Why Chronic Inflammation Is Common Now: Physiology of Hypoxia, Blood Gases and Ineffective Breathing

Inflammation, as a normal physiological response

Inflammation is part of the complex biological reaction of the human organism involving the immune system, blood vessels, and effects related to changes in hormones and many other body chemicals as a response to pathogens (infections), damaged cells (e.g., due to mechanical, radiation or chemical damage), or irritants (as in case of gastritis). Apart from allergic inflammation, it is a normal and necessary immediate reaction to heal the tissues. Among the common signs of inflammation are pain, redness, swelling, heat, and reduced or lost function of the organ or tissue.

Chronic inflammation

When inflammation persists for many weeks, months or years (chronic inflammation), the reaction becomes counterproductive since it destroys host’s cells. There are many chronic health problems which are based on inflammation. They include such common conditions, as acne vulgaris, Alzheimer’s, arthritis, asthma, atherosclerosis, autoimmune diseases, chronic prostatitis, COPD, Crohn’s disease, colitis, dermatitis, diverticulitis, glomerulonephritis, hepatitis, hypersensitivities, iirritable bowel syndrome (IBS), inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), lupus erythematous, nephritis, osteoarthritis, Parkinson’s, pelvic inflammatory disease, sarcoidosis, and transplant rejection. Many other health problems have their etiological origins in inflammatory processes, such as cancer, atherosclerosis, and ischaemic heart disease.

Recent medical findings

Recent medical research has suggested that there is a strong link between cell hypoxia (oxygen tension in cells) and chronic inflammatory processes. Tissue hypoxia is manifested in increased levels of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (this factor and cell hypoxia are also key factors in the progress of cancer). Elevated hypoxia-inducible factor 1 triggers a cascade of events with involvement of pro-inflammatory transcription factors such as nuclear factor kappa B (or NF-kappaB) and activator protein AP-1.

While these and many other biomedical ideas are easy to understand only for professionals, there are simple practical conclusions, which are reviewed next.

Breathing in modern man

What is the cause of cell hypoxia causing chronic inflammation? Oxygen is provided to body cells due to breathing. Hence, let us consider normal oxygen transport and oxygen transport in modern people.

During normal breathing at rest (6 L/min; 10-12 breaths/min; 40 mm Hg CO2 pressure in the arterial blood), oxygen saturation of the arterial blood is about 98-99%. Blood vessels are dilated (CO2 Vasodilation Effect), so that the arterial blood can easily access all vital organs, and red blood cells can easily unload oxygen in tissues (the Bohr effect), since CO2 concentrations in tissues and the whole body are high.

Over 20 medical studies have recently measured breathing parameters in modern people. It was discovered that the average breathing rate (minute ventilation) in modern people is about 12 L/min (about twice the norm). Breathing in the sick is even worse, averaging at about 15 L/min for mild forms of chronic diseases. Hence, we live in the world of heavy breathers (who are also chest breathers and mouth breathers) who should suffer from chronic inflammation.

Overbreathing (or chronic hyperventilation) reduces CO2 content in the alveoli of the lungs and, if there are no problems with lungs (ventilation-perfusion mismatch), the arterial blood and all body cells also suffer from hypocapnia (CO2 deficiency). How does it relate to oxygen transport? It is simple. Hyperventilation cannot improve oxygenation of the arterial blood (see 98-99% above), but it reduces CO2 values. Hypocapnia instantaneously leads to constriction of all arteries and arterioles and suppressed Bohr effect. Both effects reduces oxygen delivery to tissues causing cell hypoxia.

This mechanism easily explains why we can faint in 2-3 minutes due to voluntary heavy breathing: constriction of the carotid artery leading to the brain reduces blood supply for the nerve cells. Since blood brings oxygen and glucose, reduced brain perfusion makes up to pass out.

Tens of physiological studies have found that modern people have reduced breath holding ability, since breath holding tests (note that most of them are not safe, except the Control Pause: stress-free breath holding after usual exhalation) reflect body oxygen content.

Therefore, it is logical that chronic inflammatory conditions are very popular these days due to the prevalent ineffective breathing pattern present in modern-day population.

Reversal of chronic hyperventilation is a very serious process since it requires commitment, self-discipline and persistence: you have to change the way you breathe day and night. There are various breathing techniques and exercises that address chronic overbreathing and, hence, naturally reduce inflammation and its symptoms. They are the Buteyko breathing method, traditional (not modern) hatha yoga, Frolov breathing device, Amazing DIY breathing device, and some others.

Hooked on Coffee

I suppose I can safely say that my wife and I are hooked on coffee. We have owned three coffee shops during our life time and tasted just about every blend created from around the world. I remember arriving for work at the break of dawn and kick starting the workday with ten double espresso. Those drinks definitely got me going for the tasks which lay before me although many people may argue that adding six sugar cubes per cup may have been a bit much. During the slow periods of the day I would often sit and envision why I had such an enticement to drink coffee.

In all reality many coffee drinkers earnestly acknowledge the philosophy of limiting their intake of coffee and caffeine. They deem this as in the interests of good health and well being. One year the scientific community will declare that coffee and in particular caffeine is not good for our health while the following year they conclude it is beneficial for our overall well being. The following year the opinion will swing back to the side of being harmful. This see-saw of opinions goes on each year as it eventually reverts back and forth. Granted, it is totally viable that one can overdo the amount of caffeine intake which takes place since the experts usually agree is in excess of approximately 400 mg daily. I am without doubt, certain that my intake of coffee typically surpasses that number quite easily. The customary complaints experienced when exceeding the recommended dosage boarders upon frequent bouts of insomnia, uncontrolled restlessness and an increased heartbeat.

Eventually, I devised a hand-full of explanations as to why I justified drinking this magic brew. First thing that came to my mind was that caffeine represents one of the world’s foremost psychoactive drugs in existence. Ponder that thought for a moment and you will agree that coffee is apt to wake you up quickly, helps us to accomplish our tasks at hand in a timely manner and offers us a speedy energy boost when necessary.

