Advantages and Disadvantages on Group Health Insurance VS Individual Health Insurance

In this article we will explore the reasons that motivate employers to get group health insurance for employees and we will look at the advantages and disadvantages from both points of view.

Group Health Insurance VS Individual Private Health Insurance

Probably the most significant distinguishing characteristic of group insurance is the substitution of group underwriting for individual underwriting. In group cases, no individual evidence of insurability is usually required, and benefit levels can be substantial, with few, if any, important limitations.

Group underwriting normally is not concerned with the health or other insurability aspects of any particular individual. Instead, it aims to obtain a group of individual lives or, what is even more important, an aggregation of such groups of lives that will yield a predictable rate of mortality or morbidity. If a sufficient number of groups of lives is obtained, and if these groups are reasonably homogeneous in nature, then the mortality or morbidity rate will be predictable. The point is that the group becomes the unit of underwriting, and insurance principles may be applied to it just as in the case of the individual. To assure that the groups obtained will be reasonably homogeneous, the underwriting process in group insurance aims to control adverse selection by individuals within a group.

In underwriting group insurance, then, certain important features should be present that either are inherent in the nature of the group itself or may be applied in a positive way to avoid serious adverse selection such as:

Insurance Incidental to the Group: The insurance should be incidental to the group; that is, the members of the group should have come together for some purpose other than to obtain insurance. For example, the group insurance furnished to the employees of a given employer must not be the feature that motivates the formation and existence of the group.

Flow of Persons through the Group: There should be a steady flow of persons through the group; that is, there must be an influx of new young lives into the group and an out flow from the group of the older and impaired lives. With groups of actively working employees, it may be assumed that they are in average health.

Automatic Determination of Benefits: Group insurance underwriting commonly requires an automatic basis for determining the amount of benefits on individual lives, which is beyond the control of the employer or employees. If the amount of benefits taken were completely optional, it would be possible to select against the insurer because those in poor health would tend to insure heavily and the healthy ones might tend to elect minimum coverage.

As the group mechanism has evolved, however, insurers have responded to demands from the marketplace, particularly large employers, for more flexibility in the selection of benefits. This flexibility typically is expressed in optional amounts of life and health insurance in excess of basic coverage provided by the employer and in more health care financing choices. Also, increasingly popular cafeteria plans allow participating employees to select among an array of benefits using a predetermined allowance of employer funds. Individuals select, subject to certain basic coverage’s being required, a combination of benefits that best meet his or her individual needs.

Minimum Participation by the Group: Another underwriting control is the requirement that substantially all eligible persons in a given group be covered by insurance. In plans in which the employee pays a portion of the premium (contributory), generally at least 75 percent of the eligible employees must join the plan if coverage is to be effective. In the case of noncontributory plans, 100 percent participation is required. By covering a large proportion of a given group, the insurance company gains a safeguard against an undue proportion of substandard lives. In cases in which employees refuse the insurance for religious or other reasons that do not involve any elements of selection, this rule is relaxed.

Third Party Sharing of Cost: A portion of the cost of a group plan ideally should be borne by the employer or some third party, such as a labor union or trade association. The noncontributory employer-pay-all plan is simple, and it gives the employer full control over the plan. It provides for insurance of all eligible employees and thus, eliminates any difficulties involved in connection with obtaining the consent of a sufficient number of employees to meet participation requirements. Also, there is no problem of distributing the cost among various employees, as in the contributory plan.

Contributory plans usually are less costly to the employer. Hence, with employee contributions, the employer is likely to arrange for more adequate protection for the employees. It can also be argued that, if the employee contributes toward his or her insurance, he or she will be more impressed with its value and will appreciate it more. On the other hand, the contributory plan has a number of disadvantages. Its operation is more complicated, and this at times, increases administrative cost considerably.

Each employee must consent to contribute toward his or her insurance, and as stated before, a minimum percentage of the eligible group must consent to enter the arrangement. New employees entering the business must be informed of their insurance privilege. If the plan is contributory, employees may not be entitled to the insurance until they have been with the company for a period of time. If they do not agree to be covered by the plan within a period of 31 days, they may be required to provide satisfactory evidence of insurability to become eligible. Some noncontributory plans also have these probationary periods.

Efficient Administrative Organization: A single administrative organization should be able and willing to act on behalf of the insured group. In the usual case, this is the employer. In the case of a contributory plan, there must be a reasonably simple method, such as payroll deduction, by which the master policy owner can collect premiums. An automatic method is desirable for both an administrative and underwriting perspective. A number of miscellaneous controls of underwriting significance are typically used in group insurance plans, but the preceding discussion permits an appreciation of the group underwriting underwriting theory. The discussion applies to groups with a large number of employees.

A majority of the groups, however, are not large. The group size is a significant factor in the underwriting process. In smaller plans, more restrictive underwriting practices relating to adverse section are used. These may include less liberal contract provisions, simple health status questions, and in some cases, detailed individual underwriting of group members.

Group Policy: A second characteristic of group insurance is the use of a group policy (contract) held by the owner as group policyholder and booklet-certificates or other summary evidence of insurance held by plan participants. Certificates provide information on the plan provisions and the steps required to file claims. The use of certificates and a master contract constitutes one of the sources of economy under the group approach. The master contract is a detailed document setting forth the contractual relationship between the group contract owner and the insurance company. The insured persons under the contract, usually employees and their beneficiaries, are not actually parties to the contract, although they may enforce their rights as third party beneficiaries. The four party relationship between the employer, insurer, employee, and dependents in a group insurance plan can create a number of interesting and unusual problems that are common only to group insurance.

Lower Cost: A third feature of group insurance is that it is usually lower-cost protection than that which is available in individual insurance. The nature of the group approach permits the use of mass distribution and mass administration methods that afford economies of operation not available in individual insurance. Also, because group insurance is not usually underwritten on an individual basis, the premiums are based upon an actuarial assessment of the group as a whole, so a given healthy individual can perhaps buy insurance at a lower cost. Employer subsidization of the cost is a critical factor in group insurance plan design. Probably the most significant savings in the cost of marketing group insurance lies in the fact that group commissions absorb a much smaller proportion of total premiums than commission for individual contracts.

The marketing system relieves the agent or broker of many duties, responsibilities, and expenses normally associated with selling or servicing of individual insurance. Because of the large premiums involved in many group insurance cases, the commission rates are considerably lower than for individual contracts and are usually graded downward as the premium increases. Some large group insurance buyer’s deal directly with insurance companies and commissions are eliminated. In these cases, however, fees frequently are paid to the consultants involved. The nature of the administrative procedures permits simplified accounting techniques. The mechanics of premium collection are less involved, and experience refund procedures much simplified because there id only one party with whom to deal with such as the group policy owner.

