The History of Republic Airport

1. Farmingdale’s Aviation Origins:

Located in Farmingdale, Long Island, Republic Airport is an historically significant airfield to the region and the world, having played both military and civilian roles. But long before it became an airfield, it gave rise to the manufacturers that built airplanes.

“The Industrial Revolution and airplane manufacture came to Farmingdale during World War I when Lawrence Sperry and Sydney Breese established their pioneering factories in the community,” wrote Ken Neubeck and Leroy E. Douglas in their book, Airplane Manufacturing in Farmingdale (Arcadia Publishing, 2016, p. 9). “They were drawn by the presence of two branches of the Long Island Railroad… the nearby Route 24, which brought auto and truck traffic to and from the Fifty-Ninth Street Bridge in Manhattan; the level outwash plain, which provided land for flying fields; and the proximity to skilled workers… “

The area’s first aviation roots, however, were planted as far back as 1917. The Lawrence Sperry Airplane Company, incorporated that year with $50,000 of capital and located on Rose and Richard streets in the village of Farmingdale, produced its first aircraft in the form of the Messenger.

Designed by Alfred Verville of the US Army’s Engineering Division at McCook Field, the minuscule, 17.9-foot-long, all-wood biplane was intended for “aerial motorcycle” missions, alighting in small clearings to drop off and pick-up messages from field commanders, thus earning its name. Farmingdale’s aviation roots were equally cultivated by Sydney Breese, whose Breese Aircraft Company, located on Eastern Parkway, designed the Penguin. Resembling the Bleriot XI, the mid-wing airplane, powered by a two-cylinder, 28-hp, roughly-running Lawrence engine, was a non-flying, preflight trainer intended to aid US Army pilot transition from primary to operational types. Deployed on the open prairies of Texas, it sported a wingspan too short to produce lift, but allowed fledgling aviators to gain the feel of pre-departure aerodynamic forces on their horizontal tails. Of the 301 produced, only five were ever used for this purpose; the remainder were placed in storage.

2. Fairchild Aviation Corporation:

If Lawrence Sperry and Sydney Breese laid Farmingdale’s aviation foundation, then Sherman M. Fairchild cemented it.

Initially interested in aerial photography equipment, he founded the Fairchild Aerial Camera Corporation in 1920, selling two such devices to the Army, and further developed the company into Fairchild Aerial Surveys to engage in map-making when he had received a contract for an additional 20.

Seeking to replace the myriad of airplane types he operated with a single, specifically- designed camera platform, Fairchild devised the required specifications for one, but could not locate a manufacturer able to build it at a reasonable cost. Forced to do so himself, he established his third aviation company, the Fairchild Aviation Corporation, and moved into the Sperry factory in South Farmingdale, vacated as a result of founder Sperry’s tragic death in December of 1923.

The high-wing, strut-braced, single-engine utility aircraft, designated FC-1 and first flying in prototype form in 1926, featured an enclosed and heated cabin to protect the pilot and his camera equipment, but its original OX-5 engine proved inadequate. Retrofitted with a higher-capacity Wright J-4, it was redesignated FC-1A.

The FC-2 production version, supported by wheels, floats, or skis, featured increased cabin volume. Powered by a 200-hp Wright J-5, the aircraft, intended for commercial operations, sported a 31-foot overall length and 44-foot wingspan. Accommodating a single pilot and four passengers, or up to 820 pounds of cargo, it had a 3,400-pound gross weight and could attain maximum, 122-mph speeds and operate 700-mile segments.

Demand at the South Farmingdale factory soon eclipsed capacity. After aerially surveying the region, Fairchild himself chose a 77,967-acre alternate on the south side of Route 24 and Conklin Street in East Farmingdale, a site which offered prevailing, South Shore winds and multiple-mode ground access by means of a railroad line and the major, Route 110 corridor, which would facilitate both personnel and raw material transport to the new field. Repackaged into airplanes, the latter could then fly out.

“The 77,967-acre Fairchild Flying Field was developed in the late winter and early spring of 1928 and was originally owned and operated by the Fairchild Engine and Airplane Manufacturing Company,” according to the Long Island-Republic Airport Historical Society. “The first flights from (it) took place in (the) late spring of 1928 after the Fairchild Airplane and the Fairchild Engine factories were completed and aircraft were produced (there). Fairchild built Model 41, 41A, 42, 21, 100, and 150 airplanes… “

Wings, like those of the Hempstead Plains to the west, once again rose from the farm fields of Long Island, built, propelled, and supported, respectively, by the Fairchild Airplane Factory, the Fairchild Engine Factory, and the Fairchild Flying Field, after Faircam Realty, Inc., purchased the land and its initial layout was established on November 3, 1927.

Although Fairchild produced multiple models at its new Long Island aviation center, its roots would quickly prove tenuous. Moving its headquarters to Hagerstown, Maryland, in 1931, after only three years, it vacated its facilities, which were almost immediately reoccupied by the American Corporation, or AVCO, whose Airplane and Engine divisions produced the Pilgrim 100 transport for American Airways. But the Depression, taking too large a bite out of the economy, severely diminished demand for it, since aircraft acquisitions were high on a company’s cost reduction list, and its presence proved shorter than Fairchild’s. By mid-1932, it had equally disappeared.

3. Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corporation:

Initially located in Valley Stream, where it designed floats, the Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corporation moved further east, to the Fairchild Flying Field, and took up residence in the former Fulton Truck Factory, where it hatched its first production fighter, the FF-1. Powered by a single, 750-hp Wright engine, the biplane, with a retractable undercarriage, was also offered in scout configuration, as the SF-1.

The most significant aircraft to emerge from the East Farmingdale production line, however, was the Duck. Tracing its origins to the Loening Aeronautical Engineering Corporation’s XO2L-1, it had been submitted to the US Navy in 1931, but, since Loening himself lacked the required facilities to build it, he turned to Leroy Grumman, his former colleague, who re-submitted it in modified form. Accepted on April 25, 1933, the biplane, called XJF-1, was powered by a 700-hp Twin Wasp engine, which drove a three-bladed Hamilton Standard propeller. Its bracing, consisting of one set of struts outboard of the fuselage and a second one, of wires, between the two wings, was minimal for its day. Water operations were supported by a centerline, under-fuselage float, into which the undercarriage retracted.

In all, 632 JF and J2F Ducks were produced, pressed into global, multiple-role service.

Although Grumman’s Farmingdale presence exceeded that of all others, it nevertheless ended after a half-decade, in 1937, when it relocated to larger headquarters in Bethpage, Long Island.

4. Seversky Aircraft Corporation:

Seversky Aircraft Corporation next took center stage in Farmingdale when it relocated there from College Point in Queens, occupying the former American Corporation factory.

A decorated World War I ace, Alexander P. de Seversky, like Igor Sikorsky, immigrated to the US from Russia, and in 1923, developed the first gyroscopically-stabilized bombsight at the Sperry Gyroscope Company, before establishing his own Seversky Aero Corporation, which focused on aircraft instruments and parts.

Injected with fresh capital, it initially occupied the EDO Corporation’s floatplane factory.

His first major design, the SEV-3, was both aerodynamically sleek and progressive, reflecting Seversky’s aviation-intuitive nature. Powered by a single, 420-hp, nose-mounted, Wright J-6 Whirlwind engine, the all-metal, low-wing aircraft, accommodating a pilot and two passengers in sliding, tandem canopied cockpits, was either supported by a wheeled undercarriage or floats, and in 1933 established a world speed record for piston amphibians. Two years later, on September 15, it sustained a 230-mph airspeed.

The foundation of many subsequent versions, which externally exhibited only minor variations over the basic design, it evolved into the next major iteration, the BT-8. As the first all-metal, enclosed cockpit design operated by the US Army Air Corps, it featured a 24.4-foot length and 36-foot wingspan. Powered by the 400-hp Pratt and Whitney R-985-11, the 4,050-pound airplane, accommodating two, had a 175-mph maximum speed. Thirty were built. It led to the definitive version.

