USMLE Step 1 Exam Prep – 4 High-Yield Brachial Plexus Tips For The Step 1 Exam

While many people preparing for their USMLE Step 1 exams tend to focus on the tougher subjects like Pathology and Pharmacology, it is imperative that you do a good review of your Anatomy material because you are guaranteed to get a few really easy questions. If you take just a little bit of time to go through the high-yield anatomy notes from your review books or course, you are going to get an easy 5-7 points on your exam, which as you may know can be the difference between a sub-200 score and an above-200 score.

In order to make this process as easy for you as possible, I am going to outline five common injuries that are related to the brachial plexus, which is a very high-yield USMLE topic.

Here we go:

Median Nerve Injury – this commonly results from an injury to the supracondyle of the humerus, and results in a loss of the following:

– forearm pronation

– wrist flexion

– finger flexion

– thumb movement

And it also results in a loss of sensation to the thumb, lateral aspect of the palm, and the first 2.5 fingers.

Radial Nerve Injury – this occurs commonly when there is an injury to the shaft of the humerus, and results in the following:

– loss of triceps reflex

– loss of brachioradialis reflex

– loss of carpi radialis longus

These symptoms lead to the commonly known “wrist drop”, as well as a loss of sensation to the posterior antebrachial cutaneous and the posterior brachial cutaneous nerves.

Ulnar Nerve Injury – this occurs with injury to the medial epicondyle of the humerus, and causes the following problems:

– impaired flexion and adduction of the wrist

– impaired adduction of the ulnar two fingers and the thumb

There is also a loss of sensation to the medial aspect of the palm, as well as loss of sensation to the medial half of the ring finger and the pinky.

Axillary Nerve Injury – occurs as a result of injury to the surgical neck of the humerus and/or an anterior dislocation of the shoulder, resulting in the following:

– complete loss of deltoid movement

– loss of sensation over the deltoid muscle as well as the skin covering the inferior aspect of the deltoid

These are four common brachial plexus related injuries, and are very likely to present themselves on your USMLE Step 1 and/or Step 2 CK exams. Be aware that they will be disguised as clinical vignettes, but also refer back to your basic knowledge in order to choose the most accurate answer.

All You Need To Know About Jones Fracture

Jones fracture, also called the 5th metatarsal fraction, is an injury on the diaphysis of the fifth foot metatarsal bone. This bone is found at the base of the small toe, and the fracture occurs at the proximal end, typically at the middle point of the foot. The symptoms of this fraction include pain at the point of injury and swelling, which makes walking difficult.

This fragment has its history from 1902, when it was first described by Sir Robert Jones in his article in the Annals of Surgery. Having sustained the injury himself from dancing, he thought to describe the injury, especially where the cause is indirect impact. The article, which described six patients suffering from the injury, included the classification of the fraction into avulsion, stress and the common Jones fraction.

Diagnosing Jones Fracture

Most cases of this fraction occurs without considerable impact. Therefore, most Jones fracture cases easily pass for sprains. When one is suffering from this injury, they experience pain over the area of ​​the fraction, coupled with swelling and difficulty in walking.

In order to ascertain that one really has the fracture and not a sprain, a general diagnostic x ray is essential. This x ray should be taken from all views; oblique, anteroposterior, and lateral. The foot should be in full flection when taking these x rays.

Treating Jones Fracture

A tenuous fraction can easily be corrected using a splint, a cast or a walking boot for one or two months. At this stage, it is highly recommended that one should avoid exerting any pressure or placing any weight on the foot until the doctor allows it. With a success rate of 75 percent, the cast or splint proves quite effective in treating minor cases of the injury.

Acute fractures, however, need specialized treatment methods. Such methods include placing a dynamic compression plate on the strained side of the fracture and using the figure 8 monofilament K wire on the fractured bone.

If the fracture is too acute, it may need to be fixed from the inside. This means that cancellated or cortical screws may be used to join the bones together. Bone grafts may be required to accelerate the healing process. A regular dose of calcium and Vitamin D is also required to hasten the healing of the fracture.

Although a splint or a cast is recommended for minor fractures, surgery is appropriate in certain situations. If an athlete suffers from a Jones fracture, a surgery may be necessary to shorten the extended healing period. However, before opting for surgery, it is best to discuss all the available options with your doctor.

Prospecting Jones Fracture

A metatarsal fraction can fail to unite even after treatment. Although a common occurrence, this failure to unite can cause a chronic condition. If this occurs to you, the first recommendation from your doctor will be an extended time in the cast. This could go up to 20 weeks.

The fraction can fail to heal for several reasons. For starters, the fracture typically occurs at a poor blood supply area. Since the area is a "watershed", it reduces the chances of a successful healing process. In addition, the area of ​​the fraction has numerous tendons. These tendons and muscles may pull the fractured bones apart, which may prolong or prevent healing.