Coffee to me is not a bad thing and offers the drinker some impressive health benefits as well. Research conducted suggests that coffee drinking eradicate certain illnesses and health issues. Effective liver health is significant to all and is a major benefit discovered in coffee drinkers. A recent series of nine distinctive studies exposed that those people who drink more coffee are afforded the benefit of lowered risks associated with cirrhosis. The mere act of drinking only one cup daily reduces the cirrhosis risk by as much as 22%. You may recall that cirrhosis is a liver disease which is traditionally the result of years of heavy alcohol consumption. Add a second cup of coffee daily and that risk is further reduced to 43%. As if that were not encouraging enough to drink coffee, if you add a third cup of coffee each day you reduce your risk by as much as 57%, while those four cup a day drinkers will lower their risk by 65%. What more could a person ask for?

Now we can discuss the issue of heart attacks. Two hundred separate investigations have revealed that those people who consume three to four cups of coffee daily were 19% less likely to experience cardiovascular diseases. That sounds simply amazing, doesn’t it?

Type 2 diabetes is on the rise in America these days. One study has concluded that for every extra cup of coffee that a person drinks daily there is a 7% chance of reducing or preventing the development of Type 2 diabetes. That sure beats the bothersome insulin treatment.

Cancer is everyone’s concern and there is a light seen at the end of the tunnel. Heavy coffee drinkers who consume at least three cups of coffee daily have an 18% reduced their chance of contacting cancer. Studies have shown that for at least one cup per day, one can reduce the risk of liver cancer by 15% and achieve an 8% reduction for risks associated with endometrial cancer. In some medical circles, coffee drinkers are credited with abridging oral/pharyngeal cancer as well as aiding in the fight to eliminate advanced prostate cancer.

The dreaded Alzheimer’s disease and dementia are also combated by drinking coffee. Revisions concerning coffee intake and its effect upon the brain’s health display a 16% reduction for regular coffee drinkers at risk for Alzheimer’s, dementia, or cognitive decline. Various studies naturally have different figures for the reduction of Alzheimer’s as some research even increases these percentages to a higher level.

In view of all that has been said in favor of drinking coffee, I see no reason not to continue with my daily enjoyment of my favorite brew. So with all these benefits at my disposal, I think I will continue to be a dedicated coffee aficionado until the day that I

Qualities of a Maths Tutor

Maths is unlike any other subject and perhaps the most dreaded subject around the world. While most subjects are loved and hated due to the students own preference or liking, the love or hate of maths predominantly stem from the maths tutor who is coaching the students no matter of it is a maths tutor for A level, nursery level or any other grade level. This is because the love or hate for maths would on how well a student have understood both its concept and application. Thus, with the role of a maths tutor this crucial, it is absolutely important the maths tutor possess some defining skills and qualities that are applicable at all levels. Few of those qualities include –

Expert on the subject

Maths is not a subject that you come prepared in class, give a lecture on it and walk away. As a teacher, it needs to be explained in such a manner that each and every student is able to grasp the concept well and can easily apply it. This fluidity can only come if there is an extensive knowledge of the subject. Taking multiple courses in algebra, geometry, calculus, statistics, etc. will give the maths tutor the arsenal to explain everything with confidence without the need to consult the answer key while solving any problem. This is essential to boost both the credibility of the teacher and develop the trust of the students in the teacher.

Passionate about teaching

No matter what subject you are teaching, you cannot be a good teacher if you are not passionate about teaching. It just cannot be treated like a nine to five job or a chore which is necessary to receive your paycheck. It is the teacher’s passion and love for the subject that would unconsciously be transmitted to the students and kindle their love and passion for the subject. If the teacher lacks the passion, no way the students are going to feel any love towards the same subject.

Adaptive and innovative teaching style

Maths is a subject that is more about understanding concepts and its various applications rather than rote learning. Thus, it is very important that each and every student must understand the concept well. To achieve this, the maths tutor must constantly be changing his style of explaining as various students have various styles and ways of understanding. Within a couple of classes, a teacher must grasp the style, pattern, and capacity of the class as well as student and must adapt himself accordingly.

Interactive approach and communication

Maths is perhaps one of the most dynamic subjects. His way of communication is crucial in the entire interaction between the student and teacher. He should motivate and encourage the student’s participation and push them to raise queries and questions to clear all kinds if said and unsaid doubts. This interaction without making the ridicule of any will give confidence to even the weakest student to flag his doubts, and the team approach of the class in solving any problem will clarify things to the slowest learner of the class as well. This healthy atmosphere would also egg students to practice maths more and more which would not only make the subject more interesting but would also make the students more adept at it.


It is almost inevitable that a skilled maths tutor is looked upon as a leader both in the classroom as well as in the school. This largely comes from the tutor’s overall attitude and actions apart from his immense knowledge. This respect that is given to the tutor needs to be given back by the teacher. Students should feel both her love and respect while simultaneously accepting her authority. Each student must understand it clearly, that the tutor is the leader of the class whose rules need to be abided by unquestioningly. Any misbehave must be dealt in a disciplined and according manner.

Bus Rentals Provide A Perfect Transportation Solution

Transporting a large number of people to and from a particular location is not always the most simplistic of propositions. Certainly, carpools can provide a solution, but this can require logistical planning and a lot of hands-on coordination. Even with the best-laid plans, things can go wrong and enough room to get people where they need to go might not be available. Bus rentals can provide a perfect solution to the problem.

When more people than car space need to get somewhere, bus rentals in Los Angeles, Las Vegas and beyond make a great deal of sense for a number of reasons. Some of the largest advantages of using professional bus rentals include:

· Ease. Rather than having to coordinate 10 cars and drivers, bus rentals in California, Nevada and beyond only require booking and a follow up call to confirm. When bus rentals are considered, drivers do not cancel out at the last minute like carpool drivers can. There is a great deal of comfort that comes with knowing transport is guaranteed.

· Comfort. Bus rentals generally provide riders with a great deal more comfort than small car transport can. When charter bus rentals are used, there is enough legroom for almost anyone. In many cases, passengers are also a little freer to get up and move around if leg stretching is needed.

