Cycling and Male Sexual Health

With the Tour de France 2008 well under way, an interesting article has surfaced looking at the effects of cycling and male sexual health. Specifically that cyclists could suffer sexual problems if they do not use the correct bike.

The report by a Urology Consultant and Surgeon (Vinod Nargund) from St Bartholomew's Hospital in London, England, and published in the online Urology Journal BJU International, claims that the act of cycling puts pressure on nerves and blood vessels which can affect a mans sperm count, and that cycling also restricts the flow of blood and generates heat which could result in me having difficulty with erections, and other aspects of male sexual health.

It is estimated that over sixty per cent of men who cycle experience genital numbness, due to the bicycle saddle making contact were the nerves and blood vessels enter the back of the scrotum and penis.

Additionally, both mountain bikers and those who cycle with too much pedal resistance are at greatest risk of impacting on their male sexual health.

While there is no clear established link between cycling and male infertility, it is a conceivable side effect.

In order to avoid male sexual problems men must choose the right bike, with the appropriate frame, and make the proper adjustments for height, posture, and balance. Always use a padded saddle and cycling shorts are essential. Take regular rest periods, and when possible cycle in lower gear.

So take care and protect your male sexual health.

Enjoy the Tour!

Richard Main

Preaching Against Crime

In our times, many people would tell us to do all the right things, to do good deeds, and so on and so forth; many others pray or would pray or may be thinking of praying and beseeching on the ground of faith and hope somewhere along their lives; still many others help or would help the poor or thinking of helping them somewhere along their lives. Conversely, there seems to be only a very few who ask or would ask or might be thinking of asking people – somewhere along their lives – not to commit crime, not to do ill to others, not to engage in bad deeds and/or unethical activities; the reason being most of us commit crimes ourselves or are engaged in this or that kind of bad deed or, let us say, unethical activities.

The most significant problem of our time is this that although we are doing many good things, at the same time we are also doing many bad things. We need people who will identify and make a list of major offenses against humanity, and inspire others not to commit them. We need people who will identify and make a list of prevailing crimes, ill-doings, and bad-deeds; and inspire others to stay away from them.

It may be the case that only a few among us who are truly sincere, honest, pious, and noble are capable and qualified to embark on this most significant venture. The rest of us may not possess the morale that is so essential for this purpose. In any case, we can at least make a conscious, joint, and organized effort to boost our morale and become capable and qualified for this? Under proper guidance, those who have a good soul can probably reach up to such height; because, what one needs for a really good harvest is a really fertile land. A piece of fertile land may be full of weed, serpents, and cactus because of persistent neglect; but if one clears the land of all these unwanted things before sowing the desired seeds, one can hope for a really good yield.

We need clubs and leagues where regular discussions and debates will be held on the ways and means to inspire people not to commit crimes. In short, we need serious, comprehensive, and extensive ‘organizational effort’ to make others less likely to commit crime, led by people who are worthy of such noble venture. And these people must really be honest, sincere, and noble; who will work in groups to this end.

It is easy for the media to inspire people to get engaged in good, benevolent acts and discourage them to commit crime as they are able to reach a significant number of people. With the help of documentaries, case studies, real-life stories, movies, dramas, and other types of programs, media can play a significant role in inspiring people not to commit crime; first of all, by showing clearly the bad things that could happen to any individual engaged in crime. In other words, media can show in great detail the numerous benefits of quitting crime and bad deeds. This would provide people with good and real reasons for quitting crime.

These programs will pave the way for rehabilitation of the criminals and ill-doers, while creating a greater social consensus against crime and anti-social activities. On the other hand, it is not only a bad, but also a harmful practice for the media to show and/or describe a crime in detail. By reading such detail, those who didn’t know how to commit the crime would come to know it; and, at least, few among them may want to try it. For, such practices would let people know the ways and means of committing the crime, in turn, would encourage those with criminal minds to commit the same.

Why is it so important to inspire people not to commit crime and bad deed? Because, when an individual is habituated in committing crimes and bad deeds, his capacity to do the right things and good deeds diminishes and eventually he becomes utterly incapable of any good deed. So, to make his mind receptive to good and noble guidance; he, first of all, needs to be convinced that whatever he is doing is not the right thing to do and, thereby, he must redeem himself so that he is able to receive the things that are good, noble, and beneficial for himself and the society.

Fits And Epilepsy: A Guide To Treatment And Diagnosis

Epilepsy is a condition well-known for centuries. Maybe you recognize it by its more common name ‘fits’. No matter what name you use, epilepsy is a condition that affects the lives of millions of people all over the world. It is the most common neurological condition. It is estimated that 1-3% of the global population is affected by seizures, with men being more likely to have epilepsy than women.

Epilepsy is a neurological condition characterized by abnormal electrical activity in the brain. This abnormal electrical activity results in convulsions or fits. The most recognizable type of convulsion is one in which the person experiences rapid and violent jerking movements of the body. However, there are many other types of fits or convulsions that do not look like this and may sometimes be so small or so fast that even the patient does not notice them. Convulsions can be very varied and are different from person to person and sometimes varies in the same person at different times.

Epilepsy can affect anyone at any point in their lives. Contrary to popular belief, epilepsy does not mean that a person is incapable or mentally comprised. A seizure or fit generally lasts for less than a minute. If a person has a seizure for more than five minutes or if they remain unconscious for a prolonged period of time after the fit has stopped, call for emergency services.

How Is Epilepsy Diagnosed?

For a diagnosis of epilepsy to be made, a person must experience two or more unprovoked seizures. For a seizure to be called unprovoked, it means that there should be no environmental or detectable cause of the seizure such as overdose, hypoxia, infections, etc. A neurologist will diagnose epilepsy based on a thorough medical examination and medical history. It is important to be as honest as possible about symptoms so that you can receive an accurate diagnosis.

A neurological examination is a way to test for the motor, sensory, balance, mental functions, and other higher brain functions. A doctor may also ask for certain blood tests to paint a clearer picture of the situation and rule out other conditions. Neurophysiological tests such as an electroencephalogram (EEG) and imaging tests such as MRI help in the diagnosis of epilepsy and convulsions.

An electroencephalogram (EEG) measures the electrical activity of the brain. Metal electrodes covered with a conductive gel are placed over the scalp and these measure the electrical potentials generated by neurons in the brain. This is a painless procedure that can provide valuable insights into the functioning of the brain. This is the most commonly used test for epilepsy. If a person experience fits or convulsions, there is an electrical disturbance in the brain that can be detected with an EEG. By studying the patterns and types of abnormalities seen in the EEG, a specialist can determine the type of epilepsy. This will dictate further treatment and prognosis for the patient.

Imaging tests like CT and MRI help in visualizing the brain structure. This helps in detecting any structural damage or abnormalities that may be causing the fits.

Treatment Of Epilepsy And Convulsions

Once epilepsy has been diagnosed, a person may have to take medication every day. The type and frequency of medication depend on the person, their condition, and their doctor. Medications used to treat fits are called anticonvulsants. They are also called anti-seizure medications or anti-epileptic medications. Finding the right anti-epileptic can be a long and drawn out process. Some people may even need more than one anticonvulsant or may require additional medication apart from anticonvulsants. Remember to be patient, health can be an arduous journey.

Some people may not respond to medications. In such cases, specialists may suggest other treatment modalities such as surgery and novel therapies such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Surgery for epilepsy is not as scary as it sounds. It is grounded in sound medical and scientific work. Epilepsy surgery is usually recommended to people with focal seizures (a single, clear, defined area of abnormal electrical discharges) which are not controlled by adequate drug therapy. The aim of surgery is a complete cessation of convulsions.

