to the basic formula.

Below are some of the most popular acne medicine solutions being used today.

I’ll chronicle each one starting with topical solutions. Be sure and check with your doctor or dermatologist before using any product you’re not familiar with.

Metroonidazol, often this is effective for acne associated with rosacea. Usually found in a gel format it is .75% strength. Sometimes it can cause some irritation but most are able to use it without any setbacks. Most of the time you will need to apply either in the morning or the evening or both.

Tetracycline, usually this is taken as an oral antibiotic. However it can be used as an ointment at different levels of effective strength. This particular product has sodium bisulfite which is a sulfa extract, unfortunately many people are allergic and have noticeable reactions when using this particular product. Some of the most notable reactions are yellowing of the skin. Taking it orally can produce a similar side affect. Even with the known side effects many doctors still write prescriptions for it.

Erythromycin used very frequently this acne medicine is a popular choice. Dispensed as a gel or ointment it is usually 2% strength. Applied in the morning and then once again in the evening it is generally accepted and tolerated. This product is frequently given to women who are pregnant and usually find its safe to use. As with any product though, especially if you’re pregnant consult with your doctor or dermatologist before using any of these products.

Last but not least Clindaamycin is probably the most popular acne medicine in use today. It is simple to apply as a gel or cream lotion at 1% strength. Usually it can be applied two times a day to all areas that need attention related to acne. Keep in mind this product is like any other and should be used under the supervision of a doctor. This particular acne medicine should not be used with certain types of skin conditions and requires a prescription.

Do yourself a favor find out from a medical professional what might work best for you. There are a whole line of other solutions and products that may be the perfect one for you. Let your physician or your dermatologist help you choose the right acne medicine.

Holistic Medicine Programs

Though there are many healing arts colleges that offer holistic medicine programs in massage therapy, acupuncture, reflexology, and homeopathy — were you aware that there are a number of traditional schools that provide holistic health courses in herbology, holistic nutrition, and other integrative medicine treatments?

Students interested in enrolling in holistic medicine programs can learn about hundreds of herbs and dietary supplements that are used for common clinical conditions. In addition to herbal studies, there are alternative health courses in energy healing that provide spiritual-based training in Reiki, touch therapy, and metaphysics, among others.

While some of these holistic medicine programs require campus attendance, many can be completed via home-study. For example, did you know that you can earn a certificate or diploma in complementary therapies like botanical medicine, hypnotherapy, and aromatherapy from the convenience of your laptop computer? Though these are just a few of the available online courses, individuals can also pursue continuing education in holistic medicine as well. Not to be outdone, the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) also extends holistic medicine programs on an annual basis. These programs are offered in public “Distinguished Lecture” format and explore topics and perspectives on the science and evolution of complementary and alternative medicine practice and research.

Depending on which one of the various holistic medicine programs you choose to pursue, course prerequisites, duration and tuition will vary. There are, however, holistic workshops and seminars that can be completed in less than three months — popular training options include biofeedback, energy healing, hypnotherapy, iridology, reflexology, and home herbal remedies. Longer, more course-intensive holistic medicine programs like homeopathy, chiropractic, naturopathy, and acupuncture may take up to four years to complete.

Overall, the outlook for holistic health practitioners is very positive. Chiropractors, for instance, have the potential to earn over $100,000 annually; and massage therapists can earn over $30 hourly. The greater prospect that holistic medicine programs present to already-established healthcare providers is the additional, natural health-based services, which they can offer to patients and clients, alike.

If you (or someone you know) are interested in learning more about these or other healing arts programs, let professional training within fast-growing industries like massage therapy, naturopathy, acupuncture, oriental medicine, Reiki, and others get you started! Explore holistic medicine programs [http://school.holisticjunction.com/clickcount.php?id=6634739&goto=http://www.holisticjunction.com/search.cfm] near you.

Holistic Medicine Programs
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"You Are What You Time" a Whole New Approach to Time Management

Being half a century in age, I have given the subject of time management a lot of thought. I am endlessly fascinated, entertained, and humbled by it. As an entrepreneur, I have often speculated ~ "If only I could bottle and market it, I would be richer than Coca Cola and Pepsi Cola put together!" I would be Deborah Nelson, the original time-bottler, a Bill Gates, Donald Trump, and Martha Stuart, all rolled into one. I would be the wealthiest person ever to walk the earth-even more wealthy than Solomon who was granted wisdom and wealth by God. But who can bottle time? It is a rebellious demon wretch. Nothing less than a life long quest could put that Genie into a bottle, and it would take none one less than God Himself to do it.

Time Ticks Me Off!

Time causes problems. When you need something in a hurry, there's an instant shortage. Tempers flair. Road Rage is born, car wrecks happen, sirens scream, dangerously challenging the bounds of time even further. Time seems uncooperative. Whether you are waiting for a teenager to come home from a party, a late arrival to show up, or simply caught in a daily traffic jam, time ticking off, ticks us off!

But my purpose is not to complain even though time seems to get the brunt of all our complaints. "I did not have enough time," "Our marriage is on the rocks because we do not have time for each other." Teacher, I did not finish my homework, because I ran out of time. "" My checks bounced because I did not get the deposit to the bank on time. "Time gets all of our excuses does not it? ticks us off.

You Are What You Eat?

We have all heard the expression, "You are what you eat," but I would appeal – You are what you spend your time on. "A Nick in Time saves nine." "Time Heals All Wounds." "Time waits for no one." "Time Will Tell." "Time is Money." All these are powerful expressions about Time. How we use our time says a lot about who we are not it? If we want to make a difference in our entrepreneurial and personal life, we need to be honest and admit , "We are what we Time."

You may wonder, how is Deborah Nelson qualified to give these tips? Surely the experts, Covey, Franklin, and Mr. Day Timer have already done it with their expert time management systems. However, I have wrestled with time as a 24/7 single parent, an entrepreneur, a writer, a homeowner supporting a daughter in a private art college, and as a woman living in the twenty and twenty first centuries.

Having had less time and far more challenges than the average person, I have experienced and implemented all the Time Management methods of the day, finding them to be adequate for my particular life challenges.

Graduating from Time Management to Time Prosperity

I love the expression; "The definition of insanity is doing the same thing over and over and expecting different results." I finally had to admit that I was not a good time manager. I was doing the same thing over and over again and not getting different results. For Example, I was chasing time, and time was running out on me. I was twenty minutes late to everything, and after trying linear time management for many frustrating years; I was still 10 minutes late to everything. Not good enough.

I had to do something different. I was trying to manage, chase, and conquer time. I had made an enemy of it and I was losing. It was a process, but now I have learned to become a leader of, friend, and partner; and discovered Time Prosperity! Here are 3 Time Prosperity Tips for your to begin this journey. I hope even one of them will transform your relationship with Time. It is whole new way of thinking about it.

Time Prosperity Tip # 1:

You can make time your enemy or you can become friends with your it. Think about it, honestly, is Time Your Enemy or Your friend?

Time Prosperity Tip # 2

You can chase time, making it run away from you, or you can walk with time side by side. Are you chasing time away, or are you walking with time?

Time Prosperity Tip # 3

Time is our most powerful and precious resource-more powerful than money, love, health, and space. How do you perceive time? Is it a Thief, or is it a Gift?

Time in a bottle? I have not done that yet. But making friends with time is a great start. My quest now is to tell everyone who will listen how to graduate from time management to time prosperity … Because, "You are What You Time!"

How to Authenticate Victorian Case Furniture Antiques

As an auctioneer, I’m often asked how do you tell if something is old?

What does the term period as it pertains to antiques?

How do I spot a fake or a reproduction?

I hope this article will clear a few things up on those issues?

What is the single thing I can do or buy that will make me the most money as a part time antiquer?

The answer to that question is the very last sentence in this article.

Period antiques: There’s sometimes a lot of confusion about the term PERIOD when it comes to antiques and there shouldn’t be because the term has a very clear cut meaning. The term period simply means the original era an antique was originally made throughout.

Let’s take for example the Gothic Period which originated in the 12th Century and lasted throughout the 16th. So that span in History would be the actual Gothic Period.

But the Gothic Style, like so many styles throughout history was copied many times after, so a Gothic styled piece of furniture from the 1800s can be an antique, because the technical definition of an antique is anything over 100 years old, but that item cannot be a period piece. To sum up: All period items are antiques, but not all antiques are period items.

Antiques that are copies of early periods are often referred to as “revival” or in the style of etc.

The dollar value of a period piece will be many times more than it’s revivalist cousins.

Often people will see something on the antiques roadshow and mistakenly say something like, “I have one of those, I never realized it was worth $15,000 dollars!” They think that the antique Chippendale Style chest of drawers they have is the same as the actual Chippendale Period Piece. After all theirs is an antique, it’s been in the family for over 100 years.

It’s tough sometimes when I have to tell them that what they have is certainly worth having, but it’s really only worth about $300 dollars in a strong market. If the person I’m relaying this information to is a prospective client, I’d better use some tact if I want to get the estate consignment.

Bringing people around on the real value of what they have is a big part of an auctioneers job and often very difficult, especially when expectations are dashed and the value is much less than they originally thought. To be honest, some folks who just won’t hear you out will often call in 2 or 3 auctioneers before they believe it.