Differentiating Jones Fracture from Other Injuries

Jones fracture is the most severe fracture of the fifth metatarsal bone. There are other fractures of the same bone which are commonly confused with this fraction, though they are less serious. J fractures usually occur on the intermetatarsal joint. However, if the fraction is on the tarsomotalsal joint, then it is an avulsion fraction. Avulsion fraction is also called the Pseudo-Jones fracture.

These fractures are also commonly, but wrongly, diagnosed as apophysis, a common adolescent developmental condition. There are several indicators that one is suffering from apophysis and not the fraction. These indicators include absence of fractured edges and the angle of the lucent line. In the fraction, the metatarsal axis is at 90 degrees, while in apophysis, it is parallel.

Jones fractures can be a serious problem depending on how they are handled. Proper diagnosis and early treatment are recommended to ensure the success of the treatment. Enough calcium and vitamin D are also very essential to the healing process. It is also important to know that a Jones fracture can be treated.

Evolution of X-Ray Machines

In the olden times, people were often subjected to exploratory surgeries. Why? Because medical science was not so advanced during that time to look for the health problem. However, it all changed in the November 1895 when German Scientist, Wilhelm Röntgen discovered a special ray. The radiation, which was unknown, was causing the barium platinocyanide to glow even when it was placed inside a black box. His discovery and new theory was later on justified when he took the first x-ray of his wife's hand.

Soon after the potent discovery of these rays, the first x-ray machine was used in the surgery by Major John Hall Edwards in 1896. Since then, medical science made rapid progress into exploring more possible medical uses of these rays. Today, the advances in healthcare sector have made it possible for people to undergo quick and efficient diagnosis for probable injuries. The concept of x-rays did not remain stagnant, it paved way for many more radio imaging technologies such as ultrasound, sonography, CAT scan and fluoroscopy to name a few.

The first successful ultrasound took place in the year 1947, several years after the discovery of x-rays. In fact, in the same era there were many scientists around the world who were experimenting to find new diagnostic ways. However, the discovery and invention of this radio imaging technology was not enough on its own. The early x-ray machine, just like other medical equipments was bulky and non-portable. The patient had to be subjected to heavy metal plates and the x-ray film used to take quite a lot of time to produce image. Moreover, the machine could not allow for flexible diagnose, which means it was quite difficult for the patient in certain scenarios.

1970's made the radio imaging technology even more advanced with the introduction of MRI machine. However, it was the year 1980 when the first MRI of human brain took place. Consequently there were many other advances and introduction to potential diagnosis techniques. Digital X-rays were introduced in the late 90's and since then medical diagnosis has become much more convenient.

The technology has allowed an average x-ray manufacturer to provide quality radio imaging machines which can assist in head to toe diagnosis of a human. These machines are now imperative in diagnosing broken bones, teeth decay, stones, heart blockage and many other health problems. The evolution of an x-ray machine has not stopped and technology will only make things better in future.

When And How To Delete A Hard Drive

Most of the time, of course, computer users are focused on protecting the information held on their hard drives, and keeping it from coming to harm. There are times, however, when the focus shifts to deleting the hard drive, to keep the data from falling into the wrong hands, when the computer is being sold or given away, or even for legal reasons.

One of the most frequent reasons for deleting the data on a hard drive is when the computer is to be transferred to a new owner. With computer technology changing so rapidly and even the newest computers becoming obsolete so quickly, there is a thriving market for used computers, and it is important for the current owner of the computer to take the steps necessary to protect the personal information on the computer from being used for nefarious purposes.

These days so many of us do our taxes online, and while this electronic option provides many conveniences, it also introduces a number of risks, including the risk of identity theft. Financial information can lurk virtually anywhere on such a computer, from spreadsheets and tax preparation programs to saved emails and other types of documents. If the computer has been used for any sensitive purposes, such as online investment or tax preparation, it is important to delete the hard drive properly before giving or selling it to its new owner. Even if you are certain the new owner would never use the computer for bad purposes, you can never be sure where your old computer will eventually end up.

When we talk about deleting a hard drive, we are not talking simply about deleting the file and emptying the recycle bin. While this may seem sufficient, in reality a skillful computer user can instantly recover these files, and there are many software programs on the market to do just that. When you delete a hard drive, it is important to use some sort of disk wiping software to make sure that the information is truly gone. If you do not take this extra step, the information on your old computer could eventually come back to haunt you.

These days computers contain so much vital information that it is more important than ever before to protect that information from harm, both when the computer is in your possession and when it is time for it to move on to a new owner. When using your computer it is important to use virus protection, anti-spyware programs and other techniques to keep prying eyes off of your computer. When it is time to sell or give away the old computer, it is important to properly delete the hard drive to make sure the information it contains does not fall into the wrong hands.

