Myeloid Leukemia Definitions, Classifications And Symptoms

Myeloid leukemia is a group of diseases whose characteristic changes are seen in the bone marrow and blood, where tumor cells infiltrate the blood system; sometimes these cells even spill into the circulating blood other tissues. The concept of myeloid leukemia is from the action of immature white blood cells being produced in excess and there is inhibiting the production of the normal blood cells. These cells are called myeloid cells; they by their action in the blood disturb the function of the blood cells.

This leukemia has both tumors which are kept untreated to those that are diagnosed and treated immediately, ranging from rapid fatality to those which are slow in growing. Therefore on the basis of their treatment course they are divided into acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML).

AML is seen more in men than in women and more prevalent in people older than 65 than in people of younger age. CML is also greater in men than in women but its incidence always increase slowing and the people's age increases and gets to the peak of occurrence in mid decades from where there is rapid rise in CML occurrence. Any the incidence of CML decreed slightly in the past two decades.

The etiology of myeloid leukemia is dependent on the type, AML is related with risk factors such as hereditary (other resident blood disease in the family history; DIC) exposure to occupational chemicals, intense exposure to radiation which may be as a result of the therapeutic reasons and even some drugs, but there is nothing relating to the cause of ML to viral infection in any way.

While the etiology of chronic myeloid leukemia has no distinct relation with cytotoxic drug effect and there is also no evidence connecting it with any viral infection, but cigarette smoking by studies has shown to increase its progress into severe crisis, therefore living with chronic myeloid leukemia and smoking becomes dangerous. Only large dosage of radiation has any adverse effect for CML formation.

The symptoms of ML are also depending on the type, whether it is AML or CML. For AML patients are presented with some nonspecific symptoms which begin either slowly or abruptly and the symptoms are leucopenia or leucocytosis, thrombocytopenia. These symptoms are usually due to anemia in such patients. Other symptoms of are fatigue, anorexia and weight loss and easily getting bruised with excessive bleeding.

While in CML the symptoms are at first insidious there before it is difficult to diagnose a patient based but symptoms, such patients are usually diagnosed during normal medical checkup, or others come to the hospital with complaints fatigue, weight loss, symptoms relating to splenomegaly such as early satisfaction during eating, left upper quadrant pain, infections, thrombosis or sometimes bleeding.

When chronic myeloid leukemia progresses symptoms worsened with bone and joint pain, significant loss of weight which will require increasing the dose of the drugs used for treatment. Chemotherapy is used as treatment of myeloid leukemia but when this fails bone transplant is done.

Ghosts Of Black Rock

“You can’t depend on your eyes when your imagination is out of focus”

Mark Twain

Black Rock is located at the northern tip of the Oquirrh Mountains where the range ends abruptly at the southern shore of the Great Salt Lake. This is a very historical place and it is an absolute shame that it is in the condition it is. Black Rock is now a place where fools go to practice their graffiti or throw their garbage. There are old pilings, large blocks of concrete that no doubt once served as breakwaters for the numerous resorts that have been located here over the years. Old supports of long gone piers jut from the salt water here at the edge of the inland sea. The place has a sort of skeletal appearance to go along with the ghostly history of the rock.

Many years ago, Black Rock was a very different place. Lush grasses, reeds and rushes once crept down to the beaches of the lake in this area. Streamlets of pure, crystal clear water, fed by the melting snows of the Oquirrh Mountains once flowed into the lake in this area. One of the first mentions made of Black Rock was Heinrich Lienhard’s Journal. In this journal Lienhard kept a daily account of what he observed and experienced as a member of an emigrant party which passed through Utah and crossed the Great Salt Lake Desert on their way west, only weeks before the Donner Party.

Here is an excerpt from that journal “August 8th, 1846; In the vicinity of this spring, stood an immense, isolated, rounded rock under which was a cave and those going into it found a human skeleton.” Now it is clear that the party was in the vicinity of Black Rock at the time but whether this is a description of Black Rock or one of the many caves and boulders just up the hill at the foot of the Oquirrh Mountains is unclear to me. There have been numerous reports of archaic human remains being found in caves in the vicinity of Black Rock. The area must have held some significance to the ancients as it was a much utilized burial ground. University archaeologists extensively studied the sites and much knowledge was gained concerning these peoples who lived in this area long ago.

In 1850, Captain Howard Stansbury was conducting a survey of the Great Salt Lake and adjacent areas. He utilized Black Rock for various purposes. Captain Stansbury kept a careful record of this expedition and these records culminated in the following work “An Expedition to the Valley of the Great Salt Lake of Utah – Including an analysis of its geography, natural history, and minerals, and an analysis of its waters” by Captain Howard Stansbury – Captain; Corps of Topographical Engineers, U.S. Army. This volume is another one of my personal favorites concerning Utah History.

The following are excerpts from this volume that relate to Black Rock “April 19th, 1850; After erecting a station on it’s northern point (Stansbury Island), it was my intention to proceed to Black Rock, a large isolated rock on the southern shore of the lake, midway between the two islands (Antelope & Stansbury), to erect a station upon it” In order to conduct his survey of the lake, Stansbury erected triangulation stations on the high peaks of the islands and other prominent landmarks. He continues “April 20th, 1850; A fresh gale was blowing in from the northwest which continued to increase during the day. The wind was excessively cold, and the men were obliged to wrap themselves in Buffalo skins to keep warm. Setting the fore sail, we ran to Black Rock, a distance of more than 20 miles in 3 hours. A station was framed from timbers previously cut in the mountains and hauled to the spot for the purpose; but the force of the party was not sufficient to raise it”. Stansbury goes on to state that they were able to erect the station on top of Black Rock the following day and that he had the crew of the boat camp at Black Rock while he went to Salt Lake for supplies.

Upon his return to Black Rock, Stansbury decided to test out a theory he had “Before leaving Black Rock, I made an experiment upon the properties of the water of the lake for preserving meat. A large piece of fresh beef was suspended by a cord and immersed in the lake for rather more than twelve hours when it was found to be tolerably well corned. After this, all the beef we wished to preserve while operating upon the lake was packed into barrels without any salt whatsoever, and the vessels were then filled up with the lake water. No further care or preparation was necessary, and the meat kept perfectly sweet, although constantly exposed to the sun. I have no doubt that the meats put up in this water would remain sound and good as long as if prepared after the most approved methods. Indeed we were obliged to mix fresh water with this natural brine, to prevent our meat from becoming too salt for present use – a very few days immersion changing it’s character from corned beef to what the sailors called “Salt Junk”

When I visited Black Rock and stood at the edge of the break water, listening to the waves lap against the rocks, I imagined Captain Stansbury and his crew, in their makeshift boat, traveling here and there around the lake. To think that those men camped near this spot and erected a station with tall timbers on top of this rock.

Stansbury was not the only one who would ply the waters of the lake. In 1854, Brigham Young had a ship constructed and named it “Timely Gull” in honor of the seagulls that saved the saints crops from the cricket hoards. Timely Gull was used for recreation purposes and for transporting livestock to and from Antelope Island. The ship was basically a 45 foot barge with a sail. Timely Gull operated on the lake from it’s mooring at Black Rock for 4 years until a storm broke it free from its mooring and swept it across the lake to the far shore where it was wrecked.

I was thinking of these things as I walked around Black Rock looking for a possible route to its summit. It was a cold, grey, blustery February day and the daylight was fading away. The flash of the strobe lights on the Kennecott Smelter stack to the east seemed to attack the coming darkness with a vengeance. The wind was blowing a bit harder now and the waves grew larger and were now crashing against the rocks. As I considered the coming darkness and a realization that I would not want to linger at the rock after dark, I found a notch on the west side that allowed relatively easy access to the top of the rock.

Once on top, I stood there in the breeze and surveyed the scene. It sounds corny but I was overcome with a feeling of loneliness and sadness, and a creepy feeling that I was not alone there. I don’t necessarily believe in ghosts but if I did, I would probably avoid Black Rock because I had the previously described feelings before I knew the heartbreaking story of Mrs. Charley White.