Of course, the other side of that coin is the estate executor that thinks they were assigned to liquidate a house full of junk and it’s my delight to inform them that they’re actually in charge of a small fortune in antiques.(But somehow these folks aren’t as hard to convince, and usually need only one auctioneer to tell them that. It’s a true pleasure if that auctioneer is me! OK, well let’s get this train back on track because this segment is supposed to deal with authenticating antiques. We went over the difference between a period antique and a antique, but in most cases what the average person wants to know, at least at first, is, is that the item in question really old or is it a reproduction, a fake, or a fantasy piece.

Was it made 100 years ago, or last week. While the answer to that may seem obvious, there are some pretty talented people out there churning out new antiques. Before we get into the detective work of finding out whether something is old or not. Let’s look at the categories above because they are not all equal, here are the differences.

A fake: A fake can fall into a few different categories, it can be a legitimate reproduction, that someone has taken the identifying marks off of to try to pass it off as old. It can be something that was manufactured with the intent of deceiving the buyer. It can be an old item that has been altered.

A reproduction: A reproduction is something that was made to look as close to the original as possible, but is signed or otherwise marked to let the buyer know that it is not old. It’s not very high on the scale of collectiblity, but its several notches above a fake, and when the original isn’t obtainable, it’s a nice alternative.

A Fantasy Piece: A fantasy piece is something that is made to look old, but that actual item never really existed. Let’s say for example a Coca-Cola tray of which never saw production originally, but was made in the 1980s with the surface adorning a flapper models. Coke has many legitimate licensed fantasy items and they’re marked with the date of manufacture.

All of 3 of these exist in almost every category of antiques, from furniture to jewelry, which brings us to the feature of this show… authenticating what you have. Authenticating an antique is very much detective work. When you have the piece in front of you there is just no better way to find out whether or not it’s old than to use the simple but powerful skills of observation.

Let’s begin with case furniture. That being any type of furniture that has a case or a box type main structure. Dressers, blanket chests, bookcases, chests of drawers, Secretaries, writing desks.

One of the most revealing elements of these pieces is the drawer. Pull it out carefully and inspect it all the way around. Are the runners on the bottom well worn? Have they been replaced or repaired? This would obviously indicate wear which usually indicates age.

Now look at the inside edges of the drawers are there several small overlaps of stain or finish indicating that it’s been refinished a few times, or does it appear that there is no overlap of stain or an extremely faint amount, thus most likely indicating the item is in it’s original finish.(Big points for this, if it is an antique item.)

Are there extra holes next to the posts for the handle pulls. If so the handles were replaced and are not original. Of course even if there are not a pair of offset holes, the handles could have been replaced with a pair that had the exact post set measurements as the original handles. The other way to tell if handles have been replaced is to look close at the finish around the handles, is there a faint outline in the finish or sub-finish from an old handle. (Again, big points for original handles and original hardware.)

Now let’s have a look at the corners of the drawers, are they dovetailed? If so, this is quality construction. Are the dovetails hand-cut or machined? Hand cut would probably indicate an antique, the piece could just be hand crafted, but not very likely. More about that later. For this section, we’ll assume that hand-cut dovetails indicate antiques for the sake of moving along. Hand cut dovetails usually have a very narrow tail offset by a very fat one. Machined dovetails are very uniform in construction. Most of the machined dovetails came out after the 1850s, so it is still possible for an antique to have these and many do. In fact many pieces of antique furniture were manufactured in whole or in part, in factories throughout the world.

Are the corners scalloped with dowels inside a half-circle pattern down the side in a mortise & tenon fashion. This system is usually only seen on furniture made from about 1850 to 1880 and usually country pine more than anything else.

Nailed together joints are usually on home made type furniture, or unimportant manufactured furniture. It can still be well constructed, especially when compared to today’s pseudo wood anti-products, but it will never achieve the collectiblility of it’s well crafted cousins.

You’ll see a slot method on occasion also, this is a step above nailed joints, but below any dovetailing.

An important date for would be antiquers to remember is 1830. It’s the date that many historians recognize as the breakout of the Industrial Revolution. The only true statement we can make from this is that most of what came before it was hand made, and much of what came after was not. It’s not an absolute, but it’s the best we can do.

Antique detecting is like crime detecting in that it’s as much an art as it is a science.

So swell up and pat yourself on the other side all of you antiquers, not only are you kings & queens of the recyclable kingdom, but your an artists and scientists to boot.

Back to that drawer. So you’ve looked at the dovetails in the front of the drawer, but if it’s dovetailed or mortised all the way around it’s of better quality than those who use the method only on the front and leave the back joints to a slot method.

In a similar way, the feet or legs of a piece of case furniture will tell you the same thing. See, it was the common method to put the fancy ball and claw type feet or other fancy feet on the front, and straight feet on the back. The reason being that it often took a craftsman almost as much time to carve a great pair of feet as it would to construct the entire case, so the shortcut was to put straight legs on the back. Therefore the higher quality pieces would have the carved feet all the way around. If you’ve ever wondered why an auctioneer used the phrase ball & claw all the way around, that’s the reason.

Now the feet, if the legs or feet are post types, they should be slightly more narrow on the very bottom due to shrinkage through the ages. There should be wear, especially on chairs, which are moved around more than other pieces of furniture. But we were talking about case furniture weren’t we.

Look for signatures everywhere on the item. EVERYWHERE. With glass and china or other antiques, if there’s a makers mark, it’s common for the makers mark to be on the bottom, with case furniture, it could be on the bottom, the back or anywhere on the inside. I’ve found many pieces that were signed on the insides of drawers, bottoms of drawers, signed in pencil, carved,stamped and labeled. And unfortunately many pieces that are not signed.

Woods: The most commonly used woods were oak, elm, chestnut,walnut,pine, cherry and mahogany. Much of the early Victorian Antique stock is made from Chestnut, but nothing after that. The reason for this is a Chestnut blight that came to the US about 1908 pretty much wiped out the widespread American Chestnut tree.

Much of what is sold as Oak is actually Elm the two are so similar in grain, texture and composition. Pine is generally associated more with Primitives and country antiques. The dark wood on the elegant and very refined pieces are usually Walnut and on later pieces Mahogany. You’ll find Cherry on the better pieces as well, especially where a very hard wood is needed for construction.

On many of the Victorian Oak antiques, what is often referred to as carved, is actually an applied carving, which means a portion of piece is just a section of carving that was a applied or glued. A much easier and less costly process than actually carving the surface of the item. This is the reason you’ll see so many of these beautiful old oak pieces with the same frame, but a different look. That being said, some of these are actually carved and if you look close you can see the difference and should know the difference for it affects the price.

Another common method that is confused for carving is the ‘pressed’ look. This is when a section of a piece, usually chairs, have a design,machine pressed right into them. The chairs that adorn this method are very popular, but still, they are not carved. Probably the most valuable and famous of these chairs is a Larkin #1. Larkin co. out of Buffalo New York was a famous furniture and soap company. The company sold a great many of it’s items through the Sears & Roebuck catalog at the turn of the century. At the time your could order a sideboard for about 20 dollars and a complete dining room set for just under or just over $100 dollars depending on the options.

Another style you’ll see on the old country pieces or cottage pieces as they’re sometimes referred to is, grain painting. This is when the wood, always pine as far as I know, is painted to simulate the grain of a more expensive and exotic wood. Grain painting a practice that was once shunned by purists is now revered for it’s Folksiness. Let that be a lesson, if you go against the experts, you’ll often be in front of the pack. Just make sure if your buying for resale that you haven’t gone so far outside of the box that your unable to sell what you’ve purchased.

Here are a few tips on new, reproduction furniture.

There’s a lot of fine looking furniture coming out of South Pacific countries (fine at first glance that is) that is really of very poor quality and craftsmanship. You’ve probably seen it.

There are lots of Chippendale copies, usually in an exotic dark finish. This is actually something called PU PU wood or some kind of foolishness. It’s very brittle and practically breaks if you talk to loud next to it. I don’t know how it makes it over here on the containers in one piece, but it does. I’ve actually seen runners break pieces just moving them before.

As I said these appear to be great until you get a close look. Be warned though, these have hand cut dovetails and are even handcrafted.

I’m told this PuPu wood is actually a weed in the Philippines, and that they carve it when wet, then run it through a drying process.

Also note, the edges and ends of new furniture will be sharp and straight, old furniture will shrink and round at the edges with age.

Ultra-Shiny reproduction brass hardware on authentic antique Victorian furniture will actually bring down the price at auction. If you don’t have suitable pulls for an item, your better off to leave it bare than to don that garish clink.

Victorians painted their furniture very often, but original painting was always ornamental in nature and never had a solid coat. If you’ve got a solid color painted Victorian piece of furniture, it was defiantly painted years later.

A ‘marriage’ in the antiques world is when two different parts are pieced together to make a complete unit. It used to be that this was an abomination to antiquers, but they came around to accepting it when the ‘shabby chic’ set started buying married pieces. Ahhh….nothing says, “I can live with that” quicker than a good healthy profit. In most cases, never plan on re-finishing a piece for re-sale. In fact if your not a pro, make that never, you just won’t get your money back out of the process.

Learn 10 times more about the people in the business than you do the merchandise and your will be an antiques rock star!