· Professional drivers. Transporting a large number of people to and from a destination can get a little hairy when several different drivers are brought in to help. It is very hard, for example, to check the driving records of several volunteers. Bus rentals offer professional drivers who have been screened for the job. This adds a little extra peace of mind to the prospect.

· Economical. Depending on the bus rentals used, customers in Los Angeles, Los Vegas and elsewhere often find it more economic to use a service than gas up a number of different vehicles for trek.

· Fewer stops. While it's true not all bus rentals come with onboard lavatories, many do. This means the driver generally has to make fewer stops en route to the destination. The end result is a more efficient trip.

· Insurance. Most companies that offer bus rentals make sure there is a reasonable amount of coverage on passengers. This takes the onus off carpool drivers and lends more security to a trip.

· More fun. When bus rentals are used, everyone on the trip can enjoy the ride and the scenery. This is a great way to ensure that everyone can kick back, relax and just take in the adventure of the trip.

Bus rentals in Los Angeles, Las Vegas and others can provide the perfect solution for groups that need to get from Point A to Point B easily and efficiently. By taking the trouble of organizing drivers out of the equation, these services can help ensure a trip that goes off without a hitch. They can also add comfort to the prospect and give organizers more peace of mind.

Suggestions for Health Sector Reform in Trinidad and Tobago

Health reform refers to the changes in health administration, health planning and, health research that places significant emphasis on local health challenges aimed at improving health administration, health planning and healthcare. They will combine to produce an efficient model of healthcare delivery capable of increasing patient physical, medical and psychological safety. Health reform should be driven by empirical data, best practice and evidence based practice. A variety of health statistics; such as mortality, manpower needs, technology functioning and patient satisfaction; should be analyzed and employed in strengthening health systems.

In Trinidad and Tobago the current system of healthcare is highly centralized. The Ministry of Health maintains operational oversight of five regional health authorities. These are the North West Regional, North Central Regional, Eastern Regional, South West Regional and Tobago Regional. South West, North West and North Central are the largest regions; each catering for the healthcare needs of more than three hundred thousand people.

A significant reform should be the specialization of the Ministry of Health in fewer functions aimed to improve healthcare efficiency. For example, it can concentrate on data compilation and analysis. It should be staffed with expert health researchers tasked with analyzing changes in epidemiology, and trends in morbidity and mortality. Furthermore, the Ministry of Health should have the power to instruct regional authorities to make systemic and resource changes based on the statistics collected and analyzed. Regional bodies should be mandated to provide health based statistics to the Ministry of Health quarterly. The Ministry of Health must maintain general oversight of regional authorities. It should produce annual reports based on self- monitoring and evaluation of the systems, performances and challenges in each region. Financial statements and audits should be submitted annually to the Ministry of Health and factors accounting for variance should be justified. Recommendations should be made for improvements and incidences of white-collar crime prosecuted.

One major reform that should be implemented is granting absolute autonomy to regional health authorities for the delivery of healthcare. They should be able to generate their own funds by charging fees for their services. This would eliminate dependency on the state or Ministry of Finance for funding. Each regional health authority should be able to invest in the stock market or undertake other income generating measures it deems feasible. Its funds should be spent in accordance with the health needs of the population it serves. Regional authorities should be responsible for primary, secondary and tertiary healthcare. In addition, they should be given oversight of private hospitals and health facilities in their geographic regions. Private facilities should be subject to price controls to avoid exorbitant charges and should be required to pay at least ten percent of their annual profit to the regional authority.

In addition, regional authorities should have the power to ensure that all health institutions and providers adhere to national accreditation standards. The Ministry of Health should be charged with responsibility for developing national accreditation standards in all aspects of the operations of health institutions. These should include hospitals, pharmacies, private practice. Also conventional and alternative medicines should be subject to accreditation standards. Everything and every health based institution should be subject to accreditation standards comparable with those of more developed countries such as Canada and the United States.

It is palpable that the boundaries of each regional authority be redefined so that they are of almost equal population size. At this time South West Regional is responsible for slightly over one half million people. Therefore given its limited resources, it cannot be expected to perform with greatest efficiency. Given the fact that the better health facilities are situated in urban centers, this would be a challenge that must be overcome judiciously. To accommodate this reform, regional authorities should induce joint public and private partnerships in the provision of healthcare centers in rural and other districts less accessible to major hospitals and health centers.

To make the health system efficient, a centralized electronic health record system should be developed and implemented. This would ensure that patients could access care in any region. Thus it would make it easy to access health records from any healthcare facility owned and administered within any regional authority. It is expected that the Ministry of Health should take a leading role in this enterprise. Records of patients in private hospitals should be accessible to regional authorities given that they may be moved to a public hospital if the care they require cannot be attained there. Sometimes for financial reasons such as exorbitant cost, patients may be moved to a public hospital.

Employment policies should enable the free movement of skills and expertise across regions. In some instances, highly specialized surgeons and caregivers should be made available to patients in other regions on a needs basis. In other words, one region can pay another for the services of its skilled human or physical resources demanded.

Regional bodies can collaborate in health planning. They can develop their strategic, business and budget plans cooperatively. Afterwards they can tweak their plans to fit their population needs. The main advantages of centralized planning will be greater transparency, accountability and inter-operational functionality. Inter-planning can reduce competition between regions and ensure that scare resources are used efficiently. In effect, the Ministry of Health can compare operational effectiveness and best practice across all regions and provide opportunities to strength operational or institutional efficiency.

The health system should be reformed so that it is able to provide high quality care for patients. Patients should be well-educated to take advantage of a competent, highly organized and skillfully administered healthcare system. Finally reform must involve all stakeholders; government, private practitioners and citizenry. A convergent bottom up and top down model should be adopted so that there is universal buy-in to health reform capable of contributing to economic and social development of the country’s human capital.

What is the Evil Eye?

The Evil Eye has been around since the beginning of time. It simply means sending someone a thought that seems intrusive or invasive or has the power to hurt him or her. The bad fortune that results is considered to have been caused by envy. The evil eye is not necessarily considered to be intentional or associated with witchcraft or sorcery. Oddly enough, this thought form could actually be complimentary in nature. The origins of the Evil Eye are Middle-Eastern and Mediterranean. The concept was introduced into the Americas, South Pacific Islands, Asia, Africa and Australia by European explorers.