Mildred Mercer wrote a fine piece on the history of Black Rock and it is found in the book “History of Tooele County – Volume I” Tooele County Daughters of Utah Pioneers, 1961. The following information on the story of the White family was obtained from that source. When Captain Stansbury and his outfit visited Black Rock in 1850, his assistant, Lieutenant John W. Gunnison (Gunnison died in 1853 on the Sevier River bend west of Delta when his expedition was massacred by Indians) made mention in his records that a Mr. Charley White and his wife had built a hut on the lake shore and they had a salt producing business in operation. Gunnison observed that Mr. White had 6 large – 10 gallon kettles in operation. He would boil 60 gallons of lake water at a time and could produce 300 pounds of salt per day. Gunnison stated that they could obtain 1 pail of salt from every 4 pails of lake water.

Charley White ran a herd of cattle in the area around Black Rock as well and he was constantly having problems with Indians running off with his stock. Apparently all was not well within the White home and Charley eventually left his wife who was known locally as “Mother White”, and their two children at Black Rock. Mother White continued to care for the animals and produce salt from the lake while raising her young daughter and son. Mother White was not a character to be taken lightly as she was described by some as a large woman who was always seen carrying a double barreled shotgun. She would have had to have been tough as nails to survive as long as she did on the shore of the lake, on the veritable edge of civilization.

If her husband abandoning her was not enough, one day in 1856, the two small children went wading in the lake about a ¼ mile from the shore. If you have ever waded out into the Great Salt Lake, you will understand the temptation to go ever farther as the water is still knee deep even a mile from the shore in many places. The winds can change the water depth abruptly however and waves can suddenly appear. This is what happened to the children. An un-expected gale rose up on the lake, driving waves at the children. The little boy was knocked down by a wave and he strangled and drowned in the brine. His sister ran to shore as fast as she could to get help but by the time Mother White reached the boy, he was long gone. She buried him on the slope of the Oquirrh’s behind Black Rock.

Mother White must have been very depressed after these events. The gnats and mosquitoes that gather by the millions in the area would have been enough to depress any person but these personal tragedies certainly made things much worse. Mother White and her daughter continued on at Black Rock until 1861 until they mysteriously disappeared. It was commonly believed that she had been murdered for her cattle as some of her stock was later seen with some men in Tooele Valley. One theory was that her body was sunk in the Great Salt Lake near Black Rock. Others believed that her body was discarded in a shallow grave up Black Rock Canyon. What happened to her daughter is not known. Whatever the truth of the story is, if there were ever a reason for a ghost to haunt a place, Mother White certainly would have plenty of reasons to haunt the rock.

Many other interesting events transpired at Black Rock and not all of them are melancholy. In 1851, 150 carriages, buggies, and wagons traveled from Salt Lake City to Black Rock where cannon were fired and a large American Flag was unfurled from the top of the rock in celebration of the 4th of July. Patrick Edward Connor operated several ships from Black Rock that would haul ore from the Stockton Mines across the lake to Corrine and the railroad for transport to smelters. There was also a large resort at Black Rock in the late 1800’s that consisted of 100 bath houses, a large pavilion, an amusement park with a large merry go round, and the visitors would arrive by train from Salt Lake City in open air cars.

Today, Black Rock is not even a shadow of the bygone glory days as it is an attractive place for scum to paint graffiti, litter, or conduct unscrupulous and illegal transactions. That being said, It is a very interesting place and a significant landmark and part of our heritage. I just wish that some entity would clean it up, protect and preserve it in some fashion for future generations to enjoy as the view to the west from the rock across the lake can’t be beat. To get there take the Saltair exit #104 off of Interstate 80 and get on the north frontage road and drive west past Saltair and the Great Salt Lake Marina. The road will become unpaved, rocky, and bumpy but most cars can make it the last ¼ to where the road terminates on the edge of the lake at Black Rock. Again, not a place you want to be after dark but if you have not been to Black Rock or to the Great Salt Lake in general, it is a very interesting place, if not a spooky one – worthy of a visit.

Top 9 Efficientacious Weight Loss Supplements

Impact of Weight Gain on Our Health

Weight gain or increased body weight can be a result of many reasons, such as increasing fat deposits, muscle mass or intake of surplus fluids such as water. This condition is termed as obesity, which can pose many health problems, some of which can be potentially life threatening. According to a research, chances of an overweight person of dying early are twice as compared to a person with normal weight.

Increased Risk of High Blood Pressure

Obesity can cause high blood pressure among individuals. The chances of an obese person getting high blood pressure are twofold as compared to a healthy person with normal weight.

Risk of Stroke

Formation of blood clots in treaties can cause strokes. These blood clots are formed due to constant high blood pressure, insufficient amount of exercise and high cholesterol, which are all associated with obesity. Here, increased weight can also increase the risk of stroke.

Heart Disease

Obesity can lead to various heart related problems, such as congestive heart failure, chest pains and unexpected cardiac death.

Cancer

Excessive weight gain can also be a reason for different forms of cancers, such as breast, gall bladder, prostrate, kidney, colon and endometrial cancer.

Diabetes

Even slight gain in weight can shoot up the risk level of a person becoming diabetic. Obesity especially increases the risk of type 2 diabetes in an individual.

Diseases Related to Gall Bladder

People who are overweight are more likely to suffer from gall bladder related diseases than those with a balanced weight.

Respiratory Problems

Major respiratory problems due to obesity consist of hyperventilation syndrome, severe bronchitis, asthma, and respiratory deficiency.

Problems during Pregnancy

Obesity can lead to problems among expecting mothers and infants. It can lead to birth defects in infants and an increased risk of high blood pressure in mothers.

Arthritis

Every single pound a person gains increases the risk of arthritis and other muscular-skeletal diseases.

Social and Emotional Problems

According to research, obesity can cause psychological problems among people. Obese people may often feel depressed, under confident and in depths of despair.

Thanks to medical science and technology, obesity can be treated. There are many modern ways that involve medication, specifically designed workout routines and even surgeries that can help you get rid of extra fat in your body. One such extremely popular method is weight loss supplements.

Weight Loss Supplements – Do they work?

Weight loss supplements along with a healthy diet plan and regular physical exercise can help you shed a reasonable amount of weight. The supplements support weigh loss through;

  • Decreasing your appetite
  • Increasing the rate of metabolism
  • Blocking the absorption of fat in body

Even though losing weight through supplements is a slow process, but it enhances your psychological and physical health and lifestyle tremendously. Some supplements may have serious side effects; therefore, you should get a doctor to prescribe the one which best suits you.

Top 9 Weight Loss Supplements

Lipozene

According to various studies, lipozene is a supplement that helps a person reduce weight and burn body fat. It is said to have all natural ingredients present in it. If consumed before food, lipozene helps a person feel full quicker, while reducing the appetite.

Ingredients

Lipozene consist of Glucomannan, which lowers your appetite and helps you feel full for a longer period of time

How it Works?

Glucomannan present in lipozene forms a dietary fiber gel in your stomach that takes away your appetite and makes you feel full. It brings your food and calorie intake while adding fiber to your diet. Glucomannan upon coming in contact with water increases in size, which enlarges the stomach, therefore telling your brain that you are stomach is full.

Price: A unit costs about $ 29.95

African Mango

Ingredients

African mango consists of;

  • Irvingia Gabonensis
  • Green Tea Extract
  • Acai Berry Extract
  • White Kidney Bean Extract
  • L-Carnitine
  • Slendesta
  • Cissus quandrangularis
  • These ingredients mentioned above help a person
  • Reduce cholesterol levels
  • Increase levels of energy in a body
  • Shed weight
  • Fight fatigue
  • Reduce blood sugar level
  • Increase metabolism
  • Increase fat oxidation
  • Increase the cholesterol that is benefits us, known as HDL.

How it Works?

African Mango enhances the leptin sensitivity in your body. Leptin is a hormone that lessens the amount of hunger signals coming from the brain, which leads to a controlled food intake.

