Depression Statistics

A major depressive episode can be devastating to every person and family that it touches. In addition to emotional suffering, there are measurable consequences to society. To fully understand the magnitude of the problem of depression, let's take a look at some of the relevant depression statistics.

About 19 million American adults are afflicted by depressive disorders in any given year. This includes major depression, dsythymia and bipolar disorder. Approximately 10 to 15 percent of the adult population sufferers from depression in most industrialized societies. It is the leading cause of disability among those aged 15 to 44 in the United States, and the leading cause of disability for those over age 5 worldwide.

Major depressive disorder can occur at any age, but the median age of onset is 32. New reports indicate that four percent of preschoolers have been diagnosed with clinical depression, and the number of children with depression is increasing at an alarming 23 percent every year. One area of ​​concern: current antidepressants have shown little effectiveness in patients under age 18.

Women are diagnosed with depression at about twice the rate as men. However, this may be due to the fact that men are less likely to seek treatment for depressive disorders. Only eight percent of depressed African-American males seek treatment. Overall, it is believed that about 80 percent of depression cases go undiagnosed and untreated. Depression is a recurring illness: after each depressive episode, your risk of future episode increases.

Depression accounts for a huge cost to the economy as well. It is responsible for a major portion of absenteeism from work. Costs to employers in absenteeism and lost productivity due to depressed disorders is estimated to be more than $ 51 billion per year. This figure does not include costs for treatment and prescription medications.

The effects of depression can spread through families and across generations. Research has indicated that children of depressed mothers score lower on mathematical achievement tests. Developmental delays in children aged two to four years old have also been linked to depressed mothers.

Unfortunately, society continues to attach a stigma to depression. Surveys show that 54 percent of people consider depression to be a personal weakness. In one study, 41 percent of women stated they were too embarrassed to seek help for their depression.

There is a natural connection to interfere in the private emotions of others. But to reach those who are suffering from depressive disorders, it may be necessary to step beyond our comfort zone and encourage those we know and love to seek treatment. Regardless of whether depression is affecting us personally, it is certainly causing pain in our community.

How To Recognize A Phobia While Coaching

Coaching, when done well, can take us in surprising directions. If our coachee trusts us enough they may well reveal some deep 'cause' underlying a surface 'symptom'. Coaching managers would be advised to develop at least a little insight into the signs of abnormal psychology. Consider for example, phobias.

We need to consider phobias and the anxiety response they can produce in their sufferers. 'Phobia' appears to be one of those psychological terms that have become rooted in everyday language. People uneasy with IT equipment complain of Technophobia and nervous maths students claim to be victim to Numberphobia and so on. In truth, although one is only phobic if one experiences some of the physical symptoms of anxiety in situations in which most other people are able to cope.

We can group phobias into three classifications:

Simple phobias – fear of a certain object or situation Social phobias – insecure in public places Agoraphobia – fear of being in unfamiliar places

There are two main explanations as to why people develop phobias:

Learning Theory – which claims that a phobia will develop from an extremely intense experience, eg Watson and Rayner's experiment with young Albert featuring rats and loud noises.

Psychoanalytic Theory – which suggests that a phobia is a conscious manifestation of an unconscious fear, eg Freud's analysis of 'little Hans' in the early 1900s.

Each theory proposes a markedly different treatment:

Learning Theory – suggests systematic desensitization. In other words the sufferer is exposed to the source of their anxiety a little at a time.

Psychoanalytic Theory – suggests that treatment involves revealing the subconscious concern; usually with hypnosis.

One thing is for certain, asking the sufferer why they are afraid of something so silly or suggesting that they pull them together together will probably not help. For the sufferer the fear is all too real.

What then of the coaching manager who uncovers these signs when coaching around work management or time keeping? Best advice would seem to be to keep to good coaching principals. Ask questions designed to raise awareness, generate responsibility and build trust then listen carefully and attentively to the responses. This is highly undesirable to make things worse and may actually do quite a lot of good.

After that, it's a question of referring the coachee to the relevant professional. For this reason I recommend that all coaching managers familiarize themselves with their organization's welfare procedure.

Terrorism – A Threat to Global Peace


Nowadays, no one seems to be saved in the world. Terrorism, an ugly development which has compelled the world leaders as well as the public figures to spend millions of dollars beefing up their security, has become a global threat. Amidst this seemingly tight security and threat, thousands of innocent souls have lost their lives to the annihilation called terrorism.

Statistically, it has been proved that no country of the world is exceptional to terrorist attacks. Pius Odiaka writes on the palpable fear pervading world following the series of bombings in some countries. He declares in the Guardian Newspaper, Friday, July 29th, 2005, (page 24) that “No part of the world has been left without terrorist bloodshed. From Kenya, Algeria, Egypt in Africa to many countries in the middle East and the Gulf; Indonesia, Philippine, Pakistan and India across Asia; Washington and New York in America; Spain and now London in Europe, many innocent souls have been sniffed out of existence.”

The paper will present how terrorism is a threat to Global Peace. It will enumerate the category of acts of terrorism. It will also examine the causes and implications of terrorism in human advancement especially in the area of peace building and keeping. Above all, it will provide recommendations by referring to the United Nations recommendations for a global counter-terrorism strategy. It concludes by affirming that the global peace can only be achieved if the world- the leaders and the followers-condemn terrorism in all forms and ramifications, and act unconditionally and justly in their quest to providing everlasting solutions to peace, as it constitutes one of the most serious threats to global peace and security.


In human history, terrorism is widely recognized as the world most famous enemy of mankind. As history itself will admit that terrorism is annihilation with far-reaching and destructive effects, it is the cruelest of crimes against humanity. Its remains have turned neighbours into enemies and have made our societies and the whole world unsafe for living. Its aims and applications are global and uncompromising. Neither terrorism nor is perpetrators are new. Even though it has been used since the beginning of recorded time, not history itself can keep, with precision, the number of lives and properties lost to terrorism.

No doubt, terrorism with its destructive power has reshaped the world we live in. We now live in the world characterized by rising violence and conflicts. This, in turn, has led to the world of growing mistrust, fear, division and represents a significant new threat to international justice, peace and security. This ugly development thus made Amnesty International to observe in its 2004 Report the lasting effects of the crime on humanity.