Facts and Information About Prostate Cancer

The prostate is a gland in the male reproductive system. It is actually made up of several glands and is found under the urinary bladder, and surrounding the urethra. For a normal healthy elderly male it is very important to gather facts and information about prostate cancer in order to be able to be confident of spotting this condition as early as possible.Because of its location in the human body, any abnormality of the prostate can affect urination and normal erectile function.

Cancer, in any part of the body means when the cells of that organ begin to mutate. Sometimes these mutations lead to abnormal growth and multiplication of these cells. This can spread to other parts of the body such as the bones and lymph nodes.A preventative regime is recommended in anyone who is of a susceptible group. Anyone of a certain age needs to be aware of the condition and examine themselves regularly for any signs of enlargement in this area. Also, they must immediately visit their doctor in case of any abnormality, pain or any other suspicious experiences. Early on in the condition there are very few signs.

Diagnosis can be performed by self-examination or a positive screening test. If a positive screening test is found, then a biopsy is usually performed to look for any further signs of cancerous growth.It is thought that taking vitamin E, selenium or lycopene on a daily basis can help to prevent the onset of prostate cancer. Lycopene is found in large quantities in whole tomatoes. The National Cancer Institute has also found that men who eat soy, vitamin D and also cauliflower and broccoli more than once a week had a lower incidence of prostate cancer. It is important to create a self awareness of this condition and to be prepared to spot it as soon as it develops in order to achieve an effective treatment.

Natural Supplements to Grow Taller Review – Herbal Facts and Marketer's Claims Review

Why do many consumers take dietary supplements to grow taller? The reasons are varied-many times medically valid, sometimes not. In low or appropriate dosages, some supplements offer health benefits under some circumstances. Some people use supplements with good intention: sometimes in search of protection from or a remedy for health problems such as depression, aging skin, cancer, or arthritis. Still others seek added benefits: sometimes better athletic performance or sexual prowess. Too often, supplement use is based on scientifically unfounded marketing initiatives. But, some people still claim to undeniable scientific proofs.

It would be great, but boosting your nutrient intake will not cause your cells to produce extra energy or more brain power. Only three nutrients are carbohydrates, fats, and proteins supply energy or calories to grow taller. Vitamins do not. Although B vitamins do help body cells produce energy from the three energy nutrients, they do not produce energy themselves. Many powerful drugs and toxic chemicals are plant-based. Varieties of mushrooms can be classified as "culinary delicious" or "deadly dangerous." In the same vein, herbal supplements should be used with caution! Any healthy natural supplements to grow taller, without proper doctor acknowledgment and governance authority approbation sounds really fishy to me.

Athletes and other physically active people need about the same amount of nutrients as others do to grow taller just more energy, or calories, for the increased demands of exercise. The extra amount of food that active people eat supplies the very small amount of extra vitamins needed to grow taller and have more energy production, too.

Although protein needs are somewhat higher for some athletes, especially for those in strength-training sports, food can easily provide the extra. On another note, physical activity, not extra amino acids (protein), builds muscle. For more on nutrition for athletes and ergogenic aids.

Dietary supplements to grow taller will not protect you from the harmful effects of smoking or alcohol abuse. Here's the real scoop: Smoking does increase the body's need for vitamin C; drinking excess amounts of alcoholic beverages can interfere with the body's use of most nutrients. If soil can grow crops, the food produced is nutritious. When soil lacks minerals, plants do not grow properly and may not produce their potential yield. Growing area does affect a food's iodine and selenium contents.

Supplements will not give you instant grow taller results, it would take at least a 2-3 months training for instance. For vitamins and minerals to do their work, they need several hours or several days to interact and do their work in your body. For any benefits from other dietary supplements to grow taller, you probably need to take them even longer. Supplements to grow taller are easy to spot. By law, they must be labeled "dietary supplements." About eighty thousand dietary supplements are marketed in the United States with multivitamin / mineral supplements being the largest product category-and with an average of 500 new products launched each year. They're sold in many formats-for example, tablets, capsules, softgels, gelcaps, liquids, powders, and bars.

Do you consume a varied, balanced diet to grow taller? With some exceptions, supplements are usually not necessary. If you're healthy and if you're able and willing to eat a balanced, varied diet. You probably can get the vitamins and minerals you need from smart food choices. According to national studies, most Americans have enough healthy foods available to do that, yet they may not. Under some circumstances, vitamin / mineral supplements offer benefits and are advised; like those for growing taller.

A woman with heavy menstrual bleeding? You may need an iron supplement to replace iron from blood loss. To enhance absorption, take iron supplements with water or juice on an empty stomach. If nausea or constipation are problems, take iron supplements with food. Absorption may be decreed by as much as 50 percent when taken with a meal or a snack. A woman who's pregnant or breast-feeding? You need more of some nutrients, especially folate and iron-and sometimes calcium if you do not consume enough calcium-rich foods. Check the label's Supplement Facts to make sure you get enough for a healthy pregnancy. Ask about a prenatal vitamin / mineral supplement.

Someone unable or unwilling to regularly consume a healthy diet to grow taller? You likely need a dietary supplement to fill in the nutrient gaps. However, eating smarter would be better if you do not have food-related health problems! Take a supplement with the advice of a doctor or a registered dietitian. For example, pre-menopaal women who do not consume enough calcium to grow taller and stronger bones from food rarely need a calcium supplement-unless they're willing to improve their diet. Some babies after age six months, children, and teens may need a fluoride supplement to grow taller and sometimes iron or vitamin D.

If you are not able to meet your calcium and vitamin D recommendations with foods to grow taller, you may need calcium or vitamin D supplements to grow taller. Ask a dietitian or your doctor about the right dosage and type. And enhance their absorption by taking them with food. Only food can provide the mixture of vitamins, minerals, phytonutrients, and other substances for a health quality that can not be duplicated with dietary supplements to grow taller alone. Fortunately for most Americans growing taller, there's plenty of quality, quantity, and variety in the food marketplace.

Enjoy plenty of calcium and vitamin D-rich foods. They provide more for bone health calcium, phosphorus, vitamin D and overall health than supplements do. And a varied, well-balanced eating plan offers other nutrients that appear to promote bone density, including magnesium, potassium, and vitamin K

Supplements to grow taller carrying labeling, showing the amounts of vitamins and minerals in a single dosage. If you already eat a healthy diet, you probably do not need any more than a low-dose supplement. Taking a multivitamin / mineral supplement, with no more than 100 percent of the Daily Values ​​(DVs) as a safety net, is generally considered safe. Most nutrient supplements are produced in low dosages.

Supplements with water-soluble vitamins or minerals can be risky if taken in excess, over time. For example, taking extra vitamin B6 has been recommended to help relieve premenstrual tension. Yet there's limited evidence to support large vitamin B6 doses for relief of premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Many women have viewed large vitamin B6 doses as harmless, since they are water-soluble. Instead, they may cause irreversible nerve damage when taken in very large doses above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL): 500 to 5,000 mg vitamin B6 per day.

That said, can you overdose on vitamins or minerals naturally as you grow taller with food? That's very unlicly. As we mentioned, taking very high doses of dietary supplements or taking too many, too often can be dangerous. The vitamin and mineral content of food is much more balanced fortunately. In amounts normally consumed, even if you enjoy extra helpings, you will not consume toxic levels of nutrients. So eat a variety of foods-and enjoy! Note: Nutrient amounts to grow taller can add up if you consume a lot of highly fortified foods.

You may take dietary supplements to grow taller for potential health benefits. It's not uncommon for people diagnosed with cancer, AIDS, or other life-threatening health problems, who are desperate for a cure, to put their hopes and healthcare dollars in alternative treatments, including dietary supplements. However, supplements may offer a false sense of security-and a serious problem if you neglect well-proven approaches to health or delay medical attention.

Drink plenty of fluids with calcium supplements to avoid constipation. The lactose and vitamin D in the milk help to enhance calcium absorption. If you do not drink milk and want an alternative to calcium pills, consider calcium-fortified juice or soy beverage. One cup of calcium-fortified juice or soy beverage can contain about 300 milligrams of calcium, the same amount as in a cup of milk, and provides vitamin C, folate, and other nutrients. Still, you need a vitamin D source to aid absorption; some calcium-fortified juices and soy beverages are also fortified with vitamin D.

Calcium supplements help to protect against osteoporosis (brittle-bone disease) It can not make up for your lifestyle choices or poor health habits. Regular weight-bearing physical activity is important to grow taller and obtain healthy bones. For healthy bones, avoid smoking, too.

Vitamin nasal sprays or patches are effective to grow taller? No research evidence says so, even though they're promoted for faster, more efficient absorption. In fact, they may not be absorbed at all. Here's the reality check: Fat-soluble vitamins need fat from food to aid absorption. Vitamin C in your intestine aids iron absorption-a problem if vitamin C comes from a spray. Vitamin B12 binds with intrinsic factor made in the stomach during digestion. That can not happen with a spray or a patch! So that means all the place that try to claim that you could grow taller with that are just scam.

Indeed, herbals and other botanicals have known medicinal qualities helping us grow taller; 30 percent of today's drugs come from plants. Yet, herbals and other botanical supplements are also sold as dietary supplements rather than regulated as drugs. Like many plant-derived pharmaceuticals, these supplements can offer both positive health benefits and harmful side effects.