Price: A units costs about $ 39.95

Garcinia Cambogia Extract

Ingredients

Garcinia Cambogia Extract contains

  • HCA (Naturally occurring Hydroxycitric Acid)
  • Potassium
  • Calcium
  • Chromium

How it Works?

Hydroxycitric acid found in Garcinia Cambogia helps you lose weight by blocking fat production and storage, reducing stress levels, enhancing our mood, keeping us full for longer, controlling food cravings and reducing emotional eating.

Price: A unit costs about $ 29.60

Plexus Slim

Ingredients

  • Polydextrose, a soluble fiber, is calorie free and helps weight loss
  • Citric Acid
  • Beet root
  • Grape skin extract consists of phytonutrients, such as proanthocyanidins, which act as antioxidants
  • Lo Han Extract
  • Stevia, a sweetener, added to various low calorie foods
  • Natural flavors

How it Works?

Plexus slim is quite safe and effective for weight control. It helps regulate blood sugars, maintain a healthy blood pressure and blood sugar level. Plexus slim also increases lipid levels and beneficial cholesterol in your body.

Price: A unit costs approxiamately $ 84.95

Hydroxycut Max

Ingredients and How They Assist in Weight Loss?

Hydroxycut Max consists of ingredients, such as amino acids like L-threonine, L-alanine, L-isoleucine and L-serine, caffeine and herbs maintaining wild wild leaves, lady mantle leaves and wild mint leaves. Caffeine boosts metabolism while amino acids help maintain muscles and is vital for protein production.

Price: Ranges between & 24.94 and $ 29.00

Avesil

Ingredients and How They Work?

Avesil consist of green tea extract, super citrimax, caffeine and chromium. These ingredients work together to boost the body's fat burning process while releasing stored fat, reducing appetite and increasing energy. Other ingredients are Calcium and Potassium, which are vital to help the body function more effectively.

Price: $ 89.95 per bottle

Dietrine

Ingredients and how it Works?

Dietrine contains;

  • An exclusive natural ingredient known as Phase 2. Extracted from white kidney beans, it allows carbs to pass through the body with fewer intakes of calories. It assists in neutralizing the effect of the digestive enzyme – alpha amylase – before it can break down starch into glucose and fats. Dietrine allows body to cut off surplus calories instead of absorbing them
  • Chromium maintains blood sugar level and is a fat carrier. It helps promote the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins & fats through insulin. Chromium also improves heart health and regulates blood sugar levels.
  • Vanadium is vital for cellular metabolism and creation of bones and teeth. It restrains cholesterol production and assists in growth and reproduction bars of the body. It results in improved glucose tolerance through improved insulin utilization.

Price: One bottle costs $ 49.95 for a month's supply

Green Coffee Bean Max

Ingredients and how it Works?

GCB MAX is a safe weight loss supplement that is formed by natural ingredients and gives you visible results.

  • It helps in the improvement of body's metabolism and stabilizes the level of blood sugars.
  • One of its important ingredients is the extract of green coffee bean, a renowned element that is gradually becoming very effective in the field of weight loss.
  • GCB contains a high level of chlorogenic acid as compared to regular coffee beans that are roasted. Chlorogenic acid has a lot of health benefits eg weight loss, diabetes and heart problems.

Price: It costs $ 32.99 per bottle.

Phen375

Ingredients and how it Works?

Phen375 is a safe weight loss supplement to use, which burns the fat quicker as compared to other supplements. It helps you reduce the food cravings. Ingredients involve;

  • Trimethyxanthin, which helps you lose weight while giving you a boost of energy.
  • L-Carnitine, burns the stored fat in your body and gives you an extra amount of energy.
  • Dimethlpentylamine hydrochloride – ingredient that speed up the metabolic rate in order to burn more fat.

Price: A units cost $ 26.25

Children With Diabetes – Causes and Treatments

According to statistics, there are more than thirteen thousand children who were diagnosed having diabetes (type I) formerly known to be juvenile diabetes. But in current years, there were increasing number of children who acquired type II diabetes. It has been proven that unhealthy lifestyle and eating habits that are unhealthy are the causes of this disease.

Causes and signs

Diabetes type I is diagnosed by the ability of the body to create insulin. It was formerly called juvenile diabetes since it was seen primarily in children, although it is known previously to happen in adults also. Hereditary factors may have the role in developing the possibility of anyone to have diabetes.

Diabetes type II cases had been connected to changes in lifestyle which have contributed in the increase of problems in weight and insufficient actions in children.

Several signs of diabetes in children include: Sudden loss of weight, fatigue, increased thirst, frequent urination, headache, complains of pain in the abdomen and behavioral problems. Diabetes with young kids may sometimes be determined by the existence of ketoacidosis; an extremely severe situation wherein acids known as ketones which are seen in urine because of the fats used by the body for power instead of using carbohydrates.

The treatments for diabetes include the following:

Insulin – Most children having diabetes must use insulin. In the first phase of analysis small dosages of rapid acting and sluggish acting insulin, that may add with age. The dose and time of managing and the rate of recurrence of injections depend on activity, age and level of blood glucose of the child.

Monitoring levels of blood sugar – Harmonizing the glucose level in the blood is the essential factor in the control of diabetes, since low or high sugar levels can cause risks in health, specifically for kids who are growing still. Here is important that you together with your child must check her / his sugar levels daily and regulate her / his meals, doses and exercise according to evaluation.

Exercise-Physical activities are essential in the treatment of diabetes because it aids in decreasing blood sugar scales in the body. Since exercise is fine, you must notice that glucose levels must not immerse low down, so you must ensure that the kid has a few sugars in hand when this occurs.

Diet – a usual diabetic diet needs a reduced utilization of fats (specifically animal fats) as well as sugar and increased fiber intake, fruits and vegetables. Also, ensure that your child take her / his meals in normal intervals each day, which includes snack time.

Medication – there are diabetic treatments available which somewhat different in the functions but helping to overcome the resistance of the body to insulin. The physician can prescribe doses and medicines depending in the condition of the child.

Role of Parents – best thing for the parents to be doing is to understand the different forms of diabetes for them to be prepared to teach their child in coping up diabetes independently.

How to Overcome an Obesity Problem

Obesity becomes the biggest problem among in Indian society. In fact, it’s become one of the leading cause of preventative illness in India. Being Obese can increase the risk of metabolic disorder, cardiovascular problem, osteoarthritis, sleep apnea etc. Obesity may be caused by genetic susceptibility, unhealthy dietary intake, lack of physical activities and other lifestyle or environmental factors. It can lead to a slow metabolic rate which results to gain weight. It becomes important to reduce your weight as well to maintain weight towards your overall health. Dietary changes and lifestyle modification is required to enhance the health status as well also promotes the over well being. Few changes should be required to achieve desirable health or long-term health status.

Change Your Eating Habits

Most individuals are used to consuming an excessive number of calories on a regular basis which result is weight gain which usually leads to obesity in the long term. You need to change your eating habits by adopting healthy eating. You need to learn how you can opt for healthy food over the unhealthy stuff. Instead of fast food and other unhealthy food options that contain a high amount of calories and unhealthy fat, you should choose more of vegetables, fruit-based stuff, a choice healthy option such as lean meat, low-fat dairy product, low sugar and low-fat product over high calories food. Always go for a slow and frequent eating instead of eating 3 main meals, opt for 5-6 meals in a day.

Eat Fibrous Food

High fiber foods like fruits, vegetables, and whole grains are great for losing weight as well make you fuller for longer time. Fiber fills you up quickly and for a longer time and also helps you reduce calorie intake which leads to weight loss.

Avoid Alcohol and Junk Food

One should limit the intake of alcohol because they contain a high amount of calories. Due to daily consumption of unhealthy or junk food an individual can face obesity issue because this stuff is rich in saturated fat and high in calories. So avoid this food in your diet, if you want to consume try to have in small quantity but opt for once in a while, not on daily bases.