This report and others provide a valid point on how terrorism or terrorist acts have made the world unsafe and how it has threatened global peace.

Historical Background of terrorism

It is pertinent to recall that forms of society and governments in the past differ from what they are today, when describing the history of terrorism and the use of terror through time. Not until 1648 (Treaty of Westphalia), there was nothing like modern nation-states. More recent is the state’s monopoly on warfare or interstate-violence. The absence of central authority gave many more players opportunity to participate in the game of warfare. However, this did not make the use of terror a method of affecting a political change. In contrast to the modern era, where only nations go to war, the involvement of players such as religious leaders, mercenaries, mercantile companies, national armies and many more was considered to be lawful and normal.

Terrorist acts or the threat of such action have been in existence for millennia. So, in narrating the history of terrorism, it is important to talk about the various types of terrorism and terrorist individuals and groups. Below is the summary of the history of terrorism.

Ancient World:

Sicarii Zealots

Political scientists see the radical Sicarii offshoot of the Jewish Zealots as one of the earliest forerunners of modern terrorism. Like modern terrorists, they intended their actions to suggest a message to a wider target audience: in this instance, the roman imperial officials and all pro-Roman and collaborationists


The Hashshashin (also Hashishin, Hashsshiyyin or Assassins) were an offshoot of the Isma ili sect of the Shiite Muslims. After a quarrel about the succession of leadership in the ruling Fatimide dynasty in Cairo around the year 1090, the losing Nizariyya faction was driven from Egypt. They established a number of fortified settlements in present day Iran, Iraq, Syria and Lebanon under the charismatic leader Hasan I Sabbah.Persecuted as infidel by the dominant Sunni sect in the Muslim world; they sent dedicated suicide murderers to eliminate prominent Sunni leaders whom they considered “impious usurpers.” The sect was decimated by the invading Mongols, their last stronghold being flattened by Hulegu Khan in the year 1272.Many scholars believe the term Hashshashin, a name given to them by their enemies was derived from the Arabic “hassasin(hashish user),which they are alleged to have ingested prior to their attacks, but this etymology is disputed. The sects referred to themselves as al-da-wa al-jadida, which means the new doctrine, and were known within the organization as Fedayeen.

Seventeenth century

Gunpowder Plot (1605)

On November 5, 1605 a group of conspirators, led by Guy Fawkes, attempted to destroy the English Parliament on the State Opening, by detonating a large quantity of gunpowder secretly placed beneath the building. The design was to kill King James1 and the members of both houses of parliament. In the resulting anarchy, the conspirators planned to implement a coup and restore the Catholic faith to England. However the plan was betrayed and then thwarted.

Eighteenth century

1.Sons of Liberty

The Sons of Liberty were an underground group opposed to British Rule in the colonies, who committed several attacks, most famous among these was the Boston Tea Party. No one was killed or seriously injured by any action that was taken.

2.The Terror (1793-1794)

The Reign of Terror ( September 5 1793- July 28 1794) or simply The Terror ( French: la Terreur) was a period of about eleven months during the French Revolution when struggles between rival factions led to mutual radicalization which took on a violent character with mass executions by guillotine.

The victims of the Reign of Terror totaled approximately 40,000.Among people who are condemned by the revolutionary tribunals, about 8 percent were aristocrats, 6 percent clergy 14 percent middle class, and 70 percent were workers or peasants accused of hoarding, evading the draft, desertion, rebellion, and other purported crimes.

Nineteenth century


Anarchists was the most prolific terrorists of the 19th century, with the terroristic tendencies of both nationalism and political movements of Communism or fascism still in there infancy. The disjointed attacks of various anarchists groups lead to the assassination of Russian Tsars and American Presidents but had little real political impact.

2.Tsarist Russia

In Russia, by the mid-19 th century, the intelligentsia grew impatient with the slow pace of Tsarist reforms, which had slowed considerably after the attempted assassination of Alexander II of Russia. Radicals then sought instead to transform peasant discontent into open revolution. Anarchists like Mikhail Bakunin maintained that progress was impossible without destruction. With the development of sufficiently powerful, stable, and affordable explosives, the gap closed between the firepower of the state and the means available to dissidents. The main group responsible for the resulting campaign of terror-‘Narodnaya Volya’ (people’s will) (1878-81) – used the word ‘terrorist’ proudly. They believed in the targeted killing of the ‘leaders of oppression’; they were convinced that the developing technologies of the age-symbolized by bombs and bullets- enabled them to strike directly and discriminately.” People’s Will”, possessing only 30 members, attempted several assassination attempts upon Tsa. Culminating in the assassination of Tsar Alexander II on 13 March 1881, killing the Tsar as he was traveling by train.

3. Irish Republican Brotherhood

In 1867, the Irish Republican Brotherhood, a revolutionary nationalist group with support from Irish-Americans, carried out attacks in England. These were the first acts of “republican terrorism”, which became a recurrent feature of British history, and these Fenians were the precursor of the Irish Republican Army. The ideology of the group was Irish nationalism.

4. Nationalist terrorism

The Fenians/IRA and the IMRO may be considered the prototype of all ‘nationalist terrorism’, and equally illustrate the (itself controversial) expression that “one man’s terrorist is another man’s freedom fighter’. At least one of these groups achieve its goal: an independent Ireland came into being. So did an independent Macedonia, but original IMRO probably contributed little to this outcome. Some groups resorted to the use of dynamite, as did Catalan nationalists such as La Reixa and Bandera Negra.

5. John Brown

John Brown was an abolitionist who advocated armed opposition to slavery. He committed several terrorist attacks and was also involved in an illegal smuggling of slaves. His most famous attack was upon the armory at Harpers Ferry, though the local forces would soon recapture the fort and Brown, trying and executing him for treason. His death would make him a martyr to the abolitionist cause, one of the origins of American Civil War, and a hero to the Union forces that fought in it.