In people who are not candidates for surgery, newer neurostimulation techniques like TMS can be tried. Other ways to control and reduce the severity of convulsions is getting enough sleep, eating regular meals, following a ketogenic diet, exercising, reducing stress, and other lifestyle modifications.

Epilepsy is nothing to be scared of. It can disrupt normal life but with correct diagnosis and treatment, a person with epilepsy can live a full, safe, and satisfying life. Epilepsy may not always be completely curable but it can be controlled. Don’t be afraid of a diagnosis; it is the first step in a journey towards better health.

Being Aware With Acute and Chronic Lyme Disease Symptoms

Severe Lyme disease symptoms can resolve all of a sudden anywhere from a only some days to more than a few weeks while Never-ending Lyme disease will little by little engraft into the internal situation of the affected person.

Acute Lyme disease can be treated simply and effectively with a sole or recipe of antibiotics similar to penicillin, doxycycline and amoxicillin.

Lyme disease symptoms regularly begin with flu-like feelings. The Lyme disease symptoms are headache, fever, muscle pains, weakness, and stiff neck. Afterward the tick’s bite, about few days or one month after it, around 60% of Light-skinned patients experience an erythema migrans (EM) – an enlarging inflammation. Dark skinned people experience bruise.

The flu-like symptoms, which are actually Lyme disease symptoms, can last as long as the treatment, even as there may also be minor emotional and mental manifestations similar to temper swings, sleep problems and concentrating difficulties.

Analgesics can be taken for muscle and joint pain as well as drugs that lessen the body temperature. Treatment lasts from one to two months. First indications should immediately be taken care without hesitation. The first common sign is a bull’s-eye rash that goes on flu-like symptoms such as fever, body weakness, joint, muscle pain and chills. Unusual symptoms in acute Lyme disease include palpitations, heart block and neurologic symptoms like changed mental condition and neuroborreliosis, the central nervous system disorder. There is a potential for Lyme disease to go through an out of sight phase in its switch commencing acute to Never-ending disease. Severe symptoms can disappear for weeks, months or even years prior to recurring in extra harsh appearances.

Fractional Lyme disease symptoms:

Physicians are likely to misidentify premature Lyme disease on behalf of flu, and later on, they experience a few non-specific symptoms together with a variety of difficulties with different body organs. This is just a partial listing of Lyme disease symptoms, because there are additional than three hundred signs in the medical glossary implying Lyme disease infection. The previously mentioned report is not a diagnostic tool, but the intention is to submit a base for you to have a dialogue with your personal physician about the immeasurable Lyme disease.

Non-specific Lyme disease symptoms: Sore throat, night sweats, severe fatigue, and inflamed glands

Digestion: Nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain (especially in kids), and diarrheas are several of the leading digestive problems of Lyme disease symptoms.

Heart: some of the main Lyme disease: Vasculitis – inflammation of the wall of blood vessels including veins , arteries and capillaries Carditis, Pancarditis – the inflammation of the heart or its surroundings Myocarditis – inflammation of the myocardium, the muscular part of the heart.

Muscles: Joint inflammation and pain are the most common of Lyme disease symptoms: Arthritis that transfers from joint to joint cause damage to the joints of the body As a result: Loss of muscle tone, muscle ache. Bell’s palsy – paralysis of the facial nerve resulting in inability to control facial muscles on the affected side,

Nervous System: Meningoencephalitis – both meningitis (an inflammation of the meninges- the system of cells membranes which envelops the central nervous system), and encephalitis, which is an illness or inflammation of the brain Neurosyphilis – an infection of the brain or spinal cord, Encephalitis – an acute inflammation of the brain, spinal nerve root pain, tremors and shakes. Results: Deficit reflexes, irregular blood flow in brain, confusions, mood swings and speech difficulties – those are the major nervous system difficulties indicating severe Lyme disease symptoms and condition, remembrance loss, sleep problems, dementia, panic attacks, and neurotic disorder.

Skin: People who catch Lyme disease repeatedly get a rash. Usually it shapes a bull’s-eye pattern of red and white rings around the tick bite. Later on the might develop Lyme disease symptoms as Paresthesia – A skin sensation, such as burning, prickling, itching, or tingling, with no apparent physical cause. Sensory feeling; Tingling and numbness.

Reproductive System: People who are sick with Lyme disease might have Urine control problems. The might have problem to bring to an end the flow of urine from the bladder. Other signs of Lyme disease are Bowel incontinence – the loss of bowel control, resulting in involuntary passage of stool. Men might to have testicular pain – feeling pain in the testicles. Sexual dysfunction.

Women might have problems all through pregnancy – miscarriage, and delayed baby development. Several of the Lyme disease are indicative of illnesses as the following:

Multiple Sclerosis – Disease that affects the central nervous system.

Parkinson’s disease – Central nervous system disorder that impairs the motor skills and speech, as well as other tasks.

Alzheimer- a progressive and fatal brain disease, the most common form of dementia. Alzheimer’s destroys the brain cells, causing problems with memory, thinking and behavior.

Chronic Lyme disease:

30-50% of acute Lyme disease patients go on to expand chronic Lyme disease symptoms. Additionally, a few earlier present but without symptoms patients may make active their disease following a variety of anxieties such as trauma, surgery, pregnancy, coexisting illness, antibiotics treatment, or harsh emotional stress.

Never-ending Lyme disease is especially dangerous because the manifestations are much more severe moreover; there is no fixed medicine for it. It cannot be efficiently treated with antibiotics thus there are certain and individualized approaches in caring for patients in the Chronic shape. The effects are calling for long-term antibiotic use plus other therapies.

There is more controversy revolving around the medicinal treatment approach. The interaction of more than a few drugs and the chronic intake of antibiotics can prove to be overwhelming for the liver, kidneys and blood circulation as well.

Chronic antibiotic intake can result to the patient being immune-compromised. Steroid therapy may be indicated. Since the effects and counter-effects of a variety of treatments that are not yet established, a fixed treatment cannot be fully guaranteed only through medicine.

Immune responses due to bacterial invasion are compromised at times making the person vulnerable to acquiring other diseases.

Additional examination is necessary for constant Lyme disease since its pathogenesis, the system by which Lyme disease is caused, is not entirely recognized. In addition, more than a few manifestations suggestive to those of other diseases making it difficult for doctors to diagnose correctly. The person may have acquired a new illness but still show the similar of late phase of Lyme disease symptoms. Currently, Doctors and medical researchers are studying fresh healing alternatives to purposely individualize care plans for Lyme disease patients.

After Liposuction Compression Garments: Basic Information

Before and after liposuction, there are certain things that a patient needs to observe and follow. There are those who are more concerned about pre-operative care rather than the post. However, post-operative care is equally as important as pre-operative care. The overall success of a liposuction procedure also depends on how well you are taken care of yourself after the surgery and how well you follow the doctor's instructions. The use of after liposuction compression garments is one of the necessary things that need to be observed. Even with the use of new liposuction techniques that are less invasive and nonsurgical, they are still needed to be worn. They help make healing and recovery faster. They protect the treated area against infection and reduce the effect of after liposuction swelling.

There are several types of after liposuction compression garments being used today. There are those made specifically for men and women. Moreover, they come in a great array of sizes and shapes. There are also those used on the arms, thighs, butt, breast, stomach and face. The most used would have to be the breast, stomach, and arms compression garments. After liposuction compression garments should be placed tightly around the treated area. They should be worn under regular clothing. Be sure to wear something loose for comfort's sake.