Sugar – It leads to increases hunger and leads to the consumption of empty calories which leads to weight gain.

Processed and junk foods – Processed food contains a high amount of salt and sugar as a preservative which causes obesity when consuming it in the long time period.

Sweetened beverages – Most people do not account for the calories in the beverages before consuming them but these drinks contain high calories and lead to weight gain issue.

Trans and hydrogenated fats – These fats promote inflammation and lead to developed cardiovascular disease.

Get Active and Stay Active

If you want to lose weight, you need to start any sort of physical activity. You don’t need to do the rigorous exercise like the excessive gym. You just need to become active by making it a habit to walk, play sports, yoga, meditation etc. Add some additional steps such as instead of using the elevator you can start using the stairs. Exercise is a great way to burn calories which will help you to lose weight fast. All you need to do at least 30-45 minutes exercise, 5 days in a week.

Reduce Stress

If you want to lose weight you need to minimize or eliminate the stress. This is because stress promotes the release of the hormone cortisol which has a strong connection to overeating and unwanted food craving. So it is suggested to you to reduce your level of stress by adopting healthy eating as well by including meditation in your daily routine.

Losing weight is may be challenging, but if you really want to stay healthy you need to do some changes in your routine as well as lifestyle. Follow the above tips which enhance your weight loss.

Skin Care – Best Skincare Products To Look Younger Instantly

Here are some instant skincare tricks that will help you roll back the years instantly.

These anti aging skincare tips are proven to work and simple to do so here they are:

One of the major factors in making us look old is our complexions.

When were young we have radiant complexions but as age skin became less radiant and needs some help.

Between the ages of 30 – 40, radiance of skin can drop by as much as 40% and this lack of radiance is a far larger factor in making us look old than wrinkles.

So if you want to increase radiance, get better skin tone, protect from environmental damage and look and feel better read on.

Here are some tips to increase radiance of the skin quickly and roll back the years

1. Wrinkles & Skin Tone

It is not wrinkles that are the major factor in making you look older it is actually skin tone.

Uneven color, blotchy skin and dark spots reduce the radiance of the skin making it look tired and old.

Look for skin care products that will make your skin look brighter and lighter. Ask at the beauty counter for skincare cream that regulates Melanin and will ensure more even lighter skin.

2. Exfoliate

By exfoliating the skin you are essentially making it more radiant.

Think of a mirror if you polish it then it becomes more reflective and clearer and it's the same with your skin.

Exfoliate and you polish your skin, (by getting rid of the top layer that makes it look dull) increase its radiance and make it look more youthful.

Exfoliate twice a week for healthy radiance

3. Your skin is a muscle

Many people spend hours in the gym firming there body but how many people do with their face? If you do then you will exercise it prevent wrinkles, increase circulation and make it look more radiant.

Always give your face a good massage when putting skin cream on and use facial oil twice a week for at least 5 minutes to ensure the blood gets flowing and you look healthy and radiant.

4. Get a moisturizer that Plumps Skin

This will make your skin look radiant youthful and make it glow. Plump skin reflects light better and makes you look more youthful.

Get a skin cream which keeps water or one that boosts collagen. Collagen decreases with age and this means the skin becomes dull and lifeless.

A moisturizer with retinol in will make your skin feel firmer and give you a healthy complexion.

5. Reflect light

Get a reflective moisturizer. There are many creams with radiance or brightness in their names as they will reflect light and make you look younger.

If you can use a skin cream with high SPF not only will it protect your skin from everyday sun damage, they also contain zinc dioxide and titanium that not only deflect light but make your skin appear smoother.

6. Two great supplements

Two fantastic supplements you can take to make your skin plumper and protect against environmental damage are:

Omega 3 Fish oil and Evening primrose oil,

So, take them as part of your daily beauty regime.

The above tips will give you an instant lift and make you look younger and feel better.

10 Beauty Benefits Of Cosmetic Cucumber Seed Oil

Cucumber seed oil is cold-pressed oil obtained from cleaned and dried cucumber seeds. Once the oil gets filtrated it results in a bright yellow colour with a slight aroma of fresh cucumbers. The oil contains approximately 14 to 20% of oleic acid and 60 to 68% of Omega-3 linoleic acid. It provides many wonderful beauty benefits from a skin moisturiser to a protein-rich hair treatment.

1. Refreshes Skin

Quickly absorbing Cucumber Seed oil has a light consistency. It leaves your skin smooth, silky and fresh.

2. Powerful Anti-Ager

This oil is an excellent anti-ageing oil. It reduces the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles due to its powerful antioxidant content.

3. Calms Eczema, Psoriasis & Inflammation

The oil is a strong anti-inflammatory agent, good antiseptic and excellent emollient for skin conditions like eczema and psoriasis.

4. Soothes Sun Damaged Skin

Cucumber Seed oil has an anti-inflammatory effect helping to soothe sunburns. Also, it provides a cooling effect when applied to the sun-damaged skin.

5. Good for Dry Brittle Nails

Cucumber Seed oil is very good for restoring moisture in dry brittle nails as it is easily absorbable, hydrating and rich in nourishing nutrients. Just rub a drop or two onto your nails and cuticles to keep them moisturized and shiny!

6. Wonderful Eye Moisturizer

The anti-ageing properties and quick absorption of the oil make it an excellent eye moisturizer. Gently dab one drop of the oil under each eye to reduce dark circles, puffiness and wrinkles. Also, you can apply it to your eyebrows to help reduce upper eyelid puffiness. Don’t apply it to your eyelids!

7. Treats Acne

Cucumber Seed oil is one of the best skin care oil for acne. It’s rich in antioxidants preventing acne, reducing acne inflammation and redness.

8. Lightens Age Spots

Thanks to a high content of Vitamin C that has a skin brightening effect this oil helps to lighten age spots. Using the oil regularly you will see the age spots fading away.

9. Hair Growth Booster

Cucumber Seed oil is rich in silica stimulating new hair growth and preventing hair loss by strengthening existing hair strands.

10. Improves Hair Elasticity

The oil helps to build the elasticity of curly hair. It prevents hair breakage typically caused by heat tools, sun damage or chlorine water.

Before use, do a patch test on your inner elbow or wrist to see the oil does not irritate your skin.

What Depression Really Means

At lunch the other day, a good friend said he thought he was depressed. His aunt had recently died and he had lost an important contact at work. I commented that while he might be depressed, it might also be that he was simply feeling certain sadness over some disappointing losses.

What this conversation reminded me of is how our culture can take a psychological term such as depression and apply it to almost any and all situations, thus losing the real meaning.

Let's take a look at three distinct emotional states commonly lumped together as depression. We will look at characteristics of each and what you can do about them.

The blues

"And I guess that's why they call it the blues …" – Elton John

The blues are simply a temporary feeling of sadness. Often, they can not be linked to any particular event or situation.

Characteristics can include a mild feeling of restlessness; a temporary loss of energy and a sort of mopiness.

The blues make you want to curl up on the couch with a good book, or maybe channel surf. You just want to escape.

The blues usually pass rather quickly, and the trick is to just keep on going. Having the blues usually does not indicate a problem.

Sadness

"Sad eyes, turn the other way." – Robert John

Sadness, on the other hand, can usually be linked with events or situations. Sadness is a very normal and natural emotional state. Often times, a feeling of sadness is a normal response to the disappointments of life.

In the example of my friend who was afraid he was depressed, it would be normal for him to feel sad over his recent losses and disappointments.

What seems to happen to many people is that, instead of one or two disappointing events occurring far apart, many things happen all at once. There is a "pile-up" of disappointments and losses, resulting in a feeling of being overwhelmed.

Typically, when you add up all the recent painful events in a person's life, the question changes from "how could I be feeling this way?" to "how could I not be feeling this way?"

While sadness is a normal human emotion, our culture does not make many allowances for it. We have been taught either to find a quick fix or to fight the feeling.

But with sadness, as with many emotions, the more you resist, the more it persists.