On the up side, sufficient scientific evidence has been collected on a competent of botanical supplements to support their limited use. For example, under a doctor's guidance, gingko biloba may be used to help treat the symptoms of age-related memory loss and dementia (including Alzheimer's disease); green tea extract may help reduce cancer risk. A growing body of research evidence is being gathered about their safety and effectiveness, as well as their limits and dangers.

On the down side, like other supplements to grow taller, herbal and other botanical supplements are regulated differently from pharmaceuticals, which are meant to cure or prevent disease. You are not as protected from misleading claims as you might think. When you think about the quality and effectiveness of these grow taller methods; you can see that the marketer's are absolutely in control of the quality …

According to current law and regulations, herbal and botanical remedies to grow taller and other dietary supplements to grow taller can enter the market without FDA approval. The burden is on the FDA to remove a dangerous dietary supplements to grow taller from the marketplace. Currently dosages of herbal remedies are not standardized, so dosages vary among products. Some are even copies of the actual real-product that is made by legitimate herbal company; they put the same product name change what is inside and put the same label. Be very careful, you can look up grow taller 4 smarts free scam alerts to be ahead of scammers.

Although packaging claims can not say that a supplement to grow taller cures or advances disease, it may carry claims for its purported health role. Many claims have only limited scientific evidence. Are herbal supplements or botanicals safe during pregnancy and nursing? There's not enough scientific evidence yet to recommend safe levels for herbal supplements for pregnant or nursing moms. However, some are known to be harmful to a baby.

Neurotransmitters: Chemical Messengers of Nervous System

Human brain is well encapsulated within a thick, bony skull. The chloroid plexus secretes the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) which surrounds the brain. The fluid passes down through the four ventricles with the help of subarachnoid space and finally enter the cerebral veins through the arachnoid villi. Brain lacks lymphatic system so CSF ​​acts as a partial substitute. Dura mater is a tough, protective conductive tissue firmly attached to the skull and includes the subarachnoid space filled with the CSF, arteries and web-like connective tissue known as archanoid mater. The pia mater is a very delicate and permeable membrane composed of collagen, elastin and fibroblasts that rests on the floor of subarachnoid space and allows diffusion between CSF and the interstitial fluid of brain tissue. The pia mater is also interrupted by astrocyte processes. The dura mater, arachnoid mater and the pia mater are collectively known as meninges.

The brain and CSF are separated from each other by the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier and the blood-brain barrier (BBB) ​​which protects brain from undesirable blood substances. These barriers are permeable to water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, small lipid soluble molecules, electrolytes and certain essential amino acids. The barriers are formed by the combined action of endothelial cells lining the capillary walls and glial cells (astrocytes) that wrap the capillaries with fibers. The brain has a distinct chemical composition for example, structural lipid accounts for 50% dry weight of brain, a feature which is in contrast with other fatty tissues of the body that are made up of triglycerides and free fatty acids. The blood brain barrier forms a protective chemical environment through which neurotransmitters can easily participate in nerve impulse delivery.

Neurotransmitters and Their Identification

Neurotransmitters are endogenously produced chemicals that actively participate in the transmission of signals from a neuron to the target cell across a synapse. They are tightly packed inside the synaptic vesicles which remain clustered benefit the membrane on the pre-synaptic side of the synapse. Upon activation they are released into the synaptic cleft where they bind to the receptors located on the membrane of the post-synaptic side of the synapse. Release of neurotransmitters is simply an indication that action potential has produced. These chemicals are synthesized from simple precursors, chiefly the amino acids. Amino acids are easily available and only few biosynthetic steps are involved in the formation of neurotransmitters.

Ramón v Cajal discovered synaptic cleft after carefully performing histological examination of neurons. After the discovery of synaptic cleft it was suggested that some chemical messengers are involved in signal transmission. In 1921 a German pharmacologist Otto Loewi confirmed that neurons communicate with each other by releasing chemical messengers. He performed a series of experiments where vagus nerve of frog was involved. He traditionally controlled the heart rate of frog by controlling the amount of saline solution present around the vagus nerve. When the experiments were over Loewi concluded that sympathetic regulation of heart rate could be mediated through changes in the chemical concentration. He later on discovered the first neurotransmitter known as acetylcholine (Ach). However, some neurons communicate by using electrical synapses through gap junctions that allow specific ions to pass directly from one cell to the other.


There are many ways through which neurotransmitters can be classified for example, they can be divided into amino acids, peptides and monoamines on the basis of their chemical composition. The amino acids that act as neurotransmitters are glutamate, aspartate, D-serine, gama-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glycine. Monoamines and other biogenic amines include dopamine (DA), norepinephrine, epinephrine, histamine and serotonin. Other substances acting as neurotransmitters are acetylcholine (Ach), adenosine, nitric oxide and anandamide. More than 50 neuroactive peptides are known that act as neurotransmitters. Many of these peptides are released along with a small transmitter molecule. The well known example of a peptide neurotransmitter is β-endorphin which is associated with the opioid receptors of the central nervous system. Single ions such as the synaptically released zinc, some gaseous molecules like nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) are also considered as neurotransmitters. Glutamate is the most prevalent neurotransmitter as it is excitatory in 90% of the synapses while GABA is inhibitory in 90% of the synapses.

Excitatory and Inhibitory Neurotransmitters

Neurotransmitters can be excitatory or inhibitory but their major action is activation of one or more receptors. The effect of these chemicals on the post-synaptic side of the cell is totally dependent upon the properties of the receptors. The receptors for most of the neurotransmitters are excitatory as they activate the target cell so that action potential can be produced. On the other hand, for GABA, most of the receptors are inhibitory. However, evidences have shown that GABA acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter during early brain development. For acetylcholine the receptors are both excitatory and inhibitory. The effect of a neurotransmitter system is directly dependent upon the connections of neurons and chemical properties of the receptors. Major neurotransmitter systems are the norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin and cholinergic systems. Drugs targeting these neurotransmitter systems affect the whole system thus, explaining the complexity of drug action. AMPT prevents the conversion of tyrosine into L-DOPA which forms dopamine. Reserpine prevents accumulation of dopamine in the vesicles. Deprenyl inhibits the activity of monoamine oxidase-B and thus, increases dopamine levels.

Precursors of Neurotransmitters

Different precursors are needed for the synthesis of different neurotransmitters. For example, L-DOPA is the precursor for dopamine synthesis that crosses the blood brain barrier and is used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. In case of depressed patients the activity of norepinephrine is lowered, so the precursors for this neurotransmitter are administratively externally. The precursors for this neurotransmitter are L-phenylalanine and L-tyrosine. These precursors also participate in the synthesis of dopamine and epinephrine. The synthesis of these neurotransmitters also requires vitamin B6, vitamin C and S-adenosylmethionine. L-tryptophan is the precursor for serotonin synthesis and studies have indicated that its administration results in increased production of serotonin in the brain. The conversion of L-tryptophan requires vitamin C. 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HT) also acts as a precursor for serotonin.

Degradation and Elimination

Neurotransmitters must be broken down into small molecules before they reach the post-synaptic neuron in order to participate in excitatory or inhibitory signal transduction. For example, acetylcholine (ACh) is an excitatory neurotransmitter which is broken down by acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Choline is recycled by the pre-synaptic neuron to form acetylcholine again. Other neurotransmitters like dopamine are capable to diffuse away from their synaptic junctions and are eliminated from the body via kidneys or destroyed in the liver. Each neurotransmitter has a specific degradation pathway.

Important Neurotransmitters

A number of chemicals are known to act as neurotransmitters and they will be treated here separately.

1. Acetylcholine (Ach)

Acetylcholine is a part of the peripheral nervous system and was the first neurotransmitter to be discovered. It is an excitatory neurotransmitter in contrast to the monoamines which are inhibitory. The precursors of acetylcholine are acetyl-CoA produced during the glucose metabolism and choline that are actively transported across the blood brain barrier. Production of this neurotransmitter takes place in the brain. The dietary choline comes from the phosphatidyl choline present in the membranes of plant and animal cells except bacterial cells. Acetyl-CoA and choline are independently synthesized inside the cell body of the neuron. Brain has few acetylcholine receptors but outside the brain it is the principal chemical that governs muscle activity. Body muscles may be either skeletal muscles that are under the voluntary control or smooth muscles of the autonomous nervous system lacking voluntary control. The nervous system can further be subdivided into sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions. Direct innervation of the skeletal muscles is due to acetylcholine while that of the smooth muscles is due to norepinephrine.

Acetylcholine receptors are of two types normally, a fast acting ion channel controlled receptor and a slow acting receptor that requires a G-protein (Guanine nucleotide binding protein) which stimulates second messengers to indirectly open ion channels. Direct ion channel controlling receivers respond within microseconds while indirect second messenger controlling receptors may take milliseconds in order to generate a response. The fast acting receptor is known as nicotinic as it is specifically activated by a toxin present in tobacco. The slow acting receptor is known as muscarinic as it requires a toxin muscarine and acetylcholine for its activation. Parasympathetic nerves may be either cranial or sacral. 75% of all parasympathetic nerve fibers arise from a single cranial nerve known as vagus. These fibers travel towards the ganglia and finally enter smooth muscles. The preganglionic fibers are nicotinic. The neuromuscular junction of skeletal muscles is also nicotinic while that of smooth muscles is muscarinic.