To get the best garment, you can ask your doctor for a recommendation or ask someone who had used one before. You can also check out your local pharmacy or medical supply stores for more options. There are also several websites that sell after liposuction compression garments. Try They offer a wide selection of compression garments that come in very affordable prices. They provide a list of compression garments used for different body areas, which are created by leading brands like Design Veronique and Rainey Compression Wear.

Remember to have your compression garments ready after liposuction so that your way to recovery and healing is much faster than expected.

Spiritual Experience Through Drugs – Illusion Or Reality?

The origins of and spiritual practice are shrouded in mystery, belonging as they do to that period known as "prehistory" of which our knowledge knowledge is very limited. The roots of drug use also date back to that primordial era. Equally ancient and mysterious is the link between these two – the use of mind-altering substances as part of the search for truth.

Early accounts of the use of drugs in an attempt to induce spiritual visions or ecstatic trances are mostly connected with the practices collectively known as "Shamanism". The ancient Shaman used a variety of methods to achieve these altered states, including prolonged, repetitive, ritual dancing and / or drumming, sensory deprivation, fasting and the use of hallucinogens found in plants. These techniques were employed to either free the Shaman's
spirit from the body, allowing it to travel in the spiritual worlds, or to call down spiritual entities into the shaman. Shamanic practices of this kind are still to be found among indigenous and tribal peoples in Africa, Asia and South America. Echoes of these practices are found in many different religious cultures and in all parts of the world, with the longing for otherworldly experience driving individuals to explore all the techniques open to them as part of their quest – including the use of substances that fundamentally change the individual's perceptions and bring about altered states of consciousness.

In the late twentieth century, the discovery and popularity of synthetic drugs which appeared to induce visionary or trance states led to a resurgence of interest in the spiritual nature of these experiences. The writer Aldous Huxley, a spiritual man with an interest in Eastern philosophies such as Vedanta, detailed his experiences with psychotropic substances in his book "The Doors of Perception". Huxley felt that the human mind in its ordinary state acted to limit our awareness of higher or cosmic reality, and that drugs could be used to reduce this limiting effect, opening the individual to a new and higher state of being. Huxley's book became a must-read among hippies and counter-culturalists in the sixties, as did works by Dr Timothy Leary and Robert Anton Wilson, both of whom saw drugs as an effective tool for opening people to higher spiritual realities within and around them. Later, in the nineteen nineties, the use of MDMA (ecstasy) as a recreational drug spread rapidly. After the powerful effects of the drug, and users reporting states in which they felt powerful emotions such as joy and unconditional love, the mystical elements of this experience were not trumpeted in the same way as with the LSD experiment of the sixties.

The fundamental question regarding these induced experiences of trance, vision and ecstasy is: are they real?

In comparing the effects of spiritual practice (prayer, meditation, devotional song, chanting etc.) with those of drugs, the key is to examine the effects on the individual not just at the time of the experience but in the days, months and years that follow. Spiritual practice is undertaken for its transformational power, expressed in the learning, change and personal growth of the individual. In different spiritual and religious traditions, this journey of transformation is seen in different ways. The Christian aspirations towards salvation from all sin, the Buddhist is traveling toward enlightenment, the Yogi seeks first liberation from attachment then the realization of his or her oneness with God.

Examine, if you will, two individuals. One has pursued for many years what Dr Timothy Leary called "the chemical route to enlightenment" while the other has engaged in the more challenging practices of spiritual discipline, including including daily prayer and meditation and the renunciation of a worldly life. What differences do you see? Are their attainments of the same order? Have their experiences transported them forward on their spiritual journey, answered their inner questions, bought them inside peace and insight? I leave it to you to make your own observations and decide for yourself.

Let us close with the words of Sri Chinmoy , an Indian spiritual teacher who came to America in the sixties and began teaching spirituality when the hippy movement was in full swing:

"I have spoken hundreds of times on drugs. Here is all I wish to say is that if you have a real coin and a counterfeit coin, but when you examine them, you know that one is real and the other one I have a few disciples who once upon a time were addicted to drugs. They had very high, lofty experiences according to their own understanding and realization at that time. But now these same disciples have been meditating with me for a couple of years and by the Grace of the Supreme they have had spiritual experiences.

How To Remove Gynecomastia Naturally Using Flaxseed

“But flaxseed contains estrogen and if you want to remove man boobs, estrogen is the enemy!” I’m certain that you have heard that flaxseed is one of the best ways on how to remove gynecomastia naturally but you may be conflicted about using it because flaxseed contains estrogen albeit a plant source but it is still estrogen. So how can it be a way to treat gynecomastia naturally? We shall delve into this further below.

Health benefits of flaxseed

Before cotton became affordable, flax (Linum usitatissimum) which is also known as linseed or linum, which has a fibrous stem was often woven into cloth and is still used even today in this manner despite the popularity of cotton clothing. But the oil which was produced from the seeds has been used medicinally for many thousands of years. It wasn’t until about a thousand years ago that people actually started eating the seeds of this plant for health and well being. Flaxseed should be a part of a healthy lifestyle for many reasons which include but are not limited to;

  • Cancer prevention (breast cancer in particular as well as prostate cancer)
  • Diabetes management
  • Lowering cholesterol levels naturally
  • Lowering the risk of heart attack
  • Lowering the risk of kidney disease
  • Reducing hot flushes in menopausal women
  • Aiding in weight management
  • Etc

As you can see, flaxseed is an important nutrient but since you are reading this article, you have also heard that flaxseed is one of the best ways on how to remove gynecomastia naturally.

Flaxseed and gynecomastia

1. Lignans

The benefits of flaxseed for health and well-being is firstly tied to the lignans that they contain. Flaxseed are the richest source of lignans found in nature. Lignans are antioxidants which means that they help to prevent free radical damage to healthy cells which helps to reduce the risk of developing many of the chronic diseases previously discussed.

Another aspect of lignans is that in addition to antioxidant benefits, they also contain phyto(plant)estrogens, which mimic the action of the estrogen produced by the body but are less potent. Man boobs usually develop because you have excessive amounts of estrogen in your body. Estrogen which is the female hormone is normal to have in the male body but what is abnormal is when estrogen levels are higher than the normal levels.

This leads to the development of various female characteristics such as breasts in men. So if you are dealing with gynecomastia, more than likely you have excessive amounts of estrogen in your body. One way to fight this estrogen that is produced by the body is to fight it with the estrogen which is produced by certain plants such as flax. It sounds crazy but it makes sense once you think about it.

The estrogen produced by the body are powerful hormones whereas the estrogen produced by plants (phytoestrogen) are chemically weaker but are still able to bind to the estrogen receptors in the body and this helps to stop the effects on the body of the much stronger estrogen produced by the body which also allows excessive amounts of this much stronger estrogen to be eliminated from the body as the phytoestrogen replaces them. This is why flaxseed is commonly recommended as an effective method on how to remove gynecomatia naturally.

You have excessive amounts of estrogen in your body right now. But with the help of flaxseed, instead of having the chemically strong estrogen which is produced by the body wreaking havoc in your body, you replace the strong estrogen with the much weaker estrogen which can certainly help in your fight against gynecomastia.

2. Fiber

How are excessive amounts of estrogen removed from the body? Fiber is the most important way to remove waste, toxins as well as excessive estrogen from the body. You know what is an amazing source of fiber? Flaxseed. This is also one of the reasons that it is recommended for diabetes and weight loss management.