Originally occupying Hangar 2 on New Highway and today used by the American Airpower Museum, Seversky Aircraft Corporation took over the Grumman factory in 1937 when it had relocated to Bethpage, thus maintaining two facilities. But, echoing the short history of the East Farmingdale airfield’s tenants, it came to an abrupt end: although Seversky, like many other aviation-minded “geniuses,” possessed the necessary design skills to create progressive airplanes, he lacked the necessary managerial flip-side of the equation needed to devise a proper, and profitable, business plan to market them, resulting in a $550,000 loss by April of 1939. While conducting a European sales tour six months later, on October 13, he was ousted by his own board of directors, who voted for his removal from the very company he had founded.

Reorganized, it was rebranded “Republic Aviation Corporation.”

5. Republic Aviation Corporation:

Fairchild Flying Field’s fortune was about to change. Fueled by World War II, the fledgling Republic Aviation Corporation would explode in size and its roots would become so deeply implanted in Farmingdale soil that it would be decades before they could be unearthed.

Instrumental in that war was the Republic P-47 Thunderbolt.

Succeeding the Seversky P-35, it was the result of Army Air Corps requirements, which included a 400-mph airspeed, a 25,000-foot service ceiling, at least six.50-caliber machine guns, armor plating protection, self-sealing fuel tanks, and a minimum fuel capacity of 315 gallons.

The Republic P-47 Thunderbolt, which dwarfed all other aircraft, was the world’s largest, heaviest, single-engine, single-seat strategic World War II fighter, offering unequaled dive speeds.

War-fed growth of the officially-renamed “Republic Airport” resulted in the expansion of the company’s existing factory on the south side of Conklin Street, as well as the construction of three additional buildings, the installation of a control tower, and the lengthening of its existing runways, all in an effort to support P-47 production, which totaled 9,087 units in Farmingdale alone and required a work force of 24,000 to accomplish by 1944. Employees filtered in by the thousands every day. A round-the-clock production line spat a completed aircraft out of the factory every hour, and these were then ferried by the Women Air Force Service Pilots, or WASPs. Republic Aviation, one of the country’s primary defense arteries, pumped man-and-machine into the agricultural plains of Farmingdale and transformed them into an arsenal of democracy within an 18-month period.

“By 1945, Republic was contributing more than 30 percent of the Army Air Force fighters to the war effort against the Luftwaffe in the skies of Europe,” wrote Leroy E. Douglas in his “Conklin Street Cut-Off” article published in the September 1984 issue of Long Island Forum (p. 182). “Thus, Republic, Ranger, and its 23,000 plus workers-more than half of whom were women-did their part to win the war.”

When World War II’s doors closed, so, too, did those of the Thunderbolt factory, and Republic was forced to diversify its product range in terms of purpose and powerplant, converting military Douglas C-54 Skymasters into commercial DC-4 airliners, producing 1,059 civilian Seabee amphibian aircraft, and attempting to design a passenger transport of its own.

The resultant aircraft, the Republic XF-12 Rainbow–along with the competing, and identically-powered, Hughes XF-11–both received a contract for two.

Emulating the graceful lines of the Lockheed Constellation, the Rainbow, featuring a 93.9-foot overall length and incorporating design experience amassed during Republic’s fighter aircraft development, exuded an appearance quintessentially captured by Aviation Week and Space Technology magazine when it reported, “The sharp nose and cylindrical cigar shape of the XF-12 fulfills a designer’s dream of a no-compromise design with aerodynamic considerations.”

Peace proved the aircraft’s enemy. The close of World War II obviated its (and the comparable Hughes XF-11’s) need. Nevertheless, because of its long-range, high-speed and -altitude, day and night, limited-visibility photo-reconnaissance capability, it was ideal as a territory-mapping platform. Indeed, on September 1, 1948, the second of only two aircraft built photographed its transcontinental flight path from the Air Force Flight Test Center in Muroc, California, to Mitchell Field in Garden City, Long Island, during Operation Birds Eye.

Returning to its military roots, Republic entered the pure-jet era with a P-47 Thunderbolt successor.

Featuring a 37.5-foot length, the design, conceived shortly before the end of the war in 1944, retained the straight wings associated with propeller airplanes. These spanned 36.5 feet.

First flying on February 28, 1946, the 19,689-pound fighter-bomber, designated F-84 Thunderjet and able to climb at 4,210-fpm, established a national speed record of 611 mph, as powered by the 3,750-thrust-pound J35-GE-7. Its range was 1,282 miles and its service ceiling was 40,750 feet. Its production totaled 4,455 units.

Development of its successor began in 1949. Because of an Air Force funding shortage, Republic reduced development costs by retaining commonality, to the tune of 60 percent, with the F-84, but introduced swept wings. The aircraft, powered by a 4,200 thrust-pound Allison XJ35-A-25 engine and initially designated YF-96A, first flew on June 3 of the following year, three months before it was renamed F-84F Thunderstreak.

Korean War-sparked fund increases enabled Republic to complete a second prototype, which first flew on February 14, 1951 with a YJ65-W-1 engine, and it was followed by the first production example, which took to the skies on November 22, 1952. The type was deployed by NATO countries during the Cold War.

F-84F Thunderstreak production totaled 2,713 airplanes.

Nevertheless, Ken Neubeck and Leroy E. Douglas summarized Republic-based aircraft manufacturing by stating in their book, Airplane Manufacturing in Farmingdale (pp. 7-8). “While aviation started in Farmingdale with cloth-covered triplanes and biplanes and prop engines, after World War II Republic helped moved the United States into the jet age with the F-84 and F-84F, which assisted US forces in Korea and NATO nations in the 1950s.”

6. Fairchild Republic Corporation

Although Fairchild departed the very airport it had created in 1931, that absence was short-lived. Reappearing three years later, it took up residence in its former engine factory as the newly formed Ranger Aircraft and Engine Corporation and remained there until 1948. But, for a second time, history was to come full cycle.

Acquiring Hiller Helicopters nine years later, it became Fairchild Hiller, and in July of 1965, it purchased the majority of Republic stock, resulting in the Republic Aviation Division of Fairchild Hiller. Fairchild had thus returned to the soil in which it had planted its first seeds. In 1971, it continued its buying spree, purchasing Swearingen and producing and marketing the 19-passenger, twin-turboprop Fairchild-Swearingen Metro commuter airliner. The following year, the company adopted the official title of “Fairchild Republic.”

Its principle design, conceptualized before the Republic acquisition, was given birth by the Air Force requirement for a close air support aircraft incorporating simplicity, ease of maintenance, and short-field performance, in order to operate from small forward air bases close to the battle line.

Designated A-10 Thunderbolt II and enjoying a production run of 733, it was instrumental in the Gulf War and during Operation Iraqi Freedom.

7. Post-War Manufacturing:

Although Republic Airport and its aviation companies had been associated with mostly-military aircraft design and manufacture, several diverse commercial and space components also emerged from its doors.

Integral to the Boeing 747, for instance, were the leading edge slats, trailing edge flaps, spoilers, and ailerons built by the Republic Aviation division of Fairchild Hiller, while it was also contracted to provide a similar role in its proposed, but canceled, supersonic 2707 airliner.

Equally integral to the Space Shuttle were the Fairchild Republic components manufactured in Farmingdale.

After awarded a $13 million contract by Rockwell International of Los Angeles on March 29, 1973, Fairchild Hiller designed and developed six aluminum vertical tail stabilizers, which sported 45-degree leading edges and measured 27 feet high by 22 feet long, in Hangar 17, along with their associated rudders and speedbrakes. The first, installed on test vehicle Enterprise, facilitated its atmospheric launch from a piggy-backed 747 platform over Edwards Air Force Base on February 18, 1977, while the others were mounted on Space Shuttles Columbia, Challenger, Discovery, Atlantis, and Endeavor.

Expanding the commuter airliner involvement initiated with the Swearingen Metro, Fairchild Republic signed an agreement with Saab-Scania of Sweden on January 25, 1980 to launch the SF-340, in what became the first fully collaborative venture between a US and European aviation manufacturer. Fairchild Republic was contracted to design and build its wings, engine nacelles, and vertical and horizontal tail surfaces, with final assembly occurring in Sweden.

Fairchild Swearingen was assigned North American marketing responsibility, while a jointly owned Swedish company, Saab-Fairchild HB, established an office in Paris to fulfill this function elsewhere.

Powered by twin turboprop engines, the aircraft accommodated 34 passengers in a four-abreast configuration with a central aisle.

After completing some 100 wing sets, however, Fairchild terminated its contract work on the regional airliner, withdrawing from all civil projects, and the aircraft was redesignated the Saab 340.