Of course, the issuance of a large number of individual contracts is avoided and, because of the nature of group selection, the cost of medical examinations and inspection reports is minimized. Also, regulatory filings and other requirements are minimized. In the early days of group insurance, administration was simple. That is no longer true. Even with group term life insurance, for which there is no cash value, the push for accelerated death benefits, assignment to viatical companies, and estate or business planning record keeping means that the administration of coverage may be as complex as with an individual policy.

Flexibility: in contrast to individual contracts that must be taken as written, the larger employer usually has options in the design and preparation of the group insurance contract. Although the contracts follow a pattern and include certain standard provisions, there is considerably more flexibility here than in the case of individual contracts. The degree of flexibility permitted is, of course, a function of the size of the group involved. The group insurance program usually is an integral part of an employee benefit program and, in most cases, the contract can be molded to meet the objectives of the contract owner, as long as the request do not entail complicated administrative procedures, open the way to possibly serious adverse selection, or violate legal requirements.

Experience Rating: Another special feature of group insurance is that premiums often are subject to experience rating. The experience of the individual group may have an important bearing on dividends or premium-rate adjustments. The larger and, hence, the more reliable the experience of the particular group, the greater is the weight attached to its own experience in any single year. The knowledge that premiums net of dividends or premium rate adjustments will be based on the employers own experience gives the employer a vested interest in maintaining a favorable loss and expense record. For the largest employers, insurers may agree to complicated procedures to satisfy the employer’s objectives because most such cases are experience rated and reflect the increased cost.

Some insurers experience rate based on the class or type of industry, or even based on the type of contract. For small groups, most insurance companies’ use pooled rates under which a uniform rate is applied to all such groups, although it is becoming more common to apply separate pooled rates for groups with significantly better or worse experience than that of the total class. The point at which a group is large enough to be eligible for experience rating varies from company to company, based on that insurer’s book of business and experience. The size and frequency of medical claims vary considerably across countries and among geographic regions within a country and must be considered in determining a group insurance rate. The composition (age, sex, and income level) of a group will also affect the experience of the group and, similarly, will be an important underwriting consideration.

Advantages and Limitations of the Group Mechanism.

Advantages: The group insurance mechanism has proved to be a remarkably effective solution to the need for employee benefits for a number of reasons. The utilization of mass-distribution techniques has extended protection to large numbers of person s with little or no life or health insurance. The increasing complexity of industrial service economies has brought large numbers of persons together, and the group mechanism has enabled insurance companies to reach vast numbers of individuals within a relatively short period and at low cost. Group insurance also has extended protection to a large number of uninsurable persons. Equally important has been the fact that the employer usually pays a large share of the cost. Moreover, in most countries, including the United States, the deductibility of employer contributions and the favorable tax treatment of the benefits to employees make it a tax effective vehicle with which to provide benefits.

Another significant factor, and one of the more cogent motivations for the rapid development of group insurance, has been the continuing governmental role in the security benefits area. Within the United States, Old-Age. Survivors, Disability, and Health Insurance programs has expanded rapidly, but many observers believe that, had not group insurance provided substantial sums of life insurance, health insurance, and retirement protection, social insurance would have developed even more rapidly. As economies worldwide continue to reduce the size and scope of social insurance programs, we can expect the demand for group based security to grow even more.

Disadvantages: From the viewpoint of the employee, group insurance has one great limitation- the temporary nature of the coverage. Unless an employee converts his or her coverage to an individual policy which is usually ore expensive and provides less liberal coverage, the employee loses his or her insurance protection if the group plan is terminated and often also at retirement because employment is terminated. Group life and health protection is continued after retirement in a significant proportion of cases today in the United States, but often at reduced levels. Recently, with the introduction of a new U.S. accounting standard (FAS 106) requiring that the cost of such benefits be accrued and reflected in financial statements, an increasing number of employers have discontinued post retirement life and health benefits entirely. When such continued protection is not available, the temporary nature of the coverage is a serious limitation.

Retiree group health insurance often is provided as a supplement to Medicare. Another problem of potential significance involves individuals who may be lulled into complacency by having large amounts of group insurance during their working years. Many of these persons fail to recognize the need for, or are unwilling to face the cost of, individual insurance. Perhaps of even greater significance is the fact that the flexibility of the group approach is limited to the design of the master policy and does not extend to the individual covered employees. Furthermore, group plans typically fail to provide the mechanism for any analysis of the financial needs of the individual which is a service that is normally furnished by the agent or other advisor. Many agents, however, discuss group insurance coverage with individuals as a foundation for discussing the need for additional amounts of individual life and health insurance.

The Cobra Autosampler: What Are Its Benefits?

An autosampler automates the liquid sampling process by operating on a programmed time schedule, or in relation to conditions that are interpreted by sensors. In either case, autosamplers improve the efficiency of gas chromatography (GC) sampling – a process in which inlets were once filled by hand. Today, scientists can choose between several makes and models of autosamplers, of which the Cobra L / S liquid sampler is one of the best. Featuring a simple, lightweight design and easy operating procedures, this autosampler offers the following benefits, among others:

Features an All-Electric Design that Eliminates the Need to Purchase Gases

The equipment's all-electric design allows laboratories to reduce operating costs by eliminating the need to purchase a carrier gas for the mobile phase. For large laboratories and facilities that contain multiple laboratories, this can create meaningful savings.

Has Variable Injection / Syringe Fill Rates to Meet Process Requirements

Some autosamplers have a limited range of injection and syringe fill rates, but the Cobra autosampler has a range that accommodates that most demanding process requirements. Regardless of the GC sampling process you implement, this autosampler can meet its injection / syringe fill needs.

Uses Standard Syringes Instead of Proprietary Syrings

Ideally, an autosampler should use off-the-shelf syringes and not proprietary ones. In addition to costing more than off-the-shelf syringes, proprietary syringes are difficult to supply on an emergency basis.

Has RS-232 Capability for Data Output to Computers

In scientific instruments, an RS-232 connector – as opposed to the universal serial bus – is the preferred method for outputting data to computers, where it can be analyzed and archived.