6. Ku Klux Klan (1865)

The original Ku Klux Klan (KKK) was created after the end of the American Civil War on December 24, 1865, by six educated middle-class confederate veterans from Pulaski, Tennessee. It soon spread into nearly every southern state of the United States. The Klan has advocated for what is generally perceived as white supremacy, anti-Semitism, racism, anti-Catholicism, homophobia, and nativism. They have often used terrorism, violence and acts of intimidation such as cross burning to oppress African Americans and other groups. The name ‘Ku Klux Klan’ has been used by many different unrelated groups, but they all seem to center on the belief of white supremacy. From its creation to the present day, the number of members and influence has varied greatly. However, there is little doubt that, especially in the southern United States, it has at times wielded much political influence and generated great fear among African Americans and their supporters. At one time KKK controlled the governments of Tennessee, Indiana, Oklahoma and Oregon, in addition to some of the southern U.S legislatures.

Twentieth century

Suffragette, Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand (1914), KKK(1915),Irgun (1936-1948), World War II, Nationalism and the End of Empire,Cold War proxies,,IRA,,ETA, Aum Shinrikyo (1984-1995), Achille Lauro Hijacking (1985), Lockerbie bombing (1988), Umkhonto we Sizwe (South Africa 1961-1990), PLO (1964-c.1988), Columbian terrorist groups, Munich Massacre (1972),Matsumoto incident(1994), Sarin gas attack on Tokyo subway(1995),and Oklahoma City bombing (1995) are types of terrorism and individual terrorists and groups that operated in the twentieth century.

Twenty-First Centuries

The well-celebrated September 11 (2002) attack and the Beslan school siege are recent terrorist attacks of the twenty-first century.

Terrorism: Definition of a Phenomenon

As clearly stated above, terrorism has established itself as a world phenomenon before 1648. But then, it becomes imperative to look into the true meaning of the term.Although providing a definite definition for it has been accorded with series of controversies, etymologically, the term emanates from Latin, “terrere”, meaning “to frighten” via the French word terrorisme, which is often associated with the regime de la terreur, the Reign of Terror of the revolutionary government in France from 1793 to 1794.The Committee of Public Safety agents that enforced the policies of “The Terror” were referred to as ” Terrorists”.

The English word “terrorism” was first recorded in English dictionaries in 1798 as meaning “systematic use of terror as a policy”. The Oxford English Dictionary still records a definition of terrorism as “Government by intimidation carried out by the party in power in France between 1789-1794.

The controversial issue is that the vocabulary of terrorism has become the successor to that of anarchy and communism the catch-all label opprobrium, exploited accordingly by media and politicians.The difficulty in constructing a definition which eliminates any just cause for terrorism is that history provides too many precedents of organizations and their leaders branded as terrorist but who eventually evolved into respected government. This has applied particularly to national liberation movements fighting colonial or oppressive regimes, engaging in violence within their countries often as a last resort. Jomo Kenyatta of Kenya spent years of his life lobbying the British government before his involvement with the Mau Mau rebellion. Nelson Mandela, a hero in his continent and beyond, is another convicted “terrorist” belonging to this class.

Before making a valid point, it is important to say that this piece would like to consider further statements and criticisms on the issue and recognized that there are other valid arguments on these controversial issues. However, they are not within premises of this paper.

Arriving at a universally accepted definition of terrorism which narrows down to a specific method of conducting violence instead of “all its forms and manifestations” or which makes it possible to refer terrorist acts to an international court, as for genocide and other war crimes or which makes it impossible for individual countries to outlaw activities they choose to classify as terrorism perhaps for their own political interest is a great challenge in the study of terrorism.

While the United Nations has not yet accepted a definition of terrorism, the UN’s “academic consensus definition,” has been put forth for consideration. And they are available for public evaluation.

In final analysis, although, it is not clear the actual number of definitions of terrorism; but it is clear that terrorism does not have respect for human lives and values. It has claimed thousands of lives of innocent souls, rendered millions of people homeless and economically handicapped. Alas, it is clearer that terrorism has turned our world into a place conducive for its existence and spread.

Effects of terrorism on global peace

Indisputably, terrorism is a threat to global peace. As it thrives well in a world such as ours- where violation of human rights, rising violence and conflicts, ethnic, national and religious discrimination, socio-economic marginalization and extreme ideology, dehumanization of victims are prominently in practice, it has succeeded in disregarding human lives and values, launching war on freedom and peace, multiplying violence and conflicts, and posting challenges of solving the problem of injustice, insecurity and declining economy.


In accordance with the United Nations in a report titled: Uniting Against Terrorism-Recommendations for a global counter-terrorism strategy, this paper hereby presents the following recommendations;

(1)All stakeholders-the leaders and the followers, individuals and institutions must dissuade people from resorting to terrorism or supporting it.

(2) All stakeholders, in all ways and at all levels, must deny terrorists the means to carry out an attack by:

– denying terrorists financial support.

-denying terrorists access to deadly weapons, including weapons of mass destruction.

– denying terrorists access to travel.

-denying terrorists access to their targets and their desired impact.

(3) All stakeholders, in all capacities, must deter States from supporting terrorists groups.

(4) All stakeholders must develop State capacity to prevent terrorism by:

– promoting the rule of law and effective criminal justice systems.

– promoting quality education and religious and cultural tolerance.

– countering the financing of terrorism.

– ensuring transport security.

– preventing terrorists from acquiring nuclear, biological, chemical or radiological

materials, and ensuring better preparedness for an attack with such materials

-improving the defense of soft targets and the response to their attack.

– promoting United Nations system-wide coherence in countering terrorism.

(5) All stakeholders, collectively, must defend human rights in the context of terrorism

and counter- terrorism.

Even though my recommendations are fashioned out of United Nations recommendation for a global strategy, they represent a holistic and realistic approach to fighting or countering terrorism. However, if these recommendations are given the opportunity to operate or if implemented and executed properly and continuously, they are effective strategies of countering terrorism and, at the same time, ensuring a world free of violence and conflict, violations of human rights, ethnic, national and religious discrimination, political exclusion, and socio-economic marginalization


As you will agree with me that terrorism affects all of us, our approach to fighting or countering terrorism and ensuring a safe and peaceful world must be collective. However, it is worth noting that the world leaders, followers and stakeholders have vital roles to play in the fight against terrorism and in achieving our goals of global peace and security.