8. Changing Roles:

Passed the ownership torch on March 31, 1969, Republic Airport was thereinafter operated by the Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA), which continued to transform it into a public-use entity by acquiring 94 adjacent acres from the US government and purchasing an additional 115 privately owned ones to the south and southwest.

“The Metropolitan Transportation Authority took title to Republic Airport as a first step in converting it into a general aviation (field),” according to the Long Island-Republic Airport Historical Society.

Initiating a modernization program, it made several improvements. High-intensity lights were installed on 5,516-foot Runway 1-19 and 6,827-foot Runway 14-32, for example, the latter of which was also equipped with an instrument landing system (ILS). The Fulton Truck Factory, the airport’s original structure dating from 1916, was razed, while Flightways transformed a ten-acre site on the north side of Route 109 into a complex of new hangars, administration buildings, fuel storage tanks, and aircraft tie-downs. A dual-level Administration, Terminal, and Maintenance building opened in 1983, not far from, and shortly before, the operational phase-in of a 100-foot, $2.2 million FAA control tower.

In order to promote economic development of the surrounding region, New York State legislature transferred ownership, for a third time, to the New York State Department of Transportation (DOT) on April 1, 1983, which was advised by a nine-member Republic Airport Commission. It hardly curtailed the modernization momentum.

Indeed, eight years later, a $3.5 million, 25,600-square-foot Grumman Corporate Hangar, replacing the aircraft storage facility previously maintained at its now-closed Bethpage airfield and housing a Beechcraft King Air, a Gulfstream I, and two British Aerospace BAe-125-800s, opened.

In April of 1993, ground was broken for a $3.3 million, 20,000-square-foot SUNY Farmingdale Aerospace Education Center on the east side of Route 110.

Million Air, a subsidiary of Executive Air Support, constructed an 11,700-square-foot Executive Air Terminal and corporate hangar on the airport’s south end, and, by 2001, Air East commenced operations in its own, new, radiant-heated, 10,000-square-foot hangar, which also featured a 2,500-square-foot shop and 4,500-square-foot office and flight school. Yet another hangar-and-office complex, located in the Lambert area, opened its doors in June of 2005 when Talon Air, a charter company, began operations from it.

In order to provide increased clearance needed by the latest-generation of business jets, such as the Gulfstream V and the Bombardier Global Express, taxiway B (bravo) was relocated.

Indeed, more than $18 million in capital improvements were made since 2000 alone.

These enhancements, provisioning the airport for its new, general aviation role, had perhaps been a premonition of things to come.

In 1982, Fairchild Republic won a contract to build two new-generation Air Force T-46A training jets; but, the milestone, initially envisioned as a monetary lifeline, only provided the reverse effect: although the prototype was first rolled out three years later, it lacked some 1,200 parts, and although the second made a successful, 24-minute maiden flight in July of 1986, the contract for the program, fraught with controversy, was canceled, resulting in the layoffs of 500 employees.

Like so many companies dependent upon military contracts for survival, Fairchild Republic, without choice, ceased to exist the following year, leaving its sprouting factories and a legacy, which had begun six decades earlier. Ironically, the two names which had been the most instrumental in the airport’s beginning and growth-Fairchild and Republic-were the same two which had been involved in its demise. The doors of the Farmingdale airfield’s primarily-military aircraft manufacturing and testing chapter thus closed, and those to its general aviation one opened.

“With the company experiencing major financial problems in 1986-1987 and with the loss of support for the T-46A program in Congress, Fairchild terminated both the SF-340 and T-46A production after building only four aircraft,” according to Ken Neubeck and Leroy E. Douglas in Airplane Manufacturing in Farmingdale (p. 99). “Thus, by the fall of 1987, seventy years of airplane manufacturing in Farmingdale ended with employment and economic loss to the community and the New York metropolitan area.”

9. Airline Service:

In 1966, a year after ownership of Republic Airport was transferred from Fairchild Hiller to Farmingdale Corporation, it was officially designated a general aviation (civil) facility, fielding its first landing, of a twin-engine Beechcraft operated by Ramey Air Service from Islip, on December 7. In order to transform it into a gateway by facilitating airline connections at the three major New York airports, the Metropolitan Transportation Authority contracted with Air Spur to provide this feeder service four years later, assessing $12 one-way fares.

Although Republic was never envisioned as a major commercial airport, its central Long island location, proximity to the Route 110 corridor, and considerable infrastructure poised it for limited, scheduled and charter service to key business and leisure destinations within neighboring states. Yet its inherent operational limitation was succinctly stated in the 2000 Republic Airport Master Plan Update.

“At Republic Airport,” it explained (Chapter 3, p. 8), “the New York State Department of Transportation implemented an aircraft weight limitation of 60,000 pounds in 1984. This weight limitation restricts the operation of aircraft over 60,000 pounds actual gross weight without the written consent of the airport operator.”

“Forecasts indicate that there will be an increase in the number of jet aircraft based at Republic Airport,” the Master Plan Update stated, “as well as an increase in jet operations,” as ultimately proven by annual pure-jet operation statistics: 2,792 in fiscal year 1986, 4,056 in 1990, 4,976 in 1995, and 6,916 in 1998. And, of its average annual number of based aircraft-about 500-this segment was also the fastest growing: 10 jet aircraft in 1985, 15 in 1995, and 20 in 1998. That number has since more than doubled.

One of the first scheduled airline attempts was made in 1978 when Cosmopolitan Airlines, operating an ex-Finnair Convair CV-340 and two ex-Swissair CV-440 Metropolitans in single-class, four-abreast, configurations, offered all-inclusive, single-day, scheduled charter packages to Atlantic City from its Cosmopolitan Sky Center. Its flyer had advised: “Fly to Atlantic City for only $19.95 net. Here’s how it works: Pay $44.95 for a round-trip flight ticket to Atlantic City, including ground transportation to and from the Claridge Hotel and Casino. Upon arrival at the Claridge, you’ll receive $20.00 in food and beverage credits good at any restaurant except the London Pavilion. You will also receive a $5.00 flight credit good for your next fight to the Claridge on Cosmopolitan Airlines.”

The carrier also briefly attempted to offer two daily scheduled round-trips to Boston on its 52-passenger CV-440s in 1980.

Facilitating this scheduled service growth was the construction of a passenger terminal.

“The terminal building, completed in 1983, has approximately 50,000 square feet of useable floor space and houses airport service vehicles, maintenance, fire protection, public terminal space, and rental areas on the first floor, plus administration offices on the second floor. Approximately 70 employees work in the building,” according to the 2000 Republic Airport Master Plan Update (Chapter 1, p. 17).

Attempting to establish a link between Farmingdale and the major New York metropolitan airport of Newark International in order to feed its departures, PBA Provincetown Boston Airline commenced shuttle service with Cessna C-402 commuter aircraft, connecting Long Island by means of a 30-minute aerial hop with up to five daily round-trips and coordinating schedules with PEOPLExpress Airlines. It advertised avoidance of the excessive drive-times, parking costs, and longer check-in requirements otherwise associated with larger-airport usage, and offered the convenience of through-fares, ticketing, and baggage check to any PEOPLExpress final destination.

According to its June 20, 1986 Northern System timetable, it offered Farmingdale departures at 0700, 0950, 1200, 1445, and 1755.

Demand soon necessitated replacement of the C-402 with a larger, 19-seat Embraer EMB-110 Bandeirante.

All of these brief, unsuccessful scheduled attempts, nullifying local residents’ ill-founded concern that Republic would ultimately develop into a major commercial airport and inflict its noise on close-proximity ears, failed to attract the needed traffic to render them self-supporting, emphasizing several airport-specific factors.

1). Republic was consistently associated with general, and not scheduled, operations during the latter part of its history.

2). Long Island MacArthur had already established itself as the island’s principle commercial facility, and carriers, as demonstrated by Precision/Northwest Airlink, gained no revenue advantage by diluting the same market, yet incurring increased airport and operational costs to do so.

“Republic Airport has had service by various commuter airlines and each has ceased service… ,” according to the 2000 Republic Airport Master Plan Update. “The commuter service market area is limited, geographically, taking into account the larger airports, such as La Guardia, Kennedy, and MacArthur and the service they offer.”