Provided air gapping for added network security

Air gapping is an added network security measure that prevents sensitive data from being stolen and repurposed. Whether your GC data is proprietary or confidential in nature, air gapping offers the ultimate protection by physically, electronically, and electromagnetically separating your network from non-secure networks.

Offers wide syringe ranges between 5ul-250ul

A wide syringe range is recommended for laboratories that perform a variety of GC processes that require a varying range of syringe sizes. The 5ul-250ul range of the Cobra autosampler is ideal.

Comes with an Easy to Control User Interface

The easier an autosampler interface is to operate, the more efficient the GC process becomes. The Cobra autosampler features a simple keypad design that allows you to set the equipment to your particular GC process with ease. The interface control parameters are thoroughly explained in the owner's manual.

Features Multiple Tray Settings

In anticipation of various GC parameters, the Cobra autosampler features three levels of tray settings: 120 vials at 1.8ml per vial, 220 vials at.8ml per vile, and 60 vials at 10ml per vile.


The Cobra autosampler is designed to automate every GC process and integrate seamlessly with GC equipment. In doing so, it delivers the benefits listed above, among others. If your current autosamplers need replacement, contact a seller of analytical equipment to learn more about how a Cobra autosampler could benefit your GC needs.

Tips For Caring For Stitches After Scar Revision Surgery

Facial scars – or any scars for that matter – can be embarrassing and annoying. If you chose scar revision cosmetic surgery to remove or decrease the appearance of scars, there is no doubt you are excited to see your healed skin. Follow these tips to help the stitches heal properly.

Be certain to obtain care instructions from your plastic surgeon that are written out. All of the medicine will make it hard for you to remember what went on right after you come out of surgery. It is vital that you fully understand how to care for your stitches during the healing process of your scar revision surgery. When you are in the care of nursing staff they will probably take care of this. Of course you will want to make sure that you can move forward with the treatment you have been accustomed too once you are free and clear. Your directions will, in greater or lesser degree, contain the following sequence / procedures.

It is essential to change bandages as often as the doctor's instructions state. Bandages and possibly stere-strips will be on top of your stitches when exiting the hospital post-scar revision surgery. Most likely your physician will advise when the dressings can be taken off. However, generally speaking, they should remain over your stitches no longer than one day following the procedure.

Allow your sutures to be exposed to air. It is very important that you remove bandages covering your stitches on the evening after your surgery. Get fresh air to them so they can heal. Moreover, it's good for skin in the region to get a chance to dry something. Remove your dressing and dispose of it.

Clean the stitches. When the stitches get exposed, you should take special care to clean them. You should use a q-tip or cotton swab, dipped in hydrogen peroxide and then very lightly put it on your stitch and your scar. You should use a separate cotton swab for every wound in order to prevent the spread of bacterial infection to others.

Make sure the region is protected. After cleaning the stitches from your surgery you must make sure that the area is protected from becoming infected. Topical antibiotics also help you heal faster. You must attend to each stitch. Use a clean cotton swab and apply a very small amount.

You should regularly pay attention to caring for your stitches. You are going to need to clean the stitches every 12 hours following the procedure above. Start off by washing off any debris or scabbing at the site of the stitches. Then reapply your antibiotic ointment. You can promote the re-growth of cells and lessen your scars further by applying this ointment on your stitches.

You must continue to clean, disinfect, and protect your stitches for an after week following your scar revision cosmetic surgery to promote proper healing.

St Lazarus Prayers and History

Saint Lazarus was born in Bethany and he had two sisters, Martha and Mary. Jesus was friends with Lazarus and visited often with his family. Saint Lazarus is known as the Patron Saint of the Poor and Sick by the Catholic Church.

The story of Saint Lazarus begins when he gets ill at the age of 30. At the age of 30 Lazarus contracted leprosy an illness that did not have a cure and died shortly after.

Leprosy is a disease that shows up as skin lesions. The lesions grow deeper and deeper and affect the nerve and organs. The word Leprosy comes from the Greek Language and it mean Fish Scales.


Both Mary and Martha Lazarus’s sisters send word to Jesus of Lazarus condition and hoped that he would come and visit. Jesus received word and started his journey to Lazarus. Once Jesus arrived Lazarus had passed away and had been buried for four days. Both Mary and Martha thought that it was too late because Lazarus had passed but Jesus went directly to his grave. When Jesus arrived at Lazarus grave he began to pray. Once he completed his prayer he stood up and said in a loud voice “Lazarus, Come Out!” and Lazarus emerged from his grave. Jesus had performed a resurrection and Lazarus was alive and walking. Both Jesus and Lazarus walked back to his home in the cloth Lazarus had been buried in. This became a testament to the miracles of Jesus.

The devotion and friendship that already existed from Lazarus to Jesus grew. As a faithful follower Lazarus became a prophet and a significant Christian that would have a strong impact with people everywhere he went. Lazarus went to live to the age of 60 and died and was buried Sarcophagus at Kition. His tomb was transferred to Constantinople where is tomb reads “The Four Day Lazarus, Friend of Christ”


In the Catholic tradition all saints are depicted in statues and Saint Lazarus is no different. The statue for Saint Lazarus is usually depicted as a poor man in crutches with dogs around him. His clothing will be minimal and usually in the color purple. Saint Lazarus Feast Day or the day of observation for Saint Lazarus is December 17th. Both od Saint Lazarus sisters are recognized as saints in their own right. Saint Martha is considered the patron Saint of Servants and Cooks. The day of observance or Feast Day for Saint Martha is July 29th. Saint Mary’s feast Day or Day of Observance is July 22nd.

The Catholic Church invokes sick people and people with AIDS to Saint Lazarus for prayer and hope. Prayer to Saint Lazarus can be in a form of a Novena, Rosary Prayers or a specific prayer taken from the bible. Catholic traditions involves presenting the saint of devotion with flowers and candles as well will you invoke them.



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Fainting Goats – Farm Fun Animals

Farm owners are often asked, "Are you kidding?" "Do Fouting guys really exist?" No kidding, Fainting goats are real! These goats are called by a variety of names: stiff-legged goats, scare goats, nervous goats and Myotonic goats. To understand their name, you should know their characteristics and background.

Fainting dogs originally came from Nova Scotia. They were first recorded in history, from Marshall County, TN, back in the 1880s. A man named, Tinsley moved to the northern part of Marshall County, Tennessee and bought with him four goats and a cow. These goats shown nervous tendencies. When these go's started start, their leg muscles would, temporarily, become rigid causing them to lose their balance and fall over!