My suggestions for dealing with sadness include simply feeling what you feel and allowing it to run its course; taking a few
days to relax, talking with friends and family, and possibly talking things over with a counselor.

Depression

"Stayed in bed all mornin 'just to pass the time." – Carole King

True depression can come in many forms. Clinical depression, post-partum depression and bi-polar disorder are all treatable forms of depression.

Characteristics can include the following:

o sleeping more, or less

o eating more, or less

o loss of energy

o loss of interest in hobbies, etc.

o mood swings

o feelings of helplessness or hopelessness

o thoughts of suicide

Any of the true forms of clinical depression call for a combination of psychotherapy and antidepressant medication.

Check with your physician and a therapist familiar with treating depression.

Whatever it's the blues; sadness or clinical depression, we all go through low times in life.

The smartest and strongest folks are the ones who know how and when to ask for help and then make sure they get it.

Six Major Kinds of Anxiety Disorders

There are mainly six known types of anxiety disorders, with different symptoms corresponding to each type. These are the Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Panic Disorder, Social Anxiety Disorder, and Phobia.

A Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PSTD) occurs after a person encountering a traumatizing or life-threatening incident. Symptoms of this disorder include random recollections, nightmares and flashbacks of the event, unnecessary watchfulness, agitation, solitude and evasion of circumstances related to the trauma.

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) involves undesirable obsessions that are difficult to regulate. For example, a person's hobby is collecting toys and he loves toys so much that he will do anything to get them. Excessive compulsions, such as the inclination of cleaning eyeglasses or fixing ties over and over, are also a characteristic of OCD.

A Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) is evident in a person if repeated concerns and fears inhibit him or her from accomplishing daily tasks, or if the person always feels that something bad will happen somehow. Being a chronic worrywart demonstrates GAD, and such people always feel anxious for no apparent reason. Physical symptoms here involve difficulty sleeping, upset stomachs, impatience and the constant feeling of exhaustion.

A Panic Disorder is illustrated by persistent, unpredictable panic attacks coupled with the fear of when the next instance of a panic attack will occur. This usually goes together with agoraphobia, or the fear of being in venues where flight or assistance would be impossible during a panic attack. As such, a person with agoraphobia stays away from places packed with people, or cramped spaces.

Social Anxiety Disorder is characterized by the fear of humiliation or negativity in public. This can be referred to as excessive bashfulness, and in more extreme cases, a person may withdraw from people entirely. Stage fright is a common example of this disorder.

A Phobia is an exaggerated fear of anything that may or may not pose any threat or danger. If a phobia is intense, a person may opt to use extreme measures in avoiding the object of the phobia. Regrettably, avoiding a phobia only reinforces one's fear of it. Common phobias include fear of certain animals, heights, flying or darkness.

Natural Cures for Anxiety

When you visit a healthcare professional or doctor about your anxiety, the most common recommendation is drug therapy. There are so many prescription medications designed to treat mental health issues, from anxiety to depression that we rarely ever hear about natural cures. Unfortunately, many of these drugs have dangerous side effects, which is why we should be more motivated to try natural treatments. Interestingly, there is a great deal of evidence to suggest that non-drug treatments for anxiety are not only safe, but very effective as well.

  1. Mind-Body Exercises: Yoga, meditation, focused breathing, and other exercises aimed at improving relaxation can be very useful in the treatment of anxiety. Even physical symptoms of anxiety respond well to mind-body exercises; so the next time you're feeling the symptoms of anxiety give it a try. Deep breathing exercises are easy and can be done anywhere, simply focus on taking slow, deep breaths and then imagine your anxiety symptoms disappearing as you exhale slowly. You'll likely find that your anxiety is greatly reduced or gone all together. If this simple exercise is effective for you, speak to your doctor about where you can learn more mind-body exercises for treating anxiety.
  2. Massage Therapy: Regular massage can be as expensive as prescription anxiety treatments, but it helps to relieve muscle tension and extremely reduces stress. When you're dealing with anxiety, your goal should be to improve relaxation and decrease stress, so massage therapy is a great alternative to drugs.
  3. Aroma Therapy: Similar to massage therapy, aroma therapy helps to reduce stress and relieve tension. Lavender is a particularly helpful aroma, but other essential oils including jasmine, rose, and sandalwood have also been shown to be effective in relieving anxiety.
  4. Herbal Therapies: Herbal therapies are another natural cure for anxiety that you may not have previously considered. Passionflower, Valerian root, and magnesium are just 3 examples of herbs and nutrients that are effective in combating anxieties. You can find many of these treatments at your local pharmacy or health food store.
  5. Sound Therapy: Recent research has shown that sound therapy is useful in the treatment of anxiety and depression. Specialized sound therapy activates neurons in the cortex and other regions of the brain to strengthen neural pathways and ultimately balance brain functions. Through this activation, dopamine and serotonin levels can be naturally increased to improve motivation and happiness. Moreover, focusing on relaxing music helps to clear the mind and enhance mood so you can achieve relaxation more quickly.

While many of us may benefit from these natural cures for anxiety, you should not allow yourself to get stressed out if they do not. Anxiety is a very serious condition for many people, and in some cases the most effective treatment is a combination of prescription drugs and psychotherapy. Neverheless, if you are a reductor to rely on drug treatments, you can at least try these 5 natural cures for anxiety.

Prospection About 2010 NFL Baltimore Ravens

Offensive: Quarterback Margo third year, has impressed during his first two seasons. He thread for 3.613 yards and 21 are affected with 12 interceptions last season. He was on his way to an even better before the leg and hip limited him in the final. With his size and great strength in the arms Flak has the potential to be an elite passer. It has already to be a winner, what the Ravens to three wins in five career games in the playoffs. Further wins certainly follow, as it continues to mature. We have seen a huge step in 2010 with the addition of teacher, the Ravens finally have a number to a receiver.

Permanent dealing with injuries, sentence 84 passes for 1024 yards last season, teacher. He and Derrick Mason, who taught a 73-yard 1028 season is to contribute to the offensive at 213.7 yards per game on average, in the air in 2009.

Teacher and Mason will certainly chances of stars as a defense of the stacking box with the hope of limiting Ray Rice. Rice off a Pro Bowl season, during which he amassed a total of 2041 yards of scrimmage. 1339, the yards came on the ground.

Fight against Jared great Michael brings a new attraction and a huge offensive line.

Defense: Baltimore at # 3 in the NFL in defense last season, scored, yielding only 16.3 points per game. Baltimore and graduated number three series in total defense with only 300.5 yards per game.

Linebacker Ray Lewis is still the leader of the emotional unit. The team with the linebacker Terrell Surges and Johnson and fellow defensive lineman Kelly Gregg and, one of the best Sevens at anchor in football. The project includes Terrence Cody Kindle and additional depth.

Ed Reed was looking security retirement, when he was an interference of nerve pain. But the talk has disappeared, and it looks that is the former NFL Defensive Player of the Year to lead back to Baltimore secondary.

Prediction: First North – Latest current teacher should improve air raid missing moves. Baltimore has a strong running game and see one of the best defenses in the NFL not, I stand in the way of a proof of the North. Pittsburgh is facing the suspension of Ben Ruthless and Cincinnati is not difficult to imagine, dealing with questions on the chemical signature Pagan Jones and Terrell Owens.

Using Food Plots to Pull in Deer to Your Hunting Property

If you’ve ever sat in your tree stand for days on end without seeing or hearing a deer on your hunting property, there’s no question that you were wondering why. When all other indicators say you should have deer but you don’t, you’ve only got one problem: one of your neighbors has food plots on their land and you don’t. Food plots attract deer by offering them the things they want most: good food and a chance to mate thanks to proximity to other deer. Food plots are simply irresistible.

Picking Your Plot

To decide what part or parts of your hunting property you want to use as food plots, there are a few things you want to remember. Try to keep your plots in the interior of your property. You want to pull deer in and keep them in, not encourage them to leave when they’re done eating. Try to keep the plots away from roads. Food plots near roads are dangerous to deer and drivers alike. Also try to find areas that will involve minimal removal of large trees and rocks; removing these is expensive and time consuming.