The speed with which the skeletal muscles respond clarifies that they are controlled by fast acting nicotinic receptors. The activity of acetylcholine in both nicotinic and muscarinic synapses is inhibited by acetylcholinesterase. The choline liberated after the hydrolysis of acetylcholine can be transported across the post-synaptic membrane to be used for the resynthesis of acetylcholine. Some snake venoms can block nicotinic receptors causing paralysis. Atropine is known to block muscarinic receptors. Most brain cholinergic receptors are muscarinic as they show synaptic plasticity. Major proportion of acetylcholine synthesis in brain occurs in the interpendunctural nucleus. All the inter-neurons in the striatum and the nucleus accumbens are cholinergic. The primary cholinergic input to the cerebral cortex arises from the basal nucleus of Meynert, a prominent area of ​​substantia innominata. Meynert's nucleus is also known to innervate basolateral amygdala, basal ganglia and reticular nucleus of thalamus.
If muscarinic blocking agents are administrated in normal individuals then memory loss can occur.

2. Dopamine

Dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin are the primary monoamine neurotransmitters. Dopamine and norepinephrine are catecholamines while serotonin is an indolamine. Tyrosine is not an essential amino acid as its synthesis occurs in the liver from phenylalanine in the presence of phenylalanine hydroxylase. It can not be synthesized in the brain so must be coupled with the large neutral amino acid transporter molecules in order to enter brain. These transporter molecules also transport phenylalanine, tryptophan, methionine and branch-chained amino acids.

When tyrosine enter brain it must be converted into DOPA (Dihydroxyphenylalanine) by tyrosine hydroxylase along with oxygen, iron and Tetrahydrobiopterin (THB) that act as co-factors. DOPA is converted into dopamine by aromatic amino acid decarboxylase with pyridoxa L phosphate (PLP) co-factor. The rate of reaction fluctuates when there is vitamin B6 deficiency. Central nervous system has high proportion of dopaminergic cells than adrenergic cells. Dopamine present in the caudate nucleus of brain is responsible for maintaining post while that present in the nucleus accumbens is associated with animal's speed. Two types of primary dopamine receptors are already known as D1 (stimulatory) and D2 (inhibitory). Both these receptors require G-protein for their activity. D2 receptors are located on the dopaminergic neurons and produce negative feedback. They are also known as auto-receptors as they inhibit the release and synthesis of dopamine.

The binding of dopamine to the D1 receptors stimulates the activity of Adenylyl cyclase (AC) which converts ATP into cyclic AMP (second messenger). The cyclic AMP (cAMP) then binds with the protein kinase A (PKA). PKA participates in modulating the activity of various proteins by adding phosphate to them. Brain has four main dopaminergic tracts namely, the nigrostriatial tract, tuberoinfundibular tract, the mesolimbic tract and the mesocortical tract. Both dopamine and norepinephrine are catabolized by monoamine oxidase (MAO) and catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT). COMT is active in synapses and uses S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) as methyl group while while MAO is active in the pre-synaptic terminal against the catecholamines. Schizophrenia is thought to occur due to the overstimulation of D2 receptors of the mesolimbic and mesocortical systems. The mesolimbic and mesocortical dopaminergic systems are believed to play active role in motivation. Cocaine is known to increase the dopaminergic activity in the mesolimbic areas of brain by inhibiting dopamine re-uptake in the ventral tegmental area and nucleus accumbens.

3. Serotonin (5-Hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT)

Serotonin was isolated from blood serum as a substance responsible for causing muscle contraction. Only 1-2% of the body's serotonin is present in brain while rest comes from platelets, mast cells etc. Synthesis of serotonin involves two steps along with tryptophan hydroxylase and co-factors naturally oxygen, iron and THB. The highest concentration of serotonin is present in the pineal gland. It is primarily methylated in the synthesis of melatonin. Melatonin is synthesized from serotonin in two steps and the whole process requires an acetyl group from acetyl Co-A and a methyl group from S-adenosyl methionine. Melatonin regulates diurnal activity, seasonal behavior and physiology of animals. In mammals the noradrenergic neurons located near the optic nerve are inhibited by light but in darkness norepinephrine stimulates pineal cells to release cyclic AMP which in turn activates N-acetyl transferase to cause acetylation of serotonin. The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus is responsible for regulating the mammalian circadian clock partially in response to light. SCN receives serotonergic supply from dorsal raphe nucleus. Serotonin also reduces responsiveness of SCN to light. Sleep deprivation is responsible for increasing concentration of serotonin in SCN. Low levels of serotonin are associated with high levels of pain sensitivity, locomotion, sexual activity, aggression, depression, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and panic disorders.

4. Glycine

Glycine is the simplest amino acid composed of an amino and a carboxyl group. The role of glycine as a neurotransmitter is very simple. When released into a synapse it binds to the receptors making the membrane permeable to chloride ions. Thus, it is inhibitory in action and can be easily deactivated in the synapse. It is found only in vertebrates and is primarily present in the ventral spinal cord.

5. Aspartic acid (Aspartate)

Aspartate is also present in the ventral spinal cord just like glycine. It also participates in the opening of the ion channels and is soon inactivated by reabsorption into pre-synaptic membrane. It is an excitatory neurotransmitter as it increases depolarization in the post-synaptic membrane.

6. Glutamic acid (Glutamate)

Glutamate is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter present in brain and increases the flow of positive ions by opening ion channels. Its stimulation is terminated by the membrane transport system used for reabsorption of the aspartate and glutamate across the pre-synaptic membrane. NMDA-glutamate receptor is the most complicated receptor. It is the only receptor which is regulated by a ligand and voltage. It has five binding sites for glutamate, glycine, magnesium, zinc and a site that binds a hallucinogenic substance, phencyclidine. NMDA receptors are more densely located in the cerebral cortex, amygdala and basal ganglia. Glutamate is not able to cross the blood brain barrier.

7. Gamma amino butyric acid (GABA)

GABA is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter accounting for 30-40% of all synapses. It is present in high concentration in the substantia nigra and globus pallidus nuclei of basal ganglia, hypothalamus, periaqueductal gray matter and hippocampus. The concentration of GABA in brain is 200-1000 times greater than that of monoamines or acetylcholine. It is somewhat unique as it is rapidly inactivated during its transport into the glial cells. Both GABA and glutamate are synthesized in the brain from alpha-keto glutarate, a molecule produced during Kreb's cycle. Like glycine GABA receptor are coupled with the chloride ion channels.

8. Norepinephrine

Norepinephrine and acetylcholine are the neurotransmitters of the peripheral nervous system. It is synthesized from dopamine in the presence of dopamine beta-hydroxlase along with cofactors namely, oxygen, copper and vitamin C. Dopamine synthesis occurs in the cytoplasm while synthesis of norepinephrine takes place inside the neurotransmitter storage vesicles. Cells utilizing norepinephrine for making epinephrine use S-adenosyl methionine as a methyl group donor. The levels of epinephrine are low as compared to that of norepinephrine. The major proportion of norepinephrine is present in the locus ceruleus of pons while rest is found in neocortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum. Most of the dopaminergic innervations of hypothalamus are derived from lateral tegmental nuclei. It plays a major role in awakenness-arousal cycle.

9. Peptides

Peptides are the most common neurotransmitters located in the hypothalamus. Their complex structure is responsible for their high receptor specificity. Their synthesis takes place in the ribosomes and they are rapidly inactivated at the synapses by hydrolysis. They are more potent than other neurotransmitters as their very small amounts are sufficient enough to produce a response. Opioid peptides combine endorphins, enkephalins and dynorphins. Opiates and enkephalins cause inhibitory of the neuron firing at the locus ceruleus. The concentration of the opioid receptors is very high in the sensory, limbic and hypothalamic regions of brain. Their concentration is also high in the amygdala and preiaqueductal gray area. Cholecystokinin (CCK) is known to participate in satiety. Injection of small doses of CCK in the paraventricular area can inducing feeding. It is also known to modulate dopamine release. Low doses of the peptide vasopressin are known to enhance learning process in laboratory animals.

10. Endorphins

Solomon Snyder and Candace Pert of Johns Hopkins discovered endorphin in 1973. It resembles opioids in structure and function. It is inhibitory and is involved in pain reduction and pleasure. Opioid drugs work by attaching to the receptor sites of endorphin. It also causes hibernation in bear and other animals.

Samsung Gear S3 VS Gear S2: A Side by Side Comparison

Samsung has just disclosed its seventh smartwatch, the Gear S3 along with its two variants, Classic and Frontier. The fresher model comes with some incredible features and makes various improvements on last year’s watches. Here, we are going to compare both of these exceptional watches so you can analyse better which one to shop and which one to ignore. So, let’s get started with side by side comparison of Samsung Gear S3 and Gear S2.

Variants Comparison:

First, let’s discuss the variants of these two great smartwatches. Both Gear S3 and S2 come with two separate and unique designs. The Samsung Gear S3 variants are Gear S3 Classic and the Gear S3 Frontier. Overall, there is no big difference between the two forms, except its strap style and weight and Frontier with LTE built-in. Inversely, The Samsung Gear S2 alternatives were named as Gear S2 Basic and Gear S2 Classic.

Design Comparison:

The design of Samsung Gear S3 is elegant, unique, and rugged but it is not suited for women due to its bigger size and wrist styling. Samsung Gear S3 Classic version appearance is almost similar to the LG Watch Urbane than the S2 Classic.