For the world leaders and stakeholders, these roles transcend attending or organizing world summit, conferences, seminars, e.t.c on the topic, and consenting to Global strategy to counter terrorism on papers. They need to commit more resources, at all levels, to the cause, be more sincere and objective in their judgments, more practical in their approach, and create enabling environments conducive for justice, conflict resolutions, human right protection, equality, stability, unity, prosperity, tolerance, peace and security.Above all, they need to promote and support ultimately because that have respect for human lives and values.

For followers and individuals, we need to carry out the message beyond conferences that terrorism is inexcusable and unacceptable. We need to engage in one- to -one education or group discussions enlightening ourselves on the devastating and destructive effects of terrorism on our lives and values, and emphasizing that terrorism is not an effective way of championing a cause, whether political, religious or otherwise. We must recognize that peace is the most precious need of humanity.

Dog Health Spotlight – Heartworm Disease

I want to make you aware of the threat that Heartworm poses to you puppy. While easily prevented, it often goes overlooked buy pet owners and in a lot of cases is caught when it is too late. The parasite is passed from dog to dog by, which is an insect that is notorious for passing along disease from animal to animal. The transfer occurs when the insect bites an infected dog, ingests the larvae, then feeds on an uninfected animal. While an adult worm can reach up to 12 inches in length, symptoms usually manifest within a 6-8 month period after the parasite is passed. One the worms reproduce, the infest the right side of the heart, arteries, and lungs, causing the dog noticeable symptoms.

Symptoms of Heartworm can start off being practically unnoticeable, such as a soft coughing with exertion. But the cough will continue to get worse, and over time the dog will no longer be able to run and play without complete exhaustion. The dogs quality of life will be greatly affected, it can cause the animal to pass out, cough up blood, vomiting, and diarrhea. The issue is usually that these symptoms mimic other common maladies.

As treatment goes, the best treatment is prevention. However, in the event that you dog does contract it, there are treatments available. Keep in mind that you should have your pet tested every year, and always have them tested before starting any kind of preventative treatment. A canine given preventative medication when the parasite already present can cause serious complications. A veterinarian can administer an arsenic compound to kill the adult worms if the dogs other issues are not to severe. As prevention goes, ask your vet for the best application for your dog.

Alzheimers Prevention and Brain Health

First I want to assume that you are reading this because you are starting to worry just a little bit about your memory and the possibility of Alzheimers later in life. You're not the only one-there are 72 million baby boomers taking turns on line every day looking for information, help and hope for the Alzheimers prevention. You may have noticed long time friends or people at work maybe your own spouse decline right before your eyes. It's more than a little scary knowing you could be there too; so we look for answers.

Brain fog is not necessarily an indication of Alzheimers, Age Associated Memory Impairment (AAMI) or any form of dementia. But it is a good indication that your brain health needs attention. It could be that any number of things or a combination of things could make all the difference; but it is up to you to take action. Clearing up the brain fog could very well be the first step in Alzheimers prevention.

A recent study of baby boomers concluded that 62% share Alzheimers as their biggest fear of growing old. Not heart disease, not heart attack, not stroke, not cancer but Alzheimers. I found myself in that group. I also discovered that among doctors, men and women who see more pain, suffering and disease than any other segment of the population, they would prefer anything to Alzheimers.

Alzheimers is characterized by elevated levels of beta-amyloid peptides that cause plaque to build up in the brain. The plaque causes the neurons to shrivel and tangle (fibrillary tangle) which results in the synapses from firing neurotransmitters to relay information through out the brain.

The increase in this disease among people under 65 is increasing at an alarming rate. Alzheimers prevention is the only course of action we can take at this point as there is no known cure for the disease.

So do you bury your head in the sand and hope you get to dodge this bullet or do you take the necessary steps to be healthy and mentally alert your entire life? The good news is that what you do to enhance and improve the most important organ in your body will enhance and improve your entire body. BUT if you think that this disease is just inevitable to some people keep your affairs in order it may become a self fulfilling prophecy.

If on the other hand you want to reduce your risk and increase energy, focus, concentration, memory and overall brain fitness here are several steps to take to make that happen.

First change your diet: there are some foods that do so much to create and maintain brain health they have to be included in a brain healthy diet. Eat whole grain foods that contain the bran, germ and endosperm. Eat apples, yes; an apple a day does keep the doctor away. Include more berries in your diet, all sorts, but the darker the better.

It also turns out that fish really is brain food you should eat fish 3 to 5 times per week; salmon, tuna, herring etc. And remember the tough vegetables- cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower and Brussels sprouts. Yes I know- you hate that kind of stuff- but you are an adult now and Alzheimers prevention is your objective.

On the other hand if you have been avoiding nuts because of the fat content you can quite worried nuts are good for you, the right fat, good slow metabolism, they help you feel full. Along with nuts include all kinds of dairy products but make them low fat when possible.

Eat more greens, the darker the better, spinach, turnip, kale etc. Yes I know …. But remember who you are and what your objective is. Add soy to your diet, it's especially good for Alzheimers prevention.

Sweet potatoes, one of natures most perfect and complete foods over all, is particularly good for brain health. So do not save then for the Holidays; eat them often.

Beans and legumes, there are many varieties and they are all very good for you and good for your brain. Tomatoes are another incredibly healthy fruit for over all health, especially the brain.

Type 2 Diabetes – Is Exposure to Flame-Retardant Chemicals During Pregnancy a Problem?

In June of 2018, the journal Environment International reported on a study showing a link between polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), molecules used as flame retardants, and Gestational diabetes. Investigators at Nanchang University and several other research institutions in China compared 439 pregnant women over a two-year period. They measured the women’s PBDE blood levels during the first trimester or three months of their pregnancy. At 24 to 28 weeks of pregnancy, the women were routinely screened for any signs of raised blood sugar and diabetes. A total of 77, or 17.4 percent of the women, developed Gestational diabetes…

  • three types of PBDEs were found to be linked with the disease, and
  • one category was linked with a higher than four times risk.
  • two PBDEs were linked with blood sugar levels.

From these results, the researchers suggested further studies needed to be undertaken with a different and a more extensive number of pregnant women.

PBDE flame retardants are used in…

  • cloth,
  • electrical equipment,
  • electronics,
  • boats,
  • airplanes,
  • motor vehicles,
  • plastics,
  • construction,
  • coatings, and
  • furniture padding (polyurethane foam).