When myotonia, (stiffening of the muscles) sets in, some goats may not complete loose their balance and fall over, but their knees may buckle. When these goats are placed in situations of extreme stress or fear, their epinephrine and cortisol, (fight or flight hormones) cause increased muscle tension through the body. Myotonia, stiffening of muscles, actually helps build more muscle in these goats. The goats do not loose conscious, are not having a seizure, and their central nervous system is fine. Their muscles just tighten up and then relax. This startled condition only lasts for about ten to fifteen seconds, then after these goats are up and running again.

The false people were almost extinct by the 1980s but are now thriving through the world. Marshall County, Tennessee is named the "cradle" of the Myotonic goats. These goats have lived here for decades. Keep in mind that just because a goat faints does not mean it is a Tennessee fainting goat. You should understand other characteristics of Tennessee fainting goats to help you with distinguishing between breeds.

What other characteristics do these Tennessee goats have? Many of these goats have bulgy eyes with their eyes set wide apart. Their eyes vary in color from varying shades of brown to rare shades of deep blue or icy blue. Their eye placement gives their head a straight-forward type of profile. The nose is wider and more rounded than other breeds, not sharp or pointed. Their medium length ears may be straight, bend downwards at the middle or bend downwards and forward shading their eyes. They come in varying colors, black and white or a variety of colors with different marks and combinations of patterns. These goats have bodies with increased muscle mass due to the myotonia gene! They have a sturdy framework with bold face expressions. They are, generally, hardy, disease resistant and good mothers. Most wean their kids on their own. They milk, generously, for about four months. These goat breeds are slow to mature, so extra care needs to be given when breeding these animals. They are not fully mature until four years old. Tennessee fainting goats can live twelve to fifteen years or more with the proper goat care.

Here is a fun fact about these goats. Have you ever heard of the expression, "scapegoat"? According to some scholars, shepherds kept fainting goats with their flocks of sheep as insurance against predators. When wolves or other predatory animals would attack a flock of sheep, the fainting people would have started and faint. The wolves or other predators would focus so much on the stunning goats, it allowed the sheep to flee and escape. Therefore, the term "scapegoat" refers to the sheep that escaped with the help of the fainting goats.

Fainting goats are wonderful farm animals. These farm fun goats are, mostly, very calm, proud and easily taught. Their sweet personalities will win your heart!

Be sure to see the Myotonic Goat Registry at the country jam, Goats, Music and More Festival, October 8th, 9th and 10th, 2010 in Lewisburg, Tennessee! Admission is free! You will find, fun, food and entertainment for all!

Respiratory Infection

Measles is a respiratory infection that is caused by a virus called paramyxovirus. This disease is spread by respiration or contact with fluids from an infected person. This is through droplet transmission from the nose mouth, or throat by sneezing or coughing. Person infected with this disease is said to be highly contagious for four days. The virus stays airborne for up to 2 hours after the infected person has left the room. The immunity of the person infected with this disease is said to be lifetime. It is a rare condition in which an infected person will be infected twice by rubeola.

Rubeola or measles often attack children which are less than a year old or those who have not completed their vaccination. For pregnant women, acquiring this disease may cause stillbirth, miscarriage or preterm delivery. Typically, measles starts with red eyes, cough, runny nose and fever. After two to three days, red spots called koplik's spot appears within the mouth. Symptoms are usually evident after10-12 days after exposing itself to the virus. Rashes show between five to seven days after the initial symptoms. Rashes start at the hairline that gradually spreads to the body including the feet and the hands. There is fine flaking or desquamation on the skin when rashes start to fade on the infected body.

There are several complications that can be associated with measures. These are pneumonia, ear infections and diarrhea. It can also include encephalitis which can cause mental retardation, convulsion and death, persistent brain inflammation and blindness. Blindness is said to be due to measures and poor nutrition at the same time. Encephalitis as a complication to measles is said to be dangerous that may result to death. Encephalitis usually starts six days after rashes appears and includes fever, drowsiness, headache, seizures, and vomiting.

Clinical method is often used to diagnose measles. Appearance and history of the patients concludes the diagnosis of the patient. The appearance of koplik's spot often helps in diagnosing the said condition. Blood test is also recommended to confirm measles because it can be misdiagnosed as rubella, Kawasaki disease, roseola, mountain spotted fever, drug rash or dengue. It is important to ask help from medical practitioner for correct diagnosis.

Treatment For measles focuses on the relief of the symptoms it has. It is best to isolate the infected person to prevent spread of the disease. Bed rest is also recommended until fever is gone and patient should be hydrated. Sometimes vitamin A supplementation is also advised. The best way to prevent measles is through measles immunization. It is a vaccine that includes immunization for mumps, measles, rubella and varicella and is given to kid not older that 12 years of age.

There are also people who are not to receive measles vaccine. These are people who have allergic reaction to measles vaccines and its components, pregnant women, HIV patients and cancer patients. Re vaccination is also required to people who are vaccinated for the first time at the age of 1yr or less. People vaccinated with KMV should also be vaccinated again.

When there are sign and symptoms of measles, it is best to consult a doctor to properly diagnose the disease and to prevent it from spreading and affecting other people.

Equine Tetanus – An Unnecessary Disease

Do you know anyone with a horse that has had tetanus? Probably not. Despite the fact that the organism responsible for the disease is often present in soil and horse manure, it is not a common disease. That is largely due to the widespread use of vaccination.

But that doesn’t mean you can be complacent. Tetanus is an ever present threat to the health of your horse. In many cases the disease is fatal.

Tetanus is caused by a bacterium called Clostridium tetani. It produces spores, which are very resistant and can survive treatment with many disinfectants. In its active form, the organism thrives in conditions with little oxygen. So damaged tissue buried underneath the skin is an ideal habitat.

In horses, most cases of tetanus result from the organism getting into wounds. Contrary to what many think, it is not big gaping wounds that present the greatest risk. It is often the small puncture wounds that are the most dangerous. It takes between one and three weeks for signs of disease to develop after the animal has become infected. So the original wound has usually healed by the time the horse becomes unwell. Often the owner has not even noticed that their horse has had a injury.

Puncture wounds to the foot are a particular risk. They are often contaminated with soil – which is a good source of Clostridium tetani.

The nervous signs characteristic of the disease are caused by a neurotoxin that is released by the organism as it multiplies in the tissues. The toxin may be absorbed into the bloodstream and produce generalized signs. Less commonly it may be affect the nerves close to the wound and produce a localized spasm before spreading more generally.