“Since 1969, Republic Airport has accommodated the region’s need for an airport devoted to private and business aircraft, as well as charter and commuter operations,” it also stated (Chapter 1, p. 1). “Because Republic is situated in the midst of residential, commercial, and industrial development, its role is inconsistent with that of a scheduled air carrier airport for commercial jet transport.”

With the number of annual passengers having consistently increased-from 13,748 in 1985 and 30,564 in 1990 to 33,854 in 1995-its future commuter role could not be entirely ruled out.

“While past efforts by commuter airlines have not been successful, the potential for future service exists and is to be considered in the planning for the airport,” it concluded (Chapter 2, p. 10).

10. The Future:

Unlike Roosevelt and Glenn Curtiss fields, which succumbed to modern-era pressures and swapped their runways for shopping malls, 526-acre Republic only surrendered a small portion of itself to the Airport Plaza Shopping Center. Instrumental in early-aviation development and in the Korean, Vietnam, Gulf, and Iraq wars, it transformed itself into a general aviation facility, peaking with 546-based aircraft and becoming the third-largest New York airport in terms of movements after JFK International and La Guardia.

Billing itself as “the corporate airbridge for Long Island’s 21st-century economy,” this westernmost Long Island general aviation facility accounts for 1,370 jobs and $139.6 million of economic activity, supporting 60 on-airport businesses. The 110,974 movements recorded in 2008 encompassed 52 by non-rigid airships, 7,120 by rotary wing, 76,236 by single-engine pistons, 6,310 by twin-engine pistons, 5,028 by turboprops, and 16,228 by pure-jets. The latter, its second-highest total, emphasizes its increasing role as the “Teterboro of Long Island,” perhaps pointing the way to its future. Indeed, companies considering the area for their corporate locations cite the airport as a major asset, since it provides close-proximity aerial access for personnel and materials.

Toward that end, the State of New York approved funding in April of 2009 for a Vision Planning process to collect data from residents, employees, businesses, and users, and then plot its future course. Specifically, the program had a three-fold purpose-namely, to define the airport’s role, to determine how it will fill that role, and, finally, to ascertain how it will work with the community to attain the desired operational and economic goals.

“As part of the National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems (NPIAS), Republic Airport is designated as a reliever airport with commercial service,” according to the 2000 Republic Airport Master Plan Update (Chapter 1, p. 1). “Under ownership by the New York State Department of Transportation, there are specific state development and policy procedures which are followed.”

Although it may never eclipse its current general aviation role, its importance was not to be underestimated.

“”Republic Airport is an important regional asset,” it stated (Chapter 1, p. 1). “It provides significant transportation and economic benefits to both Suffolk and Nassau counties. The policy of the New York State Department of Transportation and the Republic Airport Commission shall be that Republic Airport continue to better serve Long Island.”

Whatever the future holds for it, it has a nine-decade foundation upon which to base it, as acknowledged by the plaque hung in the passenger terminal by the Long Island-Republic Airport Historical Society, “honor(ing) the tens of thousands of men and women who labored here in East Farmingdale, contributing significantly to aviation technology and aircraft production.” Those men and woman turned the wheels of the 11 aviation companies based there.


Long Island Republic Airport Historical Society website.

Neubeck, Ken, and Douglas, Leroy E. Airplane Manufacturing in Farmingdale. Charleston, South Carolina: Arcadia Publishing, 2016.

2000 Republic Airport Master Plan Update, New York State Department of Transportation.

The Basics of Eyelash Implants

If you are a man, chances are you know nothing about eyelashes or lash beauty. Eyelashes are usually a minor detail that men do not focus on, or at least they do not think they do. For women, the topic of eyelashes is an entirely different matter. If women suddenly stopped taking care of their eyelashes or accentuating them, men would certainly notice. And the fact is women spend a significantly large amount of time thinking about what to do with their eyelashes. Some of them will not even leave the house without giving their lashes a bit of curl. Eyelashes are extremely important to achieving a particular look because they serve the purpose of enhancing the eyes. And the eyes, after all, are the key feature on any woman's face that they want to draw attention to. Up until last years, women had to rely on eyelash curlers and fake eyelashes to get the look that they wanted. But now, thanks to new developments in medical technology, it is possible to get eyelash implants.

Keep in mind the eyelash implants are not for everyone. In fact, they were originally designed for women who had gone through chemotherapy and a resultless lack in eyelash hair. For the most part, this type of surgery is still reserved for patients with medical conditions that affect their eyelashes. You can however, find more doctors who are qualified to perform the surgery for cosmetic reasons as well. Some people would question why a woman would go to such lengths to get eyelashes. But it is entirely a personal choice, and some women feel that they're so lacking in the eyelash department that there is no other alternative.

The eyelash implant procedure is similar to that associated with getting hair plugs. A patient will have a portion of their skin and hair removed from the back of their head. Hair follicles will be taken and carefully implanted into the eyelash area. The whole time a patient will be wake and put under local anesthetic. There will not be much downtime at all associated with the surgery, but results should not be expected immediately. Usually a patient will have to wait several months for the hair to start growing in a natural way. And on top of that, they might have to end a period where the hair seems to fall out completely. But this is just part of the natural hair growth cycle, and in time eyelashes can be growing in the area just like they would normally.

Computer-Based Therapy Can Help Treat Patients of Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia is not as common as other mental disorders like anxiety or depression, but the symptoms can be quite disabling. The person afflicted with the condition may lose touch with reality and can think, act and behave differently. A recent research suggested that a computer-based approach can be effective in helping people battling schizophrenia.

The researchers found that on interacting with a computer avatar, which represents their hallucinations, patients can feel an improvement in the symptoms. The results of avatar therapy were compared with that of supportive counseling and it was found that the previous was effective in reducing auditory hallucinations after a 12-week follow-up.

The study, published in the journal The Lancet Psychiatry in November 2017, complied 150 participants who were struggling with schizophrenia for the past two decades and were experiencing distressing audit hallucinations continuously for over a year. Half of the study population was provided with avatar therapy and the remaining was given supportive counseling. All the participants continued taking their antipsychotic medicines alongside the therapies.

Avatar therapy versus supporting counseling

Before starting the avatar therapy, the participants worked with the therapists to create their avatars or the computer simulation of the voice which they wanted to tame with features like how it looked and what it said. The avatar sessions rented for about 50 minutes each, over a period of six weeks. The sessions comprised a three-way dialogue between the patient, therapist and avatar (voiced by the therapist). Every session had a set target and included a face-to-face interaction, lasting for around 10-15 minutes between the patient and his or her avatar. During these one-on-one interactions, patients learned the art of standing up to those disturbing voices and clearing any misconceptions. This led to a better control of the situation and a shift in power from the avatar to the patient. Occasionally, the avatar realized patient's strengths, positive qualities, higher control and greater power in the relationship. Each session was recorded and handed over to the patient to listen to when they heard the voices again. The supportive counseling also supervised the same number of sessions and tried helping patients by suggesting ways of improving their overall quality of life. The sessions ended by recording a positive message.

After a period of 12 weeks, the patients who took avatar therapy reported a marked elevation in the disturbing symptoms and power of the voices that they often heard. They preferred better than their counterparts who were offered supporting counseling.

Important to seek help

Schizophrenia affects 1.1 percent of the American adult population. The chronic disease can take the form of psychosis, necessitating the need for early interventions. While the novel therapies like avatar therapy promises, the disease management usually involves a multipronged approach, consisting of medication, family education, counseling, behavioral therapies and skill training.

The mental health experts at Sovereign Health understand that suffering from schizophrenia can make life a living hell for individuals and their families. Our trained staff, doctors, nurses and mental health specialists are committed to providing the best treatment in a safe and compassionate environment. Our recovery programs are tailor-made to suit the specific needs of a patient to ensure a better and illness-free life.

Low-Carb Diet VS The Raw Diet

The Low-Carb diet and the Raw diet are two of the most popular diets of today. Why are diets so popular? When we decide to become healthy we usually want to change our diets first. Achieving our exercise goals can be hard if we feel sluggish and bloated from our diet. Many celebrities publicly announce going on a 'low-carb' or 'raw diet' to quickly shed funds before an event or movie role.

Popular diets are usually tried first because they are the first diets that we see on TV or in the news. We are more likely to try something if we know that it is popular because that means it must work then, right? However, it is not always true.