Older furniture padded with polyurethane that has been treated with PBDE are thought to leach dust, which we then inhale. Burning household goods is another way the molecules can enter the atmosphere.

In 2011 the Journal of Environmental Sciences reported on the chemicals in the air and soil near a production site in Shanghai. In 2017 the journal Atmospheric Pollution Research published a study performed in Istanbul, Turkey…

  • air samples from 19 homes and offices as well as three outdoor sites were tested. All samples were positive for PBDEs.

That same year workers at the Aristotle University of the Thessaloniki reported finding PBDEs in the air around the Aegean Sea.

PBDE molecules settle from the air into dust and dirt and from there they enter rivers, lakes, and the ocean from rainstorms. They come into the marine food chain, including fish eaten by people. They also enter into the land food chain through the air, dirt, and freshwater. PBDEs can be found in…

  • beef,
  • chicken,
  • fish, and
  • milk.

Vegetarians have been found to have lower levels of PBDEs than meat eaters.

In 2004 the United States phased out the manufacture and importation of some types of PBDEs, but loopholes permitted others. The European Union also banned PBDEs in 2004. Australia did not manufacture PBDEs and banned their import in 2005. Unfortunately, they persist in the environment and were still being produced in China as late as 2015.

How To Avoid Obesity – Tips For Everyone

Obesity referers to a medical condition where the body has an excess body fat. In this state there is an abnormal accumulation of fat in the adipose tissues which store fat. Under normal circumstances, an increase of 20% or more above the desired body weight indicates obesity and is considered a health risk.

What causes Obesity?

A number of factors are known to accelerate obesity and these may include:

  • Oveating- The majority of the people who are obese eat too much. They eat more food than the body can utilize. As a result, the excess calories are converted into fats and are stored in the adipose tissues.
  • Inactivity- A life ofactivity is a danger to the health of any person. Most people who do very little or no exercise at all are likely to suffer from obesity. As one eats, it is expected that the body utilizes all the ingested calories. When we are involved in physical activities, these calories are burnt up to provide the necessary energy required. When one is inactive, the calories are not burned and therefore stored in the adipose tissues. This kind of lifestyle will lead to an accumulation of body fat over a long period of time and eventually, the body becomes overweight and worse more, obese.
  • Heredity- A family history of obesity is another predisposing factor for one to become obese. Although we have limited control of our genes, a good understanding of our physiological processes and the nutritional requirements of our bodies may help fight its occurrence.

What are the dangers of Obesity?

Obesity if not checked my lead to an immune physiological burden to the body. In most cases, there is a direct relationship between cardiovascular disease (heart) diseases and obesity.

The secret of keeping fit

  • Use Whole grains as you main carbohydrates source; they are of a higher nutritive values ​​compared to refined products. They have a high fiber content which helps in accelerating metabolic rate.
  • Have a regular exercise time. The more you exercise the more muscles you build. As a result, you will end up burning more fat leading to weight loss. A daily exercise program of one hour is great value to anyone who is keen to lose weight.
  • Make fruits part of your diet. Fruits such as berries, apples, pears and grape fruits are very good at increasing metabolic rates. The free use of these fruits supplies the body with essential minerals and vitamins which promote metabolic activities.
  • Eat lots of Raw Vegetable; they are an excellent source of antioxidants, enzymes and vitamins. In addition to this, they have a high fiber content which promotes metabolic activity.
  • Avoid refined / processed foods. These do not have fiber which is of great importance to the body. The glycemic index for refined foods is reliably higher than whole meals.
  • Avoid heavy evening meals / supper. After eating take at least two hours before you sleep. This will ensure that most food is digested and at the time of sleep, the stomach is empty. Heavy meals immediately before sleeping lead to over-absorption of nutrients and since the body is inactive, more calories are converted to fat.
  • Have a regular eating time with an interval of between 5 to 6 hours. These intervals help the body to rejuvenate and be ready for another work of digestion. Avoid eating between meals or snacking.
  • Measure your BMI (Body Mass Index) regularly. This is helpful since one can easily monitor his / her progress. It is an important thing to have your weight within the recommended ranges. A BMI that is above 25 but below 30 indicates that one is overweight. A BMI scale of 30 and above is an indicator of obesity and should be taken as a serious health concern.


It is a fact that Obesity is now a global health concern and new ideas are coming up each new day. For one to have the best approach, it is important to scrutinize them and study deeply so that the best practices are adopted.

The Basics On Flying Remote Controlled Planes

The adrenaline rush that comes with every flight of remote controlled planes is definitely something enthusiasts look forward to every time a chance to do so comes their way. However, a lot of beginners tend to make the mistake of rushing out into the field with their newly-bought models and start conquering open space without any real deal knowledge about how RC planes are supposed to be flown. The results include a large amount of the one's investment on this hobby going to waste.

It is a must for first-timers in this hobby to take some time and learn about it before actually doing it. To start out with the most basic, one has to know the different parts of the plane, what each one can do and what their limits are. The basic plane model comes with a number of parts that play a part in its flight. A plane's body is referred to as the fuselage, and it is where the engine, tail and wings of the plane are attached to. The wing is the plane's horizontal airfoil where the lift is. It is also where the flaps and ailerons are attached to. The ailerons are surfaces located on the outside of the wing.

They swing up and down in such a way that when the right aileron is up, the left one is down. It is these surfaces that have control over the airplane's roll. The horizontal and vertical stabilizers make up the back portion of the plane. It is the horizontal stabilizer where the elevator is hinged to and the vertical one where the rudder is hinged to. The elevator includes the surfaces of the horizontal part of the tail, which takes control of the plane's pitch while the rudder is the surface on the vertical part of the tail and has control of the plane's yaw. All kinds of plane come with an engine, which is responsible for the power that turns the propeller. The propeller, on the other hand, is the twisted airfoil or a turning blade that is powered by the engine to produce thrust for continuous flight. Covering the propeller's hub is the nose cone called spinner. It helps in making the airflow smoother. The cockpit is where the pilot sets and the controls and instrumentation are strategically located.