Finding Hair Styles For Fine Hair – How to Cope With Hair Loss

If you have fine, thin hair you might be having trouble with styling it. Of course depending on your gender you would of course be styling your hair differently. Some of these options work well for men as well as women for hair styles fine hair, but I find that what a lot of men do that have very thin hair is either have their hair cut short or try the comb over method. Men can also perm and color their hair to give it some body.

Women usually have a little more to play with in terms of styling fine hair. Here are some suggestions.

1. Get a Perm.

If you have thin, fine hair a perm may be just the ticket. You can get the full, thick haired look that you are yearning for just by adding some curls. Make sure however that you tell your hair stylist that you have very thin and fine hair so they can give you a gentler perm.

2. Get Some Highlights.

When you add color to your hair shaft you instantly make it thicker. So when you get highlights your hair will automatically appear to be thicker and fuller thus giving you more options to how you can style it. This would also be a good combo with number 1 as well. Be careful with fine hair however not to do too much to it at once. Maybe perm first and then go back to add some color later this should be a good option for men and women looking for hair styles fine hair.

3. Comb Over.

A lot of times your hair may look thinner because of how you part it. If you let your bangs grow longer you can do a comb back and over the top to give your hair a lift in body which will give you the appearance of thicker hair. This is one hair style that I think works very well, and you can get moose to help you with this style. Then finish it off with some full body hair spray.

Make sure that you are also using a good full body shampoo and conditioner as well. You can often get great body just from the products that you are using on your hair. Talk to your local beauty salon to get some more advice on what to use. Another tip that you might want to consider is using some hair pieces as well like a wig. You could just add something like that for new hair styles fine hair when you are going to a special event or dinner.

Have fun with it, just because you have thin hair does not mean that you can’t style it many different ways. You can also find some good tips online. There are forums out there on almost every subject imaginable including people with fine hair. You might be able to find some great tips there you never know until you try it after all.

Male Enhancement – The Truth Behind Each Different Enhancement Method

Before trying out anything in terms of male enhancement, it would be vital for you to learn about the truth behind each different male enhancement method in today's market. After all, there are so many treatments available in today's day and age, so knowing how each one works will help you figure out which method would be best for you and which one would actually give you the results that you are looking for.

A lot of the time, men tend to be misinformed about these methods, most of all with the different myths and stories that abound about them on the World Wide Web today. This article will help you find the best treatment for you and help you figure out whether you actually need one to begin with.

One of the most famous male enhancement methods out there nowdays is penile surgery, which men turn to when they want to enlarge their penis. Most of the time, penile surgery involves one of two procedures: one for length and one for girth. Either way, though, this type of surgery usually comes with various risks, such as penile infections.

So, if you are interested in looking into penile surgery to improve the size of your manhood, the least you can do is talk to your doctor about it first. By talking to your doctor, you can discuss your problems with your penis and find out wherever there are any other alternatives you can look at to solve the problem. In the event that you still decide to get surgery, you will also need to look for a certified surgeon to get the procedure done and to ensure that you do not encounter any undesired complications along the way. Remember: safety should always come first.

Fortunately, there are various natural methods that you can look into to get the results that you want and to stay safe at the same time, such as penile exercises. Penile exercises happen to be some of the safest and most effective male enhancement methods out there nowdays. You can even take male enhancement pills while doing these exercises to get the best results possible in the end. These pills are quite common in today's market and are very popular, as well.

If you decide to go down this route, all that you really have to do is make sure that you choose pills made of natural ingredients and herbs, like ginseng root and muira puama extract, both of which are proven to be highly effective in terms of male enhancement. They can even help improve men's erections and increase their penis size.

Keep in mind that there are a lot of male enhancement pills out there that have synthetic ingredients in them, though. These are the ones that you need to avoid at all costs. Compared to pills that are made of natural ingredients, these synthetic ones may come with extreme side effects, most of all if you take them without a doctor's consent or advice. Ideally, you should look for herbal supplements that are known to be safe, effective and affordable all at the same time instead.

Do not worry. You should not feel ashamed if you want to improve your penis size. In today's day and age, a lot of men go through different methods to improve the size of their manhood, so you are not a freak of nature or anything. However, you do need to realize that male enhancement is still a bit controversial, most of all in conservative countries. This is actually the reason why a lot of men do not get the answers that they need for their questions regarding male enhancement to begin with, thus resulting in dissatisfying results and serious issues.

What Does It Mean When a Guy Tells You He Has Been Thinking of You? Learn Why He Said This to You

At first, you get ecstatic when you a guy tells you that he has been thinking of you quite often. However, you begin to ask yourself what he really meant when he said that – thus, the confusion. This article will tell you what a guy really means when he says that you’ve been in his mind.