I want to take a look at two vastly different diets to give you an idea of ​​their pros and cons. They have different philosophies and will affect your body differently. I believe that each have their advantages and disadvantages, but it's important to remember that we must tailor a diet specifically to our bodies. Not every diet will work and not everyone will enjoy the same foods.

1. The Low-Carb Diet

The Low-Carb craze really began because of the Atkins Diet. Dr.Atkins was a cardiologist believed that carbohydrates were having negative effects on his patients. He was so convinced that he set out to write a diet book. Thus, the Atkins diet was born and became immensely popular in America.

One of the advantages to a low carb diet is that it is a very easy diet to follow. You only have to read the book to understand the diet. Many of the listed foods are easy to find and seem very delicious as well.

It seems like an proper diet for anyone who enjoys eating hearty food. Both men and women claim to enjoy eating this diet. Not only is it easy to find food to eat, but it is also affordable and the results come very quickly.

How the diet works:

The low-carb diet is all about restricting carbohydrates. Say goodbye to bread, pasta, wheat, rice, fruity drinks, desserts and more. Low-Carb advocated believe that carbohydrates are responsible for making people gain weight.

How the weight loss works: Our bodies run on carbohydrates because they are fuel for our bodies. Without carbohydrates, our bodies begin using fat to work.

Restrictions: Carbohydrates are restricted and closely monitored.

Typical Meal Plan:

Breakfast: Eggs, coffee, cheese and bacon.

Lunch: A salad with dark leafy greens and chicken.

Dinner: Your choice of meat with dairy and select vegetables.

Pros: Easy to eat. Very popular and accepted. The recipes are very easy to make as well. Lots of restaurants have low-carb options which makes eating out comfortable. It is reliably easy to find salad dressings and other sauces to eat with dinner too.

Cons: The Low-Carb diet is a short-term diet. You may lose weight initially, but many have reported gaining it back once they returned to a normal diet. The diet does not also claim to help with any other health ailments. There was also controversy after Dr.Atkins himself died and their were rumors of him having a heart attack.

Overall: The Low-Carb diet may work short-term, but I would recommend against long-term use. The diet does not seem to have many health benefits and does not seem suitable for long-term. I do not recommend any diet that limits fresh fruit and vegetables and is high in fat.

Overall Rating for the Low-Carb Diet: C

The Raw Diet

The Raw / Living Foods diet has become more and more popular with recent times. Many celebrities seem to go on the raw diet or even juicing as a quick detox.

How the diet works:

A lot of the information around raw foods diet can seem very convincing. They state that heating food can destroy and damage the enzymes. Many people have reported losing weight and feeling more energized due to the nutrient rich diet.

How the weight loss works: Many processed and heavily salted foods can cause weight gain and bloated. Raw foods are easier on our digestive system and can help rid our body of toxins and fat.

Restrictions: Food can not be heated above 104 ° F

Typical Meal Plan

Breakfast: A fruit smoothie or juice. Raw nuts with a raw nut milk.

Lunch: Salad with raw nuts, fruits and vegetables.

Dinner: Raw pizza or lasagna. Zuccini spaghetti. Raw cheese or milk.

Pros: The raw diet seems to really transform people and their bodies. Testimonials report that people really feel happier and much healthier. The raw diet is also more environmentally friendly as many of the ingredients are natural and easy to get. Many people say that that is a lifestyle choice and make the change for long-term benefits.

Cons: The raw diet is sometimes seen as extremely limited. It would be difficult for people with an active social life as it is very restrictive. When dining out with friends you would have to stick to side salads and juices. Some people may think this way of eating as 'extreme.'

Overall: I do believe the raw diet could work, but it is also difficult for people. It's important to eat enough calories when eating a raw diet.

Some raw diets are very high in fat and salt which will not help our long-term health goals. A high fat diet can hinder athletic performance and make us feel groggy and tired. Eating a lot of fat will also make losing weight much harder.

I would recommend eating a high amount of fruit to sustain yourself.

Overall rating for the raw diet: B

Genital Skin Tag Removal

Genital skin tags are discomforting. People are too afraid to be seen by their partners as having genital tags. This is because of the common perception that you are cheating your partner. The reason for this is that tags especially those appearing in the genitals may be perceived as warts.

Warts are common among people who have multiple partners and that it sends a wrong message. If you are, however, unsure if the small growth in your genitals is a tag then you may want to visit your doctor and have your tag removed and sent for biopsy. Biopsy will define the problem that is related to your tag.

Even if you are not suspecting any problem with your skin tag but the mere unsightly appearance is uncomfortable to you, it may help to know that genital tag removals are available.

There are several ways to remove genital tags. We will discuss some of these genital tag removals here.

Medical procedure

Genital tags are easily removed by cryosurgery. Cryosurgery is done by freezing the tag. It will be removed easily once frozen. You may feel some discomfort but after a few minutes, you will be clear of your genital tag.

This procedure can be done in the clinic of your doctor and then, there is no need for hospitalization. You will be back in your usual activities soon enough.

Another genital skin tag removal would be to cut off the tag. This procedure is known as incision. Your doctor will give you local anesthesia to manage the pain from cutting off your genital tag. It will bleed a little but bleeding usually stops soon.

Home remedy for genital tag.

Incision or ligation may also be done at home. This is the best way to remove genital skin tags. It is because people who are self-conscious do not want to go to the doctor to have their genital skin tags removed.

Home remedy for genital tags is incision. This is because it is a quick fix and that in no time, you will be without genital skin tags. You can perform incision by cutting off the tag with scissors or nail clippers. You may need to sterilize the scissors or nail clipper to make sure that you will not subject your skin to infection.

You may also use the ligation process as genital skin tag removal. You will need to stop the blood supply to the tag. You can do this by tying a thread or dental floss in the base of the tag. After several days, the tag will fall on its own. This is not a quick fix but it is not painful and will have no bleeding.

Genital tag removals through natural procedure are also available. However, natural process using essential oils, toothpaste and nail polish typically takes time. If you can not wait for it, then resort to cutting your tag off.

Finally, it may be necessary to know that tags are not harmful. You can live a normal and healthy life even with tag. If you are self-conscious, then genital skin tag removal is necessary.

Abortions – Some Basic Facts You Should Know!

It is often difficult for women to find any objective information about abortion because of the passionate controversy surrounding it. Abortion, however, is a much more complex subject than just pro-life or pro-choice. Some abortions are necessary for the health and safety of the mother, other times because of genetic problems with the fetus. Regardless of reason, all the facts still need to be considered in the case of abortion.

Within the medical community, abortion can denote many things. A spontaneous abortion, commonly referred to as a miscarriage, occurs when trauma inadvertently effects the fetus; the body naturally expels the pregnancy. This can also occur when the fetus has severe genetic problems or disease.

Induced abortion refers to abortions that are done consciously by medical means. This type of abortion is separated into two categories: therapeutic abortion and elective abortion. Therapeutic abortions occur when the mother’s health is at risk and the pregnancy must be terminated; a therapeutic abortion may also be the best option when fetus has a severe genetic abnormality that may inhibit development or even cause death. Another reason for therapeutic abortion is in the case of multiple births; sometimes the number of births may have to be reduced to preserve the mother’s own health.

The last category is elective abortion; this is the procedure often giving all of the others a bad rap. Elective abortion is done for personal reasons of the mother, and is the procedure surrounded by all of the controversy and scrutiny. There are three methods used in the case of an elective abortion: surgical, chemical, and herbal. While herbal isn’t often used anymore in the United States, it is most popularly associated with folk medicine or the abortions of times passed before it was legalized. Historically, herbs like black cohosh, pennyroyal, and tansy were used to expel the fetus from the body, although they are very dangerous and sometimes lethal.

Surgery is often the most popular method chosen for abortion and it depends on the stage of pregnancy during the procedure. In the first trimester a Manual Vacuum Aspiration, Electric Vacuum Aspiration, or Dilation and Curettage is performed. During the second trimester Dilation and Evacuation can be used. Also available during the second trimester are induced miscarriages where drugs are injected in the amniotic fluid, Intact Dilation and Extraction, or Hysterectomy abortions.

Chemical abortions are also an option that can be discussed with the doctor. Drugs such as methotrexate or mifepristone are used followed with prostaglandin and misoprostol if in the United States or gemeprost if in the United Kingdom or Sweden.