Soil Quality

When you pick your plot, you need to be certain that it is hospitable to the foods you want to grow. Check the plot for sandy or clay soil; these can both put a damper on your plans. Check the soil’s pH levels to understand what the soil needs to grow the food you want to plant. Consider the plot’s elevation and slope. Lower land is more fertile than higher land. Sloped land is more likely to have erosion issues than flat land. Soil fertility and soil erosion can make it more expensive and more difficult to get a good food plot started.

Use Nutrition to Your Advantage

Like all living things, deer have seasonal nutrition needs. In summer, they need more protein for the does to produce milk and for the bucks to produce their massive antlers. In the winter, they need high-energy, high-carbohydrate foods to ensure they’ll survive the freezing cold. Using your knowledge of deer’s nutritional needs, you can encourage deer to frequent your hunting property by offering them the food their bodies crave.

Ideal Foods

Foods that flourish during summer and offer great protein are often legumes. Try planting clover, alfalfa, peas, or soybeans for ideal summertime deer feed. If your plot is in an area with particularly stubborn weeds, you may do well to shell out the extra money for Round-Up resistant soybeans. For winter food, corn is, by far, the best deer magnet. However, deer will also gladly gobble up sorghum, winter wheat, triticale, and winter rye.

Serious hunters benefit greatly from offering needed food to the deer they hunt. By allowing deer access to the best possible nutrition, you let them grow to their full potential, which means you’ll bag your bucks at peak condition. Putting a little effort into creating a food plot will ensure you have a fantastic hunting property both now and for years to come.

Avoid Thyroid Gland Deficiency – Use Herbal Remedies

It is disheartening to know how one body part when out of sync can affect the functions of related bodily organs. This close-in relationship is perfectly shown in the function of the thyroid gland. Being a part of the endocrine system, the organ is responsible for the production of hormones responsible for body development, metabolism and sustained organ health. As such the endocrine system releases the thyroid hormones T3 (triiodothyronine) and T4 (thyroxine) that help stabilize the central body system. Calcium absorption is also made possible through the support of the thyroid gland.

The endocrine system is properly nourished by maintaining a balanced diet and practicing a healthy lifestyle; particularly through the absorption of the right amount of iodine from food consumed. Iodine and its compounds are essential in the production of T3 and T4 hormones. The thyroid glands exhibit sever sensitivity where a minor dysfunction can trigger organ malfunction; to thus affect the function of related bodily systems. Nonethealth diseases arising from endocrine system disorders can now be found through specifically formulated herbal supplements.

Herbal formulas intended to support the health of the endocrine system as well as promotive balance balance were concocted from an expert mix of different herbal extracts. Fucus Vesiculosus or commonly referred to as Bladderwrack is a primary herbal component of herbal supplements formulated to support critical thyroid functions. Research reveals how the herb can rejuvenate inactive thyroid glands and the goiter to that make it a sound alternative to regular hypothyroid medications. Moreover, treatment with its herbal extracts can help resolve excess weight gain and rheumatism, on the sidelines. The medicinal benefits of this herb are extensive; particularly sustaining long term glandular health and kidney functions.

The herb Coleus Forskohlii (or Makandi) is used extensively in Ayurvedic medicine as it contains the compound forskolin that works with the thyroid gland to support hormone build-up. Supplementary medicinal benefits derived from the herb include the treatment of hypertension; stimulation of fat metabolism and support of platelet formation Meanwhile, Avena Sativa (or Wild Oats) is another popular component of thyroid herbal supplements. The herb's extracts contain avenacosides, proteins, flavones and Vitamin E or substances that effectively treat nervous system disorders.

Since the thyroid gland is vital to systemic functions, standardized herbal supplements such as Thyroid Assist have been specifically formulated to support the health of the endocrine system. The medicinal benefits of herbal supplements involve the maintenance of routine physiological functions; particularly metabolism, weight and body temperature. In conclusion, herbal supplements provide a complete remedy designed to support the health of the thyroid gland and raise the production of thyroid hormones.

Diabetes Treatment and Guidelines

Okay, so assuming you finally know your Diabetes status, assuming it turns out to be positive, how should you go about treating it? What is the best course of action open to you? What would treatment involve and what would you need to do or refrain from doing to ensure that treatment is successful? All these questions and more will be answered in this article.

So here goes.

Usually since diabetes is indicated by an above normal presence of blood sugar (200 mg / dl or more-random plasma Glucose test or 126 mg / dl or more- fast plasma glucose test), it is the aim of diabetes treatment to ensure that if through medication, exercise, surgery, dietary adjustments, etc. or a combination of all these, blood sugar level is standardized and brought back to normal. However such treatment must make sure at the same time that the opportunity does not happen-that blood sugar does not fall to abnormally low levels (hypoglycemia).

Correspondingly, the monitoring of blood sugar is also an essential aspect of diabetes treatment. The first thing to note therefore, assuming you are diagnosed with diabetes is that diabetes treatment equates to diabetes management. For now strictly speaking, whether for Type 1 (especially for Type 1) or Type 2 (depending on your take on reversal), there is no cure.

The second thing to note is that treatment would generally involve some life style changes. These changes will involve a combination of some or all of the following; dietary adjustments, exercise and the taking of diabetes medication like insulin and metformin.

Type 1 diabetes is treated with insulin, exercise and a diabetic diet. Type 2 on the other hand is treated first with weight reduction, a diabetic diet and exercise. And secondly in cases where this would not be enough, thereafter with diabetes medication or insulin therapy and Blood Sugar monitoring. As such training in self-management of diabetes is an indispensable part of diabetes management.

That said, it is important to note that treatment must be tailored to individual needs thereby catering to individual diabetic differences. Such treatment should take away into cognizance and address psycho-social, medical and lifestyle issues.

For the vast majority of people with Type 1 diabetes, insulin is the only form of medication they will need to take. For people with Type 2 diabetes however, available medication vary and depending on their circumstances, they may or may not need to take one or more of these drugs. Let's take a defect look into treatment for Type 2 diabetes.

Healthy eating

Although there is no specific diabetes diet, since our aim is to reduce blood sugar, it is best to reduce the intake of carbohydrates, animal products, sugar and fats. Instead one should center his or her diet around vegetables, fruits and whole grains.

Foods with a low glycemic index (foods that do not raise your blood sugar quickly), typically high in fiber foods, can be helpful in helping one to reach a stable blood sugar level.

Regular exercise

Here what is important is to incorporate regular exercise into our daily routine. Your doctor taking into cognizance your medical history would be able to suggest a balanced regimen for you. One which at once would be adequate, while not being strenuous.

A 30 minutes daily combination of aerobic, stretching and strength training exercise is suggested and has been found to be more effective than either type of exercise (aerobic and strength training) alone. Where you have been inactive for long, it is best to first start slowly before gradually building things up.

Blood Sugar Monitoring

Keeping your blood sugar within the target or desired range means that you must regularly monitor your blood sugar level. Your doctor should be able to give you a rough number of how many times a day you should take your blood sugar reading. Most people check their (blood) sugar level before most meals as well as before or after engaging in other forms of treatment such as exercise or the taking of medication. Illness and alcohol consumption is also known to affect blood sugar levels so one should watch out for these.

Medication

Whilst diet and exercise alone is sufficient for some people to enable them attain their target blood sugar levels, others may require medication. And although previously, insulin was the only diabetes medication available, today the number of diabetes medicine has greatly increased.

Commonly prescribed diabetes medicine today include insulin, metformin, januvia, actos, Victoza and Byetta. Lets look at some of these in detail.

Sulfonylureas; assists your body to secret more insulin. The following drugs fall into this class, namely; glipotide (Glucotrol), glyburide (DiaBeta, Glynase) and glimepiride (Amaryl). Side effects may include weight gain and low blood sugar.