Overall, S3 comes with a dress watch style in comparison with S2, which looks more like a sports watch due to its sporty plastic curves. The rubber strap has been upgraded with a leather strap and a 22 mm pin in a metal body similar to the S2 Classic.

It is more loyal to compare the S3 Classic with the S2 Classic, which had a standard 20 mm leather band. However, the S2 Classic smartwatch delivers more visual features in comparison with the S3 Frontier. Frontier version of S3 is more sporty, according to the majority of people.

Size Comparison:

When it comes to size, the Samsung Gear S3 is one of the largest smartwatches in the market nowadays. 46mm size is way too big for the individuals with smaller wrists. While on the other hand, Gear S2 was the smaller ones.

Weight Comparison:

With additional size, Samsung Gear S3 is bulky too, almost 30% heavier than its predecessors. Frontier version is even 8% to 10% heavier than the Classic. Due to its bigger size and weight, S3 is not suited for the individuals with smaller wrists. And it will not attract women either.

Display Comparison:

The screen size of both Samsung Gear S3 variants is larger than its predecessors. S3 has 1.3-inch 360×360 pixel AMOLED Always-On display with a pixel density of 278ppi.Although the bigger screen size is convenient to read but it also increases the overall dimensions and the weight as well as decrease the pixel density of the device, which is not good at all. As the body weight increased up to 30% in the current model than the previous versions, the display size has also been increased by 15%. As far as display material is concerned, both Samsung watches use Corning Gorilla Glass. The S3 uses the SR+ composite, which is more damage resistant.

All in all, the Gear S2 technically has a brighter but smaller display. In comparison, S3 can display more on its Always-On display, which also keeps color intact instead of going to grayscale and delivers the best customisation.

Performance Comparison:

Performance wise, Gear S3 is far better than its predecessor. With the powerful processor, improved operating system, and more RAM, S3 is beating S2 in almost every department. It delivers 50% additional memory and battery comparing with its predecessor.

Battery Comparison:

Now let’s come to one of the most vital considerations of any gadget device, the battery. Samsung Gear S3 is loaded with 380mAh ambient light yet powerful battery that gives extra 24 hours than Gear S2’s 250mAH battery, and you remain connected up to 4 days. However, it may vary according to the usage of the device.

Software Comparison:

If you experience the Samsung Gear S3’s operating system then you will know that it is the same as was active on the S2 smartwatch, except now you can spin the bezel to accept or cancel calls and there are some minor visual changes. According to the manufacturer, both devices are compatible with Android and iOS.

Price Comparison:

Price is one of the most important aspects when it comes to buying these powerful and stunning smartwatches, and it would be your main concern too. Well, the basic model of Gear S2 costs 299 USD, and the S2 Classic is available at 349 USD. On the other hand, the Gear S3 opening price is 499 USD. Through a well-reputed shopping comparison engine; you can get your favourite smartwatch at the cheapest price while cutting the additional charges and taxes. These types of price check sources provide the best deals from the top retailers of any particular location.

Other Features Comparison:

Water Resistance

Both smartwatches are completely water-resistant and provide great protection against splashing, rain, and water drop with IP68 dust & waterproof rating. IP68 water resistance means you can put it under the water of up to one meter deep and for maximum 30 minutes. It is far better than Apple watch that can’t be worn in rain or while swimming.

Wireless Charging

Both models of Samsung smartwatch support wireless charging.


Unlike Gear S2, speaker and microphone are pre-installed in S3 that let you call more freely.

GPS & Connectivity

GPS is only active in the 3G variants of the Samsung Gear S2. Inversely, all the S3 models have built-in GPS. In addition, the Frontier version of S3 has built-in 3G/LTE connectivity, so you can make and receive calls as well as check other activities without even using the phone.

Samsung Pay

Samsung Pay has been added into the Gear series since 2016. However, the 2015 models were NFC-only, and so retailers were required to use an extra NFC scanner for accept payments. The 2016 models have both NFC and MST technology, and thus you can shop from anywhere. While doing online shopping, try to compare prices for getting the cheapest deals.

Final Words:

With the bigger display, bigger RAM, and bigger battery, Samsung Gear S3 has already given Gear S2 a tough time but it doesn’t mean that S3 is replacing the Gear S2. Both models have their own ups and downs. And so picking up a one between these two is not an easy decision to make. Although S3 is built with some amazing new features, but it is also a bit bulky and due to the bigger size it’s not well suited for the individuals with smaller wrists. At first look, it looks like that the S3 is made only for men. On the other hand, S2 has a perfect size and includes all the major features of a well-equipped smartwatch. But it doesn’t offer LTE. So it is worth spending some time to compare features and prices of both these watches and choose a one according to your preferences.

How to Get Rid of Warts

The Causes of Warts:

Warts are caused by a single virus, of which there is many strains. This virus is the human papillomavirus or HPV. This virus is one of the most prevalent infections in the world – it affects approximately 40% of all humans. Because of the warts that result from HPV, it is often times referred to as "the wart virus". Genital warts are the most known wart in association with this virus; however, all warts are a result of HPV. Each type of wart (common, plantar, flat, and genital) comes from a different strain. Common warts originate from HPV types 2, 4 and 7. Plantar's warts come from type 1, in the plantar area of ​​the foot. Flat warts come from types 3 and 10 of HPV. Genital warts are a result of over 30 different types of the human papillomavirus.Wart Virus

Warts are actual viruses living in the skin. Blood vessels feed the wart, and therefore the virus itself, keeping it alive and present. This is the reason that wart removal can often times be very painful – the wart is attached to capillaries and embedded in the skin. If you look at your wart, you will probably see little black dots inside. Those black dots are actually the clotted blood vessels feeding your wart. Yummmmm.

Warts are spread when a non-infected area of ​​skin comes in contact with an infected area, either through direct contact or contact with skin cells shed from the wart. It is presumed that the uninfected skin must have at least a minuscule tear in order for HPV to be contracted. In other words, if you have a wart anywhere on your body, and that wart comes in contact with another person's damaged skin, that uninfected person could now have HPV. (This includes warts on the hands and feet.)

2. The Different Types of Warts:

Warts come in varying shapes, sizes, and appearance. Some are single bumps, while others form in groups. Following is a guide to the types of warts and what to look for when determining what type of wart you have.

* Plantar's Warts: A common wart that grows on the side or bottom of your foot. Because they are located on the bottom of the foot, they are usually flat and painful due to your body weight pressing down on them. The wart is actually a lot bigger than what you can see. If you push down on the wart you will see an area that is yellowish in color which is the area of ​​the whole wart. These warts are very contagious because this skin is so easily shed from your feet. Also, the virus likes warm and moist environments, including the gym-shower floor, so they are spread to athlete's in the same manner as athlete's foot. Athlete's have the highest incidence of planter's warts, and diabetics are also susceptible to them.

* Flat Warts: These warts are small and smooth, with a round or oval shape. They appear in large numbers – 20 to 100 at a time – anywhere on the body. In children, these warts are most commonly found on the face. In men, they can be present within a beard, and in women, on the legs. Flat warts can spread quickly from cuts while shaving. Also, scratching the affected area can cause the warts to spread in a linear fashion.

* Genital Warts: Genital warts are spread through sexual contact involving the genitals, anus or mouth. They generally form as tiny, soft, flesh-colored bumps. They can become hard and rough and also develop a stalk. Sometimes multiple warts may grow resembling a small cauliflower. These warts are usually painless, and disappear after a couple of months, but they are incurable; therefore they can come back again and again. For information specific to genital warts, see our article How to Get Rid of Genital Warts.

3. Wart Treatments:
Over-the-Counter Wart Cures

Lucky for you, most warts will disappear by themselves, but if you want to speed up the process, there are many over-the-counter products you could try. These are all either used to freeze (a mix of dimethyl ether and propane) or burn (salicylic acid) the wart off, which will destroy the cells containing the virus. Some of these include Compound W (gel, liquid, pad and spray), Dr. Scholl's (pads / discs, liquid), Wartner (pads, liquid), and Curad (pads). It is important that you DO NOT use OTC medications on facial or genital warts. These drugs are too harsh for these sensitive areas.

Home Remedies for Warts

There is a wide array of home remedies for warts to choose from;

* Duct tape. Cut a piece of duct tape to fit over your wart. Leave the tape on for six days, then remove it and soak your wart in water for a few minutes. Use an emery board or pumice stone to file the dead skin on your wart down. Dry the area over night then reapply another piece of duct tape in the morning. Continue this process until your wart is gone. This is believed to work because the irritation that is caused forces your immune system to fight off the virus.

* Garlic. Crush some fresh garlic, rub it directly on your wart, and cover it with a bandage. Apply new garlic every day and your wart will blister and fall off within as little as a week. Be careful not to get garlic on the surrounding healthy skin; it helps to apply petroleum jelly to the skin around your wart.

* Vinegar. Soak a cotton ball in vinegar and tape it to your wart with a bandage for at least one or two hours daily.

* Dandelion sapDandelion sap. Pick a dandelion from your yard, break the stem open and drip the sap onto your wart. Do this daily until your wart disappears. The sap will mildly irritate your skin, stimulating your immune system to get rid of the wart. Do not use dandelions that have been appreciated within the past few years with an herbicide.