Step one: He loves you
Why would a guy think about you for a long time if he doesn’t love you? He wants you to know that he cares by giving clues – like saying that he’s been thinking of you. He might be scared to say that he loves you upfront, which could explain the situation.

Step two: He really means what he said
If the guy looks very sincere, and has a good reputation, then he really means what he said. This is a good thing, because confessing to someone that you have been thinking of them quite often is no easy task. It requires courage.

Step three: He wants to be with you
If the guy is someone who is not your ex-boyfriend, then it means he wants to be with you. You are a potential girlfriend for him. He is also thinking of pursuing you, depending on your response to his statement.

Step four: He wants to get back with you
An ex-boyfriend who tells you that he has been thinking of you probably has intentions of getting back with you. He probably has thought things through, and has decided that he actually wants to have you back in his life. It should go without saying that if he was the one who broke it off in the first place, he is likely apologetic for his mistakes.

Step five: He may also want to have sex with you
Some guys think about sex all the time. If a guy tells you that he has been thinking of you, it may mean that he wants to have sex with you. Take things slowly, though; try to bide your time until you have a better idea of what he wants – and what you want, as well.

Step six: He is serious about you
A guy is genuinely serious if he tells you that he is always thinking of you. He doesn’t want to play around, and he’s sure that he just wants to be with you.

Step seven: He cares for you a lot
A man who always thinks of you is a man who really cares for you. He is always wondering what you are doing, and watches out for your well-being. The reason why he always thinks of you is because he wants to make sure that you are doing all right.

A Brief and Quick Guide to Sinus Infection Relief

Sinus infections are one of the most difficult disorders, with symptoms similar to that of viral influence or the common cold. The problem usually goes unnoticed in most cases, until a chronic sinus infection manifests. There are 4 sets of sinuses located within the cranial cavity. The maxillary sinuses are found under the eyes in the maxillary bones. The Frontal sinuses are housed in the forehead, the ethmoid sinuses between the eyes sockets. The fourth, the sphenoid sinuses are behind the eyes in the upper nasal cavity of the nose.

The symptoms of this disease can range from nasal congestion and pressure, aching temples, fever, a runny nose and soreness around the eyes.

What Is A Sinus Infection?

A sinus infection, also called sinusitis, is when the sinuses become inflamed. Sinuses are air-filled cavities covered with a layer of mucous which surface is covered with of layer of soft tissue lined with small thick hair called cilia. The function mucosal lining of purpose is to protect the body from minuscule foreign bodies such as dust and pollen. The cilia helps to remove excess mucous from the body. The path of removal is usually from the stomach to the throat. This system protects the nasal passes from bacterial build-up. Healthy functioning of the cilia is necessary for good nasal health.

Inefficient removal of the excess mucous from the body can result in a blockage of the sins, which causes natural ventilation. This then results in the bacterial or viral infection we call sinusitis.

Sinus Infection Treatment

Now for some self-help treatments for this infection. One homemade herbal remedy can be prepared with 1 tablespoon of blackberry leaves, 2 fresh nettle tops, 600 ml of one head meadow-sweet and a sprig of fresh peppermint. Boil all the herbs together for 10 minutes. This recipe can be used to help prevent this infection before the coming of summer. You can also create an inhaling solution of eucalyptus, pine oil and water to helpful unclogging the sinuses. The mango fruit's vitamin A content also aids the formation of healthy epithelium.

A healthy intake of water daily and inhaling steam helps to moisten and unclog the sinuses. Excess mucous can also be removed from the respiratory system with the help of expectorant drugs. A regular painkiller can help relieve any associated pain and inflammation.

Because sinus infections are usually caused by bacteria, they can be treated with antibiotics. Acute sinusitis does not need to be diagnosed through special tests, as a CT scan can typically show the nasal passage, paranasal sinuses and surrounding structures very clearly. A less expensive and non-invasive diagnostic tool compared to the CT scan is the ultrasound. The medical community however does not generally accept the ultrasound as a comprehensive diagnosis tool for this infection.

Premature Ejaculation: 10 Tips To Make Sex Hotter

A healthy sexual relationship can promote every aspect of your life, including your physical health and self-esteem. And although sex in your id or later years may be a bit atypical from how it was in your twenties, it can be every bit as pleasing and fulfilling. Simply understand the normal changes that are occurring in your body and your partner's body. These changes can affect your ability to have and enjoy sex and, if not addressed, you may have difficulties with arousal or performance (sexual dysfunction).

1. No matter how good you are in bed, sometimes you need a little "help" to maximize her pleasure. Why not bring along a sex toy? Choose one that is intended for anal stimulation. Anal stimulation, together with clitoral stimulation with your tongue, can provide a deadly "combo" and give a woman incredible pleasure.