Metformin is the first drug of choice generally prescribed in diabetes cases of Type 2. This drug by improving the sensitivity of the bodies tissues to insulin, enables the body to use insulin more effectively. However since Metformin will not usually lower blood sugar enough on its own, it is advised that concerned individuals should double its uptake with weight loss and more physical activity. Side effects common to Metformin are nausea and diarrhea but these usually disappear as the body adjusts to it.

Meglitinides

Working like sulfonylureas, these medications encourage the body to secrete more insulin. They differ from Sulfonylureas however in that they act faster and do not stay active in the body for as long. With these class of drugs too comes an associated risk of gain gain and hypoglycemia. However this litter risk is less than that that associated with Sulfonylureas.

DPP-4 inhibitors

DPP-4 inhibitors help to lower blood sugar levels. Although their effect is rather modest, they do not even cause weight gain. These type of drugs include linagliptin (Tradjenta), Saxagliptin (Onglyza) and Sitagliptin (Januvia).

Thiazolidinediones or glitazones are another set of medication used in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes. Like Metformin, they increase the body tissues sensitivity to insulin. This said though, they have been associated with increased risk of weight gain, heart failure, stroke and fractures. As such they are not first choice recommendation for diabetes treatment and in fact rosiglitazone a variant has been suspended from use in Europe by medical authorities due to these of difficulties.

Other classes of medication available for diabetes treatment include SGL T2 inhibitors and GLP-1 inhibitors. A feature of SGL T2 functioning is that sugar is excreted out through the urine, whilst GLP-1 works by slowing digestion and thus the amount of sugar released at any one time into the blood stream.

Having established the above, it should be noted that insulin may also be prescribed for some type 2 sufferers of diabetes. These insulin types are; Insulin aspart (Novolog); Insulin Lispro; insulin isophane (Humulin N, Novolin N); Insulin glulisine (Apidra); Insulin determir (Levemir) and Insulin glargine (Lantus).

Ordinarily insulin is required to be injected because the digestive process may disrupt the workings of insulin taken orally. Apparatus used for insulin injections include needle and syringe or insulin pens.

Other means of treating Type 2 diabetes also include herbal treatment and bariatric surgery. But whatever the case and whatever form of treatment is contemplated, it is paramount you seek the advice of and work with a health care professional before taking it.

Obesity and Getting Fit for Life: A Teen's Experience

Manuel had a problem with weight. He loved chocolate, donuts and potato chips, but he did not like the effects that came with them. He hated being shunned by his peers, especially girls, but he felt that he could not stop eating the foods that were so unhealthy for him. He was not aware that he had an odding choice to eat or not to eat, and he felt out of control. His father, George, was overweight and kept a lot of junk food around the house. George had grown up with an abusive dad and took some of his anger out on Manuel. This left Manuel starving emotionally as the years went by. Manuel's mother, Jennifer, was also overweight. She loved to cook and always offered Manuel extra servings of food, and somehow this made her feel valued.

Other kids would tease Manuel and call him names like "gingerbread dough boy," especially when he was younger. He often felt hurt by these jabs, but he learned to hide his pain with a sense of humor. He might shoot back some half-hearted joke to let his classmates think their jokes rolled off his back, but he could not dismiss the pain that slowly grew inside of him.

When he was 13 years old, Manuel began to isolate himself in his room, gobbling down sweets while he did his homework and spent time on Facebook. Not only was he lonely, but he was starting to feel depressed. He longed for a girlfriend as he moved into his later teens and imagined that this would make everything better and brighter. Sadly, he was getting rejected when he reached out toward girls, and he knew it was due to his weight. He was almost 6 feet tall, but he weighed 300 pounds. As the teasing, staring and rejections triggered more pain, his caloric intake kept going up, and his self-esteem plummeted. His closest friend from school, Maria, was also overweight, although her problem stemmed from a different issue.

Maria's Weight Issues

Maria's mother was a CPA at a large accounting firm, and her father was an international pilot who was often away from home. They both worked long hours, leaving Maria home without adult supervision. Maria returned home from school around 4 pm, and on most days she would spend the next five hours alone. To stop off the boredom that set in afterabout two hours, Maria turned to television. She sat on the sofa for hours on end watching movies and reality shows. During the commercials, Maria would go to the kitchen and find leftovers, cupcakes, crackers and chips to keep her busy munching while she watched television. Her walk to the kitchen was the most exercise she got after school. Recent studies show that there is a link between sedentary television time and childhood weight-gain problems, and aggressive junk-food advertising only adds to the dilemma.

Maria wasted a lot of precious time daydreaming that she would wake up one day and be slim, but that day never came. Many obese people are 5-star procrastinators who put off new diets "until tomorrow or next week." Getting fit takes action, and Maria was content to sit. Those long, sedentary hours were beginning to take a toll on her health as she gained weight from her chronic inactivity. She tried to motivation herself to begin exercising, but she quickly reverted to the comfort of watching television.

Some Facts about Obesity

For adults, obesity is defined as a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or greater. BMI is calculated from a person's weight and height and can indicate risk factors that may lead to health problems such as cardiovascular disease, certain types of cancer, diabetes and depression. Children are measured differently than adults, and according to the growth charts (2000 edition) from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, children are classified as obese when their BMI-for-age percentiles are at or above the 95th percentile. Children who are in the 85th to 95th percentiles are classified as overweight.

Maria and Manuel are not alone in their struggles to control their weight. Their cases reveal a disturbing trend among today's youth. Childhood obesity and the number of overweight children nearly doubled from the late 1970s to 2000, rising from 8 percent to 15.3 percent. The numbers are similar stark amongst adolescents as evidenced by an increase from 5 percent in the late 1970s to 15 percent in 2000. Obesity rates in the US are among the highest in the world, and California ranks high at about 41 in the state rankings. Estimates have steadily increased from about 15 percent in 2000 to 26 percent in 2007. Recently, some research indicates that the trend is leveling off, but we have a national problem with increasing American waistlines. Furthermore, studies indicate that African-Americans had a 51 percent higher prevalence of obesity, and Hispanics had a 21 percent higher obesity prevalence compared with whites. All of these trends could have greatly improved with healthy commercials, better jobs and positive parent involvement.

A study by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention indicates these important facts:

  • More than 75 percent of high school students do not eat the recommended servings of fruit and vegetables each day.
  • About 30 percent of US children do not exercise three times a week or more. People in poorer areas have less access to places where they can be physically active.
  • An estimated 61 percent of obese young people have at least one additional health risk factor such as high blood pressure or high cholesterol.

Additional research shows that a large percentage of obese kids are depressed, although we do not know if obesity causes depression or vice versa. Experts are concerned that this growing trend will have a highly negative impact on the health and longevity of the next generation, and the healthcare costs will be astronomical.

Manuel's Visits to the Doctor

For Manuel, going to the doctor's office was becoming very unpleasant because all he heard there were lectures about diets and health risks.His father was also overweight, and his family had a history of heart disease. His physician, Dr. Bennett, said that his total cholesterol was seriously high at 350, and his glucose was in the diabetic range of 130. His HDL (high-density lipoprotein), also known as "good cholesterol," was about 35 and showed his lack of exercise . Additionally, Manuel had high triglycerides at about 110. His LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol was of serious concern at about 200, and Dr. Bennett brought up the subject of medication. Manuel was opposed to this and promised to start exercising. Dr. Bennett said that Manuel had a high BMI and was obese.Because of this, he was 30 times more likely to be diagnosed with coronary heart disease, stroke, gout, osteoarthritis, hypertension, asthma and / or even some types of cancer.

The doctor was trying to scare Manuel – he figured Manuel could turn things around by joining a gym, but like many oveaters, Manuel was a procrastinator. He was headed for trouble and feeling pressured by his family when he decided to meet with me. His first girlfriend had left him for an athletic guy, and he felt devastated. I learned in the first session that Manuel was handling his pain by turning to his only source of comfort: sweets. At the time we met, Manuel was 17 years old and gaining more weight each month.