After knowing the RC planes' parts, it is easier to move on with the steps on how to get it airborne. It starts with the preflight preparations by turning the transmitter and the plane on. One should check the flight surface's direction as well as the antenna's range and see if the control surfaces are able to respond at 50 to 100 feet away without creating any unwanted movements. To make sure that the wind speed is appropriate, one can tie a ribbon to the end of the remote's antenna and hold the controller parallel to the ground. The ribbon should not be parallel to the ground. To check on the wind's direction, one can throw light materials into the air to see how the wind's movement is.

Once all these are ready, it is time to advance the remote controlled planes' power and have it gain speed on the ground. After earning an excellent speed, one can set the power to full speed and give it a firm toss into the air then get back to the controls. At this part, it is best to have an experienced flyer around for some assistance and advice. To move the plane to the right or left, one can move the right control stick to the right or the left. The plane should be leased. Raising its nose too much can cause a stall.

These are just the most basic things a beginner should learn first and foremost about flying remote controlled planes . There are different techniques about flying and maintaining flight one should learn about along the way.

Wilt Chamberlain – Track and Field at the University of Kansas (KU) In Addition to Basketball

Wilt Chamberlain is best known by sports fans as one of the most dominant basketball players of all time. To people less familiar with sports and basketball specifically the name Wilt Chamberlain might have a familiar sound because of his much publicized personal life. What many people do not realize is that before basketball became the focus of his life the first sport that Wilt fell in love with was track and field.

Chamberlain was born on August 21, 1936 and grew up in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania where he had eight brothers and sisters that all came from the same parents of father William and mother Olivia. As a youth growing up in eastern Pennsylvania Wilt famously stated that his first reaction to the game of basketball was that he considered it to be “a game for sissies.” The sport that the young Wilt Chamberlain was exponentially more passionate about was track and field.

Before even reaching high school age the freakishly athletic Wilt Chamberlain is reported to have high jumped 6’6″ which is a mark that would win most high school varsity track meets. Around the same time Wilt was also putting up ridiculously impressive broad jump numbers that are understood to be as far as 22 feet. For comparison purposes almost all high school track athletes can not reach 22 feet in a running long jump and Wit is reported to have reached that length from a stationary standing broad jump position. The high jumping and broad jumping talents are perhaps to be expected considering what the public now knows about his success on the basketball court, however the track and field prowess that Wilt showed was not confined to jumping events.

Thanks to the long strides and powerful running style that Chamberlain employed he was a miraculous middle distance runner as his preteen times of 49 seconds in the 440 yard race (once around a standard track) and under two minutes in the 880 yard distance (twice around a standard track) are exceptional numbers for even a college athlete. Chamberlain excelled at every aspect of track and field including running, jumping, and throwing. He is reported to have tossed a shot put over 53 feet in his youth.

Chamberlain matured very quickly and continued to grow at a rapid pace. At the age of 10 the young man was already 6′ tall and when he started high school he was an astounding 6’11”. As a 7’2″ college freshmen playing basketball at the University of Kansas (commonly referred to as KU) the 240 pound Chamberlain could reach 9’6″ into the air just standing flat footed (no tip toes).

Wilt took up his first love of track and field at the University of Kansas in Lawrence, Kansas while also playing basketball there. The 7’2″ goliath ran a sub 11 second 100 yard dash and also threw the shot put 56 feet. Despite competing and excelling in both sprinting and throwing his best events were not surprisingly the jumping events as Chamberlain triple jumped in excess of 50 feet and successfully won the Big 8 Conference high jumping competition three years in a row. In the world of track and field it is an extraordinarily rare athlete that can compete at the highest level in the shortest sprints, all the jumping events, and the throwing events. This dynamic collection of talents is so rare in fact that Wilt might be the only man ever to possess this unique skill set.

Motivational Speakers for Business

Whilst we may think of motivational speakers as featuring predominately in the world of sport, they are actually increasingly used in business. In the past, business speakers with a particular area of ​​expertise were drafted in to give advice in the workplace, but increasing employers are giving more importance to morale, attitudes in the workplace and openness to learn and improve.

This explains why motivational speakers are becoming more of a regular feature in training days, away days and conferences. Sometimes, it is not a person's knowledge that needs to be improved, but rather their morale or attitude. It's long been said that failing to believe in oneself is to set oneself up for failure, and motivational speakers can help to address this.

One of the problems with a poorly performing workplace is the cycle of failure employees find themselves in. Things are going badly, so people start to feel hopeless and less inclined to try and improve their situation, so things keep going badly. Motivational speakers understand this cycle and have techniques for getting people to reassess their situation and doing something about it. If the audience can change their attitude from being fearful and frustrated with their situation to viewing it as an exciting challenge and something to resolve then they are on the way to beating the problem.

Another of the reasons why people may not be performing as well as they can be at work is them feeling undervalued. Motivational speakers can build morale and a sense of team so that each individual understands their role and how it affects the success of the team as a whole. If an individual feels needed and as though others are relying upon them then they are more likely to feel motivated.

Quit Smoking Action Plan

Over the past four years at the Stop Smoking Center, we have helped over 2,000 people quit smoking. In that time, we've heard every story and have lost count of the times clients have begun by saying, "You may think this is silly, but …"

So first of all, let me ask you, how determined you are to stop smoking? On a scale of zero (not bothered) to ten (nothing will stop me), how determined are you to quit?

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

If you have scored less than eight, you almost certainly have 'mixed feelings' about stopping. But do not worry, that's normal. Many smokers know all the reasons why they 'should' stop, but still struggle making the final decision. They beat themselves up, complaining of a lack of willpower. But they are wrong, it is not willpower, you just need to make the decision.

Smokers who find it easy to quit say things like:

"I spent a year thinking about it before I finally decided to quit …

"… You just make a decision."

Our experience of helping many hundred of smokers is that 'Making that decision' is the main reason why those who quit easily found it easy to stop. Honestly answering the following questions will help you 'get off the fence' and reach the decision to quit.

Please answer the following questions:

How many cigarettes you smoke each day? ____

Note down what are you doing when you are smoking.

Is it while having a drink, after a meal, taking a break?

How many of these cigarettes do you actually enjoy? ____

Many clients tell us they smoke 'all the time.' If that's your belief, just calculate how many hours you are actually smoking each day – assuming it takes about four minutes to smoke each cigarette, just multiply the number you smoke each day by 4. Then divide by 60 to get the number of hours you smoke.