Flaxseed is a very rich source of a type of soluble fiber that is very beneficial for the body which is known as mucilage. This mucilage is also tied to the cholesterol lowering properties of flaxseed. Mucilage helps to move things along in the body but it requires a great deal of water so if you increase your fiber intake, you also need to increase your water intake to prevent fiber from getting “stuck” in your body.

3. Fatty acids

Omega-3 fatty acids have been noted to be very beneficial for men with gynecomastia because they aid in the production of testosterone. Many men with gynecomastia in addition to having excessive amounts of estrogen also have low levels of testosterone which is how these fatty acids can help. Plus, these essential fatty acids (EFAs) help reduce estrogen levels, which is one of the top reasons for the development of man boobs as mentioned earlier.

Guess what? The lignans contained in flaxseed are an excellent source of omega-3 fatty acids which not only help fight gynecomastia but also reduce the risk of heart disease, cancer and many other chronic diseases.

Using flaxseed for gynecomastia

1. Flaxseed oil

While flaxseed oil (which is easily perishable and needs to be refrigerated once opened) is very popular, you may want to go directly to the source (the seeds) because when you use flaxseed oil, you miss out on the all important fiber and the oil does not contain as much lignans, protein and minerals as you would find in the actual seeds.

2. Not whole seeds

Flaxseed is available in two varieties which are the brown flaxseed as well as golden flaxseed (which are also known as yellow flax) but these two varieties generally contain similar nutritional compositions.

While many people usually sprinkle whole flaxseed onto freshly baked bread or salads, it is impossible for the body to break down the whole seeds. If you eat whole flaxseed, the seeds will pass through your body undigested which will mean that you will miss out on the nutrient content of the seeds.

To get the full benefits of eating flaxseed, the seeds must be ground but do remember that ground (or milled) flaxseed turns rancid very quickly so do make sure to refrigerate any unused portion and throw away if any is still uneaten after 30 days or so.

Because it goes rancid so fast, you may want to invest in a coffee grinder, spice grinder or other seed grinding tool so that you only grind the amount of seeds that you need for that particular day because whole seeds last a lot longer than milled flaxseed.

Ground flaxseed (flaxseed meal) will not last more than 30 days when stored in the refrigerator whereas whole flaxseed can last between 6 to 12 months or 1 to 2 years if you store it in the refrigerator.

Grind about two tablespoons of whole seeds daily and add it to hot or cold cereal, smoothies, oatmeal, salads, green juice, etc.

Safety concerns

Flaxseed is generally safe which is why it is highly recommended for a healthy lifestyle but do note that it contains a tiny amount of cyanide. This tiny amount of cyanide is not enough to cause harm to an adult but it can possibly harm a fetus or infant so avoid eating flaxseed if you are pregnant or nursing and also avoid giving it to children under the age of two.

The minute amount of cyanide in flaxseed is not harmful to most people as long as you consume the daily recommended amount of about two to three tablespoons of ground flaxseed. If this is scaring you off flaxseed, you should note that human tissue usually contains very small amounts of cyanide anyway which are constantly being metabolized, so flaxseed containing cyanide should not really be a cause for concern unless you eat the entire bag of flaxseed in one sitting! Also various other plants that are commonly eaten such as cruciferous vegetables also contain small amounts of this poison.

Also remember that a tablespoon of flaxseed contains between 5 to 6 milligrams of cyanide but in order for cyanide to be harmful to an adult, you would need to consume at least 1,000 milligrams of this poison.

Like everything else in life, flaxseed can cause an allergic reaction in some people. If this occurs, reduce the amount eaten or stop eating flaxseed altogether.

Lastly, in some people, flaxseed can cause bloating as well as flatulence when they first start eating flaxseed. If this occurs, start with ½ a tablespoon or one tablespoon and gradually build up as the body builds up its tolerance.

Effective Home Remedies For Hair Issues

Every Individual whether women, men, teenagers, oldies everyone desires healthy, thick, long, and lustrous hair. They play a pivotal role in defining one’s face and looks. Now a day’s hair fall, baldness, dandruff, split-ends etc are the common problem facing many of us. Lifestyles, Pollution, improper diet pattern, adulterated care products are a major cause of Hair problems.

So If you are looking for an effective, safe, and easy solution for your problems, this article can help you to find out proper solution and remedies which have no side effects.

Hot Oil Treatment: This is one of the most common and simple treatment. This treatment includes blends of oil i.e. combinations of different oils such as Mixing Coconut oil, almond oil, olive oil with jojoba oil. All the essential properties are nourished under one treatment, so massage your scalp at least 2-3 times a week for better regrowth.

Onion Juice: When it comes to properties of onion, it is rich in sulfur content that boosts up the collagen production in the tissues and leads to regrowth on your scalp. This is one of the oldest and effective home remedies. Massage your scalp with onion juice 3-4 times in a weak for effective result.

Aloe Vera Gel: Enzyme called proteolytic is found in Aloe Vera gel that helps to remove the dead cell build-up from your scalp and also it stimulates your head follicles. Aloe Vera is entirely packed with nutrients that improve overall growth, maintains the texture as well as keeps the scalp hydrated.

Henna: Henna work as a natural conditioner for all your root cause that leads to transforms dull and dry hair into the smooth and shiny texture. Henna also provide adding color to your strands.

Egg Mask: Egg is rich in source of protein, sulfur, zinc, iron, and iodine. Due to the presence of high protein content makes it best ingredients for promoting hair growth. Eggs nourish the head follicles and help to make your strands strong and increases the overall volume.

Amla: Amla or Indian Gooseberry is loaded with antioxidants and richest source of vitamin C. It helps to promote healthy hair growth, by improving the blood circulation of follicles. Apply Alma juice along with lime juice on your scalp. Let it dry for some time. Rinse off well with normal water.

Avocado And Banana Mask: Bananas increases the elasticity of shafts and make them stronger as well as softer from roots. Whereas avocado has natural oils that nourishes your scalp and makes them healthy. Make a fine paste of banana and avocado. Apply on the head; leave it for 45-60 minutes. Then wash off with normal water.

Apple Cider Vinegar: ACV is acidic in nature that helps to balance out the pH of the scalp and normalizing the oil production. Due to acetic acid, it acts as antimicrobial with treat the dandruff issue. Dandruff is one of the causes of hair loss.

Fenugreek Seeds Paste: Fenugreek is the perfect care ingredient for curing dandruff. Seeds are loaded with many powerhouse properties like Iron, phosphorous, vitamin B6 which is very much important for improving the texture.

Above mentioned tips are the simple and effective remedy for overall healthy hair that keeps your scalp nourished, lustrous, un-damageable.

Poor Circulation – How to Avoid Poor Blood Circulation Problems

Poor Circulation is the health issues that can not be ignored or underestimated. I think we need to know and understand this, so we can recognize it earlier and do something about it, or even prevent it. In this article, I have some valuable tips to help you prevent poor blood circulation problems happen.

Poor circulation is caused by not enough blood being distributed to parts of your body equally. Because the blood is not able to be transported through the capillaries evenly, there are only small quantities of oxygen and nutrients present in your hands and feet. This condition causes tingling and numbness, which can be very annoying when trying to go to sleep, or even when trying to accomplish day to day activities.

One of the easiest steps you can do to avoid bad circulation happens is to exercise regularly. Just 30 minutes of brisk walking every day should be enough to get rid of poor circulation issues. Drinking water throughout the day can also help, especially when combined with some moderate exercise.