2. Have her lean over the edge of the bed so that the top half of her body is flat against the bed. Then penetrate her from behind while you're standing or kneeling. This position makes penetration extremely pleasuring for both of you.

3. There are a thousand things you can do with food … in your bedroom! Smear whipped cream all over your partner's body and then lick it off … sloooowly! You can even try chocolate for a more flavored experience. Spread the good stuff all over your partner's body. Licking it off slowly will take her over the moon.

4. While you rub, stroke and stimulate her clitoris, do the same to her breast, mouth or even her toes – or anywhere that she LOVES to be touched. This works magically to ramp up her anticipation to a level that you can EASILY bring her to an orgasm later.

5. Having intercourse in a standing position can be extremely arousing. Let her face you while standing, with her back to the wall. Open her legs just a little and penetrate her from the front. For the extra climatic factor, do this with both your clothes on, with her just wearing a skirt and no panties.

6. Once she is well-lubricated, insert two fingers into her vagina to locate and arouse her G-spot (it feels a ribbed bump, a little like the roof of your mouth). Rub against it with your fingers using a "come here" movement. You can also stimulate the G-spot during penetrative sex – especially in the doggie-style position – and give her sensational squirting orgasms.

7. Women love to be touched on their necks with tender loving strokes. The lower neck are full of nerve endings, so every single touch with your fingertips to that erogenous zone will pleasure her to no end. Hint: Try planting some delicate kisses on her neck while you're stroking it. It will amp up her anticipation very quickly.

8. A penis ring reduces the amount of blood draining out of your erection, and keeps you harder for a longer period. Did you know that a very hard penis stimulates a woman's vagina slightly differently? In fact, the sensations are much more intense compared to a member that is getting soft around the edges.

9. A woman's breast is an erogenous area that men love to touch. But it pays to be patient. If you focus on the rest of her body first, starting with her hands, wrist, her neck, it will get her aroused much faster. When she's highly aroused, move on to her breast and nipples, gently kissing, stroking and licking them.

10. Many women fantasize making out in the kitchen, so why do not have a go in the "hottest" place at home. If this is something new to her, chances are, it will blow her mind too. Think about it … your kitchen has plenty of comfortable nooks and corners that are comfortable for oral sex or even intercourse. Get her up on the kitchen counter, the dining table, or even the kitchen sink. Be adventurous, take your chances and spice things up. This little surprise will UP the excitement for her.

Use Eyebrow Makeup to Cover Up Eyebrow Hair Loss

Eyebrow hair loss is a major problem nowadays among many men and women. The good news is that there are various ways that you can use to get back the same eyebrow hair. However, there are no quick ways to get the eyebrow hair back. The tattoo treatment would be an exception here since it does not involve the use of hair at all. The fact regarding the disease is that for many people the major reason is autoimmune disease. The condition is known as Alopecia Areata, which affects the scalp hair, eyebrow hair or any other hairy area of the body.

You can use eyebrow makeup to cover the hair loss. It is simple and you won’t even want to take help from someone else. All you need is your eyebrow makeup kit and eyebrow stencil. When you go shopping for eyebrow stencils, make sure that you purchase the one that suits the shape of your eyebrows.

First, put the stencil over your eyebrows and draw a line towards the inner side. When you have drawn the line, use a dark pencil to redefine it so it does not fade off easily. The color of the pencil should be that of your eyebrow hair color. Now take a colored eye shadow that goes well with the hair color of your eyebrow.

People usually have black, dark brown or light grey eye brow hair colors, depending on age and the natural hair color. Start filling the outline with the brush with the color. Make lighter strokes and use color in lesser quantity so it does not look fake. Fill in the color in between the eyebrow hair as well so it looks natural. When you are done with it, brush off the extra powder on both the eyebrows, pat them with a smudge brush so the color blends in equally.

Now smudge and blend the outline towards the inner side of your eyebrows so it evens out. The look will be more pleasant and bright. If you have very light eyebrows and you wish to have a dramatic look, you can use a bolder shade of the eye pencil.

However, make sure that the eyebrow color does not look like a patch on the eyebrow. It should look absolutely natural and well kept. Also, when you use dark makeup for your eyebrows, make sure that you use a bold black shade of mascara for your eyelashes. Doing so will give a softer and natural look to your eyebrow makeup.

Hair's Alternative Products Problems – Hair Replacement Procedures and Side Effects

The perfect hair replacement system or approach on the market is not necessarily a staple. The best hair replacement is relative towards the type of hair loss you're suffering from, and on your chances of responding positively on the cure.

To begin with, finesteride functions extraordinarily suitable for men with male pattern baldness, but it has no regard for consequences for women with the same situation, as well as for female pattern baldness. Added to that, this hair replacement system is not beneficial for a woman who is pregnant or with child. Clinical tests show the drug can causes congenital defects on infants. This can be the very reason why the FDA has declared this hair replacement cure as appropriate for women which have been within the childbearing age ..