Hours I smoke: ____

How many hours are you awake every day (Hint, the Av is 16 hours)? As you can see, even a heavy smoker does not smoke all the time. In fact, even a heavy smoker is a 'non-smoker' more hours then they are a smoker!

Total hours awake: ____

Now let me ask you, why do you actually want to stop smoking? Tick ​​which of the following apply to you:

o Health

o Money

o Unsociable

o Want to be there for my children / grandchildren

o Am pregnant, or intend to start a family

o Dislike the smell

o Inconvenient

o Controlling my life

If you ticked health, do you have current health issues?

For example, shortness of breath, wheezing, lack of energy, asthma, bronchitis or emphysema? Or have you suffered from colds or viruses that you just can not shake? If you have noticed smoking is affecting your health, write down the specifics here:

If you ticked health but do not have any current health issues, is it because (like many) you are concerned of what might happen if you continue to smoke? You are probably aware of all the facts:

· Smoking causes 120,000 deaths a year in the UK, that is 330 people every day

· Smokers in their thirties and forties have five times the amount of heart attacks as non-smokers the same age

· One half of smokers will die prematurely

· Studies by ASH and the BMA indicate that around 50% of UK male smokers in their thirties and forties suffer from smoking related impotence

· Women who continue to smoke are more likely to experience vomiting, urinary infections and thrush.

Is smoking stopping you from doing what you want to do (ie getting fit, participating in your favorite activity), or is it the fear of what might happen if you continue to smoke? Use this space to describe specifically what your health concerns are:

Now, make a note of all that you will gain by stopping smoking. Will you gain more health? More energy? Self-confidence? A clean smelling house? More money? Describe what you will gain by becoming a non-smoker:

Imagine how you will look in six months as a non-smoker? How are you feeling? What are others saying about you?

Now, try to imagine how it would be if you continue to smoke … Imagine yourself in five years time if you continue to smoke. How would you look? How would you feel? Fast-forwards another ten years. How does it feel now? What are you saying to yourself? Can you go another ten years? How is your health? What are you saying to yourself?

As best as you can, switch between the two future scenarios, Smoker … and Non Smoker. Switch between them more quickly now, four or five times. Smoker … Non-Smoker. Smoker .. Non-Smoker … etc

What do you notice? Most of our clients find the 'non smoker' becoming more compelling.

You can download the free report, "Secrets to Stopping Smoking Without Cravings or Weight Gain" from []

Packing Healthy Lunches For Kids

Healthy eating is the daily general wellness mantra. What you eat and how you do it determines how healthy you will be, other factors remaining constant. This makes it a bit tricky to pack lunch for kids going to school. You are required to pack food that is less likely to go bad and healthy at the same time. Here are a few tips that could be of great help.

Remember should be smaller in proportion than breakfast but larger than supper.

If you want your child to be in the pink of health, breakfast should be your largest meal, followed by lunch and then supper. None of these meals should be skipped. For this reason, assuming that the child had breakfast as usual, the packed lunch should be a bit smaller than the breakfast.

Consider food choices. Your child needs essential minerals and vitamins to learn and play. Without a good diet, it will be difficult to learn or play. Have at least 3 or 4 food groups in the packed lunch. There should be vegetables and fruits, grain products, milk and meat for instance. Avoid junk food at all costs. For instance, pack a fresh fruit instead of chocolate and cakes. Actually, you should check the Ministry of Education’s policy on school food and beverage policies and adhere to them as you pack the lunch. Unsalted nuts are not allowed in most schools, for example. Some of the common foods that you can pack are:

• Quick Fried Rice

• Corn and Zucchini Fritters

• Avocado, Carrot and Cucumber Sushi

• Bean and Cheese Salad

• Waldorf Chicken Salad Sandwiches

• Roast Beef Pita Pockets

Consider the eating habits of kids, Children are more likely to eat with their fingers than with a spoon, therefore, it is important to pack lunch that can easily be eaten using fingers. Thus, chop raw veggies such as carrots or peppers and let them dip the veggies in cottage cheese. Bread-sticks or whole meal crackers are great as well. Encourage your child to try something new every day.

Use a high-quality lunch box. It will be useless to pack good food in a poor quality lunch box because it may go bad. Use a high quality lunch box that will keep the food in its natural state until lunch time.

All said and done, a parent or caregiver should pack lunch for a child in a very meticulous way to avoid food poisoning or other health effects. The lunch box should be clean and dry. It should be washed every day and it should be replaced regularly.

Anterograde Amnesia – Short Term Memory Loss

The movies ” Memento”, “So far dates”, “Finding Nemo”, “30 Rock”, Ludachristmas” and recently the Bollywood’s blockbuster hit “Ghajini” personified by Aamir khan prong towards an eminent brain disorder -“Anterograde Amnesia”. Frequently tagged as “Short Term Memory Loss”. The living soul Sanjay Singhania in the Bollywood movie ‘Ghajini’ recollects his bygone memories but is unable to reminisce his present. Such often transpires with some persons who endure this disorder.

Anterograde amnesia or short term memory loss is a predicament that may crop up either through brain injury or by certain drugs in which the individual is gravely enervated in learning new itemized information. Memories or events that happened preceding that injury prevails unscathed but the events that occurred after that injury are lost. Anterograde amnesia is devastating to the person and his family. Person’s adroitness for judgment and intelligence are not hampered.

Learning Afresh

Anterograde amnesics can perform their daily activities and may learn how to ride a bicycle, playing piano. The two elementary forms of memory are declarative memory and procedural memory. Declarative memory is memory for frequently encountered facts. declarative memory is again subdivided into two types: Episodic memory and semantic memory. Episodic memory is recollection of autobiographical facts while semantic memory involves factual information. Procedural memory is memory of schemes of events like how to tie your shoe lace, how to brush your teeth etc. The declarative memory is lost in short term memory loss.


Short term memory loss can manifest itself in two cases: by drugs of ‘benzodiazepine’ group like midazolam, diazepam etc. or by a traumatic brain injury where hippocampus or surrounding cortices are damaged. Hippocampus is that area of brain through which information is passed before being processed permanently as memory. If hippocampus and medial temporal lobe of brain are vandalized the individual becomes incompetent to process new information however, the older information before that injury remains unviolated. Damage to hippocampus may also be mingled with epilepsy, encephalitis, hypoxia, Alzheimer’s disease. Short term memory loss can also occur by wrecking of the basal fore-brain. Alcoholics can also be afflicted from anterograde amnesia when the BAC reaches above 0.25 percent usually accompanied by hangover.