For many people, just exercise and drinking more water can be enough to prevent having this condition. If not, diet can also affect your blood flow in a negative way. Try to abstain from alcohol and soft drinks. Avoiding fat to keep from building up plaques in the arms is important, as is eating fresh fruit like watermelon and oranges that contain a lot of vitamin C.

Vitamin C helps strengthen capillary walls for better blood flow. Nuts and seeds are good because of their vitamin E and B3 content, both of which help with this as well. Vitamin E can make blood less sticky, and B3 helps boost the amount in your system.

You do not need to have poor circulation. Follow these easy steps to avoid it or make your blood flow and circulation back to normal within a month or so.

Wheat Grass Shots – Benefiting Fatigue to Fertility

For the past 5 years I have been a huge proponent of wheat grass juice. Ever since I was stricken with a very nasty bout of mono, I was turned on to the healing properties of wheat grass juice. My major ailment was fatigue and an inability to fight virus and heal quickly.

I cannot speak highly enough of wheat grass juice in my daily diet. I can literally see and feel a difference when I am not consistent in my intake of this nutrient rich megavitamin shot. My hair is healthier, I am more energized and balanced.

Just how does wheat grass work and what makes wheat grass juice so special?

As a grass, it is rich in chlorophyll and has the ability to concentrate nutrients from its soil. The best type of wheat grass juice is that grown in very rich soils like mineral rich soils.

Its properties are antibacterial and antiseptic in nature. Wheat grass juice can stop unfriendly bacteria from wreaking havoc on your system. This powerful green super food has been known through the ages as a source of health and well being.

Dr. Birscher, a research scientist, called chlorophyll “concentrated sun power.” He said, “chlorophyll increases the function of the heart, affects the vascular system, the intestines, the uterus, and the lungs.”

In the American Journal of Surgery (1940), Benjamin Gruskin, M.D. recommends chlorophyll for its multitude of benefits. The article suggests the following clinical uses for chlorophyll: to clear up foul smelling odors, neutralize Strep infections, heal wounds, hasten skin grafting, cure chronic sinusitis, overcome chronic inner-ear inflammation and infection, reduce varicose veins and heal leg ulcers, eliminate impetigo and other scabby eruptions, heal rectal sores, successfully treat inflammation of the uterine cervix, get rid of parasitic vaginal infections, reduce typhoid fever, and cure advanced pyorrhea in many cases.

Unlimited Benefits of Wheat Grass Juice:

Helps prevent tooth decay

Neutralizes carcinogens

Cleanses blood by removing toxins and harmful chemicals

Detoxes liver, cells, tissue and blood

Lowers high blood pressure

Increases oxygen levels in the blood stream

Improved digestion

Creates balanced pH environment to prevent cancer

Increases energy

Provides healthier hair and reduces dandruff

Alleviates eczema and psoriasis

Improved ability of the body to heal wounds

Chlorophyll found in wheatgrass can prevent the growth of harmful bacteria.

Has anti-aging abilities and can keep the hair from greying.

Ailments Wheat Grass Juice helps fight:

Chronic fatigue







Pancreatic troubles

High blood pressure

Mucus build-up in the intestines



High cholesterol


Heart problems


Liver troubles

Premature aging

Thyroid gland problems

Increases fertility- The high magnesium content in the chlorophyll of the wheat grass juice actually builds enzymes that increase fertility hormones.

An ounce a day can definitely keep the doctor away.

Oral Thrush in Children

Oral thrush is a fungal infection caused by an overgrowth of Candida albicans in the mouth. White patches are visible on the tongue and on the lining of the baby's mouth. Common in babies under a year old, oral thrush can cause the baby's mouth to feel sore and make it connectant to feed. The condition is sometimes associated with nappy rash caused by the same fungus. Treatments include antifungal creams, a Candida-elimination diet (for the mother if she is breastfeeding-feeding), probiotics and the homeopathic medicine Borax.

Why it Occurs:
Candida albicans is a yeast organism that is naturally present in the mouth and the gut. An overgrowth of the yeast in the mouth results in oral thrush if the oral bacteria that keep it in check are disturbed by certain antibiotics. Some complementary practitioners say that a dietary imbalance may also disturb the bacteria. As well as young children, thrush can affect the elderly and people with impaired immunity.

If you bottle = feed your baby, take care to thoroughly sterilise all equipment.

Conventional Medicine
ANTIFUNGAL DROPS AND GELS – The doctor will examine your baby's mouth and may take a mouth swab to check for the presence of Candida albicans. If oral thrush is confirmed, the doctor may prescribe an antifungal treatment, such as nystatin, to be applied to the baby's mouth.
Oral thrush usually improves shortly after starting the treatment, and should clear up within a week, but it may recur.

PREVENTION – To prevent Candida from overgrowing in the future, breastfeeding mothers may be prescribed an antifungal cream for their nipples. If you bottlefeed your baby, make sure all the equipment you use is thoroughly sterilized by immersing it in boiling water.

Nutritional Therapy

Candida albicans, the yeast liable for oral thrush, thrives on sugar. Eliminating or reducing sugar and refined carbohydrates, such as white flour products, can help to starve yeast out of the system. To help clear thrush in a breast-fed baby, the mother can cut back on her intake of sugar and refined carbohydrates, and take probiotics.

Probiotics (healthy gut bacteria supplements) may be very useful in treating oral thrush. You can give probiotics to your baby by adding the contents of a capsule or a powder to water or another drink.

Borax is a specially prepared homeopathic medicine for oral thrush. Babies who respond to Borax may be nervous and jumpy. Crush one tablet or two pills of the 6C strength between two teaspoons and give a small amount, dry on the tongue, 3 times a day at least 10 minutes before or after a feed.

Parkinson’s Disease: A Neurodegenerative Disorder

Parkinson’s disease is a common disorder that arises due to some imperfection that amends the normal functioning of the central nervous system. Parkinson’s disease is the outcome of the death of the dopamine-containing cells of the midbrain region identified as substantia nigra. The reason for the death of these cells is still unidentified. The prompt symptoms of the disease are problems related with movement like shaking, rigidity, slowness of movement and difficulty in walking and gait. As the disease progresses the patient suffers from cognitive impairment as well as behavioural problems. Dementia is the most protuberant feature in advanced phases of the disease. Other secondary symptoms are sleep, emotional and sensory problems. This disease is generally found in the old people who have crossed their fifties. When the main motor symptoms are taken into contemplation then the disease is termed as Parkinsonism or Parkinsonian syndrome. This disorder is sometimes also kept under the idiopathic category although some in unusual cases genetic origin also plays a key role. Studies have clearly indicated that the jeopardy of PD escalates if individuals are exposed to certain pesticides although the risk diminishes in tobacco smokers. From the pathological point of view PD crops up due to the accretion of a protein known as alpha-synuclein in the form of inclusions. These inclusions are designated by the term Lewy bodies that accrues in neurons. Inadequate formation and function of dopamine in certain specialized areas of the midbrain are also considered to be accountable for PD. Apart from the symptoms neuroimaging of brain is very helpful in validation of the disease.