* Vitamin C. Make a paste out of ground Vitamin C tablets and water. Dab it onto your wart and cover it with a bandage. The high acidity of Vitamin C will aide in eliminating your wart as well as helping to fight off the HPV.

* Banana or lemon peel. Cut a piece of the peel to fit over your wart and tape it on, inner side down before bed. The chemicals and oils in these peels will help dissolve and discourage warts.

* Papaya. Using an unripe papaya, make small cuts on the surface, allowing the sap to run out. Collect the sap and let it coagulate. Mix the thick sap with water and apply it to your wart morning and evening. An enzyme in the papaya will digest dead tissue.

* Basil. Tape crushed, fresh basil to your wart using waterproof first-aid tape. Do this daily up to a week and the virus-killing compound in the basil leaf will kill your wart.

* Castor oil. Rubbing castor oil on your wart every day will break it down, possibly because the oil keeps the wart moist, causing the tough skin to just come apart.

* Aloe vera. If you have an aloe plant at home, break a leaf off and rub the gel on your wart. Repeat this daily and your wart will disappear, possibly due to the malic acid in aloe vera.

* Hot water. Because plantar warts are sensitive to heat, soaking your feet in hot (110- to 113-degrees F) water for 15 minutes per day can eliminate your warts.

(All the above home remedies, and many more can be found in the book Reader's Digest 1,801 Home Remedies: Trustworthy Treatments for Everyday Health Problems)

Curing Warts with Hypnosis & the Power of Suggestion

Hypnosis has been a proven method for getting rid of warts. In some cultures, the patient is told to look at the night sky and count nine stars for nine nights. This method may seem like superstition, however it is meant to stimulate the subconscious mind and create belief and anticipation, thereby getting rid of the warts. This type of hypnosis works for children often times, by convincing them that a certain ritual will "magically" make their warts disappear. One example would be to develop an intrict "wart-curing" ritual with your child, such as rubbing a stone on the wart, then burying the stone, signifying the disappearance of the wart.

Adults who have lost much of the innocence of children must use other methods of hypnosis, or the power of suggestion. The place effect works with many illnesses. Suggesting that the wart is being shaved by potent x-rays has, in fact, worked with one man in making his warts fall off the next day (Reader's Digest 1,801 Home Remedies, 2004).

The Deep Trance Now Hypnosis Program has records for sale that claim to be able to assist in the elimination of your warts.
Surgical Methods of Wart Removal

If none of the OTC, home remedies or hypnosis techniques work in eliminating your warts, there are some surgical procedures that your doctor could perform to remove your warts.

* Cryosurgery – freezing the wart off with liquid nitrogen. This freezes the wart and destroys the infected tissue, requires multiple visits and scarring is common. Very painful – the doctor may inject Lidocaine to numb the area.

* Electrocautery – using a high-frequency electric current (wire) applied to the wart. Very painful.

* Owie! Lasers – May leave scars, does not destroy the viral root and the warts may return.

* Surgical excision – cutting the wart off. Lidocaine is injected to numb the area. Scarring is common.

* Cantharidin Treatments – this chemical that comes from "blister beetles" is diluted and applied to the wart; a bandage is secured over the wart and can be removed in 24 hours. If the cantharidin is mixed with other chemicals, the bandage can be removed in 2 hours. Not immediately painful, but extremely painful 3 to 8 hours after application. The wart will blister. You must then revisit your doctor in order for him / her to remove the dead skin. If it is not completely removed, your doctor may repeat the procedure. This has varying degrees of success. (Beware: Cantharidin is as toxic as the most extreme poisons like strychnine. Only 10 mg ingested is fatal.)

* Imiquimod – a drug most commonly used in treating genital warts. May be prescribed for plantar or flat warts. Is applied to the wart every one – three days. The cream triggers the immune system response against the wart-causing virus. This may cause redness of the skin around the wart.

* Bleomycin – (an anticancer drug), Cimetidine (antihistamine) and Tretinoin (vitamin A derivative used in some acne preparations) – all could be injected in small amounts directly into a hard-to-remove wart.

Wart Prevention Tips:

How to avoid contracting warts:

Your only prevention from developing warts is to avoid the human papillomavirus (HPV). The following tips will help with this task:

* Wear Sandals! Wear sandals in public showers, locker rooms, and around pools. These warm, moist environments are ideal for viruses.

* Do not touch any warts on yourself or anyone else.

* Do not share socks, shoes, razors, or towels. Just because warts are not visible, the virus may still be present.

* Keep your feet dry. If your feet sweat profusely, wear socks that will wick the moisture away.

* Take extra care not to injure the soles of your feet. Warts grow more easily if the skin is broken or injured.

Angina – The Most Common Symptom of Coronary Artery Disease

More commonly known as chest pain, angina can be experienced by sufferers of CAD as a discomfort, a pressure or heaviness on the chest. For me, this was the most significant symptom that warned me I was on the verge again of having another heart attack. Sometimes it was an aching, burning sensation, or a feeling of fullness that often times, I attributed to indigestion.

It was mostly chest pain, but sometimes also, the pain would radiate towards my left arm and back. Other sufferers might experience the pain going through their shoulders, neck, jaw or throat.

If there is one advice I could share with you is to take note of these symptoms and never ignore them. I did once and it resulted to a heart attack when I was just 44 years old. Even if you have never been diagnosed with any heart problem, please seek treatment as soon as possible – no, immediately. And if you know you have angina, you must take your anti angina medicines as prescribed by your doctor. Make sure you tell the doctor the precise nature of the pain, when it happened and what you exactly you were doing. With the doctor’s help, you can determine if the pain you have experienced were regularly occurring or if the pain is becoming worse and more frequent, even if you are at rest and not doing any physical efforts.

Causes of Angina

It starts with the decrease of blood flow to the heart. When this happens, oxygen and vital nutrients do not reach the heart muscles. The heart them must use another type of fuel, but a less efficient one so it can continue to pump blood to the rest of the body. This use of another less efficient fuel leads to the production of lactic acid. Lactic acid builds up in the muscles and its accumulation cause pain. The same thing happens with muscles in the legs or arms when you work out too much. The pain in the muscles of the arms and legs is caused by lactic acid also. There are drugs that are used to counteract this tendency of the heart to use an inefficient fuel.

Types of Angina

There are three types of angina, namely:

1. Stable angina – pain is experienced only while doing physical activities or during intense emotional episodes. Taking a rest will usually make the pain disappear.

2. Unstable angina – chest pain experienced from this type may occur more frequently and even while resting or doing minimal activity. Oral medications can usually relieve symptoms but because the pain is unstable, it may be a precursor to a heart attack.

3. Prinzmetal’s angina – pain comes even if you are at rest, sleeping or just being exposed to cold temperatures. Pain is caused by diminished blood flow to the heart’s muscle or due to spasms of the coronary artery very near the blockage.

A doctor can make a diagnosis of angina after asking the patient a series of questions to find out what the symptoms are and under what circumstances pain appears. The doctor will ask you the intensity of the pain, what part of your body experienced the worst pain and what you were doing when the pain came. In my case, I vaguely remember now (it was 9 years ago when I first experienced angina) the chest pain and shortness of breath that followed. I remember becoming nervous and afraid since it was the first time I experienced such pain. I thought then that I was already having a heart attack. I went to a hospital near where I was working at the time. The doctor had me put on a nitroglycerin patch which immediately gave me a terrible headache and advised me to see a cardiologist the next day. You guessed it, I postponed the visit but only for three days. The first episode of pain occurred on a Monday and I went the next Thursday. The cardiologist told me that indeed it was possible that I have blockage on my heart arteries so he told me to stay in the hospital to have my heart examined. I went to the hospital that weekend to undergo a series of test: exercise stress test, ECK, and echo cardiogram. They all pointed to the possibility of coronary artery disease. What remained for me to undergo was angiogram. It was impossible for me to have that then for financial reasons. I asked the doctor to honestly tell me my chances and he told me we could still try to control the progress of my disease through medication.

Angina treatment

Aside from regularly taking medicines to lower blood pressure and control diabetes, the most significant part of my treatment was a radical lifestyle change. Since I was also diagnosed with diabetes, the change included dieting. That meant exercising regularly and eating a heart friendly diet, including avoiding sweets and high cholesterol foods. Back then, I had stopped smoking two years earlier but the doctor told me that the damage smoking has done to my body is still fresh and has definitely contributed to my present condition then.

Some drugs used to treat angina function in two ways:

1. Increasing the amount of oxygen that is brought to the heart muscle

2. Reducing the heart’s need for oxygen.

These type of medications include:

* Beta blockers

* Calcium channel blockers

* Nitrates

* Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors)

Other medicines function by preventing the formation of blood clots. Included in this type are:

* Antiplatelet medications

* Anticoagulants

* Blood thinners.

In my case, I think I went through all these medications in the hope of controlling the advance of my coronary artery disease.

Your doctor may recommend a more radical and invasive treatment to open up a blocked artery if you have a more serious case or worsening case of angina. These include:

* Angioplasty

* Stenting

* Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery

* Transmyocardial revascularization (TMR)

* External counterpulsation (EECP)

It was only after my first heart attack (August 2004) that an angiogram was performed on me. And this was because I had medical insurance which I didn’t have when I was first diagnosed with CAD. The cardiologist told me to have angioplasty but again, I wasn’t able to have one because of financial reasons. He then prescribed an aggressive regimen of medications to help me manage my condition.