Manuel's Struggle with Food

After a couple of sessions, I learned that Manuel had good intentions, but he found it very difficult to stay with a diet. He would experience cravings and repeatedly give in to them because he did not have any effective copying strategies to contain his cravings. When he experienced even a slight pang of hunger, he would almost automatically head to the kitchen, saying to himself "Oh, I'll have just one scoop of Rocky Road," but once he started, he ended up finishing the entire half- gallon. Manuel could easily forget about the ice cream after he had eaten it, which typically sent his parents into an uproar. His mother screamed at him, "You have absolutely no willpower and never think of the rest of the family." His father was also harsh and said, "You are going to be one of the fattest kids in the state." Relationship therapy could help Manuel and his parents establish a better relationship based on healthy communication and nurturing. Manuel was growing dramatically depressed, and told himself things like "See, you are just a loser, and no one will ever like you" and "You can not even stay on a diet for a day, and you'll never have any willpower. " This is the typical distorted thinking of depressed people, and Manuel was starting to develop serious symptoms of depression. Research suggests that obese people experience major discrimination, and Manuel noticed how people avoided him or looked at him at school.

The Relationship between Obesity and Mental Health

Recent research indicates that obesity may trigger psychological disorders such as depression, distorted body image, low self-esteem, and eating disorders. David Kats, MD, and his colleagues at the University of Wisconsin-Madison assessed the quality of life for 2,931 patients with chronic health conditions, including obesity. They found that clinical depression was highest in very obese participants. Evidence from the Swedish Obese Subjects study that clinically significant depression is three to four times more likely for severely obese individuals than in similar, non-obese individuals. As the study suggests, many obese people are depressed and struggling with the following:

  • a lack of motivation
  • fatigue
  • a lack of interest in normal activities
  • hopelessness
  • thoughts of suicide
  • difficulty sleeping
  • sadness and feeling blue

In my second interview with Manuel, I learned that his father had been overweight for years. When Manuel was growing up, his parents would remind him not to take third servings, but his father consistently did so. Manuel rebelled by sneaking downstairs at night and raiding the refrigerator. First, he would eat ice cream, and then he would search for chocolate. Manuel craved chocolate, which researchers now know improvements mood. This "chocolate habit" began when Manuel was about 5 years old when he would sneak food into his bedroom and gobble it down.

Maria's parents, like Manuel's, also set poor examples at home. Neither of her parents exercised, and her mother would come home exhausted from work and simply plop down in front of the television to watch the nightly news. Of course her mother was only reinforcing the role-model status that television had earned over her daughter. Maria really missed her father because he was often gone for 10 days at a time, and she felt wounded by his lack of appreciation and understanding. Maria could not remember one loving thing that her dad ever said to her, and deep inside she felt unlovable. Her weight was ballooning, and like Manuel, she felt powerless to do anything about it. But Manuel learned about a new possibility that folded him out of his depression.

Could Liposuction Be the Answer?

When he was 17, Manuel found a reason to feel hopeful: a new procedure called liposuction. He felt that this was the cure he had been waiting for, and he would not need to exercise or cut back his calories. The doctor said Manuel was a good candidate for liposuction because he was very obese. Manuel believed that this would help him get another girlfriend, and that he would not have to change his eating habits. Like many overweight Americans, he did not really want to change, but he wanted the benefits of change.

A 2010 study in Journal Pediatrics found that about 590 teenagers between the ages of 13 and 20 underwent obesity surgery from 2005 to 2007 in California. The study revealed that the complications for teenagers were about the same as for adults. These included bleeding, infection, lung problems (post operative) and kidney failure while in the hospital. These procedures presumably result in permanent weight loss; however, we do not know where these young people will be in 30 years. Manuel wanted the procedure, his mother had mixed feelings, and his father was strongly opposed thinking that Manual needed "to start working out and quit eating so darn much."

In order for Manuel to have the liposuction procedure, the doctor wanted an evaluation from a psychologist to determine if Manuel had realistic expectations about this procedure. In my opinion, Manuel's expectations were unrealistic because he believed that the surgery would magically take care of all his problems. It was my professional opinion that he needed to spend at least six months in an exercise program to gain some positive lifelong habits. I knew Manuel loved music, and research indicates that pulsating, high-beats-per-minute songs motivate people to move faster. Fortunately, Manuel was willing to commit to the seven-week program that would make a remarkable difference in his life. I only expected him to cut back on his calories after 8 pm and to work out four days per week for 30 minutes. Manuel needed to cut back on eating in the evening because he consumed a lot of calories late at night. Here are the five steps of my "Get Fit for Life" walking program that helped him get fit and feel good:

  1. Set aside 30 minutes to walk. I asked Manuel to decide on a time where he could set aside 30 minutes to walk. It could be in the morning, afternoon or evening, although I usually encourage people to exercise in the morning. Some research indicates that people are more likely to continue with an exercise program if they work out in the morning.Manuel decided to walk before he went to school, so he could get it out of the way.
  2. Decide on the distance. Manuel would determine how long his walks would be. He and I decided that 10 blocks around his neighborhood was a good start, and possibly 12 if he felt up to it. It was crucial to the program's success for Manuel to commit to walking at whatever pace he wanted. If he wanted to go faster he could, but when he felt like slowing down it was important to do so. Speed-walking and running were fine, too. The key was not to rush things, but to enjoy the walk. We were aiming to develop a positive addiction rather than overexertion burnout.
  3. Listen to upbeat music. During his 30-minute workout, Manuel would often listen to music on his iPod. Again, we were aiming to make the experience pleasurable. He decided he wanted to listen to upbeat music, which would drive away his pessimistic thoughts and help him move faster.One of Manuel's favorite CDs was "Black Star" by Mos Def and Talib Kwelli. He loved Lupe Fiasco and memorized the words to "Kick Push," and he especially enjoyed Zumba music like Shakira's song "Waka Waka" on the "Loca" CD.
  4. Continue for seven weeks then decide whether to go on. Manuel was to continue the walking program for seven weeks (49 days), and then decide whether he wanted to go on or quit. If Manuel decided he wanted to continue, he could commit to another seven weeks. After that time, he was free to decide what he wanted to do regarding exercise. This program increases the probability that many kids will stick with exercise because it supports a positive addiction.
  5. Do not beat yourself up for a missed day. Manuel did not beat himself up when he skipped a day of walking, but instead reminded himself that "everyone misses here and there." He and I then used therapy time to go over the ways that he sabotaged himself so he could understand himself better and really get with the program. Occidentally, he would start postponing his exercise and say, "Oh, it will not hurt to skip a day – I'll just go longer tomorrow," so we nipped that habit with a change of thinking and behavior. Manuel was to get up at 7 am, no matter what he felt , put on his shoes and start walking. He could crawl out the door as long as he got moving and went the distance. He encouraged himself by saying "I can do this, walking is easy, and I can do things other people can not do."

The combination of relationship therapy, music, the guidelines for the "Get Fit for Life" walking program, and positive encouragement rejected in Manuel staying with his walking program. He often asked Maria to join him on his walks, and they would spend almost an hour walking while talking about their relevant issues at home and school. Manuel reported feeling better, and he was not as hungry during the day. Although he was still obese, his clothes were getting baggy as his body got firmer, and he felt good about his change. Manuel had found a new habit that led him to sign up for a five-mile hike. As he became more fit, Manuel's self-esteem began to improve, and he felt better about himself. Teachers and classmates started to reach out and support him in his mission to get fit.

Some people say it takes 21 days to change a habit, but when it comes to developing lifelong exercise habits, I recommend seven weeks, or 49 days. Adding weightlifting to his daily routine helped Manuel become more fit, and he later decided to join a gym. He still had a long way to go, but he had made significant progress: he had lost 25 pounds and was more toned, he knew he could achieve goals he had never thought possible, and he seemed to have a new lease on life. Manuel was in relationship therapy for about six months building a strong relationship with himself and later with his parents. When I last saw him, he had a steady girlfriend and had lost 90 pounds. Most importantly, he had personal health goals and a commitment to achieve them based on his success.

For more information about the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth charts, go to http://www.cdc.gov/growthcharts .