The toxin causes progressive muscle rigidity. Affected horses often have a frightened expression because of spasm of the facial muscles. Their nostrils flare, their ears are held back and they have a wide-eyed appearance. They have difficulty chewing and opening their mouth. Often their tail is held up slightly. Affected horses walk stiffly (“like a board”) without bending their neck. The muscles of the jaw “seize up” and the horse is unable to eat. That is the characteristic that gave the disease its old name of “lockjaw.”

The spasms are made worse when the horse is stimulated. Any sudden noise or movement can be enough to set off bouts of muscle spasms. Often there is spasm of the muscle of the third eyelid, causing it to protrude across the eye. Eventually, horses with tetanus are unable to stand. Their respiratory muscles become affected and so they have difficulty breathing. Most cases will die.

What can you do if you think your horse has tetanus? Call the veterinarian straight away! Some affected animals may respond to treatment. But their chances of survival are much better if treatment is started as early as possible. Keep the horse in a cool dark stable. Avoid any sudden noises or movements. Putting plugs of cotton wool in the ears may help.

What is the likely outcome? Unfortunately many cases of tetanus will die. Some horses that only show mild signs when they are first recognized may respond to aggressive treatment. Even so, they will need careful nursing for two weeks or longer if they are to survive.

So how can you prevent your horse getting tetanus? An effective vaccine is available. There is initial course of two injections, followed by a booster after a year. Current vaccines require boosters at up to three year intervals. Tetanus is often included with the influenza vaccine. So horses that have been vaccinated against `flu will probably be covered against tetanus as well . But it is well worth checking to make sure.

In the vast majority of horses there are no adverse effects of vaccination. Occasional horses may develop a small lump after vaccination.

If your horse suffers an injury and has not been vaccinated, the veterinarian can administer tetanus antitoxin – the “antidote” to tetanus. But this only provides temporary protection for a couple of weeks. By far the most reliable way of protecting your horse from this frequently fatal disease is to make sure that he or she is fully vaccinated.

There is no excuse for any horse or pony not to be fully vaccinated against this disease. Prevention is always better than the cure – certainly for the horse – and for your pocket!

Vaccines Side Effects – Chicken Pox Vaccination

I can remember all of my 10 siblings having the Chicken Pox back in the 1950's along with all of our neighbor's children. When I was growing up, Chicken Pox was considered a "passage into adolescence" and it was not scared.The death rate for chicken pox has dropped just like tuberculosis, scarlet fever, pertussis and measles due to improved sanitation, improved nutrition (better distribution of fruits and vegetables) and improved water supply from 1900 to 1940's. By the 1950's it was no longer the health threat it used to be. I was perplexed when they came out with the vaccine because it was for most, a benign illness that helped build the immune system.

Although it can be a serious illness and certainly not fun, I never hear of anyone dying from the illness while growing up. Out of my five unvaccinated children whom all got the chicken pox, I had one son who had it very hard and was pretty ill for about a week. I know first-hand how disruptive the illness can be for the family. Yes, chicken pox is an inconvenient illness, but not life threatening for most children. It is only dangerous for those who are immune compromised. If the vaccine protected us as implied, this vulnerable group of kids would have benefited from the shot. That is not the case. Statistically, there are outbreaks of chicken pox in highly vaccinated populations calling for concerns of efficacy. It is a live virus vaccine that carries risk for the whole family and has never been tested for long-term safety.

If one looks carefully, you will discover that the vaccine was designed for the employers and the working mothers who did not want time lose at work. You will also discover it is a financial windfall for the vaccine makers. Let us look deeper into the known side effects since the vaccine was introduced in 1995.

• Sept. 2005- New research published in the International Journal of Toxicology (IJT) by Gary S. Goldman, Ph.D., reveals high rates of shinglees (herpes zoster) in Americans since the government's 1995 recommendation that all children receive chicken pox vaccine. Dr. Goldman's finds have corroborated other independent researchers who estimate that if chickenpox were to be nearly eradicated by vaccination, the higher number of hinges cases could continue in the US for up to 50 years; and that while death rates from chickenpox are already very low, any deaths prevented by vaccination will be offset by deaths from increasing shingles disease. Another recent peer-reviewed article authored by Dr. Goldman and published in Vaccine presents a cost-benefit analysis of the universal chicken pox (varicella) vaccination program. Goldman points out that during a 50-year time span, there would be an estimated additional 14.6 million (42%) shingle cases among adults aged less than 50 years, presenting society with a substantial additional medical cost burden of $ 4.1 billion. This translates into $ 80 million annually, utilizing an estimated mean healthcare provider cost of $ 280 per shingles case. Gary S. Goldman, Ph.D. served for eight years as a Research Analyst with the Varicella Active Surveillance Project connected by the Los Angeles County Department of Health Services (LACDHS). The project was funded by the CDC. Dr. Goldman, Ph.D., currently serves as founder and Editor-in-Chief of the peer-reviewed medical journal Medical Veritas ( He recently authored five manuscripts concerning varicella, herpes zoster, and capture-recapture published in the European journal called Vaccine.

• March 1998 – The National Vaccine Information Center reported that three (3) short years after the vaccine was licenses there were over 6,574 adverse reports to the Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS) with 82% were from people who got the vaccine only. The VAERS data has lead to the addition of 17 adverse events to the manufacturer's product label since the vaccine was licensed for use in 1995, including secondary bacterial infections (cellulitis), secondary transmission (inflammation of close contacts), transverse myelitis, Guillain Barre syndrome and herpes zoster (shinglees). Congresional Records prove that only 10% of all adverse events get reported! That is proof that the vaccine manufactures do not study the vaccine well enough before releasing it on an unsuspecting public.

It is this researcher's opinion that there are benefits to allowing our children to get this infectious illness. The focus should be on how can we support the human body as it gets exposed naturally in life to these beneficial illness that build natural life-time immunity! We must not be arrogant enough to think that we can eliminate or manipulate this world of natural occurring infections. I believe these natural infections will insure a healthy human race in the long-run. I believe the vaccines side effects are far worse than the illness.

We can enhance immunity through good nutrition, healthy lifestyle, the use of vitamins and minerals and supporting therapies such as chiropractic for improved nervous system and immune system function and development. Only when we as a nation change our attitudes about healthcare will we see the changes needed to insure our national health. That requires more personal responsibility and a shift of consciousness which I believe is taking place. I will leave you to ponder one of my favorite quotes:

"The significant problem we face can not be solved at the same level of thinking we were at when we created the problem." Albert Einstein

A Complete Guide To Immunization For Babies And Toddlers

The recent outbreaks of measles across parts of the UK have highlighted once again the very real importance of children having immunizations. From around the age of two months children will be given a series of immunizations against a variety of illnesses and diseases, and these should be topped up by boosters when the time is right.