Reorganization of memory

Persons with anterograde amnesia show varying degree of forgetfulness. When only one side of medial temporal lobe is impaired there is opportunity for normal functioning of memories. Neural Plasticity can be a boon in this regard. remapping can help the patient to recover and become moer skilled at remembering.

famous Cases

The most famous case for anterograde amnesia is that of a patient named Henry Molaison habitually called H.M. In 1957, H.M. under went bilateral lobectomy in which both his medial temporal lobes were exterminated due to which H.M. had bilateral impairment to both hippocampus and perirhinal cortex. He had a conventional IQ, decent vocabulary but was unable to remember new information. Every time he was taught of his mother’s death, due to which he got filled with grief. H.M. remembered all those events that happened before lobectomy. H.M. provided doctors an indication for short term memory loss. H.M. died in 2008 and till that he was used by doctors as an experimental model for understanding anterograde amnesia.

At the moment there is no indemnity for the restoration of anterograde amnesia. It is devastating, dangerous and can transfigure a person’s life to dilapidation. Work on short term memory loss is in ongoing stage we can simply hope that in the near future anterograde amnesia can be antidoted.

Children's Clothes Sizing Difference

Here are some children's size chart questions that are often asked:

What is the difference between size 24 months and 2T?

Both sizes were designed for children age 2 years or below but in the same way that not all children are alike on height and weight, you will often see that on one store or "line", your child is a 2T but for another a 24 months size. Most 24 Months sizes are made for baby clothes with easy diaper access where as 2T clothes do not have snaps for diaper access.

The size tag says "12 months", what does that mean?

Since there's no hard and fast rule on sizing for children, some retailers are putting on a general size tag which basically means you have to rely on the weight conversion of the age sizes. A size 12 months would usually range from babies 9-12 months old. The same way when it's an 18 months size tag, it would mean 12-18 months.

What is a Preemie size?

A preemie size reflects to babies that are 5 pounds or smaller. Some brands or lines are tailor for smaller babies since the term Preemie.

What are the ages behind US size charts?

Newborn and infant sizes are for babies 0 to 24 months. Some would include preemie sizes for babies that weigh 5 pounds or less. Toddlers and kids sizes are for children ages 2 to 6 years old. Girls' sizes are typically for children age 7 to 12 years old.

Which is a better size guide for children – age or weight?

Using just one of them would not make a good size guide. You should rely on both especially if you're buying dresses and bottoms. You would want to consider height and weight because some 6 year olds are small and could pass for a 4 or 5 year old. The best advice is to properly measure your child following the measurement guide of the store you're buying from.

Is it safe to buy girls' dresses online when it comes to choosing the right size?

Granting you are shopping at a reputable and legal online seller, it should be perfectly safe. What you need to do is to read through the seller's size guide and then measure your child's old dress and then adjust a size or two to make sure your daughter does not outgrow it fast.

Another great point when shopping for girls' clothes online is to check the return and exchange policy. You should half expect that you will not get the right size the first time. Some would order 2 of each dress, with one a size larger than the other to make sure they get the right size. You can always return the other that does not fit well.

How to get the right measurement for children?

Measuring the Shoulder to Hem, or Dress Length

Measure from the highest part of the shoulder (or the hollow in the throat) to the bottom of the hem (dress), over the fullest part of the chest.

Measuring the Chest

Measure across the widest part of the Chest and shoulder blades (back), so the measuring tape goes completely around the body. For young girls this can be one inch below the bottom of the dress arm hole (underarm seam).

Measuring the Waist

Measure around your natural waistline; making a complete circle. Do not pull the tape tight or suck in the stomach. Insert a finger under the tape so the dress is not too tight. The natural waist is when you bend over to the side, where your skin folds, is your natural waist.

You can also measure your child's dress that fits her well to determine the size of your child:

1) Lay the dress down on a flat surface, measure across the chest and waist, and double the measurements to get the exact size she'll need.

2) For the length, the best way is to hang the dress on a hanger, and measure from the outside shoulder straight down to the hem.

This is the way dress size charts are made. They give the customer the exact measurements, or as close as can be with variations of up to half an inch of the measurement.

A Minimum of Three Servings of Milk Daily Can Increase Mortality Among Women

Cheese, yogurt and other fermented dairy products do not count, but it has been proven that having at least three servings (250 milliliters per serving) of milk daily increases the mortality rates among women. According to the study under consideration here, women who drink three or more glasses of milk every day are twice as likely to die within the next twenty years as compared to the women who drink less than one glass daily. These researchers in Sweden say that the women's bone fraction risk increased with the increased intake of milk.

They believe that the culprit behind this problem is a specific sugar compound known as galactose, ie found in the milk. Karl Michaelsson, a professor from the University Uppsala in Sweden says that this compound could have been the reason behind the low-grade inflammation and the increased oxidative stress. This type of infection can significantly affect fractures and mortality.

The United States Agriculture Department recommends that adults should only take the equivalent of three cups of milk per day, considering that milk is good for bones and it reduces the risk of heart diseases. However, there is very poor scientific evidence behind this.

The current study sampled around 61,433 women who were within the age brackets of 39 and 74 and 45,339 men between the ages of 45 and 79. All these participants had initially reported their estimated diet plans at the beginning of the study. The women were further studied for twenty years during which 15,541 died while 17,252 suffered from fractures which included 4,259 hip fractures. After the researchers considered more demographic and biological factors such as body mass, age and alcohol intake, they found that the women who had more than three glasses per day were 1.93 times more prone to dying.

The men whereas, were further studied for 11 years. However, in their case there were no associations of milk consumption against fractures and death. But These women need not despairs because it was found that the consumption of fermented dairy products did not pose any similar threats.

Michaalsson believes that people should still not change their diet habits based on this single study, but he did agree that he had quit drinking milk since two years now and had switched to yogurt. This was because increased milk consumption did effect inflammation among men to some extent. In future research, Michaelsson plans to see the effect of milk on mortality based on an additional intake of antioxidants.