Sending someone the evil eye comes from the concept that we all have a Third Eye, located in the center of our forehead. Blinding, fogging or obscuring the third eye is often the intent of the energy’s sender. Most of us have experienced the weird power of the phenomenon. All it takes is a gaze that seems to be unfriendly, indifferent or blank and seems to a couple of seconds too long. We think about it for a few minutes afterwards or perhaps an image of the person staring at us preoccupies our thoughts occasionally for the rest of the day. Perhaps that is why the British and Scottish term for the “evil eye” is “overlooking.” It implies that a gaze has remained too long upon the coveted object, person or animal.

The evil eye is also known as the envious or invidious eye. In Italian it is called the malocchio and in Spanish the malojo (loosely translated as the bad eye) The evil eye is known as ayin horeh in Hebrew; ayin harsha in Arabic, droch shuil in Scotland, mauvais oeil in France, bösen Blick in Germany, and was known as oculus malus among the classical Romans.

The original belief is that any person can harm your children, livestock, fruit trees or any other evidence of prosperity just by looking at the spoils of all your good will and hard work with envy. Ironically, the curse of the evil eye is thought to be provoked by inappropriate displays of spiritual pride or excessive beauty. There is a theory that very famous people and celebrities suffer more personal misfortune than others simply because they are subjected to more “overlooking” and envy than others.

This superstition might have some grounding in evolutionary psychology as usually one animal is thought to dominate or be aggressive to another simply by staring at it for too long. Psychologically speaking, staring or glaring at someone is officially considered an intrusion into your affairs. Apparently, there is a fine line between casting a glance to casting a spell. In these post Celestine Prophecy times, this kind of stare could be compared to a kind of etheric laser beam or amoebic arm that rips open your aura. Others would describe the infliction of the evil eye as the projection of an image (such as the image of the person you have offended or hurt) so that you see only that to the exclusion of all other sight. In other words, you see that person wherever you go or feel that your life’s events are always colored by your dealing with that person. Another symptom is the inability to proceed with ordinary, daily events without feeling somehow compelled to make things right with the person you have often unknowingly offended with your grandiosity.

It is common folklore that the evil eye has a dehydrating effect on its victim. It is thought to cause vomiting, diarrhea, the drying up of the milk of nursing mothers and livestock, problems with the blood, eyesight lack of rain, the drying up of wells, the withering of fruit and impotence in men. Clumsiness, stomachaches, dry coughs, diarrhea, itching, hair loss, dry skin are all thought to be physical symptoms of an evil eye attack e. On the astral level it is thought to cause the drying up of prana, chi, life force and the easy flow of prosperity in life. Part of this image might derive from the idea also, of muddy, murky or poisoned vision that is somehow attached to the victim’s third eye.

Almost everywhere that the evil eye belief exists, it is said to be caused accidentally by envy or praise. Thus the phrase “Pride Goeth Before a Fall” In certain Mediterranean and eastern cultures, one is careful not to praise a child too much, lest it invite the subconscious balancing effect of the evil eye. A classic situation would be the barren woman who praises the newborn baby of a new child. Such praise would be considered inappropriate and thought to bring the evil child. One of the remedies for this would be for the mother to spit, to symbolically “rehydrate” the situation. Also, she may speak ill of the child OT counteract the effects of the praise, which might have malefic effects on the child later.

The belief that individuals have the power to cast the evil eye on purpose is more idiosyncratic to Sicily and Southern Italy, although the belief has certainly spread elsewhere – to the Southern United States and the Latin Americas. Such people are known as jettatore (projectors). They are not necessarily considered evil or envious, just born with an unfortunate embarrassing talent that causes others to avoid them. In ancient cultures, if you were thought to be the possessor of an evil eye, you were often negated by the rest of society and went unrecognized on the street without meeting anyone’s eyes.

Perhaps one of the most familiar preventative measures against the evil eye is the hand gesture. The Mano Cornufo or “Horned Hand” involves extending the first and index fingers from a fist. The Mano Fico or “Fig hand” involves placing the thumb in between first and second fingers.

Historically there have been many cures for the evil eye:

In Italy, the evil eye is diagnosed by dripping olive oil into a vessel filled with water. If the oil conglomerates into the shape of an eye than the victim is considered officially cursed. Prayers are recited until the droplets of oil no longer create an eye shape.

In Eastern Europe charcoal, coal or burnt match heads are dropped into a pan of water/. If the items float then the person is considered to be the victim of a curse.

In the Ukraine, a form of ceromancy or candle reading is used to diagnose the curse. Melted wax is dripped from a candle into a pan of water. If the wax spits, splatters, or sticks to the side of the bowl then the “patient” is considered to be under the influence of the malefic eye. Usually the patient is cleansed with Holy Water. He or she is pronounced cured when the dripped wax sinks the bottom of the bowl in a round ball.

In Greece Mexico and other places, the official cure is to invite the culprit responsible for the evil eye to spit in a vessel of the holy water that is consumed by the victim.

In Mexico, rolling a raw egg over the body of the victim is the antidote. Afterwards, it is cracked open and if the metaphysician or healer divines the shape of an eye in the yolks then the person is considered to be cursed. Several eggs may be repeatedly rolled over the person’s body until an egg without an eye if found. Sometimes the egg is placed underneath the person’s bed overnight and cracked open in the morning.

In China the remedy for the evil eye is the Pa Kua mirror, a six-sided mirror that is hung on the front door or placed in the front window to reverse bad energy back to the sender. Some of these mirrors are convex to reflect back the bad “poison darts” or “arrows” of multiple ill wishers and some are concave to reflect energy in a definite direction back at, for instance, a nosy neighbor, whose gaze may have lingered on your garden of tulips for too long. In Feng Shui, mirrors are often used as a cure all to reflect negative energy back at all kinds of things – people, bad architecture, traffic, neighbors, physical obstructions such as trees or rocks or anything else that might considered to be a conductor of Har Shui (negative vibrations).