Levodopa and dopamine agonists have been found to be effective in treating early symptoms of the disease. As the disease progresses the dopamine neurons endure to get lost from the midbrain regions and a stage arrives when the drugs become futile for treating the early symptoms. When this stage is reached another impediment known as dyskinesia arises that is associated with involuntary writhing movements. Diet and some types of rehabilitation can however help to reduce some symptoms. When drugs become ineffective then surgery and deep brain stimulation is the ultimate solution as it can reduce motor symptoms. Studies carried out on animal models have shown that stem cell transplants, gene therapy and neuro-protective agents can help to reduce the disastrous symptoms of PD. Medications for the sleep disturbances and emotional problems are also accessible. The disease is named after the English doctor James Parkinson who first gave the detailed account of the disease in An Essay of the Shaking Palsy in 1817. Red tulip is the icon of this disease and world Parkinson’s day is celebrated in the memory of Dr. Parkinson on 11th, April. Michael J. Fox and Muhammad Ali are the renowned personalities who also suffered from this disease and helped to engender awareness about the consequences and treatment of PD.


The term Parkinsonism is applied for a motor syndrome whose core symptoms are tremors at rest, stiffness, slowing of movement and postural instability. Parkinsonian syndrome can be classified in four categories depending upon the origin of symptoms. These subtypes are primary or idiopathic, secondary or acquired, hereditary Parkinsonism and Parkinson plus syndromes. Parkinson’s disease is the most common type of Parkinsonism also known as primary Parkinsonism but the applicable cause of this disease is still mysterious. In the topical years studies have directed that genes play a foremost role in this disorder. PD is generally classified as a movement disorder but it is also accountable for many non-motors problems like sensory problems, cognitive impairments and sleep disruptions. The symptoms of the primary Parkinsonism comprise multiple system atrophy, progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration and dementia with Lewy bodies. From the pathophysiological point of view Parkinsonism is considered a synucleinopathy as there is anomalous amassing of alpha-synuclein protein in the form of Lewy bodies in brain. This condition can be equated with the Alzheimer’s disease as there is accretion of tau protein the form of inexplicable neurofibrillary tangles. Studies have indicated that there is a clinical and pathological intersection between the tauopathies and synucleinopathies. The neurofibrillary tangles have been segregated from the brains of patients of PD. Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) has resemblances with PD. The meticulous association between PD and DLB is still not clear. They may be studied together or can be treated as discrete categories.


PD causes movement allied difficulties resulting in motor problems. Apart from motor problems non-motor problems like autonomic dysfunction, neuropsychiatric problems followed by sensory and sleep difficulties also show their presence in advanced phases of the disease. Four motor problems are contemplated as serious in this disorder and these are tremors, rigidity, slowness of movement and postural instability. Tremor is the very frequently noticed symptom of PD. In about 30% cases tremors do not arise as the first symptom of the disorder but develop later as the disease progresses. Among the tremors the frequency of the rest tremor is high and it escalates when the limb is at rest but fades when any voluntary action is executed or the patient is sleeping. The rest tremor is known to distress the distal part of the limb first. In the beginning only the single hand or leg is encompassed but as the disease progresses this tremor becomes bilateral. The frequency of the tremor ranges between 4-6 hertz. The index finger of the hand comes in contact with the thumb and performs a circular movement known as pill rolling which is the strategic feature of rest tremor.

Slowness of movement also known as Bradykinesia is another crucial feature of PD. As the name signposts this symptom is acquainted with difficulties in performing movements. Sequential and simultaneous movements become intolerable. This symptom becomes more penetrating in later phases of the disease. The prompt symptoms of Bradykinesia are difficulties in performing daily activities like writing, dressing etc. as fine motor control is required. The next distinctive symptom of PD is rigidity which can be recognized by failure of the limb to carry out movement. Rigidity is caused by increased muscle tone due to disproportionate and incessant contraction of muscles. Rigidity may be uniform or ratchety in Parkinsonism. The term cogwheel rigidity can be applied when tremors and increased muscle tone come into play. Rigidity can be associated with joint pain as it is the earlier symptom of PD. Rigidity may be disproportionate as it tends to upset the muscles of neck and shoulders first. As the disease progresses rigidity affects all the movements of body. Postural instability arises in later phase of the disease causing impaired balance and the bones are at the risk of getting fractured effortlessly. This symptom is generally inattentive in the young patients as it ascends in later phase of the disease. About 40% patients fall very frequently and about 10% patients experience weekly fall showing the severity of the disease. Other motor problems embrace gait and posture disturbances like festination, speech and swallowing disturbances like voice disorders.

Neuropsychiatric problems are also an imperative part of Parkinson’s disease and they may range from slight to severe ones. These problems comprise disturbances in cognition, mood, behavior and thought processes. Cognitive problems may arise in the preliminary stages of the disease and can upsurge as the disease advances. The most frequent cognitive disturbance is the executive dysfunction which can be characterized by problems related to abstract thinking, cognitive flexibility, inappropriate actions and selecting relevant sensory information. Slow cognitive speed and fluctuations in attention are other problems. Visuospatial problems are also not uncommon. A person suffering from PD has at two to six times greater risk of getting affected with dementia in comparison to the normal population. Dementia can be coupled with reduced quality of life and resilient support as well as care of the family is necessitated for the patents suffering from PD and dementia.

Mood and behavior alterations are very frequent in patients of PD with dementia. These alterations are also present in patients without cognitive impairment. Depression, anxiety and apathy are the most common mood alterations. Medication overuse and craving, hypersexuality is also common and is related with the medication which is used in the management of the disease. Delusions and hallucinations have been notified in about 4% patients. This symptom is the upshot of the dopaminergic excess. PD can also disturb other functions of body. Sleep problems are very frequent if PD and can be deteriorated by medications. Sleep disturbances comprise drowsiness and insomnia. Alterations in the autonomic nervous system cause oily skin, orthostatic hypotension, excessive sweating, altered sexual function and uncontrolled urination. Gastric problems and constipation also become severe and can jeopardize patient’s health. Problems related to eye and vision also come into action and comprise of declined blink rate, dry eyes, saccadic movements, decreased ocular pursuit and blurred vision. Impaired sense of smell and sensation of pain followed by paresthesia are also noticed. These symptoms make their appearance much before the diagnosis of the disease.


Most patients of Parkinson’s disease can be placed in the category of idiopathic disease as the meticulous cause of the disorder is unknown. A very trivial portion of cases can be cogitated under the category of genetic factors. Other factors can be placed under the category of risky elements that may cause PD but the precise relationship between them and the disease is still vague. PD is generally considered a non-genetic disorder but in about 5% cases mutation in some unambiguous genes can result in this disorder. The genes namely SNCA, UCH-L1, PRKN, LRRK2, PINK1, DJ-1 and ATP13A2 code for alpha-synuclein, ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L1, parkin, leucin-rich repeat kinase 2, PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 and mutations in any of these gene can result in PD. Mutation in LRRK2 gene proliferates the chances of occurrence of PD in comparison with other genes. SNCA and LRRK2 are the most comprehensively studied PD-related genes. Mutations in SNCA, LRRK2 and glucocerebrocidase (GBA) increase the risk of sporadic PD. Mutations in GBA result in Gaucher’s disease.

Role of SNCA is very vital in PD as this gene is accountable for the formation of a protein known as alpha-synuclein which is the foremost element of Lewy bodies. Missense mutations of the gene followed by duplication and triplication of the locus have been noticed in groups with familial PD. Although missense mutations are intermittent but multiplication of the SNCA locus account for 2% of cases with familial PD. Multiplications have been noticed in the asymptomatic carriers. LRRK2 gene codes for a protein known as dardarin. Mutations in the LRRK2 gene are primarily accountable for sporadic and familial PD. It accounts for 10% of familial and 3% of the sporadic cases of PD. According to a guesstimate about 40 different mutations in genes have been found to be blamable for PD.