Regardless of the method chosen or the reason for which to terminate pregnancy, it’s important to remember the history of this medical procedure before it was legalized in the Roe vs. Wade case. Desperate women used knitting needles and hangers to puncture the uterus causing massive trauma and even death to themselves to induce miscarriage. It’s important that all of the facts and options be considered when considering abortion.

What Are the Vibrations Or What is the Frequency of Wealth?

Do My Brainwaves Affect My Frequency?

Many people wonder about the relationship between brainwave entrainment and Law of Attraction frequency. When we meditate, our brainwaves lower their frequency to low Alpha (best for relaxed focus and concentration) or Theta(best for dreaming, lucid dreaming or manifesting). With the use of a brainwave generator or binaural beats, we can achieve conscious Delta which is the brainwave that allows us to access the collective unconscious. (Without training and practice, it is not possible to stay conscious while in Delta.)

The best brainwaves for manifesting seem to be lower frequencies than normal. So, how is it that most teachers suggest raising your frequency in order to synchronize with the frequency of wealth?

Our brainwaves affect our thought patterns, not our overall frequency. It is useful to alter these thought patterns to bi-pass our Egos on a daily basis. This allows connection with our Super Conscious or Higher Minds. Some people find it easier to do this initially with binaural beats, but studies of long term meditators, Silva Method students or remote viewers shows that they can learn to quickly lower their brainwaves without help from a brainwave entrainment device.

Once we bi-pass our Egos, we are able to directly communicate with Divinity/Source or our Spirit Guides. This raises our overall frequency, which is different from our brainwave frequency. The lowest personal frequencies are those of shame, fear or hatred. The highest is that of enlightenment.

Our Emotional Frequencies

This is the frequency that affects the Law of Attraction. The low frequencies keep us solid and dense. At the highest frequencies we are light and luminescent. David Hawkins in Power vs Force gave his calibrations for human emotions from 20 to 1000.

At 20 (shame) our immune system is weak and we are prone to physical illness. The other end, 700 to 1000, is estimated to be the level of Krishna, Buddha and Jesus. The earth is affected by the frequencies or the energy levels of all of us, and we are affected by the overall frequency of the whole. Princeton’s Global Consciousness Project monitored a significant worldwide negative blip just before the first plane struck on 9/11/2001. It also noticed a significant worldwide positive blip the day of Barack Obama’s inauguration.

Frequencies below 200 are energy draining of anyone nearby and of the earth. This would include guilt (30), grief (75), fear (100) and pride (175). At those frequencies, you would not be able to manifest consciously. You would be bringing more guilt, grief, fear and pride into the world. The first positive emotion is courage (200). Courageous people are exploring and determined and put back as much into the world as they take.

More positively we have willingness (310), acceptance (350) and love (500) and peace (600). At these levels one has true happiness and is able to manifest abundantly. David Hawkins estimates that one individual at 300 counterbalances 90,000 individuals below level 200. Level 600 (peace) counterbalances 10,000,000 individuals below 200!

What frequency is the best for wealth?

You will find the match for what you desire. We have found that living in the positive allows us to create more of what we desire. This does not mean that we never have anything go wrong, but we are easily able to jump over any impediment. Often it turns out that these hurtles were there to move us in a more fruitful direction, or to teach us something that we would need to know in the near future. In the positive emotions, you have absolute trust in the Universe.

Once you have successfully attained these positive frequencies, you are able to generate far more good than bad in your life and in the lives of those in your environment and in the world.

So, use the brainwave frequencies to help you meditate, and the meditation to help you achieve a higher personal or emotional frequency.

Understanding Gum Disease and the Causes

Many patients attending dental practices will already have a fairly good understanding of tooth decay but they are often somewhat unclear when it comes to gum disease. This article will give you a better understanding of the subject and explain a few basic facts about what is known in the profession as periodontal disease – gum disease to most of us.

Gum disease is caused by bacteria, which is present in our mouths. For various reasons the quality of mouth bacteria can vary. The bacteria stick to the tooth surface. If our brushing and cleaning between each tooth is not very effective, the bugs will irritate the gums and eventually find their way below the gum line. As a result, the fibres of ligament that hold the tooth in the socket will be affected – and the formation of a “periodontal pocket” will begin. It is important to remember that very potent bacteria, which do not require oxygen, can survive below the gum line for a long time and destroy not just the ligament but subsequently the bone, which is structurally needed to hold the teeth in their place. In the long term some teeth can become loose and tooth loss can also occur.

What are the main factors contributing to this process?

As mentioned before, poor oral hygiene, ie not brushing or flossing regularly or using a mouth wash, stress, genetics, smoking (though non smokers can also develop very severe disease), and diabetes (especially if not controlled well).

Gum disease is considered by many to be a silent disease. There is often no pain involved to begin with. That is why regular checkups with the dentist are recommended. In many cases, the dentist will probably refer the patient for a more thorough assessment. This will involve a very detailed examination of the patient’s gums and sometimes even x-rays.

It is very common amongst dental practices to see patients who have been referred to a hygienist by the dentist for treatment and probably a good 80% of them would say: ‘I never knew I had this problem’.

Symptoms may include the following: bleeding on brushing, blood on the pillow, or in case of advanced disease it would be pain or mobility or even some visible tooth movement.

Can the disease be treated?

Yes, it can in the vast majority of cases. The treatment will focus on controlling the bacteria responsible for the damage to the ligaments or the supporting bone. The treatment objective is to arrest the disease – and to prevent it from causing any more damage. It is not possible to replace the missing bone.

One of the benefits of seeing a hygienist is that not only will they help clean teeth and remove bacteria from under the gum line but they can help with teaching patients techniques to clean their teeth really effectively. It is extremely important to remember that the success of the treatment will depend on your home care. Initially this process may seem daunting, however, even patients with some limitations in their manual dexterity can manage fairly well with the right help from the professional oral health educators.

Once the initial phase of the treatment is completed, patients are usually advised upon appropriate recall times for their maintenance appointments. Periodontal disease must be monitored and support therapy delivered periodically to prevent it from fairing up.

Specialist periodontists agree that the impact of not having treatment will depend upon the severity of disease.

In moderate to advanced cases, no treatment could mean developing pain, disease getting worse or premature tooth loss.

Main Points to remember

If you notice the following: blood on brushing, gums appear swollen or red, there are signs of gaps between the teeth, a tooth appears looser or there is persistent bad breath, then you should contact your dentist and tell them about your concerns.

It is also important to tell your dentist about any problems with your general health or medication you are taking, as this might have an effect on your gums.

Gum disease is treatable!

Cat Obesity: Tips for Slimming Down Your Fat Cat

I have seen far too many people think their pudgy little cat is cute. However, did you know that cat obesity is just as dangerous in our furry little friends as it is in humans? Therefore you'll want to do something to cut down on your cat's weight as quickly as possible. This can be a little difficult if you have an indoor cat as generally they do not get the exercise they need. However, if you follow the tips in this guide you should be able to make even the laziest cat in the world drop the excess pounds.

First and foremost, you'll want to determine if your cat is overweight. Some cats appear to be a little chunky, but that is how they should be due to their breed. To quickly check, you should feel around your cat's ribs, they should be easy to identify. If you can not feel the ribs then your cat is overweight. There are also a number of online 'calculators' which will also help you determine whether your pet is suffering from cat obesity.

One of the largest tips I can offer is to change the food your cat is eating. You should look to purchase better quality food, such as a grain-free food that does not contain corn. Cheaper foods contain more fat and fillers than they need to, and they also do not have the proper nutrients. Therefore, cheaper foods could do your pet a lot of harm, so steer clear of those. Do not worry, purchasing better quality cat food is not that much more expensive and you will probably need to feed your cat a lot less. In fact, purchasing a higher quality pet food will save you money in the long run, as it will result in fewer trips to the vet, because you'll have a healthy cat.

Another helpful suggestion is to invest in a pet food bowl with a portion control dome in the center or what is often referred to as a slow feed bowl. I have been very successful using these types of bowls in the past to slim down my fat cats. These food bowls help to control pets that gobble up their food too fast, which can result in overeating.

The next step is to cut down on the trips that you are offering your pet. Many people give their furry friends cat trips on a daily basis, and this contributes to cat obesity more than anything. Save the trips for special occasions, and even then, you can purchase 'low fat' tricks from your local pet store, so use those instead!