In India the mirroring back of the evil eye takes the form of small mirrors that are sewn, braided or crocheted into clothing. This mirroring back of bad energy is also familiar to practitioners of Wicca and Lukumi or Santeria. In India, the human eye is also considered to be a mirror of the soul. Indian women wear kohl or heavy black makeup to emphasize their eyes not only to shield themselves from evil eye but also to prevent themselves from accidentally inflicting it on others. In India cords strung with blue beads are placed on newborn babies. When the cord breaks and the beads are lost the child is considered to have a strong enough aura to protect him or herself from the evil eye. Red cords worn upon the wrist or neck are thought to have a powerful effect against ocular malevolence. A silver charm called Eye of Buddha which references the Gautama Buddha is also worn against astral attack.

In Italy, gold, silver or gems carved or cast into the shape of the Mano Fica or Mano Cornufa are used to repel the evil. The most coveted ones are made of red coral, but many versions exist today made of gemstones and plastic. They are worn by men to protect against the withering of the genitals thought to be caused by the bad eye. Also Italian in origin is the Corno or horn or devil’s horn amulet that is thought to protect against the same dysfunction. The women’s version is made from a twig of red coral.

In Arab cultures, superstitious types wear an eye in the form of a stone cast in the center of a hand shaped bone or metal charm A common Egyptian charm is the Buckle of Isis which represents the menstrual pad of the Goddess Isis who was the Mother of all living things. Stuffing a little prayer or spell inside a locket that is hung around the neck is the common European custom for protecting oneself against deadly gazes.

A light worker such as myself might advise you to protect yourself in the following contemporary ways:

Always maintain the belief that nobody has the power to hurt you with a look. This in itself is a very powerful thought form.

Before you go out, imagine that your third eye is actually covered by something that looks like a small pocket mirror. If you are a psychic or a healer then simply close your third eye and don’t open it unless you want to look.

If you are feeling haunted or upset as the result of a “look”, press your thumb hard into the center of your forehead and imagine your third eye quickly flipping. Flick the energy away with your thumb and snap your fingers.

Always remember that what you resist often persists. The phrase “Oh, so what!” is one of the most powerful chemicals in the universe that you can use to dissolve negative energy.

Type 2 Diabetes – Lowering Your Risk of Developing Diabetes Complications

Type 2 diabetes can cause many complications over time if it's not managed well. Heart disease, kidney disease, and nerve and foot problems are all risks. But there are steps you can take to prevent many of these complications. Read more and find out what you can do to lower your risk for three of the most common diabetes complications.

One of the most common complications of Type 2 diabetes is cardiovascular disease, including strokes and heart attacks. In fact, cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in people diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes. If diabetes is not controlled well, having too much sugar in the blood can cause damage to the blood vessels over time and this damage can lead to cardiovascular disease. Beside high blood sugar, other risk factors for cardiovascular disease are …

  • high blood pressure, and
  • high cholesterol.

1. To lower your risk of cardiovascular disease, it's important to decrease each of these risk factors. Keep your blood sugar levels steady by …

  • exercising,
  • following a healthy meal plan, and
  • taking medications or insulin injections as prescribed by your doctor.

Along with exercising and eating a healthy diet, smoking will also help decrease your risk of high blood pressure and high cholesterol.

2. Kidney disease is another common complication of Type 2 diabetes. Over time, having high blood sugar levels can damage the small blood vessels in your kidneys. This can result in the kidneys becoming less efficient – or even kidney failure. Kidney failure is much more common in people with Type 2 diabetes than in non-diabetics. The best way to prevent kidney disease is to keep your blood sugar under control, and also avoid high blood pressure. A healthy diet, plenty of exercise and avoiding smoking are still key!

3. Type 2 diabetes can also lead to nerve damage . Nerve damage is most common in the lower extremities, especially the feet. Nerve damage occurs when blood sugar and blood pressure are too high over time. It's dangerous because when the nerves are damaged, you may no longer be able to feel injuries to your feet – like sores or calluses. When injuries go untreated, they can become infected, and the infections can spread to the rest of the body. If this happens, the foot may need to be amputated to prevent the infection from spreading any further. Type 2 diabetics are 25 more likely than non-diabetics to need an amputation. Keeping your blood sugar and blood pressure at healthy levels is the best way to prevent nerve damage. You can also prevent foot complications by checking your feet every day and looking for skin changes or injuries.

Iguana Owner’s Guide to Blister Disease

Blister disease is a common problem for captive iguanas. It is also known by a few other names such as scale rot, vesicular dermatitis, and necrotizing dermatitis. This condition is usually caused by poor care.

Iguanas that are forced to live in unsanitary conditions are highly susceptible to blister disease. This is commonly a problem when the owner fails to clean up rotting food, feces, and urine in the enclosure. The iguana will be forced to lie in this dirty environment.

After living in these dirty conditions for a prolonged period, blisters will usually start to develop. These watery blisters can become infected wounds once they burst. This transfers bacteria inside the body which can infect the blood and internal organs. The area around the blisters may also start to rot away. This will make your iguana much more susceptible to secondary bacterial and fungal infections. It is very important that you seek veterinary advice as soon as you notice signs of blister disease. Immature iguanas can die very quickly from this condition. Iguanas suffering from other conditions or stress will likely have a weakened immune system which can make the condition rapidly fatal also.

The first order of treatment involves removal all rotting tissue and skin. This will be followed by aggressive antibiotic treatment. If you catch the disease in its earliest stages, you can soak your iguana in a Betadine solution once or twice each day. It’s also vital that you clean and disinfect the enclosure before you put your iguana back in it. It’s important that you clean your iguana’s habitat on a regular basis. You shouldn’t allow feces and urine to sit around. You should also remove any uneaten food on a daily basis.

Orthodontic Education – Functional Treatment Is The Missing Link In Dentistry

Most dentists agree that the curriculum in the majority of dental schools does not adequately cover the subjects of orthopedics and orthodontics. I believe that the knowledge and understanding of orthopedics (functional orthodontics) is the missing link in the education of general dentists.