Before you undergo any surgical procedure, you need to have your history taken down by the surgeon so that they can establish how perfect you should be treated. For example, having a blood clotting problem will make surgery a fatal mistake. Also, there are some people that have complications or adverse reactions to particular varieties of anesthetics which will be employed during the surgical procedure, learning surgery an impossibility for them.

Merely quitting use of a drug that is causing you baldness may not be enough to stop or reverse the problem. If you're in search of a hair replacement system which can have you back on track in good time, you may have to consider the possibility that you need some other medicines that will reverse the hair loss consequences from the other 1 and start your follicles to grow hair.

There must be a great deal of consideration before one decides to go through aa number of hair replacement method. To begin with, a reputable doctor or specialist requires a proper diagnosis of your circumstance. The safest thing is to go to a reputable dermatologist who is able to do the right tests to see what kind of hair loss remedy would fit your situation. After this consultation, you will arrive at the perfect method that has the highest likelihood of success in fighting your hair loss problems.

There are also some inexpensive hair replacement systems which could be found online for those who know how to look and to buy online. Not all of these may be quite dependent of course, but researching on the product's certification and any news or real reviews will help you make a decision on whether to buy them or not. Otherwise you may just visit the websites from the American Hair Loss Council and see about which hair replacement systems they recommend. An alternate authority on the subject is the National Alopecia Areata Foundation which also has a website containing their recommendations.

With whatever scheme which you wind up opting for, be wary of ones with numerous poor side effects. There are even some that have side effects which make the hair loss problem worse. Often it pays to take advise from a specialist as well. After going through that, one will have a higher success rate in battling hair loss.

How Can You Tell If Hair is Growing Back Properly After Telogen Effluvium (TE)?

I often write about women’s hair loss and I tell my readers that recovery from telogen effluvium (TE, other wise known as shedding) is all about the regrowth.  Because, even if you are shedding buckets of hair, if you can grow it all back with healthy hair, then the volume and appearance of your hair is not going to take as big of a hit as if you were unable to regrow the hair or were only able to grow back sickly, baby fine hairs.

In response, people will often ask me things like “how can I tell if my hair is growing back in after TE?” or “how can I tell if I’m regrowing healthy hair after shedding?”  I’ll answer these questions in the following article.

Seeing The Short, Stubby Regrowth That Will Greatly Improve The Appearance Of Your Hair:  My hair dresser used to assure me that a few months following my hair shedding, I would start to see little hairs begin to come in at my part.  I pictured that this was going to look like a man’s crew cut blended in with my regular hair. (This wasn’t the case.)  I began to hunt for these little guys every night. I couldn’t see any at first and started to get very discouraged.  You need to know that regrowth is very short following TE and since hair regrows about 1/2 inch per month, it’s going to be awhile before you can easily see them.

But, here’s a few tricks to help.  The first is that you can comb your hair against the grain (carefully of course if you are still shedding.) Or if you don’t want to comb, just lean your hair / head over in the opposite direction and then hold it there.  Now, look at the part line and take note of any little hairs popping out.

My favorite way to pan for regrowth is to use dry shampoo.  Most dry shampoos are basically baby power in spray form.  So, before you are going to bed (you don’t want to do this before you’re going to work or are going out), spray a generous amount of dry shampoo at your part line.  It will go in white, but the contrast between the white hairs at the part will make the regrowth much easier to see.  And, by the time you wake up, the white stuff will be gone from your hair (and it will be cleaner) so you don’t have to worry about brushing it out.  This method also spares you from having to manipulate your hair so much that more falls out.

How Can I Tell If My Regrowth Is Healthy? What If It’s Thin And Doesn’t Look Like Regular Hair?: Often, I will ask my readers to not only search for regrowth, but to also evaluate the health of that hair.  Many will respond with: “Huh? How do I do that?”  I’ll tell you.  In order to really evaluate the hair, you’re going to need to tweeze a new, short, regrowing hair out.  I know, you hate to do this.  But, it is necessary.

The hair that you pluck out should be regular diameter and the root should be dark colored (not the white root that goes along with TE).  The dark root indicates that the hair was embedded in your scalp and was being nourished properly.  Compare the diameter of your short hair to a shed, longer hair.  (In my case there were a lot of these spend hairs lying around.) Although sometimes regrowth will start out being a little thinner, it should be comparable to the longer hair.

Sometimes, people will describe their regrowth as thin, sickly, cob web like or having the texture of cotton candy.  Keep an eye on your hair if this is so. Because, if this continues, you may well be dealing with miniaturization which is often the result of androgens, DHT, or clogged follicles. If this is the case, the way to regrow healthy hair again is to eliminate this clogging and these androgens.