Although parents do have a choice when it comes to immunizations, it is extremely risky to opt out since children are likely to be at a very grave risk for the rest of their childhood at least, and in some cases, for life.

It is too easy to dismiss serious diseases as being illegally and rare, but of course the only reason they are rare is because of the widespread use of vaccines and the regular program of immunizing children.

The recent outbreak of measles in the UK is directly as a result of the scare a few years ago with regard to the MMR vaccine. A few years ago it was (wrongly) claimed that the MMR vaccine could trigger autism in children, and as a result a great many parents opted out of having their children immunized.

The result is that a few years later millions of children are at serious risk, and it should not be overlooked that most of these diseases which children should be vaccinated against can be life threatening.

How Do Vaccines Work?

Vaccines work by introducing a harmless version of the disease the vaccine is intended to protect against. So with measles a very weak, inert form of the measles virus is introduced. This is quite harmless, and can not spread or cause the illness itself to develop.

What it does do is trigger the body's natural immune system into analyzing the virus, and developing antibodies to defend against it. This then gives the child's immune system a permanent record of the disease and a way of fighting it effectively.

What Symptoms Can Occur Following A Vaccine?

Once a vaccine is administrated you may notice a small red bump, possibly some bruising and a slight rash in the area, although this will usually go within a couple of days.

It is normal for children to feel a little under the weather for a day or two, and with the MMR vaccine it is possible that between a week and two weeks after the jab the child develops mild symptoms of any of the three diseases. This may include symptoms such as a rash, spots, swelling or a fever. These symptoms will usually pass quite quickly, and should not be any cause for alarm.

Of course, if you are at all worried about your child following a vaccine then do speak to your doctor, health visitor or call the NHS helpline on 0845 4647.

What Vaccines Should A Young Child Have?

A child's vaccines will begin at the age of 2 months, when he or she will be immunized against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis (whooping cough), polio, Haemophilus influenza type b, and pneumococcal infection.

The next round of immunizations will be a month later at age 3 months. These will include diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis (whooping cough), polio, Haemophilus influenza type b, and meningitis C (meningococcal infection). Some of these seem to be repeated from the previous month, but this is because a series of very mild vaccinations need to be administrated to gradually build up the immunity, otherwise they may have an adverse effect on the young baby.

A month later, at 4 months old they will be ready for diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis (whooping cough), polio, Haemophilus influenza type b, pneumococcal infection and meningitis C. The good news is that once these have been done you and your child can take a break from jabs and needles for about 8 months!

Once your child reaches the age of 1 year they will need to have their Haemophilus influenza type b and meningitis C vaccines, and then a month later, at 13 months old, that is when they have the MMR vaccine, which includes measles, mumps and rubella, as well as a vaccine for pneumococcal infection.

Your child will then be fully immunized, and will not need any additional vaccines or boosters until they near school age, or nursery age. Between the ages of 3-5 years old they will need to have their fourth diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and polio vaccines, and a second MMR (measles, mumps and rubella) vaccine.

If you forget about an appointment, or miss booking your child in, then make sure you speak to your GP as soon as possible as they will still be able to administrator a suitable booster vaccine in most cases.

Never choose against having your child immunized just because of hearsay about risks, or because you think there's no risk, or even because you just do not like doctors, hospitals or needs. Immunisations save lives, and the recent news across the UK is a stark warning as to how true this is.

Advantages of Sonamasuri Hand Pounded Rice

Going on a diet? Does this mean going off your favorite food, rice? If yes, read on to uncover a healthy way of keeping rice in your diet. The answer lies in going traditional. Eat what was eaten for thousands of years before machines were invented. Substitute the ubiquitous polished rice with the pale Sona Masuri hand pounded rice. Eat rice which has all the nutrients intact. Eat rice milled by hand, the way our ancestors ate it.

Hand polished rice is pulled by hand, so that only the robust outer protection layer, the husk, is removed. It is edible and contains all of the nutrients as nature intended.It is hand pounded with a mortar and pestle and winnowed to produce pale, whitish rice. This kind of whole grain is a complex carbohydrate and bears a mild nutty flavor. It is full of fiber and may take longer to cook. However, with pressure cookers at hand; it is an easy task to convert hand pounded rice into instantly likable and nutritious food.

Benefits of consuming Sona Masuri hand pounded rice:

• Low on the Glycemic Index, It takes a long time to digest making you feel fuller for longer thereby helping got keep hunger at bay

• Presence of fiber aids digestion

• The protein is absorbed quickly and is readily assimilated

• Contains essential nutrients like Manganese, Tryptophan among others

• Selenium in hand pounded rice reduces the risk of cancer of the colon

• Presence of amino acids helps to reduce fatty liver

• Reduces cholesterol and accelerates fat burning making you leaner

• Reduces risk of cardiovascular diseases

• Avoids spikes in sugar levels, It can be eaten by people with diabetes too

• The presence of Vitamin E makes it an anti-aging agent

• Helps to regulate blood pressure

• Insoluble fibers contribute to preventing formation of gallstones

As you plan your diet combine Sona Masuri with your favorite dal to make a wholesome meal. It grown organically with no adulteration can do wonders for your health. Produced and grown by natural methods Sona Masuri is rich in proteins, vitamin B & vitamin E and iron along with several minerals.

A diet consisting of pastel white hand pounded will keep you physically and mentally healthy. Interestingly, Ayurveda suggests many rice based diet plans which are used to treat various imbalances in the body. Eating the right amount of natural hand pounded with your favorite accompaniment is a meal which is easily digestible and gives you essential amino acids – the building blocks of proteins. As your diet continues, you will observe a change in your body making you more active.

While this is an introduction to the advantages that hand pounded rice offers when included in your diet we would also like to hear from you on how hand pounded organic rice has helped you. Any interesting recipes that have enhanced the taste and were appreciated are welcome to be shared.

What You Need to Know About the Flu – How Does the Flu Spread?

What Is the Flu?