Ideally, children with developing malocclusions should be treated with functional appliances in order to guide their growth and to prevent more serious problems later on. Functional orthodontics has, as its foundation, balanced function of all components of the stomatognathic system. Properly developed arches, patent airways, the mandible properly related to the maxilla, and correct vertical dimension all contribute to balanced function of the head, neck and facial muscles. Children treated with the functional philosophy can be done non-surgically and without the extraction of permanent teeth in most cases.


Since the roof of the mouth is the floor of the nose, a properly developed maxillary arch encourages nasal breathing and can assist with improving such symptoms as nasal allergies, asthma, and sinus problems. One of the most common causes of constriction of the maxillary arch is an airway obstruction, which causes mouth breathing. Another cause of constriction would be enlarged tonsils, which prevent the tongue from posturing on the roof of the mouth upon swallowing. It is the ability of the tongue to position itself on the palate that allows for proper lateral development of the alveolar processes, which helps to develop the maxillary arch to its normal size.


This narrowing of the maxillary arch, in turn, causes the mandible to be held in a retruded position. This retrusion of the mandible is implicated in jaw joint disorders as well as snoring and sleep apnea. The nerves and blood vessels are located at the back of the socket of the TMJ (jaw joint); therefore, a posterior position of the mandible and condyle can cause head, neck and facial pain as well as a host of other symptoms including dizziness, ringing in the ears, numbness in arms and hands, stuffiness in ears, back and shoulder pain, and difficulty swallowing..

A retruded mandible can cause the tongue to fall back and encroach upon the airway. Snoring and obstructive sleep apnea and the whole spectrum of breathing disorders can also be caused by a mandible that is positioned too far posteriorly (Class II skeletal cases).


Patients with deep overbites often are overclosed vertically (lack of adequate posterior vertical dimension) and this causes the condyle to be posteriorly displaced, resulting in TM dysfunction. The mandible is trapped in a retruded position, which leads to chronic clenching and bruxing at night as the body attempts to reduce the muscle spasms that occur due to the shortening of those muscles. Bruxing is also caused by the patient moving the lower jaw and tongue forward in an effort to open up the airway.

Orthodontic education should be aimed at understanding and correcting the following:

· Constricted maxillary arch · Posterior crossbite · Constricted mandibular arch · Anterior crossbite · Thumb sucking habit · Mouth breathing · Airway problems · Retrognathic mandible · Deep overbite · Bruxism


We need to utilize functional jaw orthopedic appliances at ages 4 – 12 years to correct the problem before the eruption of all the permanent teeth.

Learning to correct all of these problems at an early age can prevent TMJ problems, snoring and obstructive sleep apnea in adulthood. Orthodontics (age 12 – 14) involving fixed braces then becomes a finishing technique to improve esthetics by straightening the teeth.

If you want to give your patient more than straight teeth, I recommend treating children earlier with functional appliances. Our objective should be to improve the overall health of the patients. To create a broad smile, we must develop the maxillary arch with functional appliances and avoid the extraction of permanent teeth. To create a straight profile In Class II skeletal cases with retruded mandibles, we must utilize a functional appliance to reposition the mandible to its correct forward position. One of the keys to achieving overall health for the patient is to have the mandible properly related to the maxilla in order to prevent TM dysfunction and snoring and sleep apnea. The use of functional appliances in children can consistently accomplish these goals.

Reiter’s Syndrome – Ayurvedic Herbal Treatment

Reiter’s syndrome, also known as seronegative spondyloarthropathy or reactive arthritis, is a combination of symptoms involving the joints, eyes and the urinary tract. This condition is believed to be caused by a bacterial infection and is commonly associated with a genetic factor known as HLA-B27. This condition most often affects young men between the age of 20 and 40. Common symptoms include frequency of urination; burning urine; fever; chills; swelling and pain in joints and tendon insertions; conjunctivitis and uveitis; and rarely, ulcers on the penis, feet and hands, mouth ulcers, and heart disease.

The Ayurvedic treatment of Reiter’s syndrome is aimed at treating the basic infection, controlling the symptoms, and improving the immune status of the body. Medicines like Sukshma-Triphala, Triphala-Guggulu and Panch-Tikta-Ghrut-Guggulu can be used to treat the basic infection. Symptoms related to the genito-urinary tract can be treated using medicines like Chandraprabha-Vati, Gokshuradi-Guggulu, Punarnavadi-Qadha, Gomutra-Haritaki, Ashokarishta and Chandrakala-Ras. Herbal medicines which can be used for genito-urinary problems include Punarnava (Boerhaavia diffusa), Shilajit (Purified bitumen), Haridra (Curcuma longa), Daruharidra (Berberis aristata), Saariva (Hemidesmus indicus), Gokshur (Tribulus terrestris), Varun (Crataeva nurvala), Manjishtha (Rubia cordifolia), Rasna (Pluchea lanceolata), Ashoka (Saraca indica), Udumbar (Ficus glomerata) and Shalmali (Bombax malabaricum).

Joint pain and swelling can be treated using medicines like Punarnavadi-Guggulu, Maha-Rasnadi-Guggulu, Yograj-Guggulu, Vat-Gajankush-Ras, Maha-Vat-Vidhwans-Ras, Trayodashang-Guggulu, Dashmoolarishta, Vish-Tinduk-Vati, Nirgundi (Vitex negundo), Sarpagandha (Rauwolfia serpentina), Tagar (Valeriana wallichii) and Khurasani ova (Hyoscyamus niger). Conjunctivitis and uveitis can be treated using Tapyadi-Loh, Saptamrut-Loh, Punarnavadi-Guggulu, Triphala-Ghrut and eye drops containing Haridra, Daruharidra, Chandan (Santalum album), Karpur (Purified camphor), rose water and honey. Nodules on the hands, feet and penis can be treated using medicines like Triphala-Guggulu, Arogya-Vardhini and Gandhak-Rasayan. Mouth ulcers can be treated using Kamdudha-Ras, Shankh-Bhasma and Jeerak (Cuminum cyminum).