You will also need to exercise your cat more often. If you have an indoor cat, then grab a leash from a pet store and take them for a walk at least thirty minutes a day. This is also great exercise for you as well! Also, interactive toys are a great way to keep your cat active and can also strengthen the bond between you and your pet. My cat's love the Da Bird feather toy, which they absolutely can not resist; even my laziest kitty will get off the couch for this toy. It is by far the best cat toy I can recommend for interacting with your furry friends.

Finally, ease your pet into the diet plan gradually, especially if you are changing their food. This is because sudden changes in food can wreak havoc on your cat's digestion, and can even make them sick.

Follow these simple tips and you should start seeing your kitty drop those excess pounds. When you are putting your cat through a 'weight loss' regime, you will want to constantly check them to ensure that they are actually losing weight. So keep feeling around those ribs, and weigh your pet from time to time. Remember though, your goal is to get your cat down to a 'healthy' weight, do not take it too far, plenty of people end up with a cat that is far too skinny, and that is not what you want.

Acne Skin Care

There are many myths that surround acne skin care. Some of them can do far more harm than good. Several methods of treatment might cause irritation the individual does not need. Severe cases people may have to seen by a dermatologist to have their acne treated, others find that common sense and a skin care routine is all that is needed to prevent breakouts.

Despite longstanding rumors, that food such as chocolate or excessive exercise may worsen breakouts. The real causes of acne are poor skin care, excess stress, and hormonal changes that cause pores to become blocked. There is not much you can do to change your body’s hormone levels, but controlling your stress level is possible to a degree, and practice healthy skin care in an effort to prevent acne breakouts.

Any type of stress relief will help. Consider exercise, or studying for that test ahead of time instead of cramming at the last minute. That will help prevent acne breakouts caused by stress. While you cannot always live a stress free lifestyle, skin care is something that can be controlled, clean skin will help keep you as acne free as possible.

Take care of your complexion by gently cleaning your skin. Be careful to avoid harsh scrubbing which may irritate your complexion. Breakouts are essentially blocked pores swollen by bacterial infections causing irritations. You want to make sure that you do not make your breakouts any worse through improper skin care.

The best and most effective step you can take is wash you face, and other affected areas, several times a day. If you have an oily skin type, you may want to wash at least twice daily. The use of gentle soap and water is effective, avoid the temptation to scrub your face, as this will only irritate your skin and cause further breakouts. Be as gentle as possible when drying your face pat instead of rub will help as well. Washing your face to remove excess oil prevents the pores from being clogged, trapping oil, and forming pimples. If you choose to wear makeup, you should use water-based cosmetics instead of oil based makeup allowing your pores can breathe.

Squeezing pimples will cause swelling and actually make breakouts. If you attempt to squeeze a pimple, you are likely to bruise your skin, which may leave a scar or long-lasting red spot. The pimple can also rupture the pore and penetrate deeper underneath. This could possibly cause an even worse infection, known as a cystic nodule that will form a hard, painful lump at the breakout location. Cystic nodules are very noticeable and generally take a substantial amount of time to clear up, if they do clear.

Sunburns may also worsen your breakouts. Sunburns cause damage to your skin. Use a water-based sunblock to protect your skin from burns. This will also assist in keeping pores clog-free. You may not be able to eliminate your breakouts, but making wise choices and paying extra attention to proper skin care, you can reduce your chances of outbreaks occurring in the future.

In Conclusion:

Acne skin care requires a measure of common sense. Wash your face gently and regularly, avoid scrubbing as this will cause swelling and increase breakouts. Use water-based cosmetics and sunblock to keep pores clean. Avoid over exposure to the sun, as sunburn will damage the skin.

Ovarian Cyst Removal – How About a Natural Ovarian Cyst Removal Treatment?

Ovarian cysts are fluid-filled pouches which are similar to blisters. Ovarian cysts are common among women when they are fertile and are growths that form on the two almond sized organs on each side of their reproductive system. Most types of ovarian cysts are not that dangerous and go away without any remedy. Ovarian cysts are products of failed ovulation. A functional ovarian cyst is formed when the follicle does not release its egg, and the follicle continues to grow forming a cyst wherein the egg is still trapped inside. An ovarian cyst can also exist even if the follicle releases the egg, the hole where the egg is released closes up, the corpus lustrum is not formed, and that's also the reason why the cyst continues to grow. And before anything else, if you have ovarian cysts, it is a good decision on your part that you should try to find an ovarian cyst removal remedy and you can find some of them which can be self-applicable. You do not have to go to the doctor or let him let you go under the knife for it.

The first few lines above tell a major reason for ovarian cyst in women. However, according to many experts, it is now believed that XENOESTROGENS may also contribute to ovarian cysts. So, what are XENOESTROGENS? Based on personal research and experiences, this kind of chemical can be found in plastic bags. According to an item in Newsweek, a 19-year-old girl found out that she had ovarian cysts and the doctors had found some traces of XENOESTROGENS in her system and it led them to a conclusion that it came from plastic bags that were used to wrap food that she brings everyday at school.

It's true that ovarian cysts are harmless and can go away without medical attention but you should be aware that there is such thing as malevolent ovarian cysts. Without a woman will find an ovarian cyst treatment, she will be suffering from dire situations.

So, what are the best remedies? On the Internet, for your convenience, you can find several treatments for ovarian cysts. Women should receive this information about the ovarian cysts that may rupture in an asymptomatic. However, with the few methods available to treat ovarian cysts, it is wise to appreciate that some may be expensive and others may be designed only to temporarily obtain rid of the symptom rather than get to the root cause to get rid of the problem. The treatment must be made on the real cause of the problem with a cyst if a solution is to be implemented that will work over the long term.

A holistic program or Natural Treatment is therefore the right choice if you are looking for a real solution to a ruptured ovarian cyst. When you say spiritual, it means that you have to get down to the root cause of the problem and no, sir, taking out the ovarian cysts through surgical procedures or medications can not give permanent positive results. The arrival of these treatments is purely temporary. They only get rid of the "obvious" problem and not the root cause and if this is what you are looking for, then you should do a little research about different natural treatment for ovarian cysts and some of them are fully explained in book guides that are readily available for download or for direct shipping via online shopping. If you have this kind of malady, the best time to look for these natural treatments is now and you have to do it fast before it's too late.

This is why thousands of ladies are now looking for a holistic approach or natural treatment, combining lifestyle changes with scientific treatment to help cure their ovarian cyst. Holistic approach is the best treatment to completely eliminate the threat of having an ovarian cyst.

How to Determine That You Have Brain Cancer

Just under 1% of the human race will be susceptible to being diagnosed with either brain cancer, or another cancer associated to the nervous system sometime during their life-time. Put in layman’s terms, that is 1 in every 161 men and women throughout the world will in some way be affected by the disease.

When trying to determine whether someone has brain cancer or not, it helps to have a basic understanding of what exactly the brain is, and what role the brain plays in the body.

The brain is the control center of the nervous system (the computer), which is made up of soft tissue (60% fat), and where the cerebral (the main part of the brain) has between 15 – 35 million neurons ([nerve cells] a core component of the nervous system) that are each connected to synapses (structures) that permit electrical or chemical signals to be passed to other cells.

The brain controls what someone does or does not do, by using a highly complex message system that passes messages backwards and forwards via a network of nerves. These may be things that someone is conscious of, such as walking and talking, or things that the body does automatically, like breathing and reflexes, etc. So when abnormalities exist within the brain, they tend to show-up in other parts of the body.

Typical brain cancer symptoms may include such things as: visionary problems, weakness, and paralysis (a stroke) due to the loss of brain cells, although symptoms can vary considerably, and may well depend on a patient’s specific problem. When the brain tumor presses on the nerves, a sufferer may well experience problems such as not being able to think straight, such as with Alzheimer’s disease.

Apart from the general tests to check whether someone has brain cancer, such as: blood, urine, diagnostic, lab, and pathology tests, three other major tests are used to conclude whether someone has the disease.

1. CT Scans (Computed Tomography) – a widely used high-resolution three-dimensional imaging scanner that uses X-rays to create cross-sectional images.

2. MIR Scans (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) – used after a contrast (a special dye that makes certain areas of the body show-up clearer) has been introduced into the body. The MRI scan uses powerful magnets and radio waves which are then translated into images by a computer.