Each winter, millions of people suffer from the flu, which is a highly contagious infection. It spreads easily from person to person, mainly when an infected person coughs or sneezes. Viruses that infect the nose, throat, and lungs cause the flu, which is the short name for influenza. The illness is usually a mild disease in healthy children, young adults, and middle-aged people. However, it can be life threatening in older adults and in people of any age who have chronic illnesses such as diabetes or heart, lung, or kidney diseases.
The flu is a respiratory infection caused by a variety of flu viruses. It differs in several ways from the common cold, which is a respiratory infection that is also caused by viruses. For example, people with colds rarely get fevers, headaches, or suffer from the extreme exhaustion that the flu viruses can cause.

What types of Flu are there?

The first flu virus was identified in the 1930s. Since then, scientists have classified three types of flu viruses based upon their protein composition. The types of flu virus include types A, B, and C. Type A viruses are found in many kinds of animals, including:


Type B virus broadly circulates in humans. Type C has been found in humans, pigs, and dogs. Type C causes mild respiratory infections, but does not spark epidemics.
Type A influence is the most frightening of the three flu types. It is believed to be responsible for the global outbreaks of 1918, 1957, and 1968.

What are the first signs of the Flu

Common flu symptoms start quickly and can include:

Dry cough
Sore throat
Runny or stuffy nose
Muscle aches
Extreme fatigue.

Typically, the fever will begin to decline on the second or third day of the illness.

Is the Flu contagious?

Outbreaks usually begin suddenly and occurs mainly in the late fall and winter. The flu spreads through communities, creating an epidemic. During the epidemic, the number of cases peaks in about 3 weeks and subsidies after another 3 or 4 weeks. Half of the population of a community may be affected. Schools are an excellent place for flu viruses to attack and spread. Therefore, families with school-age children have more infections than other families, with an average of one-third of the family members becoming infected each year.

When is the Flu season?

Approximately 10 percent to 20 percent of Americans come down with the Flu between November and March (the season for this illness).


Besides the rapid start of the outbreaks and the large numbers of people affected, the flu is an important disease because it can cause serious complications. Most people who get it will get better within a week, although they may have a lingering cough and tire easily for a while longer. However, for elderly people, newborn babies, and people with certain chronic illnesses, the flu and its complications can be dangerous.

How does the Flu spread?

You can get the flu if someone around you who has it coughs or sneezes. Or, you can get it simply by touching a surface, like a telephone or doorknob, that has been contaminated by someone who has the flu. The viruses can pass through the air and enter your body through your nose or mouth, or if you've touched a contaminated surface, they can pass from your hand to your nose or mouth. You are at greatest risk of getting infected in highly populated areas, such as in crowded living conditions and in schools.

Why do I get the Flu?

It is estimated that 10 percent to 20 percent of Americans come down with the flu during each flu season, which typically lasts from November to March. Children are 2 to 3 times more likely than adults to get sick with the flu, and children frequently spread the virus to others. Although most people recover from the illness, it is estimated that in the United States more than 100,000 people are hospitalized and about 36,000 people die from this illness and its complications every year.

Medication for the Flu

Although the flu vaccine is the best flu prevention method, antiviral flu medicine is also available by prescription. Flu medicines include:

Tamiflu® (oseltamivir)
Flumadine® (rimantadine)
Symmetrel® (amantadine)
Relenza® (zanamivir).

Tamiflu, Flumadine and Symmetrel may be used by adults and children who are 1 year of age and older. The drugs can be used for both prevention and to reduce the duration of fever and other flu symptoms.

Tips on how to prevent the Flu

A flu shot can greatly lower your chances of getting the flu. In fact, most illnesses and deaths that are caused by the flu could have been preceded by a yearly flu shot. Medicare covers the cost, and many private health insurance plans also pay for the flu shot. You can get a flu shot at:

Your doctor's office
Your local health department
Other healthcare providers.

It is important to note that there are no vaccines that will give you complete protection, and the flu shot is no exception. In older people and those with certain chronic illnesses, the flu shot is often less effective in preventing the flu. However, the flu shot will help to reduce associated symptoms and the risk of serious illness and death.


Key information about the flu includes:
The flu can be quite dangerous for people who are 65 years of age and older
It can be invented
Each fall, a flu shot is necessary for people in high-risk groups
The shot is covered by Medicare
The shot is safe and it can not cause the flu
The flu shot and the pneumococcal vaccine can be given at the same time.

Manual Spinal Traction – Treatment for Back Pain

Manual spinal traction is not a new age, voodoo type of thing. It is a medically accepted form of therapy used to complement other forms of treatment for alleviating back pain resulting from injury and other medical conditions such as sciatica and lumbago. Contrary to popular belief, this method has been employed by physical therapists for more than a hundred years and is now widely practiced in the rehabilitative profession. It is basic, therefore, to arm yourself with information about spinal traction.

How is manual spinal traction done?

Spinal traction can be manual, mechanical, positional, sustained, and manual, but we will focus on the last type. All forms of spinal traction involve the use of force to pull apart the vertebrae, the individual thick bones that comprise the spinal cord. Manual traction is performed by the rehabilitation provider himself, using his body to apply force to the patient’s body, unlike other forms of traction, which involves the use of mechanical devices like weights, pulleys, or halters.

How can traction relieve people of back pain and improve medical conditions?

When the vertebrae are drawn apart from one another, space is made more available for nerves to be able to travel more freely. At the same time, hydration and water inflow increase, making the spinal column stronger and more shock absorbent. This is the theory behind manual spinal traction, where the primary aim is to reduce or eradicate lower back, cervical, or radiating pain. At lesser intensities, spinal traction is also used to stretch the smaller spinal muscles constricted spasms or involuntary contractions due to restricted nerves.

What techniques are used to implement manual spinal traction?

Two common techniques are used for manual traction: cervical traction and lumbar traction. During cervical traction, the patient lies on his back on a stable medical table and the therapist uses his hands to support and reposition the head from side to side. Typically, this involves a smaller amount of force, around 20 to 30 pounds in all, while lumbar traction requires a greater force that is around half the patient’s body weight. In lumbar traction, the therapist tugs at the patient’s ankles or wraps the patient’s legs over his shoulders and pulls across his thighs.

Can everyone undergo manual spinal traction?

Before a practitioner can subject any patient to any form of spinal traction, or any form of therapy for that matter, he has to carefully and thoroughly examine the patient first. Although traction has been seen as an effective treatment for back pain and degenerative diseases, not everybody is suitable to it. For starters, not everybody can endure the weight of physical force. For instance, pregnant women certainly should not subject themselves to any kind of forceful treatment, and so with others who are suffering from cardiovascular disease, hernia, and TMJ (temporomandibular joint disease). At the same time, patients who may have weakened spinal columns, such as those diagnosed with osteoporosis or rheumatoid arthritis, should not undergo traction.