Language Acquisition vs Language Learning

According to linguists (i.e. scientits who engage in the scientific study of human language)there is an important distinction between language acquisition and language learning.

As you may well have noticed, children acquire their mother tongue through interaction with their parents and the environment that sorrounds them. Their need to communicate paves the way for language acquisition to take place. As experts suggest, there is an innate capacity in every human being to acquire language. By the time a child is five years old, s/he can express ideas clearly and almost perfectly from the point of view of language and grammar. Although, parents never sit with children to explain to them the workings of the language, their utterances show a superb command of intricate rules and patterns that would drive an adult crazy if s/he tried to memorize them and use them accurately. This suggests that it is through exposure to the language and meaningful communication that a first language is acquired, without the need of systematic studies of any kind.

When it comes to second language learning in children, you will notice that this happens almost identically to their first language acquisition. And even teachers focus more on the communicative aspect of the language rather than on just rules and patterns for the children to repeat and memorize. In order to acquire language, the learner needs a source of natural communication.

The emphasis is on the text of the communication and not on the form. Young students who are in the process of acquiring a second language get plenty of “on the job” practice. They readily acquire the language to communicate with classmates.

In short, we see this tendency in which second language teachers are quite aware of the importance of communication in young learners and their inability to memorize rules consciously (although they will definitely acquire them through a hands-on approach just as they did with their mother tongue)

Unfortunately, when it comes to adult students, a quick look at the current methodologies and language courses available clearly shows that communication is set aside, neglected or even disregarded. In almost all cases,courses revolve around grammar, patterns, repetitions, drillings and rote memorization without even a human interlocutor to interact with.

The very same courses that promise you language independence and the ability to communicate upon completion of the courses do NOT offer you a single chance to do engage in meaningful conversations. How many times have you bought or read about “the ultimate language course on CD” in which the learner simply has to sit in front of a computer to listen to and repeat words and phrases time and again. That is not communication. That is the way you train a parrot! The animal will definitely learn and repeat a few phrases and amuse you and your friends, but it will never ever be able to communicate effectively.

How could you be expected to communicate if you are never given the chance to speak with a real person? Language without real communication is as useless as Saint Valentine’s day without lovers or Children’s day without kids.

In some other scenarios, in which there is a teacher, the work done in class is mostly grammatically oriented: tenses, rules, multiple choice exercises and so on and so forth. Is this similar to the way in which a child “acquires a language?” Definitely not. No wonder why so many people fail in acquiring a second language naturally. Simply because whatever they are doing is highly unnatural and devoid of meaning to them. This is the field of language learning.

Language learning as seen today is not communicative. It is the result of direct instruction in the rules of language. And it certainly is not an age-appropriate activity for your young learners_ as it is not for adults either. In language learning, students have conscious knowledge of the new language and can talk about that knowledge.

They can fill in the blanks on a grammar page. Research has shown, however, that knowing grammar rules does not necessarily result in good speaking or writing. A student who has memorized the rules of the language may be able to succeed on a standardized test of English language but may not be able to speak or write correctly.

As teachers, it is our duty to make sure that our students “acquire” rather than “learn the language.” What can we do to achieve this higher goal? In our next mini-article we will explore simple effective and highly innovative ways to turn our learning environment into real language acquisition setting.

Reflection (*2)

Read the article thoroughly.

What do you think is more desirable, to acquire a language or to learn a language?

What differences between acquiring and learning a language could you pinpoint?

In your personal experience, do you feel you’ve been acquiring or learning a language? Or maybe both? Explain your reasons.

Article Rewriting – A Professional View

Article rewriting is a literary skill that many think they possess, but few actually do. There are many reasons for rewriting an article and the approach to the task will generally be dependent on the reason and required result. Let’s have a look at some typical objectives people have when rewriting articles.

Article Directory Submission

A popular internet service is the provision of a second, rewritten, version of a commissioned article, so that the customer receives two articles rather than one. This allows one version to be posted on your own website and the rewritten version to be submitted to article directories. The purpose of doing this is to avoid you competing with others using exactly the same content as you. There seems little point in you placing an article on your own web page then submitting that article to directories from which your competitors can copy them to their own web pages.

You are then competing for keywords against potentially hundreds of other websites using your own article. You may have your resource box on their site, each one giving you a valuable back-link, but this could be insufficient to make up for all that competition with duplicate content that may cause your site to drop down the listings.

What you should do to avoid this is to offer an alternative version to the directories and the way that the article is amended is important. It must give the same meaning as the original, but contain different semantics. The keyword density must be reasonable, around 1%, and the textual theme of the page must be relevant to the keyword targeted. The rewrite should be different enough to be regarded as unique, but not so different that it does not adequately address the topic at hand.