3. PET Scans (Positron Emission Tomography) – a specialized imaging technique that uses radioactive substances to produce three-dimensional images.

In most cases, some type of treatment will be offered to brain cancer patients, either to correct the problem, or to try to improve its functionality. Physical therapies, medicines, and surgery are usually the most common treatments offered for sufferers of brain cancer, and other cancers related to the nervous system.

The Effects of a Brain Injury

Trauma is the most common cause of acquired brain injury particularly in young people, of course there are other ways in which the brain can acquire injury, stroke is particularly common from middle age onwards then there are rare conditions of the brain like infections and tumors. The brain is very sensitive to the amount of blood getting through to it, so anything which impedes the flow of blood to the brain or lowers oxygen to the brain, can damage it. Poisons in the blood, such as carbon monoxide from car fumes, can poison the brain. Finally there are treatments people can receive in good faith, which can damage the brain, a surgeon operating on the brain to remove a tumor that inadvertently damage it and radiation therapy, which is often used to treat malignant brain tumors, which can damage the it especially in young people.

There are two broad guidelines to asses the severity of a brain injury. The first is how unconscious the patient is at their very worst, and this is measured with something called the Glasgow Coma Score, this is usually measured out of 15, 15 is fully conscious and three is as deeply unconsistent as you can be and still be alive. The Glasgow Coma Score has three levels in it, one is to do with response to eye movement and eye opening, another is to do with response to speech, and the third is to do with response to movement. These three levels can all be given a number, and that gives you the total figure. Broadly speaking, any head injury in which the Glasgow Coma Score goes to eight or below is classified as a very severe brain injury.

The second things that used to asses the severity if a brain injury is what is called the post traumatic amnesia (PTA), this is the period of time from the accident to when continuous memory returns. The PTA does not shrink, so if a month after a head injury a person has a PTA of an hour, its still going to be an hour a year later. The PTA has a very close connection to time taken to get back to work and it's also one of the factors in the risk of getting late traumatic epilepsy.

The temporal lobes, on either side of the brain, are concerned predominately with memory, but they also have input into mood and emotions. The most devastating effect of serious damage to the temporal lobes is loss of memory, particularly the loss of short-term memory.

The occipital lobes at the back of the brain are where vision is perceived. They're not often damaged in acquitted brain injury, but when they are damaged, there can be very severe impairments of how the brain sees the world.
The cerebellum, at the back part of the head, controls coordination of movement and coordination of the muscles of the larynx (the voice box). If they're damaged the injured person will be clumsy with their arms and their legs and their speech may also be slurred and clumsy, they may also have difficulty with swallowing too.

One of the most obvious problems that can develop from a brain injury is weakness of an arm or a leg or lack of coordination of an arm or a leg. Speech and language functions can be damaged either in terms of getting out words, understanding words or just in the mechanics of producing speech, so speech may become blurred or slurred. The special senses (hearing, vision, smell and taste) are not often damaged with the exception of smell, when smell is lost the finer points of taste are also lost.

When it comes to recovering from a brain injury there is no fixed period of time. The time is longer in children in the first 10 – 15 years of life. Essentially most recovery occurs in the first 18 months. A better way of looking at it is that when someone has reached the plateau and has stayed at that plateau for six months, that's probably how they're going to stay.

Herpes and HIV

In individuals with HIV, particularly those with weak immune systems, the symptoms of herpes can be more widespread, more aggressive and longer lasting. Consequently, individuals with diagnosed HIV will possibly be provided with suppressive therapy to reduce or prevent herpes episodes.

What is HSV or Herpes Simplex virus?

HSV can give rise to sores in or around the mouth oral herpes (cold sore), or sores on the genital area (genital herpes). HSV-1 usually causes oral herpes, and HSV-2 typically causes genital herpes. However, either HSV type can infect either body part. Either type can be passed on to anybody.

How common is HSV?

Around 80% of adults in New Zealand are infected with oral herpes, and 30% are infected with genital herpes. These statistics are based on studies in New Zealand as well as studies from other countries with comparable population groups to the said country. You can acquire genital herpes if you perform a direct sexual activity with somebody who has herpes, or if someone who presents with an active cold sore does oral sex on you. The majority of individuals with HSV do not realize they have herpes as they present with no herpes symptoms, or the symptoms are too mild to spot.

How is herpes transmitted?

The herpes virus goes into the body through direct skin-to-skin contact via minute breaks or abrasions in the skin (typically moist mucous membranes). This transmission occurs when the HSV is being shed from a person infected with herpes. This viral shedding is most widespread when there are blisters present (from the initial signs of tingling or reddening until once the blisters have healed) but can take place when there are no symptoms present.

Herpes and HIV

Herpes infection can make transmission of HIV more likely to occur if sexual exposure takes place. HIV- and HSV diagnosed people are more able to transmit on HIV while HIV-negative people with herpes blisters or sores are more susceptible to contracting HIV.

Four mechanisms constitute this:

1. Herpes boosts HIV viral load. The excessive viral load is associated with increased possibility that HIV is transmitted when serodiscordant sex takes place.

2. In infected persons, HIV is in their herpetic blisters, permitting contact between HIV and a person who’s uninfected. Also, blisters could bleed, permitting contact with blood.

3. In people without HIV, herpetic blisters present with skin breaks through which HIV can go into the bloodstream.

4. To combat the HSV, CD4 receptor cells mass around the broken mucous membranes. HIV connects itself to the CD4 cells. Therefore the increased occurrence of such cells within the herpes blisters of uninfected individuals further increases their risk of transmission of HIV if exposure takes place.

Apple MacBook MNYF2LL/A Review – A Look at the Processing Power, Force Touch Trackpad, & More

If there is one company that can be counted on to create the lightest, thinnest notebooks possible, it’s Apple. Despite of its small size (a mere 2.03 lbs), it also manages to feature a full-size keyboard, 8GB of RAM, and a 12-inch (2304×1440) Retina display. The 802.11 ac Wi-Fi ensures fast internet access with the Apple MacBook MNYF2LL/A.

For storage, a PCIe based SSD drive is included. Not only does it have a 256GB capacity, it delivers better performance than a standard SATA drive.

Even though the Intel Graphics 615 lacks dedicated memory and has to access the main memory, it is still around 20-30% than the previous generation of Intel Graphics. You should be able to pull off some lower-demanding games. Speaking of memory, the 8GB DDR3 SDRAM comes standard.

The display is super-thin (.03-inches), and the edge-to-edge glass that covers it was developed through an automated manufacturing process. Apple reduced the space between the display components for a more seamless, tighter design. LED-backlighting is 30% more energy efficient than the Retina display on earlier models.

The Apple MacBook MNYF2LL/A is powered by a 1.2GHz 64-bit Intel Mobile M3 processor. Two independent cores, each of which has a dedicated 256k cache (level 2), are placed on a single silicon chip. The two cores share 4MB of cache (level 3). To give the machine an extra boost, the system supports Turbo Boost 2.0 technology, which utilizes hyper-threading so that the system recognizes two virtual cores in addition to the two “real” ones. As a result, the 1.2GHz is increased up to 3.0 GHz.

Battery of the Apple MacBook MNYF2LL/A

Expect up to ten hours of “wireless web surfing” or even twelve hours of “iTunes playback” with the 41.4-W lithium-poly battery. The Apple notebook even has a standby time of up to 30 days with the battery charge. A USB-C power adapter (29W) is included.

While it may look like any ole’ trackpad on the surface, the Force Touch trackpad has force sensors underneath that detect the amount of pressure you are applying when you are performing a gesture. A click sensation is provided whenever you press down anywhere on the surface.

How does it work?

The trackpad’s sensory capabilities then allow you to tell the computer what you want to do based on the subtle differences in how much pressure you apply, thus making it possible to perform different actions in different applications all using the same surface. In other words, you’re personalizing your own clicking experience in a way that is most comfortable and convenient for you.

The Apple MacBook MNYF2LL/A makes a great, ultra-portable notebook for any type of user, from professionals to students.

Are you tired of your current laptop or desktop and want to replace it with a MacBook? Take a look at Apple discounts and sales to see what all is available. You might be able to get your hands on Apple MacBook MNYF2LL/A coupons or promo codes.