Common Early Signs of Diabetes You Must Know

At blood sugar levels over 200 mg. percent, glucose appears in the sweat. Skin infections, particularly boils and infections of the vulva, are common early signs of diabetes mellitus.

Many people over 65 years of age lose one or both ankle jerks and vibration sense over the malleoli, but these may also be early signs of diabetes which is associated with peripheral neuritis (inflammation of a nerve, accompanied by pain, loss of reflexes, and muscle shrinkage).

Usually confined to the lower limbs, neuropathy (disease of nervous system) is associated with tingling and pain, stocking anaesthesia (the loss of sensation caused by damage to a nerve) and in severe cases, muscle weakness and wasting.

A peripheral nerve is suddenly affected, leading to muscle weakness.

Radiculitis may precede clinical recognition of diabetes. It is a common early sign of diabetes associated with pain, tingling or scaling sensations in the segment affected and is frequently self limiting to about two years.

Severe early signs of diabetes you must know are – Damage to the automatic nervous system causing impotence in males and loss of orgasm in females, nocturnal diarrhoea, postural hypotension and loss of sweating over the lower limbs

Hypercholesterolaemia which is an unusually high level of cholesterol in the blood and hyperlipaemia, excesses fats in blood, often leads to the formation of xanthomata (lipid-filled skin lesion) in the skin, small hard yellowish nodules up to a few millimeters in diameter.

Insulin injections may lead to changes in the skin (in 20-30 per cent of cases) either hypertrophy (enlargement by cell growth) or atrophy (wasting away).

There is an association between tuberculosis and diabetes, and all suspected cases should have a chest radiograph.

How to Display Your Oriental Rug As a Wall Hanging

The purchase of a Persian rug is normally considered to be an investment. This is not only because these rugs are normally quite expensive but also because they are very beautiful works of art! Antique oriental rugs hold a great deal of history attached to them, and the effort and skill invested into the creation of the rug itself makes it even more valuable.

All this taken into consideration, it can seem almost sinful to place this masterpiece onto the floor to be walked all over. Oftentimes owners will decide to use the rug as a wall hanging. This decision could be made based on them wanting to protect the rug, but it is also a very nice way to display their prized possession.

Using Persian rugs as wall hangings has been a part of Eastern tradition for many centuries. Rugs were often displayed on the walls of palaces, museums and the homes of the Royals alongside other paintings and works of art.

Almost any carpet can be used for a wall hanging but a lighter rug is more preferable. The problem with hanging a rug that is too heavy is that the weft and warp of the carpet will be strained over time and the carpet will become misshapen. Many older antique rugs would be more suited for hanging and would last decades longer than being subjected to the wear and tear of being placed on the floor. For more visually pleasing reasons, there are beautiful pictorial and silk rugs which will be well suited for hanging. Pretty rugs that are displayed in good light will enhance and portray the images and design wonderfully. In this way full appreciation of the rug can be achieved, whilst keeping it protected from damage.

There are two ways to hang an oriental carpet, depending on whether the rug is light or heavier. The first method for hanging a light-weight rug is simple and effective. The most important thing is to get a strong circular solid rod made from wood or metal. Sew a strip of fabric or binding tape along the entire top edge of the rug, being careful to use small stitches that catch the warp and weft of the rug with every stitch. Pass the circular rod through this newly formed pocket, ensuring that you have a rod which is at least 2 inches longer than the width of the carpet. Attach the rod to the wall brackets and you will have a perfect wall hanging.

The second method is almost the same as the first but instead of sewing the fabric or tape along the entire top edge; it should be sewed into three sections with gaps in between. This method is for the heavier rugs and the gaps will allow for the rug to be attached to brackets in three places for more support. Periodically, your heavier rug should be removed from the wall and placed flat on the floor for a few weeks. This is to help the fibers to spring back into shape after being pulled and misshapen whilst hanging.

It is important to remember never to sew curtain rings into your carpet, or to hammer your carpet to the wall using nails. This will only damage your rug at the point where you have put these kinds of supports, and will cause a wave-shaped end to your carpet over time.

An oriental carpet can be displayed in full light to best portray its beauty, but do not place the carpet where it will be subjected to direct sunlight as this will cause your rug to fade over time.

How to Prevent Athletes Foot

Athlete's foot (also called tinea pedis) is a very common skin condition caused by fungus on the feet. It usually affects areas between the toes, toe nails and the bottom and sides of the feet. Up to 75% of the population of the western countries may have athlete's foot at some time during their lives.

If left untreated, the condition can last for years and can easily spread to other areas of the feet (discolouring and damaging the nails) and to other parts of the body. If you touch the infected areas and do not wash your hands immediately afterwards you can also spread the infection to other parts of the body and to other people as well as contaminate the bed sheets, towels and clothing

Athletes Foot fungus need an environment of warmth, moisture and darkness to thrive which are the ideal conditions in a human feet – socks and shoes (darkness), body heat (warmth) and perspiration and body sweat (moist). The problem does not occur among people in developing countries who go barefoot and who feet are healthier and more supple

It is called Athlete's Foot because it was first noticed on athletes who were walking barefoot in changing rooms, swimming pools, communal showers and saunas. However anyone can develop this infection – teenage boys and girls (it rarely affects children), men and women (more men than women are affected) of all ages suffer this unpleasant and irritating condition for years

The fungus that most commonly causes athlete's foot is called Trichophyton

The best way to prevent Athlete's Foot is to practice good foot hygiene.

  • Wash your feet every day, particularly between toes
  • Dry your feet thoroughly, particularly between toes
  • Avoid wearing tight or synthetic footwear that does not allow your feet to 'breathe'. Shoes made of leather rather than plastics prevent the build up of moisture. Wear shoes that are well ventilated
  • Change your socks or stockings at least once a day to keep your feet dry. Wash socks in hot water
  • Use cotton socks whenever possible. Tight, synthetic or nylon socks accumulate moisture. Socks made from natural fiber allow your feet to 'breathe'
  • Do not share towels, socks or footwear
  • Wash your towels and bedding often
  • Use anti-fungal powder and sprinkle on your feet and in your socks and shoes
  • Ensure that your shoes are dry all the time. Do not wear same shoes every day. Give your shoes time to air and dry
  • Avoid walking barefoot in public areas especially swimming pools and gyms. Always wear your own flip flops or sandals
  • Go barefoot at home, especially at night