Use The Same Article On More Than One Web Page

Exactly the same approach should be used if you want to use the same article on a number of different websites or pages utilising the same keyword. Here, you are competing against yourself, and the article should be rewritten so that this does not happen. You have the same situation as that above, except you are your own competition. Unless the article is radically rewritten you may be in danger of diluting your website with too much similar content. This is the most common reason for article rewriting.

Use The Same Article For Different Keywords

Another common reason for articles being rewritten is that the customer wants to use the same article for a range of different keywords. This involves a slightly different style of rewriting since two keywords rarely have exactly the same meaning. How many exact synonyms are there? Very few, since most words have their own roots and there are generally different nuances in meaning between words which are synonymic in some contexts, but not in all.

In such cases the article will be adjusted to meet the requirements of the vocabulary being used. For example, the terms ‘internet marketing’ and ‘online marketing’ appear to have the same meaning in the context of marketing techniques, but the words ‘internet’ and ‘online’ are not synonyms – not even close. You can work ‘online’ but you can’t work ‘internet’. The reason is that ‘internet’ can be a noun or an adjective, while ‘online’ can be an adjective or an adverb.

The consequence of this is that one cannot always be used synonymously for the other, so article rewriting involves more than simple word substitution. It involves a good knowledge of grammar and vocabulary. This is where I see most attempts at rewriting articles go wrong: through misuse of grammar and a misunderstanding of the parts of speech. It can get complicated when we consider noun, adjective and adverb clauses, and article rewriting is not as simple as most believe.

Rewriting Scraped Articles

A major rewrite service frequently required is the provision of a complete rewrite of an article so that it bears little resemblance to the original. The customer likes the look of an article, but wants it rewritten so that it is indistinguishable from the original. A bit of a conflict there, I feel. This kind of work tends to indicate that the article has been scraped from the internet and the author’s resource box removed. The customer wants the article rewritten with his or her own name as author, and written so that the original author will not recognize it. What’s the point? It is better to write the article from scratch, not only because its is legal, but because it is easier. It is easier for authors to give their own slant on a topic than copy that of another.

The next time you want an article rewritten please determine clearly what your objective is. If a rewrite is essential have it done professionally or it could harm your listing rather than improve it, and please do not ask for a rewrite if a fresh article would do – it is easier for a professional article writer to write originally than copy another author’s style. If the sense of the piece is to be exactly maintained, article rewriting is not as simple a task as most people believe it to be.

Bruce Lee's Book on Fighting – The Tao of Jeet Kune Do

I have been studying and practicing the art of Jeet Kune Do (JKD) and the martial arts for close to two decades. I have researched, read and viewed numerous periodicals, books and videos on the martial arts, combat and fighting.

I have to honestly say, the "Tao of Jeet Kune Do" is one the most in-depth books ever written on the subject.

The "Tao of Jeet Kune Do" is Bruce Lee's analysis of fighting and philosophy through his study of martial arts. It is a compilation of his thoughts and ideas of fighting skills and life.

He began working on the "Tao of Jeet Kune Do" when he was confined to a bed for six months due to a back injury he received while lifting weights.

He never finished and published the book because of his focus on moviemaking.

After his death, a man named Gilbert Johnson, who attended classes at Dan Inosanto's (former Bruce Lee student) Academy, had the task of organizing Bruce's writings, drawings and diagrams into book form.

It should be noted, that the "Tao of Jeet Kune Do" is not meant to be a how-to manual. It is purely a guide and insight into Lee's art of Jeet Kune Do and his way of thinking.

The book contains a wealth of information that can help you gain an understanding of Jeet Kune Do, as well as Bruce Lee, the person.

The book is broken down into different areas:

  • Philosophical make up of JKD
  • An explanation of the JKD fighting stance, the how and why
  • The importance and power principles of using the lead side weapons
  • Lee's examination and analysis of grappling arts such as Judo, Jujitsu and wrestling
  • The significance of mobility (footwork, evasiveness, distance, awareness and timing)
  • The correlation of western boxing and fencing to empty-handed combat
  • The cultivation of the attributes and qualities that are necessary to become a good fighter

Each of these areas is loaded with information that would be helpful to anyone, whether they are a beginner or seasoned martial artist, regardless of style.

The "Tao of Jeet Kune Do" also contains the philosophical aspects of his art which are derived from Lao Tzu, Miyamoto Musashi, Krishnamurti, Sun Tzu and Takuan Soho. The book can also be used as a personal guide for self improvement due to its deep philosophical tenents.

In my opinion, the Tao is one of the best references for empty-handed fighting.

Just remember, use it for what it is, a reference and guide. For nothing beats learning the art of JKD from a teacher who has lineage to its founder.

If you do not already own a copy of it I urge you to pick one up, again, regardless of style or fighting method this book is a useful tool for anyone who is serious about self defense and martial arts training.