My conditioned worsened at the latter part of 2005 and I decided to seek the help of relatives to pay for my angioplasty. It was finally done on January 17, 2006 the day of my son’s birthday. The interventional cardiologist inserted a stent in my heart.

I continued to take my medicines regularly, stick to a meatless diet and avoid high cholesterol food and most of all, I started to bike to work. I did this for two years.

In November of 2008, I again started to have chest pain and experienced shortness of breath when climbing stairs. My cardiologist ordered nuclear imaging tests. Because this was covered by my insurance, I went to the hospital to have them during the first week of December. I underwent the tests for two days. They told me that the images didn’t come out right the first time, so they had to do it again. I remember they injected me with a radioactive liquid and they warned to stay away from children and pregnant women for a minimum of three days. I was radioactive!

The results were disheartening. The doctor recommended that I undergo another angiogram to see if I have another blockage developing in my heart. He suggested that if the results of the angiogram prove that there are blockages, I should have angioplasty right there and then. It turned out that indeed I had two blockages this time. The first one was already partially blocked. He described it to me as “70% to 80% stenosis”, which I came to understand as significantly blocked. He inserted two stents in my heart this time.

What you should do if you are experiencing angina

1. Stop whatever it is you are doing and get rest immediately.

2. You would have been prescribed with nitroglycerin to treat angina so take it and wait.

3. If after five minutes you still have chest pain, take another dose of nitroglycerin.

4. Wait for another 5 minutes and if the pain persist, take a third dose of the medicine.

5. If after resting, 3 doses of nitroglycerin and 15 minutes of waiting and you still have angina, call for emergency help or have someone bring you to the emergency room of a hospital nearest you.

6. If you think that the pain is more than angina and you are having a heart attack, do not delay and call for emergency help. Take an aspirin too. The key to surviving is a quick treatment to lessen the extent of damage to your heart muscles.

Examples Of Spyware And What They Are

Spyware is a general term used to describe software that performs certain behaviors such as advertising, collecting personal information, or changing the configuration of your computer, generally without appropriately obtaining your consent first.

Spyware is often associated with software that displays advertisements (called adware) or software that tracks personal or sensitive information.

That does not mean all software that provides ads or tracks your online activities is bad. For example, you might sign up for a free music service, but you “pay” for the service by agreeing to receive targeted ads. If you understand the terms and agree to them, you may have decided that it is a fair tradeoff. You might also agree to let the company track your online activities to determine which ads to show you.

Other kinds of Spyware make changes to your computer that can be annoying and can cause your computer slow down or crash.

These programs can change your Web browsers home page or search page, or add additional components to your browser you don’t need or want. These programs also make it very difficult for you to change your settings back to the way you originally had them.

The key in all cases is whether or not you (or someone who uses your computer) understand what the software will do and have agreed to install the software on your computer.

There are a number of ways Spyware or other unwanted software can get on your computer. A common trick is to covertly install the software during the installation of other software you want such as a music or video file sharing program.

Any software that covertly gathers user information through the user’s Internet connection without his or her knowledge, usually for advertising purposes. Spyware applications are typically bundled as a hidden component of freeware or shareware programs that can be downloaded from the Internet; however, it should be noted that the majority of shareware and freeware applications do not come with SpyWare. Once installed, the Spyware monitors user activity on the Internet and transmits that information in the background to someone else. Spyware can also gather information about e-mail addresses and even passwords and credit card numbers

Aside from the questions of ethics and privacy, SpyWare steals from the user by using the computer’s memory resources and also by eating bandwidth as it sends information back to the spy ware’s home base via the user’s Internet connection. Because SpyWare is using memory and system resources, the applications running in the background can lead to system crashes or general system instability.

Because SpyWare exists as independent executable programs, they have the ability to monitor keystrokes, scan files on the hard drive, snoop other applications, such as chat programs or word processors, install other SpyWare programs, read cookies, change the default home page on the Web browser, consistently relaying this information back to the SpyWare author who will either use it for advertising/marketing purposes or sell the information to another party.

Licensing agreements that accompany software downloads sometimes warn the user that a SpyWare program will be installed along with the requested software, but the licensing agreements may not always be read completely because the notice of a SpyWare installation is often couched in obtuse, hard-to-read legal disclaimers.

Examples of SpyWare

These common SpyWare programs illustrate the diversity of behaviors found in these attacks. Note that as with computer viruses, researchers give names to SpyWare programs which may not be used by their creators. Programs may be grouped into “families” based not on shared program code, but on common behaviors, or by “following the money” of apparent financial or business connections. For instance, a number of the SpyWare programs distributed by Claria are collectively known as “Gator”. Likewise, programs which are frequently installed together may be described as parts of the same SpyWare package, even if they function separately.

o CoolWebSearch, a group of programs, takes advantage of Internet Explorer vulnerabilities. The package directs traffic to advertisements on Web sites including coolwebsearch.com. It displays pop-up ads, rewrites search engine results, and alters the infected computer’s hosts file to direct DNS lookups to these sites.

o Internet Optimizer, also known as DyFuCa, redirects Internet Explorer error pages to advertising. When users follow a broken link or enter an erroneous URL, they see a page of advertisements. However, because password-protected Web sites (HTTP Basic authentication) use the same mechanism as HTTP errors, Internet Optimizer makes it impossible for the user to access password-protected sites.

o Zango (formerly 180 Solutions) transmits detailed information to advertisers about the Web sites which users visit. It also alters HTTP requests for affiliate advertisements linked from a Web site, so that the advertisements make unearned profit for the 180 Solutions Company. It opens pop-up ads that cover over the Web sites of competing companies.

o HuntBar, aka WinTools or Adware,WebSearch was installed by an ActiveX drive-by download at affiliate Web sites, or by advertisements displayed by other SpyWare programs-an example of how SpyWare can install more SpyWare. These programs add toolbars to IE, track aggregate browsing behavior, redirect affiliate references, and display advertisements.

oZlob Trojan or just Zlob, Downloads itself to your computer via ActiveX codec and reports information back to Control Server. Some information can be as your search history, the Websites you visited, and even Key Strokes.

Top Five Project Management Pitfalls

Project Management is one significant underestimated area that often goes unnoticed across many industries. Many companies introduce it as a process for compliance purposes only. It is also primarily introduced to make the “company” look good and attractive to investors – nothing more and nothing less. Few companies, however, adopt standard methodologies as they take on contracts.

Here are the top five pitfalls an organization should consider as they deliver projects:

Pitfall 1 – Assuming a good technical engineer is capable of managing and leading teams:

Beware the “halo effect” – a famous statement made when discussing human resource management. It simply implies that sponsors sometimes assume that any good technical manager is capable of leading a team to deliver contracts. They assume their technical ability is enough for them to deliver. They simply can’t see that project management is not something that managers inherit or acquire by accident. They fail to see that it requires years of experience as well as a special skill set that one does not simply and accidentally acquire as they get involved with projects at technical or managerial levels.

Pitfall 2 – Planning for the sake of planning only:

Project managers plan their deliveries – that’s really the crux of project management. Unless they plan well, their deliveries are definitely destined to potential failure. They plan for costs, quality, human resources, procurements, and risks. Project managers then share these plans with all project stakeholders. Unless the sponsor and key stakeholders value the need for “proper” project management, these plans are just discarded. The manager may get an acknowledgement email such as the famous response one gets on many projects that goes as such: “Noted with thanks”. When the project manager tries to follow and execute the plan, however, they don’t really get any support from the team neither from any of the key stakeholders. Planning really becomes more of an exercise for the responsible manager to become “very” familiar with the project scope.

Pitfall 3 – Involving and assigning a project manager after signing the contract:

Companies surely need an aggressive business strategy and they surely need motivated and sales staff that are “self-driven” to capture business contracts. In the process of securing such contracts, they fail to recognize the need to involve project managers. Project managers specialize in areas of scope, schedule, and overall delivery. Involving them early on helps provide valuable advice as to whether the contract is risky, doable, or whether there are any significant issues that need further discussion. Regretfully some sales managers intentionally exclude project managers from pre-project meetings because they feel that may jeopardize their chances of securing the contract. After all such managers are not really interested in the overall company strategy. They are rather focused on self-interest and fail to see (sometimes intentionally) how the project contributes to the overall company strategy.

Pitfall 4 – Assessing the project scope after signing the contract:

In their urge to secure large contracts, many companies agree to sign fixed-price contracts without a clear description of the scope involved in doing the project. They assume the large revenue obtained from such contracts should surely be enough to cover the scope and they assume the technical team should definitely be capable of handing the situation. After signing a contract, they assign a project manager to check the technical requirements and check the scope with the customer and they expect things should turn out as expected.

Pitfall 5 – Executing projects with whatever skill set is available:

In their bid to decrease costs, many companies assign unqualified staff to deal with projects that go beyond their resource skill set. For example, sponsors sometimes assume an IT professional should definitely be capable of dealing with network requirements, system administration requirements, database issues, Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) implementations, or any other business intelligence solution. They fail to see that each of these areas requires a defined skill set that is not easily acquired by any IT professional. It would rather take years of experience before any professional becomes capable of handling these varied application areas.