Most people affected with Reiter’s syndrome recover within a few months, though symptoms of arthritis may last longer. Ayurvedic medicines help to improve the therapeutic response, speed up the recovery process and prevent recurrence of symptoms.

Herbal Remedy For Anxiety

Herbal remedies for anxiety are becoming more popular alternatives to prescribed medicines. They are just as powerful as benzodiazepines (Valium and Xanax), but safer and do not form the dependence.

Valerian is one of the most widely used and effective herbal remedies for anxiety. It reduces anxiety, induces sleep and promotes relaxation of the major muscle groups (legs, arms, and chest) while working as a sedative and painkiller. Research had shown that valerian calms central nervous system faster than most prescription anxiety medications. It also has other advantages comparing with prescription drugs.

For example, it does not reduce concentration, does not interfere with physical performance as car driving or working and does not lead to addiction. Used as a sleeping aid it helps to decrease panic attacks at night and does not cause "morning hangovers".

Valerian is used by many doctors to reduce mild to moderate anxiety, helping coping with every day stress as well as to alleviate a patient's transition process from prescribed anxiety medication like Xanax.

Valerian if taken in regular doses does not have any side effects, but in large amounts may lead to headaches, restlessness and stomach distress. It is not advised to combine valerian with other prescribed or over-the-counter tranquilizers, anti-depressants and painkillers. However, it does not lead to any serious consequences if combined with alcohol. Pregnant or lactating women and children under 2 years old should not use valerian without doctor's permission.

* Kava is another herbal remedy for anxiety that is used for similar purposes as valerian. It reduces anger and depression, promotes sleep and lifts the spirit. Kava's great benefit comparing with other powerful tranquilizers is its safety, gentle effect of the body and the fact that it improves memory, alertness and helps to fight fatigue.

* Ashwagandha (also known as Indian ginseng) has been used in Ayurvedic medicine for centuries as the primary strengthening tonic. If taken regularly, it helps to improve mental condition of most anxiety sufferers in only a couple of months.

* Passion flower is a natural herbal remedy used for reducing nervous tension and hyperactivity, lowering high blood pressure and fighting such anxieties symptoms as insomnia, restlessness and diarrhea.

* Lemon balm was first mentioned around 10-th century AD by the Persian herbalist for its calming qualities. Nowadays it is used as a mild relaxant for restoring nervous system, reducing high blood pressure and soothing digestive system.

* Lavender is an excellent herbal remedy for anxiety. It helps to overcome such unpleasive symptoms as restlessness loss of appetite, loss of sleep and abdominal distress.

* Motherwort is known as a "heart herb". It increases the blood circulation to the brain and is very useful for treating anxiety associated with palpitations. It also helps to alleviate depression and insomnia.

* Skullcap is considered one of the best natural treatments for chronic anxiety and panic attacks. It relieves stress and muscle tension, nourishes nervous system and Promotes sleep.

Chamomile, hops and peppermint are commonly found in teas and tablets as the gentle sedatives. They are used to promote relaxation, soothe an upset stomach, reduce anxiety and encourage sleep.

Other herbal remedies for anxiety are John's wort, California poppy, Catnip, Feverfew, Verbena, Bugleweed, Ginseng, Ginkgo biloba and Borage juice.

There are many combinations of those natural herbs available on the market today that may insure a long-lasting anxiety and depression relief. The most important is to find the right combination and dosage for you. Always consult with herbalist professionals before taking any natural remedies as incorrect dosage or makeup of ingredients can make anxiety worse.

Middle Insomnia – How to Get Back to Sleep in the Middle of the Night

If you have middle insomnia, also called maintenance insomnia, you are probably either wishing you got more sleep or grateful for the sleep that you do get.

Unlike initial insomnia, where you would have trouble getting to sleep in the first place, those who suffer from maintenance insomnia are able to get sleep fairly quickly after going to bed. The problem is that someone with maintenance insomnia wakes up in the middle of the night and has trouble getting back to sleep. In fact, getting back to sleep can take hours.

Often the initial reason you wake up is to do something like turn down the heat in the house, go to the bathroom, or close a window. What keeps you awake, though, are your thoughts about sleep. The more you focus on sleep, the harder it is for you to get back to sleep.

The good news for those with middle insomnia is that they have an advantage over those suffering from initial insomnia. At least they get that first sleep in. Those with initial insomnia (not being able to fall sleep until hours after going to bed, if at all) may end up not getting any sleep at all during the night.

If you have middle insomnia, one of the keys to not suffering from it anymore is to eliminate any distractions that might wake you up in the middle of the night. This may include outside noises, temperature changes, and even lights going on in the house or outside. Unfortunately, though, you are not going to be able to eliminate all distractions. It is normal to sometimes wake up in the middle of the night. The real problem is getting back to sleep after waking up.

One good suggestion for anyone suffering from middle insomnia is to keep a sleep diary. Keep track of the time you go to bed as well as the time you wake up. If you know the reason that you woke up, write that down as well. Also keep track of your thoughts while you were awake. You should also include the time that you finally got back to sleep and the time you again woke up in your sleep diary. This will help you to see the reasons that you are waking up as well as how you can again get back to sleep.

A sleep diary can also help you to see if there is a pattern to the times that you wake up. Perhaps you are waking up on a regular basis after REM sleep. If this is the case, your dreams might be the reason you wake up, and they might be contributing to your middle insomnia. It is important that you keep a sleep diary for at least a couple of weeks to discover patterns.

Another way your sleep diary can be helpful in discovering the reason behind your middle insomnia or maintenance insomnia is by writing about your thoughts while you were awake. If you find that you are worrying during this time when you are unable to sleep, you may want to attempt to move this worry time to another part of your day. Schedule in a daily worry time, and you may find yourself falling back to sleep easier at night.

There is also a chance that subconscious causes of insomnia are the culprit – these are thoughts and emotions you're not even aware of at a conscious level. Dealing with these are a little trickier, but it can certainly be done with the right techniques.

Podiatry Treatment Addresses Many Health Challenges

While many consider podiatry to be an exclusive realm of all things below the ankle, the truth is that treatment of injuries and other problems of the feet affect the whole body. When the biomechanics of walking are misaligned by damage to the feet, it can cause overarching issues in the legs, knees, hips, and back. Chronic pain can reduce the desire to exercise, leading to lethargy and depression.