A group of brain structures which are innervated by dopaminergic system and identified as basal ganglia are severely damaged in Parkinson’s disease. The cells in the regions of substantia nigra and pars compact die very frequently. Macroscopic alterations can be identified in the cut surfaces of the brainstem due to neuronal loss. The melanin pigmentation also reduces in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus. Histopathology of substantia nigra and other regions of brain show heavy neuronal loss as well as heavy accumulation of Lewy bodies. Neuronal loss is followed by death of astrocytes and activation of the microglia. Presence of Lewy bodies in different regions of brain is the key feature of this disorder. The primary symptoms of this disease are due to the reduced activity of dopamine producing neurons especially in the regions substantia nigra and pars compacta.

Basal ganglia are connected to other areas of brain through five major pathways. These pathways are motor, oculo-motor, associative, limbic and orbitofrontal circuits. In PD all these circuits are disturbed and so the patient suffers from the problems associated with movement, attention and learning. Out of all the five circuits, motor circuit has been intensively studied. A conceptual model has been in practice since 1980 which shows direct relationship between alteration of motor circuit and appearance symptoms of PD. The model is however, modified with recent advances in research but is still used even today. According to this model, the basal ganglia exert an inhibitory influence on a wide range of motor systems that prevents them from being active at inappropriate times. When a particular motor action has to be performed then this inhibitory effect is reduced. This inhibitory effect diminishes with the release of dopamine. High levels of dopamine are required in order to perform motor actions but if the level of dopamine declines symptoms of PD get a chance to make their appearance. The condition in which the level of dopamine declines is known as hypokinesia and causes difficulty in motor actions. The drugs that are used to treat PD may produce excessive high levels of dopamine resulting in activation of motor systems at inappropriate times causing dyskinesias.

A number of mechanisms are known in which loss of brain cells is observed. One such mechanism consists of abnormal accumulation of a protein known as alpha-synuclein. This protein combines with ubiquitin and results in neuronal loss. This protein accumulates inside the cells in the form of inclusions known as Lewy bodies. According to Braak staging Lewy bodies first make their appearance in the olfactory bulb, medulla oblongata and pontine tegmentum. As the disease progresses Lewy bodies start accumulating in substantia nigra, areas of midbrain and basal forebrain and later in the neocortex. These areas are the chief sites where heavy neuronal loss occurs. Lewy bodies may not be responsible for cell death and may be protective. In the patients suffering from dementia heavy accumulation of Lewy bodies have been noticed in the cortical areas. Neurofibrillary tangles and senile plaques may be observed in patients of Alzheimer’s disease with dementia. Other mechanisms associated with cell death are proteosomal and lysosomal dysfunction followed by reduced mitochondrial activity. Iron accumulation has been noticed in the regions of substantia nigra.


Parkinson’s disease can be diagnosed by medical history and neurological examination. There are at present no definite laboratory tests available that can clearly depict that a person is suffering from PD although brain scans help in disease identification but the chances of accuracy are low. The patients may be given levodopa which results in reduction of problems of motor impairment and the disease can be diagnosed with greater accuracy. Isolation of Lewy bodies from the midbrain by autopsy also confirms that a person is suffering from PD. Alzheimer’s disease, multiple cerebral infarctions and drug-induced Parkinsonism can also produce Parkinsonian syndrome. Medical organizations have created certain criteria by which the disease can be diagnosed in early phases. The most widely used criteria have been developed by the UK Parkinson’s Disease Society Brain Bank and US National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. The PD Society Brain Bank focuses on rest tremors, slowness of movements and postural instability.

Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of brain of the patients of PD appear to be normal. These techniques can be useful in identification of the secondary symptoms of PD like basal ganglia tumors, vascular pathology and hydrocephalus. Diffusion MRI is however, useful in differentiation of typical and atypical Parkinsonism but more research is required in this field. PET and SPECT radiotracers can be used for measuring the activity of dopaminergic neurons in the basal ganglia. Reduced dopaminergic activity in the neurons of basal ganglia can be a clue for this disorder.


In the present scenario there is no possible cure for Parkinson’s disease but medication, surgery and multidisciplinary management can help the patients to survive. The most promising drugs used to curing the motor symptoms are levodopa, dopamine agonists and MAO-B inhibitors. These drugs are generally prescribed on the basis of the phase of the disease associated. In general terms two stages of medications are identified. In the initial phase the patient with PD develops some disability for which he or she requires pharmacological treatment and in the second phase the patient develops motor symptoms related to levodopa usage. The treatment in the initial stage aims at minimizing the side effects that have resulted from the enhanced dopaminergic activity. The starting of the levodopa treatment can be delayed by the usage of other drugs like dopamine agonists and MAO-B inhibitors. These drugs can delay the onset of dyskinesias. The second phase of medication aims at reducing the fluctuations that have resulted as a result of treatment. When medications fail to give the desired results then surgery and deep brain stimulation methods are employed. In the final stages of disease palliative care is provided in order to enhance the quality of life.


Levodopa has been used for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease for more than 30 years. In the dopaminergic neurons L-DOPA is converted into dopamine in the presence of dopa decarboxylase. As motor symptoms in PD are caused by the lack of dopamine in the cells of substantia nigra, the administration of L-DOPA can help to diminish the motor symptoms temporarily. Studies have indicated that only 5-10% of the L-DOPA crosses the blood brain barrier. Although L-DOPA is converted into dopamine but it produces a number of side effects also like nausea, dyskinesias and joint stiffness. Carbidopa and benserazide are potent peripheral dopa decarboxylase inhibitors. They block the conversion of L-DOPA to dopamine therefore reduce side effects by increasing bioavailability. Levodopa is also related to dopamine dysregulation syndrome which is the result of overuse of the medication. If the doses of levodopa are given intravenously and through intestinal infusions, then the rate of spread of medication increases.

Tolcapone is known to inhibit the COMT enzyme activity which is responsible for the degradation of dopamine and this in turn prolongs levodopa activity. Usage of levodopa in later phases of the disease results in involuntary movements also known as dyskinesias and fluctuations in response to medication. When this happens the patient of PD switches from good response to medication and few symptoms to no response to medication and significant motor symptoms. Therefore, it is advised to keep the doses of levodopa low in order to maintain the functional stability of the patient. Use of alternatives for levodopa is now in practice.

Dopamine agonists

A number of dopamine agonists are known that have similar effects like that of levodopa and are known to bind the dopaminergic post-synaptic receptors. They are generally used for the individuals suffering from dyskinesias and the common examples are bromocriptine, pergolide, piribedil, apomorphine and lisuride. Although they are known to produce significant effects but also cause some mild side effects namely drowsiness, hallucinations, insomnia, nausea and constipation. Sometimes in very mild doses side effects emerge out so the physician has to search for another drug. These drugs are useful for curing the motor symptoms caused by overuse of medication and are useful for treating the symptoms that arise during the initial phases of the disease. They are more expensive than levodopa and dyskinesias due to dopamine agonists are however, rare in younger people but other symptoms may crop up as the age as well as the disease advances.

MAO-B inhibitors

These drugs are known to increase dopamine levels in the basal ganglia by blocking it metabolism. They are known to inhibit the activity of monoamine oxidase-B that breaks down dopamine secreted by the dopaminergic neurons. Reduction in the activity of MAO-B increases the levels of L-DOPA in striatum. They are used to improve the motor symptoms in early phases of the disease but are less effective than levodopa. They produce more side effects.