Help with toe pain

Toes are made up of multiple small bones, ligaments, and muscles. When something in these complicated constructs gets out of place, injured, or torn, the pain can be debilitating. A patient suffering from bunions or hammer toe should seek treatment sooner rather than later. Addressing toe pain earlier on can reduce the need for invasive treatments, and this may make treatment more effective in the long run.

Tendonitis and heel pain

Although tendonitis can happen in several places from the ankles to the toes, it’s most commonly diagnosed in the Achilles tendon. This inflammation can cause moderate to severe pain and make even light exercise difficult. It is most often treated with physical therapy, but other treatments can become necessary if the pain is severe. The normal causes are repetitive stress or not taking enough time to stretch before working out.

Leg, knee and back pain

Most people seek out podiatry treatment only after first consulting an orthopedic surgeon about their knee, back, or hip pain. Many patients don’t realize that the pain in their lower body may be caused by problems in their feet. Balance, movement, and articulation can be affected by injury or malformation of the feet. By treating the source of the problem, these kinds of injuries can be addressed more effectively than by treating the symptoms with painkillers or antidepressants.

Treatment possibilities

Many patients seeking out the care of a podiatry specialist expect surgery to be a part of their treatment plan. While some issues must be dealt with surgically, many can be addressed through less invasive means. X-rays can help pinpoint a diagnosis, and they are often necessary in devising a long-term treatment plan. The options for treatment may range from education about appropriate footwear, to physical therapy, to specialized orthotic inserts.

Preventing podiatry problems

Many patients don’t realize that feet change in shape and size long after puberty, unlike most parts of the body. Many podiatry problems can be avoided simply by having the feet measured when buying shoes, and wearing shoes that fit properly, especially for exercise. When there are problems with the shape of the feet, or an injury that causes problems with walking, custom-created orthopedic inserts may correct balance and other issues.

Seeking out orthopedic treatment at the first sign of pain or strain often prevents further injury. Foot injuries should be treated promptly to reduce the recovery time and help ensure the fullest possible recovery. Wearing the correct shoes for activity and exercise, and taking the time to stretch and warm up before exercise help prevent injuries.

A Guide To Bipolar Disorder

Bipolar disorder or manic depression is a psychological illness which manifests as having extreme changes in mood, behavior and thought. A person’s mood can change from mania to depression in a short period of time. These mood swings from highs to lows can last for hours, days, weeks, or months. A person with this mood disorder has a unique pattern of mood fluctuations specific to him but once his pattern is analyzed, it can be quite foreseeable.

Bipolar disorder usually starts in late adolescence or early adulthood but it can also start in early childhood or late adulthood. Recent studies show a genetic factor to this illness. It affects men and women equally although their initial manifestations of the disorder may differ (men start with a manic episode while women with a depressive episode). The disorder can be found in all races and social classes. It continues throughout life. Because the symptoms are episodic, one may not be diagnosed correctly. Thus, those who have the illness may not be treated early. Once properly diagnosed, however, the illness can be treated.

Bipolar disorder is associated with four general types of mood episodes. A manic episode is characterized by a persistently elevated mood for at least one week. A hypomanic episode is a milder type of mania which last for four days or more. A major depressive episode is characterized by a loss of interest or pleasure lasting for two weeks or more. A mixed episode is where an individual experiences mood swings of mania and depression almost every day for at least one week.

Bipolar I disorder is a syndrome where a complete set of mania symptoms (e.g. at least one week of elevated mood, grandiosity, decreased need for sleep, more talkativeness, flight of ideas, distractibility, psychomotor agitation and/or excessive involvement in pleasurable activities where the mood disturbance is severe enough to impair occupational functioning or social activities) not caused by antidepressant medications occurs during the course of the disorder. Bipolar I disorder can be further subdivided into Bipolar I, Single Manic Episode and Bipolar I, Recurrent.

Bipolar II disorder is characterized by occurrence of depressive episodes with at least one hypomanic episode. A hypomanic episode is characterized by an elevated mood different from the usual nondepressed mood lasting for four days. The person experiences the same symptoms as a manic person but these are not so severe as to impair his occupational functioning and social activities.

Re-Invent Yourself!


"No more complaining about what I can not do and focus on what I can .."

If something is not working,


As the internet grows, so should your business. You have to be ready for change and go with the flow.

Before you think you're ready to pack it in, have you really tried everything?

Maybe you're in the wrong field. Are you doing what you want to do or what you think will make the most money?

There is a heavy market out there that is probably congested enough as is, do you need the stress?

Sometimes it boils down to creating your niche. Bad cliché, but true.

Look at your website as a visitor looking to buy. Check over each page. Devote a certain amount of time each week or at whatever schedule you want, to examine each page for spelling errors, form errors, broken links, add some meta tags.

Do a search for other websites in your field. Find out what makes them different from yours. Read articles, and learn what is working and what is not. Is this something you can do in the long run, or is this just a flavor of the month business? Here today, gone tomorrow!

If it does not work out can you pick yourself back up and start again, or is the financial strain too much?

Do not you have a million ebooks stored on your hard drive. Have you even read any of them or did you just want the resell rights?

There is so much information in those ebooks. The answer could be right there and you do not even realize it.

My site is fairly new, so these are the things that I am doing now so it is always a work in progress.


This is something that I am currently doing. If you are like most of us, you are with a few affiliate programs, but sometimes, you just do not know how to promote them all and make a profit.


If you have an article on cgi-scripts, make a link to an ebook or hard copy book that is related to cgi scripts. Or add a banner to a site that specializes in cgi scripts. You get the idea ..

Most retail, discount and supermarkets advertise this way.

You can call this a smart of categorizing your products and services.

Trust me you will always be a work in progress, but that can also be the fun part too. Do not give up yet. There are days when I just think that this is not going to work and boom, I get a compliment or double the sales from the day before, and you just perk up again.

It does get better. I believe that for myself, you should do the same.