Surgery and deep brain stimulation

Researchers earlier believed that surgery and deep brain stimulation can help to treat the motor symptoms of PD but with the discovery of levodopa the number of operations experienced a heavy downfall. Surgery is generally performed in those cases where drugs fail to produce significant effect. Surgery in case of PD can be placed under two group namely lesional and deep brain stimulation (DBS). The target areas for lesions and DBS are thalamus and subthalamic nucleus. DBS is the most commonly used surgical treatment and it involves use of brain pacemaker that sends electrical impulses to specific areas of brain. DBS is generally used for the individuals who suffer from motor fluctuations and uncontrolled tremors or those who suffer from sever neuropsychiatric problems.

Rehabilitation and diet

Speech problems can be cured with rehabilitation although more research is required in this area. Regular physical exercise with or without physiotherapy can be helpful for treating the problems associated with mobility, flexibility, gait etc. although the exercise program must be practiced under the strict supervision of the physiotherapist. Muscles and nerves that take control over the digestive process are generally affected in PD resulting in constipation and gastroparesis. A balanced diet is recommended by the doctors as swallowing difficulties may occur as the disease advances. In some cases gastrotomy is practiced where food is directly delivered in the stomach. Strong competition occurs between proteins and levodopa as both uses the same transportation system in the intestine and blood brain barrier. When both are taken together the effectiveness of the drug decreases. Therefore, when levodopa is taken heavy protein diets are discarded and the patient is suggested to take balanced Mediterranean diet.

Palliative care and research directions

Palliative care is generally required in the final stages of the disease when all the medication strategies become ineffective. The prime aim of palliative care is to enhance the quality of life of the patient. Strong family support is very effect in this regard. PD is the second most dangerous neurodegenerative disorder after Alzheimer’s disease. We can end up by saying that PD must be taken seriously as it bears the potential of making the life of an individual worse if neglected.

Equine Massage Therapy – The New Frontier in Horse Care

The horse can offer enjoyment on many fronts to its owner. Horses are used recreationally in sports such as:

o Barrel racing
o Jumping
o Dressage
o Hunting
o Rodeoing
o Trail riding

Horses used in these capacities are also often dear pets that owners develop deep bonds with. A horse may also be of financial importance to owners who use them as professional racehorses. But no matter how a horse benefits its owner, it must be cared for in a loving, responsible manner to ensure its continued health and friendly personality.

Horse ownership responsibilities are much more demanding than for other pets such as dogs and cats. The reason for this is because horses are incredible athletes. Their bodies are made up of huge muscles which provide maximum efficiency when running long distances, jumping or maneuvering through obstacles. Because of the horse's status as serious athlete, a recent addition to horse care has been created. This addition is called equal massage.

How Equine Massage can help your Horse

Massage therapy has long been used to help humans relieve tension and stress. In equine massage, there are also a number of benefits. Massages in horses can result in:

o Increased circulation-massage helps immensely with blood flow. Rich, oxygenated blood will reach every area of ​​your horse's body effortlessly.
o Eliminated waste-fatigued muscles result in toxic buildup in horses bodies. Massage helps to dislodge toxins and hasten their elimination from the body.
o Increased flexibility-massage helps remove knots from muscles which allows for greater movement
o Muscle tone
o Range of motion
o Alleviation of pain-knotted muscles that arise from running or jumping can lead to a great deal of pain. The only way to alleviate this pain is to massage the knots out of the horse's muscles.
o Stress relief-a horse that has tense, knotted muscles that result in pain can display changes in behavior. Massage therapy can make for a de-stressed, happier animal.

If you use your horse for athletic activities, you will be glad to know that all the benefits of massage therapy will help improve performance and enhance relaxation. In fact, massaging a horse before a competition or race has been proven to result in as much as a 20 percent increase in performance quality and efficiency.

For more information on equine massage, visit the website of Austin Vet Clinics .

Food and Food Health

We all have passed through a phase, or are still in one where the mind still walks the streets of dilemma as to whether the salad in the afternoon can make up for the double cheese hamburger of last night. Whether the calories gained through the chocolate pudding can be balanced through the oatmeal in breakfast.

A few years back, there was a stigma about having the perfect thin or muscular (as one prefers), flat-stomached body. There was this misconception that slim and trim is the way to look beautiful. But fortunately, this stigma and misapprehension is slowly and somehow being eliminated from the society. Today, every type of body is beautiful, whether it is a flat-stomach or a fat belly. But that does not give any of us the right to overlook the fact about eating healthy.

Eating healthy does not mean gulping down only chunks of vegetables and salads. Eating healthy does not mean being on a “diet”. Eating healthy means providing the body every kind of nutrients to function properly. And it includes the Broccoli Soup one cringes to as well as the delicious classic double crust cheese-filled pepperoni pizza, everyone craves for.


We all love eating, mainly the junk type, but sometimes realization hits us and we tend to understand that salads and vegetables and fruits are really important part of a diet. Every type of nutrient is needed to keep the body functions in its right place. Vitamins, proteins, minerals, carbohydrate, fats, roughage and water, these are the nutrients we need almost on a daily basis. I won’t waste time by telling what these are and how each of them are important because this is something we all have learnt in six-grade science subject. But I do would like to mention some of the dishes that are delicious, healthy and contain all of the above nutrients in the right amount.


It is a delicious chicken preparation, which is rolled up with prosciutto and mozzarella cheese and drenched in a tasty white wine pan sauce. It is a mouth-watering dish with the goodness of protein (found in chicken), fats (cheese) and the palatable white wine sauce. It can easily be garnished with vegetables, providing the wholesome richness of vitamins and minerals.


The name may seem to have no part of it seem delicious- ‘un-cheesy’, the dreaded ‘broccoli’ and ‘potato’, but the taste seems to be contradicting it’s not-so appealing name. It is a preparation which will fill the tastebuds with an explosion of flavor and its richness makes it almost hard to resist. The dish is a mixture of health and taste.


This the perfect preparation for all those fuzzy kids who refuse to eat any fruits. This flavorful dish is full of protein and fiber and a favorite among the children and adults alike.


There is absolutely no need to state what importance food holds in the existence of an individual. As stated above, it does not matter if one is slim or fat, what matters is whether the individual is eating healthy. Excess of nothing is good, especially not food. But we need to understand the right amount and the right kind of nutrients our body needs, to stay healthy and to keep our loved ones healthy as well.

Benefits of Plums For Natural Weight Loss

A plum is a delicious fruit when eaten alone or in fruit salads or cut up in cereals and yogurt. It can also be cooked up to make compote or sauces for dessert dishes.

Plums are very nutritious and contain potassium, Vitamin A, Magnesium, Iron and fibres which keep us healthy and full of energy. They also prevent platelet clotting which may result in diseases like Artherosclerosis, High Blood pressure, Stroke and Coronary Heart Disease.

It also prevents constipation and removes toxins from the body. In this you can lose weight naturally.

Plum contains citric acid that can prevent tiredness and muscle cramp. It improves gastrointestinal and liver function and thus prevents constipation.

So start eating plums to keep healthy and beautiful and also to lose weight.

Summing up, you should eat plums for various purposes. You can get various vitamins and minerals from these, improve your circulatory system, digestive system and your heart’s health. It will also help you to stay active and energetic.

You can follow the tested diet plans for weight loss. These plans contain everything you need in order to lose the excess weight without any hard workouts. These diet plans can be easily used by the family to lose weight and to stay slim thereafter. Many times, people lose the excess fat and then regain it after some time. But with a good diet plan, you will stay in figure forever and be able to increase your body’s metabolism to lose the excess calories and fat.